WorldWideScience

Sample records for project thermal impact

  1. Impacts of projected mid-century temperatures on thermal regimes for select specialty and fieldcrops common to the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E.; Lopez-Brody, N.; Dialesandro, J.; Steele, C. M.; Rango, A.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of projected temperature increases in agricultural ecosystems are complex, varyingby region, cropping system, crop growth stage and humidity. We analyze the impacts of mid-century temperature increases on crops grown in five southwestern states: Arizona, California,New Mexico, Nevada and Utah. Here we present a spatial impact assessment of commonsouthwestern specialty (grapes, almonds and tomatoes) and field (alfalfa, cotton and corn)crops. This analysis includes three main components: development of empirical temperaturethresholds for each crop, classification of predicted future climate conditions according to thesethresholds, and mapping the probable impacts of these climatic changes on each crop. We use30m spatial resolution 2012 crop distribution and seasonal minimum and maximumtemperature normals (1970 to 2000) to define the current thermal envelopes for each crop.These represent the temperature range for each season where 95% of each crop is presentlygrown. Seasonal period change analysis of mid-century temperatures changes downscaled from20 CMIP5 models (RCP8.5) estimate future temperatures. Change detection maps representareas predicted to become more or less suitable, or remain unchanged. Based upon mid-centurytemperature changes, total regional suitable area declined for all crops except cotton, whichincreased by 20%. For each crop there are locations which change to and from optimal thermalenvelope conditions. More than 80% of the acres currently growing tomatoes and almonds willshift outside the present 95% thermal range. Fewer acres currently growing alfalfa (14%) andcotton (20%) will shift outside the present 95% thermal range by midcentury. Crops outsidepresent thermal envelopes by midcentury may adapt, possibly aided by adaptation technologiessuch as misters or shade structures, to the new temperature regime or growers may elect togrow alternate crops better suited to future thermal envelopes.

  2. W-320 Project thermal modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, K., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18

    This report summarizes the results of thermal analysis performed to provide a technical basis in support of Project W-320 to retrieve by sluicing the sludge in Tank 241-C-106 and to transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. Prior theraml evaluations in support of Project W-320 safety analysis assumed the availability of 2000 to 3000 CFM, as provided by Tank Farm Operations, for tank floor cooling channels from the secondary ventilation system. As this flow availability has no technical basis, a detailed Tank 241-AY-102 secondary ventilation and floor coating channel flow model was developed and analysis was performed. The results of the analysis show that only about 150 cfm flow is in floor cooLing channels. Tank 241-AY-102 thermal evaluation was performed to determine the necessary cooling flow for floor cooling channels using W-030 primary ventilation system for different quantities of Tank 241-C-106 sludge transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. These sludge transfers meet different options for the project along with minimum required modification of the ventilation system. Also the results of analysis for the amount of sludge transfer using the current system is presented. The effect of sludge fluffing factor, heat generation rate and its distribution between supernatant and sludge in Tank 241-AY-102 on the amount of sludge transfer from Tank 241-C-106 were evaluated and the results are discussed. Also transient thermal analysis was performed to estimate the time to reach the steady state. For a 2 feet sludge transfer, about 3 months time will be requirad to reach steady state. Therefore, for the purpose of process control, a detailed transient thermal analysis using GOTH Computer Code will be required to determine transient response of the sludge in Tank 241-AY-102. Process control considerations are also discussed to eliminate the potential for a steam bump during retrieval and storage in Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 respectively.

  3. The TIMODAZ project: Thermal impact on the damaged zone around a radioactive waste disposal in clay host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XiangLing, L.

    2009-01-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radio active waste is an important environmental issue today. Disposal in deep clay geological formations is one of the promising options to dispose of these wastes. In this context, the related research activities in the Euratom Framework Programme of European Commission are continually taking on an enhanced significance. The TIMODAZ is one of the STREP projects (Specific Targeted Research Project) in the Sixth EURATOM Framework Programme and contributes to the research related to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The consortium is composed of a strong multidisciplinary team involving both European radioactive waste management organizations and nuclear research institutes, universities, industrial partners as well as consultancy companies (SME's). Totally, 15 partners coming from 8 countries are involved with a total budget of about 4000k EURO. Being the coordinator (through the EURIDICE expertise group), SCK-CEN plays the leading role in the project. Meanwhile, SCK-CEN participates the research in different work packages covering the laboratory tests, in-situ tests as well as the integration of TIMODAZ results within the safety case. An important item for the long-term safety of underground disposal is the proper evaluation of the DZ (damaged zone) in the clay host rock. The DZ is defined here as the zone of host rock that experiences THMC (Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical) modifications induced by the repository, with potential major changes in the transport properties for radionuclides. The DZ is first initiated during the repository construction. Its behaviour is dynamic, dependent on changing conditions that vary from the open-drift period, to initial closure period and to the entire heating-cooling cycle of the decaying waste. The early THMC disturbances created by the excavation, the operational phase and the thermal load might be the most severe transient that the repository will undergo

  4. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  5. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Impact of Great Garuda Project on Wind and Thermal Environment over Built-Up Area in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, M.; Sueishi, T.; Inagaki, A.; Kanda, M.

    2017-12-01

    `Great Garuda' project is an eagle-shaped offshore structure with 17 artificial islands. This project has been designed for the coastal protection and land reclamation of Jakarta due to catastrophic flooding in the city. It offers an urban generation for 300.000 inhabitants and 600.000 workers in addition to its water safety goal. A broad coalition of Indonesian scientists has criticized the project for being negative impacts on the surrounding environment. Despite the vast research by Indonesian scientist on maritime environment, studies on wind and thermal environment over built-up area are still lacking. However, the construction of the various islands off the coast may result changes in wind patterns and thermal environment due to the alteration of the coastline and urbanization in the Jakarta Bay. Therefore, it is important to understand the airflow within the urban canopy in case of unpredictable gust events. These gust events may occur through the closely-packed high-rise buildings and pedestrians may be harmed from such gusts. Accordingly, we used numerical simulations to investigate the impact of the sea wall and the artificial islands over built-up area and, the intensity of wind gusts at the pedestrian level. Considering the fact that the size of turbulence organized structure sufficiently large computational domain is required. Therefore, a 19.2km×4.8km×1.0 km simulation domain with 2-m resolution in all directions was created to explicitly resolve the detailed shapes of buildings and the flow at the pedestrian level. This complex computation was accomplished by implementing a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. Two case studies were conducted considering the effect of realistic surface roughness and upward heat flux. Case_1 was conducted based on the current built environment and Case_2 for investigating the effect of the project on the chosen coastal region of the city. Fig.1 illustrates the schematic of the large-eddy simulation domains of two cases

  6. Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  7. Liquid Thermal Diffusion during the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron Reed, B.

    2011-06-01

    On the basis of Manhattan Engineer District documents, a little known Naval Research Laboratory report of 1946, and other sources, I construct a more complete history of the liquid-thermal-diffusion method of uranium enrichment during World War II than is presented in official histories of the Manhattan Project. This method was developed by Philip Abelson (1913-2004) and put into operation at the rapidly-constructed S-50 plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which was responsible for the first stage of uranium enrichment, from 0.72% to 0.85% U-235, producing nearly 45,000 pounds of enriched U-235 by July 1945 at a cost of just under 20 million. I review the history, design, politics, construction, and operation of the S-50 liquid-thermal-diffusion plant.

  8. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses

  9. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Impact on Aluminum Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports NASA Kennedy Space Center's research in the area of intelligent thermal management systems and multifunctional thermal systems. This project addresses the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of metallic cellular solid (MCS) materials; those that are lightweight; high strength, tunable, multifunctional and affordable. A portion of the work includes understanding the mechanical properties of honeycomb structured cellular solids upon impact testing under ambient, water-immersed, liquid nitrogen-cooled, and liquid nitrogen-immersed conditions. Additionally, this study will address characterization techniques of the aluminum honeycomb's ability to resist multiple high-rate loadings or impacts in varying environmental conditions, using various techniques for the quantitative and qualitative determination for commercial applicability.

  10. Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

  11. Final Project Report for "Interfacial Thermal Resistance of Carbon Nanotubes”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumings, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This report describes an ongoing project to comprehensively study the interfacial thermal boundary resistance (Kapitza resistance) of carbon nanotubes. It includes a list of publications, personnel supported, the overall approach, accomplishments and future plans.

  12. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects...

  13. Impact evaluation in multicultural educational projects : case: ADAPTYKES project

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Miika

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the common evaluation concepts of the European Union’s funded projects. Such concepts inter alia are effectiveness, impacts and sustainability. The aim was to study how these are realized in multicultural educational case–project in a context, where the project is funded by the European Commission’s Leonardo DaVinci Programme. Thesis introduces two evaluation approaches, which are Logical Framework Approach and Realistic evaluation model. The fi...

  14. Thermal Protection Test Bed Pathfinder Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Cooper

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase thermal protection capabilities for future reentry vehicles, a method to obtain relevant test data is required. Although arc jet testing can be used to obtain some data on materials, the best method to obtain these data is to actually expose them to an atmospheric reentry. The overprediction of the Orion EFT-1 flight data is an example of how the ground test to flight traceability is not fully understood. The RED-Data small reentry capsule developed by Terminal Velocity Aerospace is critical to understanding this traceability. In order to begin to utilize this technology, ES3 needs to be ready to build and integrate heat shields onto the RED-Data vehicle. Using a heritage Shuttle tile material for the heat shield will both allow valuable insight into the environment that the RED-Data vehicle can provide and give ES3 the knowledge and capability to build and integrate future heat shields for this vehicle.

  15. Project STOP (Spectral Thermal Optimization Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Opjorden, R. W.; Goodelle, G. S.; Powe, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral thermal optimization of solar cell configurations for various solar panel applications is considered. The method of optimization depends upon varying the solar cell configuration's optical characteristics to minimize panel temperatures, maximize power output and decrease the power delta from beginning of life to end of life. Four areas of primary investigation are: (1) testing and evaluation of ultraviolet resistant coverslide adhesives, primarily FEP as an adhesive; (2) examination of solar cell absolute spectral response and corresponding cell manufacturing processes that affect it; (3) experimental work with solar cell manufacturing processes that vary cell reflectance (solar absorptance); and (4) experimental and theoretical studies with various coverslide filter designs, mainly a red rejection filter. The Hughes' solar array prediction program has been modified to aid in evaluating the effect of each of the above four areas on the output of a solar panel in orbit.

  16. NASA's nuclear thermal propulsion technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peecook, K.M.; Stone, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    The nonnuclear subsystem technologies required for incorporating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) into space-exploration missions are discussed. Of particular interest to planned missions are such technologies as materials, instrumentation and controls, turbomachinery, CFD modeling, nozzle extension designs and models, and analyses of exhaust plumes. NASA studies are described and/or proposed for refractory metals and alloys, robotic NTP controls, and turbopump materials candidates. Alternative nozzle concepts such as aerospikes and truncated plugs are proposed, and numerical simulations are set forth for studying heavy molecules and the backstreaming of highly reactive free-radical hydrogen in the exhaust plume. The critical technologies described in the paper are central to the development of NTP, and NTP has the potential to facilitate a range of space exploration activities. 3 refs

  17. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment of the spent nuclear fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The goal was to develop a series of thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP, as well as provide a basis for validation of the results. Results show that there is a reasonable envelope for process conditions and requirements that are thermally and hydraulically acceptable

  18. Project W-320 thermal hydraulic model benchmarking and baselining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1998-01-01

    Project W-320 will be retrieving waste from Tank 241-C-106 and transferring the waste to Tank 241-AY-102. Waste in both tanks must be maintained below applicable thermal limits during and following the waste transfer. Thermal hydraulic process control models will be used for process control of the thermal limits. This report documents the process control models and presents a benchmarking of the models with data from Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Revision 1 of this report will provide a baselining of the models in preparation for the initiation of sluicing

  19. FGD Franchising Pilot Project of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the national policy on enhancing environmental protection,the five major power generation companies are required to carry out flue gas desulphurization(FGD) franchising pilot project in thermal power plants.This paper introduces the development of this pilot project,including the foundation,purpose,objects,demands and procedures.It also discusses some main problems encountered during implementation,involving the understanding,legislation,financing,taxation,pricing and management of franchise.At...

  20. Research project on the thermal pollution of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinlein; Becker

    1977-01-01

    The results of essentially completed and current research and development projects - as far as available in a short time - are explained in the present study, compared and their practicle applicability indicated. The number of publications in the literature index is split up into the single specialist fields as follows: 13% hydrodynamics (propagation caculations, models, measurements); 45% biology-chemistry (effects on micro and macro fauna of waters, on water contents, mathematical models of oxygen balance and biocenosis); 31% hydrometeorology including problems on the thermal economy of the waters as well as special thermal load calculations; 5% heat introduction into ground water; 6% others e.g. use of remote sensing for temperature measurement. The current research projects in the FRG are split up into the following single specialist fields: 16% hydromechanics; 42% biology-chemistry; 24% hydrometeorology including thermal economy; 10% use of ground water; 8% others (almost exclusively problems in connection with the use of remote sensing methods). (orig.) [de

  1. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Ecological impact study methodology for hydrotechnical projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoliu, Mihai; Toculescu, Razvan

    1993-01-01

    Besides the expected benefits, hydrotechnical projects may entail unfavorable effects on the hydrological regime, environment, health and living conditions of the population. Rational water resource management should take into consideration both the favorable and unfavorable effects. This implies the assessment of socio-economic and environmental impacts of the changes of the hydrological regime. The paper proposes a methodology for carrying out impact studies of hydrotechnical projects. The results of the work are presented graphically on the basis of composite programing. A summary of mathematical methods involved in impact study design is also presented. (authors)

  3. Methodology of impact assessment of research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cardona, R.; Cobas Aranda, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)

  4. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivujaervi, S.; Kantola, I.; Maekinen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  5. The THESEUS project -- 50 MWe solar thermal power for Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillig, F.; Geyer, M.; Kistner, R.; Aringhoff, R.; Nava, P.; Brakmann, G.

    1998-07-01

    A consortium of European industry, utilities and research institutions from Greece, Germany, Spain and Italy attempts to implement a 52 MWe solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough technology on the Greek island of Crete sponsored by the EU' s THERMIE program. The increased demand for electricity on the island, a consequence of the growing allurement of the island as a tourist resort, makes it necessary to expand the installed capacity on Crete during the next years. According to the capacity expansion plans of Greek' s utility PPC a 160 MWe heavy fuel-fired power plant complex--two 30 MWe diesel units and two 50 MWe steam turbine units--is foreseen to be built by the year 2002. In this paper a description of the technical, economical and environmental aspects of the THESEUS project is provided. Moreover a market entry strategy for solar thermal power generation is discussed.

  6. Feasibility study on Bobovdol thermal power plant upgrading project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey has been made in relation with the improvement project intended of energy conservation, and reduction of global warming gas emission at the Bobovdol thermal power plant located in the suburb of Sofia, the capital of the Republic of Bulgaria. The existing Bobovdol power plant having a total capacity of 630 MW with three generators is a coal burning thermal power plant having been used already for 23 to 27 years, hence over-aged. The survey has discussed an improvement project of scrap-and-build type to make the plant a high-efficiency gas combined cycle power plant using gas turbines. The project calls for building 210-MW gas combined power generation facilities having 70-MW gas turbines, one each in three stages in 2007, 2012 and 2017. As a result of the discussions, the fuel consumption reducing rate was found to reach 37.99%, whereas the cumulative energy saving quantity in 41 years will reach 16.37 million tons of fuel oil equivalent. In addition, the reduction rate of global warming gas emission is 57.75%, and the cumulative reduction quantity in 41 years is 105.18 million tons. (NEDO)

  7. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  8. Thermal impact assessment of multi power plant operations on estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Kim, K.H.; Harris, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on large estuaries requires careful consideration of the problems associated with: re-entrainment, re-circulation, thermal interaction, delay in the attainment of thermal equilibrium state, and uncertainty in specifying open boundaries and open boundary conditions of the regions, which are critically important in the analysis of the thermal conditions in receiving water bodies with tidal dominated, periodically reversing flow conditions. The results of an extensive study in the Hudson River at Indian Point, 42 miles upstream of the ocean end at the Battery, concluded that the tidal-transient, multi-dimensional discrete-element (UTA) thermal transport models (ESTONE, FLOTWO, TMPTWO computer codes) and the near-field far-field zone-matching methodology can be employed with a high degree of reliability in the assessment of the thermal impact of multi power plant operations on tidal dominated estuaries

  9. Environmental impacts associated with Project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. Radiation and ground motion are unique to this type experiment while conventional activities would be associated with any type of resource development. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. (U.S.)

  10. Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage : impacts of soil heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    Impacts of heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation

    Wijbrand Sommer
    PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL (2015)
    ISBN 978-94-6257-294-2

    Abstract

    Aquifer

  11. Impact of Project Leadership Facets on Project Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the role of project leadership facets on effective project outcome. Numerous such initiatives have already been taken on project outcome/performance in the context of apposite leadership styles or project management. However, the current study is unique in the milieu of project outcome that it introduces a new leadership approach, which throws light on the significance of variant leadership facets on project outcome. The study uses explanatory approach; primary data is collected from project management professionals working in different project organizations. The study uses structural equation model (SEM technique to test the hypothesis. The study found a positive relationship between project leadership facets and project outcome.

  12. Modelling thermal plume impacts - Kalpakkam approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.; Anup Kumar, B.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    A good understanding of temperature patterns in the receiving waters is essential to know the heat dissipation from thermal plumes originating from coastal power plants. The seasonal temperature profiles of the Kalpakkam coast near Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) thermal out fall site are determined and analysed. It is observed that the seasonal current reversal in the near shore zone is one of the major mechanisms for the transport of effluents away from the point of mixing. To further refine our understanding of the mixing and dilution processes, it is necessary to numerically simulate the coastal ocean processes by parameterising the key factors concerned. In this paper, we outline the experimental approach to achieve this objective. (author)

  13. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project: Evaluation of Models to Calculate Thermal Diffusivity of Layered Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Levi D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huber, Tanja K. [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Breitkreutz, Harald [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-11

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel plate samples and perform analyses in support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. A key portion of the scope associated with this project was to measure the thermal properties of fuel segments harvested from plates that were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Thermal diffusivity of samples prepared from the fuel segments was measured using laser flash analysis. Two models, one developed by PNNL and the other developed by the Technische Universität München (TUM), were evaluated to extract the thermal diffusivity of the uranium-molybdenum alloy from measurements made on the irradiated, layered composites. The experimental data of the “TC” irradiated fuel segment was evaluated using both models considering a three-layer and five-layer system. Both models are in acceptable agreement with one another and indicate that the zirconium diffusion barrier has a minimal impact on the overall thermal diffusivity of the monolithic U-Mo fuel.

  14. The impact of thermal wave characteristics on thermal dose distribution during thermal therapy: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-C.; Kou, H.-S.; Liauh, C.-T.; Lin, W.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the propagation speed of a thermal wave in terms of the thermal relaxation time on the temperature/thermal dose distributions in living tissue during thermal therapies. The temperature field in tissue was solved by the finite difference method, and the thermal dose was calculated from the formulation proposed by Sapareto and Dewey [Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 10, 787-800 (1984)]. Under the same total deposited energy, for a rapid heating process the time lagging behavior of the peak temperature became pronounced and the level of the peak temperature was decreased with increasing the thermal relaxation time. When the heating duration was longer than the thermal relaxation time of tissues, there was no significant difference between the thermal dose distributions with/without considering the effect of the thermal relaxation time. In other words, when the heating duration is comparable to or shorter than the thermal relaxation time of tissue, the results of the wave bioheat transfer equation (WBHTE) are fully different from that of the Pennes' bioheat transfer equation (PBHTE). Besides, for a rapid heating process the dimension of thermal lesion was still significantly affected by perfusion, because this is what is predicted by the WBHTE but not by the PBHTE, i.e., the wave feature of the temperature field cannot fully be predicted by the PBHTE

  15. Thermal expansion and its impacts on thermal transport in the FPU-α-β model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Cao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the impacts of thermal expansion, arising from the asymmetric interparticle potential, on thermal conductance in the FPU-α-β model. A nonmonotonic dependence of the temperature gradient and thermal conductance on the cubic interaction parameter α are shown, which corresponds to the variation of the coefficient of thermal expansion. Three domains with respect to α can be identified. The results are explained based on the detailed analysis of the asymmetry of the interparticle potential. The self-consistent phonon theory, which can capture the effect of thermal expansion, is developed to support our explanation in a quantitative way. Our result would be helpful to understand the issue that whether there exist normal thermal conduction in the FPU-α-β model.

  16. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  17. Project W-320 SAR and process control thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of thermal hydraulic computer modeling supporting Project W-320 for process control and SAR documentation. Parametric analyses were performed for the maximum steady state waste temperature. The parameters included heat load distribution, tank heat load, fluffing factor and thermal conductivity. Uncertainties in the fluffing factor and heat load distribution had the largest effect on maximum waste temperature. Safety analyses were performed for off normal events including loss of ventilation, loss of evaporation and loss of secondary chiller. The loss of both the primary and secondary ventilation was found to be the most limiting event with saturation temperature in the bottom waste reaching in just over 30 days. An evaluation was performed for the potential lowering of the supernatant level in tank 241-AY-102. The evaluation included a loss of ventilation and steam bump analysis. The reduced supernatant level decreased the time to reach saturation temperature in the waste for the loss of ventilation by about one week. However, the consequence of a steam bump were dramatically reduced

  18. Climate change impacts on lake thermal dynamics and ecosystem vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B; Forrest, A. L; Schladow, S. G ;; Reuter, J. E; Coats, R.; Dettinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Using water column temperature records collected since 1968, we analyzed the impacts of climate change on thermal properties, stability intensity, length of stratification, and deep mixing dynamics of Lake Tahoe using a modified stability index (SI). This new SI is easier to produce and is a more informative measure of deep lake stability than commonly used stability indices. The annual average SI increased at 16.62 kg/m2/decade although the summer (May–October) average SI increased at a higher rate (25.42 kg/m2/decade) during the period 1968–2014. This resulted in the lengthening of the stratification season by approximately 24 d. We simulated the lake thermal structure over a future 100 yr period using a lake hydrodynamic model driven by statistically downscaled outputs of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Model (GFDL) for two different green house gas emission scenarios (the A2 in which greenhouse-gas emissions increase rapidly throughout the 21st Century, and the B1 in which emissions slow and then level off by the late 21st Century). The results suggest a continuation and intensification of the already observed trends. The length of stratification duration and the annual average lake stability are projected to increase by 38 d and 12 d and 30.25 kg/m2/decade and 8.66 kg/m2/decade, respectively for GFDLA2 and GFDLB1, respectively during 2014–2098. The consequences of this change bear the hallmarks of climate change induced lake warming and possible exacerbation of existing water quality, quantity and ecosystem changes. The developed methodology could be extended and applied to other lakes as a tool to predict changes in stratification and mixing dynamics.

  19. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, E. Bruce [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, Tim [Thermal Energy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Mardiat, Ed [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc., Kansas City, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nation's best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission providing top quality medical care and instruction without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power

  20. Design and development of a PC based data acquisition system for automating thermal impact reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garman, B.K.; Carter, P.B.; Davis, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the design and development of an automated personal computer (PC) based data acquisition system for reporting the thermal impact of a fossil fueled power plant on its circulating water source. The system's prime functions are to collect and archive data and perform thermal hydraulic calculations necessary for reporting the plant's thermal impact on Waters of the United States to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA). The main objectives of the monitoring project were to reduce the labor required in the reporting process and to improve the accuracy in determining the circulating water flow rates through each of the station's three generating units. Additional efforts concentrated on enhancing condenser and circulating water pump performance information and providing an interface with the existing plant performance monitoring system

  1. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  2. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  3. Heterogeneity effects in thermal borehole measurements in the Chicxulub impact crater

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, H.; Popov, Y.; Burkhardt, H.; Šafanda, Jan; Čermák, Vladimír; Heidinger, P.; Korobkov, D.; Romushkevich, R.; Mayr, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2005), s. 357-363 ISSN 1742-2132 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0997 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) WI 687/12-1,2,3; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) BU 298/16-1,2,3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : temperature logging * thermal conductivity * heat flow Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2005

  4. The impact of project marketing on the projects finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana SAVCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we assist at the level of the Republic of Moldova and also at international level at a trend to offer financial support with a special focus on project-based funding. Once with the appearance and development of the project concept, other related concepts are being developed such as project management or newly, we can also speak about the projects marketing. Until recently, the product marketing was intensely discussed; concepts such as services marketing appeared afterwards, but also the specific marketing for various branches, such as agromarketing, political marketing, etc. Given that fact that the projects are a product / service itself, at the moment, more and more often projects marketing is discussed.

  5. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  6. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1997-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  7. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  8. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOSEPHSON, W.S.

    2003-01-01

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis

  9. Yakima Fisheries Project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council's) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA's proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities (open-quotes adaptive managementclose quotes); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery

  10. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  11. Impacts of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, Q.J.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of thermal and chemical discharges to surface water are outlined. The major impacts of nuclear power plants on aquatic resources are disruption during construction, intake of cooling water, discharge problems, and interactions with other water users. The following topics are included under the heading, assessment of aquatic ecology: identification of flora and fauna; abundance of aquatic organisms; species-environment relationships; and identification of pre-existing environmental stress. The following topics are included under the heading, environmental effects of plant operation: entrapment of fish by cooling water; passage of plankton through cooling system; discharge area and thermal plume; chemical effluents; and plant construction. (U.S.)

  12. South Carolina: Charleston County Area Project Impact Environmental Education Program (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Charleston County Area Project Impact is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The project is under the direction of the Charleston County Building Services Department, in Charleston, S.C.

  13. Impact of thermal discharge on marine environment - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, A.G.; Rameshwari, S.; Sukumaran, N.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal pollution has been used to indicate the detrimental effects of heated effluents discharged by power plants and other industries. It denotes the impairment of quality and deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial environment through heated effluent and fly ash. Various industrial plants like thermal, atomic, nuclear, coal fired plants, oil field generators, factories and mills utilize water for cooling purposes. In India, there are about 60 thermal power plants, which produce 30 million tonnes of fly ash every year. The heated effluents from power plants is discharged at a temperature, which is 8-10 degC higher than that of intake marine water. The adverse effect of thermal discharge are visible in microorganism, fish, biotic life and the over all ecosystems. The discharge of heated effluents actually affects the fish respiration, metabolism and other physiological activities of marine organisms, which ultimately leads to death. This could be due to synergism because of toxic chemical such as copper, nickel, chromium and chlorine, which are used to remove slimes in the pipelines. The major waste material from thermal power station is the fly ash that creates enormous pollution problem to air, water and soil environment. Fly ash possess large amounts of lead, cobalt, chromium, cadmium etc. When this fly ash is released out through water carriage system it leads to turbidity, over deposition and flood also. Tuticorin Thermal Power Station (TTPS) has installed five power generation units each of 250 MW capacities. About 1.35 lakhs m 3 /hr water is drawn from the sea, utilized for cooling and then the heated effluent is discharged into the same environment. Therefore, this paper deals with various impacts associated with thermal discharge on marine environment. (author)

  14. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  15. Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Construction Health & Safety Regulations on Project Parameters in Nigeria: Consultants and Contractors View. ... The study recommends that better attention is given to health and safety should as a project parameter and that related practice notes and guidelines should be evolved for all project stakeholders.

  16. Impact of National Fadama Development Project II on Rice farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... examined the impact of National Fadama Development Project II on the profitability of rice farmers and assessed the extent to which the various innovations disseminated by the project were adopted by the rice farmer beneficiaries. The project which had all operating expenses cofinanced by the various key stakeholders ...

  17. The Impact of Student-Directed Projects in Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Dianna J.; Bailey, Brad; Sharp, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    A multi-year study investigated the impact of incorporating student-directed discovery projects into introductory statistics courses. Pilot instructors at institutions across the United States taught statistics implementing student-directed projects with the help of a common set of instructional materials designed to facilitate such projects.…

  18. The impact of sustainability on project management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adri Köhler; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius; Jasper van den Brink

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 11 in The Project as a Social System: Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Project Management. Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. How can we develop prosperity without compromising the life of future generations? Companies are integrating ideas of sustainability in

  19. The impact of sustainability on project management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adri Köhler; Jasper van den Brink; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius

    2012-01-01

    Full text via link Chapter 11 in The Project as a Social System: Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Project Management Sustainability is one of the most important challenges of our time. How can we develop prosperity without compromising the life of future generations? Companies are integrating ideas of

  20. The impact of conditions mimicking physiological environment on the thermal stability of aliphatic polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Kredatusová, Jana; Hodan, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 3 (2017), s. 1699-1709 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane * thermal stability * thermogravimetric analysis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016

  1. Thermal radiation from large bolides and impact plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetsov, V.; Shuvalov, V.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical simulations of the impacts of asteroids and comets from 20 m to 3 km in diameter have been carried out and thermal radiation fluxes on the ground and luminous efficiencies of the impacts have been calculated. It was assumed that the cosmic objects have no strength, deform, fragment, and vaporize in the atmosphere. After the impact on the ground, formation of craters and plumes was simulated taking into account internal friction of destroyed rocks and a wake formed in the atmosphere. The equations of radiative transfer, added to the equations of gas dynamics, were used in the approximation of radiative heat diffusion or, if the Rosseland optical depth of a radiating volume of gas and vapor was less than unity, in the approximation of volume emission. Radiation fluxes on the Earth's surface were calculated by integrating the equation of radiative transfer along rays passing through a luminous area. Direct thermal radiation from fireballs and impact plumes produced by asteroids and comets larger than 50 m in diameter is dangerous for people, animals, plants, economic objects. Forest fires can be ignited on the ground within a radius of roughly 1000 times the body's diameter (for diameters of the order or smaller than 1 km), 50-m-diameter bodies can ignite forest fires within a radius of up to 40 km and 3-km asteroids - within 1700 km.

  2. Optimising Impact in Astronomy for Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Positive outcomes in the fields of science education and international development are notoriously difficult to achieve. Among the challenges facing projects that use astronomy to improve education and socio-economic development is how to optimise project design in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits. Over the past century, medical scientists along with statisticians and economists have progressed an increasingly sophisticated and scientific approach to designing, testing and improving social intervention and public health education strategies. This talk offers a brief review of the history and current state of `intervention science'. A similar framework is then proposed for astronomy outreach and education projects, with applied examples given of how existing evidence can be used to inform project design, predict and estimate cost-effectiveness, minimise the risk of unintended negative consequences and increase the likelihood of target outcomes being achieved.

  3. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects, National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the use of wind energy to generate electricity is increasing rapidly in the United States, government guidance to help communities and developers evaluate and plan proposed wind-energy projects is lacking...

  4. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldes, N.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

  5. Hermite- Padé projection to thermal radiative and variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined effect of variable thermal conductivity and radiative heat transfer on steady flow of a conducting optically thin viscous fluid through a channel with sliding wall and non-uniform wall temperatures under the influence of an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed in the present study.

  6. Measuring Systemic Impacts of Bike Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    This paper qualitatively identifies the impacts of bicycle infrastructure on all roadway users, including safety, operations, and travel route choice. Bicycle infrastructure includes shared lanes, conventional bike lanes, and separated bike lanes. Th...

  7. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  8. Critical success factors for BOT electric power projects in China: Thermal power versus wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zuo, Jian; Zillante, George [School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Wang, Xin-Wei [Shandong Nuclear Power Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd, Haiyang, Shandong 265118 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Chinese electric power industry has adopted Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) approach in a number of projects to alleviate the pressure of sole state-owned investment. The Chinese government has taken enormous efforts to create an environment to facilitate the application of BOT approach in electric power projects. Moreover, the growing attention on the sustainability issues puts the traditional major source of electricity - thermal power project under more strict scrutiny. As a result, various renewable energy projects, particularly the wind power projects have involved private sector funds. Both thermal power and wind power projects via BOT approach have met with a varying degree of success. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the factors contributing towards the success of both types of BOT power projects. Using an extensive literature survey, this paper identifies 31 success factors under 5 categories for Chinese BOT electric power projects. This is followed by a questionnaire survey to exam relative significance of these factors. The results reveal the different levels of significance of success factors for BOT thermal power projects versus wind power projects. Finally, survey results were analyzed to explore the underlying construction and distributions among the identified success factors. This study provides a valuable reference for all involved parties that are interested in developing BOT electric power projects in China. (author)

  9. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An overview of recent projects to study thermal protection in life rafts, lifeboats and immersion suits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, L.; DuCharme, M. B.; Farnworth, B.; Wissler, E. H.; Brown, R.; Kuczora, A. [Maritime and Arctic Survival Scientific and Engineering Ressearch Team (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Survival during a marine evacuation in cold regions is very challenging. However international regulations do not require specific thermal protection or ventilation performance criteria for lifeboats. In the same way, the testing methods for approval testing of immersion suits are not standardised. This paper investigated recent projects completed or on-going to study thermal protection in life rafts, lifeboats and immersion suits. An overview of several projects from the Maritime and Arctic Survival Scientific and Engineering Research Team (MASSERT) was conducted. This review provided the necessary knowledge to advance international standards and develop the thermal protection requirements for survival in the Arctic. The results showed the MASSERT correlated thermal insulation values between human subjects and thermal manikins in life rafts and in immersion suits. It was found that the manikins are a valuable evaluation tool, as well as the computerised models used as prediction tools.

  11. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary

  12. Employment impacts of CDM projects in China's power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Zhang, Weishi; Cai, Wenjia; Xie, Xi

    2013-01-01

    There are continuous debates around the question of whether CDM really contributes to sustainable development (SD) in host countries. Employment impact is an essential indicator of SD. Based on an input-out approach this research builds a quantitative assessment model to evaluate the employment impacts of CDM. Both direct and indirect jobs creation and job losses of CDM projects in the power sector registered by the end of 2011 are calculated by project types and power grids where the project is located. Results of this study show that, although the above mentioned CDM projects causes about 99,000 net direct job losses, they also create about 3.08 million indirect jobs, resulting in the gross employment of CDM to be about 2.98 million. Thereof, hydro projects induce both direct and indirect job losses, which comes to approximately 0.89 million. Solar projects have the most potential since they own the highest indirect jobs created by one GWh generation, about 104 jobs/GWh. - Highlights: • An input–output model was built for assessment of CDM projects' employment impact; • CDM projects create direct and indirect jobs while cause some losses in short. • Significant indirect job gains of CDM projects were found; • Solar projects cause 104 jobs/GWh in average, ranking as the highest contributor

  13. Impact of a quality improvement project to strengthen infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of a quality improvement project to strengthen infection prevention and control training at rural healthcare facilities. ... African Journal of Health Professions Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  14. Impact of promoting sustainable agriculture project on livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on impact assessment of Promoting Sustainable Agriculture Project ... the Fisher Index, Focused Group Discussion and descriptive statistical analysis. ... The qualitative analysis showed that 30%, 45% and 10% of men, women and ...

  15. Feasibility study of Pridneprovskaya Thermal Power Plant reconstruction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With objectives of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission at the Pridneprovskaya power plant in Ukraine, a scrap and build project has been discussed. This project will abolish the unit No.12 among the eight units in the existing coal burning power generation facilities, and install a natural gas burning combined cycle plant comprising of three units each with an output of 100 MW. The new plant facilities will consist of gas turbines, steam turbines, HRSG and auxiliary devices, and an air-cooled synchronous power generator with a capacity of 119 MVA. Use of natural gas as fuel reduces generation of soot, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and CO. In addition, the hot effluent and waste liquor effluent will decrease from those at the present plant. The required fund will be 30,107 million yen. The energy saving effect of this project is reduction of about 7.5 million tons of crude oil equivalent as a total in 40 years. The greenhouse effect gas will decrease by about 39 million tons as a total in 40 years. The profitability estimation calls for the number of investment recovery year of 16 years, and internal profit rate of 7.32%, wherein the implementation of the project cannot be expected as a project to be carried out by private funds. (NEDO)

  16. Olympic Dam project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia, is estimated to contain at least 2,000 million tonnes of mineralized material, with an average grade of about 1.6% copper, 0.6 Kg/t of uranium oxide and 0.6 g/t of gold. The objective of the project is to extract and process the ore for the production and sale of copper, uranium oxide and the associated gold and silver. Facilities required are an underground mine, an on-site processing plant, associated facilities including a tailings retention system, a town to accommodate up to 9,000 people and other infrastructure. Chapters in the draft E.I.S. contain information on the environment, land use, aboriginal environment, geology, tailings retention system, radiation assessment, project infrastructure, social effects and economic effects

  17. Griffith energy project final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information

  18. Griffith Energy Project Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-02

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fuel, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Ariz. The Project would be a ''merchant plant'' which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information.

  19. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  20. Beverley project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Beverley deposit is located on the northern Lake Frome Plains, South Australia, 520km north of Adelaide. It is proposed to mine the deposit by in-situ leaching and to process the solution on the surface to produce an estimated 11,600t of yellowcake from about 6 million tonnes of 0.27% ore over approximately 23 years. The draft environmental impact statement is intended to cover all stages of the development from the pilot plant to final rehabilitation. Sections include the existing environment (geology, climate and meteorology, soils, hydrology, ecology, radionuclide base levels, land use, population and sites of Aboriginal and archaeological significance), the proposed development (solution mining, waste management, water management and mining and processing options), rehabilitation, environmental impact and environmental management and monitoring

  1. External Tank (ET) Foam Thermal/Structural Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David F.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Chang, Li C.; Malroy, Eric T.; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was performed to assess the pre-launch thermally induced stresses in the Space Shuttle External Tank Bipod closeout and Ice/Frost ramps (IFRs). Finite element models with various levels of detail were built that included the three types of foam (BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL 1034) and the underlying structure and bracketry. Temperature profiles generated by the thermal analyses were input to the structural models to calculate the stress levels. An area of high stress in the Bipod closeout was found along the aluminum tank wall near the phenolic insulator and along the phenolic insulator itself. This area of high stress might be prone to cracking and possible delamination. There is a small region of slightly increased stress in the NCFI 24-124 foam near its joint with the Bipod closeout BX-265 foam. The calculated stresses in the NCFI 24-124 acreage foam are highest at the NCFI 24-124/PDL 1034/tank wall interface under the LO2 and LH2 IFRs. The highest calculated stresses in the LH2 NCFI 24-124 foam are higher than in similar locations in the LO2 IFR. This finding is consistent with the dissection results of IFRs on ET-120.

  2. Impact of Stakeholder Psychological Empowerment on Project Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between psychological empowerment of stakeholders and project success is an important thing that must be known by project manager. This research developed and tested the model to predict how well the impact of stakeholder psychological empowerment on project success. Stakeholder psychological empowerment was defined to have five indicator variables covering intrinsic motivation, opportunity to perform, ability to perform, task behaviors, and contextual behaviors. Meanwhile, project success can be measured by cost performance, time performance, quality performance, profitability, and customer satisfaction. In this study, it was hypothesized that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaire survey carried out to 204 respondents, structural equation modeling (SEM was used for predicting the performance of project success. It was found that stakeholder psychological empowerment influenced project success, especially on the ability to perform of stakeholders.

  3. Final report on Thermally Modified Sand demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-23

    The use of salt and salt/sand mixtures on icy roadway surfaces has dramatically increased during the past 30 years. Despite extensive documentation on salt related damage to the roadway improvements, vehicles and the environment, road maintenance departments have continued to rely on this practice. Road maintenance departments in northern climate areas have long recognized the safety benefits for public mobility on icy roadways from the use of sand. As an abrasive material, the sand improves the surface traction that results in more drivable and less hazardous road conditions during the winter months. Stockpiles of pure sand stored during the winter months oftentimes freeze into large unworkable, monolithic piles. To maintain a free-flowing condition, it has been found to be necessary to add salt to the sand. The addition of salt in amounts ranging from 5 to 10 percent to that of sand, is usually sufficient to provide relatively free-flowing abrasive material that could be stored in stockpiles and applied to icy road surfaces with conventional sand spreading trucks. Another alternative for winter storage of pure sand to maintain a free-flowing condition is in humidity-controlled, heated buildings. As would be expected, this method has high capital and operating costs. and not cost effective for general highway maintenance use. The invention demonstrated herein is a method of thermally modifying pure sand that will remain in a free-flowing state throughout the winter season without the need for the salt additive. The thermally modified sand provides an abrasive material that when applied to icy roads does not cause environmental and corrosive damage as done by the application of sand with salt. By employing a very simple process of freezing screened sand particles by forced air convection under subfreezing conditions, the invention creates a product that has significant value in terms of economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Thermal bridges. Causes and impacts, information on reduction and avoidance; Waermebruecken. Ursachen und Auswirkungen, Hinweise zur Verringerung und Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, Wolfgang; Born, Rolf

    2012-11-15

    Thermal bridges increase the heat demand, affect the thermal comfort, facilitate mould cultures and cause structural damage. Many thermal bridges can be avoided by proper building construction details. At least the impact of thermal bridges can be avoided.

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  6. The thermal impact of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems: a case study in the Netherlands, combining monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Philip W.; Kooi, Henk; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2015-05-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive thermal impact study on an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. The study involved monitoring of the thermal impact and modeling of the three-dimensional temperature evolution of the storage aquifer and over- and underlying units. Special attention was paid to non-uniformity of the background temperature, which varies laterally and vertically in the aquifer. Two models were applied with different levels of detail regarding initial conditions and heterogeneity of hydraulic and thermal properties: a fine-scale heterogeneity model which construed the lateral and vertical temperature distribution more realistically, and a simplified model which represented the aquifer system with only a limited number of homogeneous layers. Fine-scale heterogeneity was shown to be important to accurately model the ATES-impacted vertical temperature distribution and the maximum and minimum temperatures in the storage aquifer, and the spatial extent of the thermal plumes. The fine-scale heterogeneity model resulted in larger thermally impacted areas and larger temperature anomalies than the simplified model. The models showed that scattered and scarce monitoring data of ATES-induced temperatures can be interpreted in a useful way by groundwater and heat transport modeling, resulting in a realistic assessment of the thermal impact.

  7. Olympic Dam project: assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    The assessment report on the Environmental Impact Statement produced for the Olympic Dam project is intended to provide the South Australian Government with a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impact of the proposal and to make recommendations concerning the project to be negotiated with the Joint Venturers prior to approval of the EIS. The project involves the mining, processing and sale of products from the copper-uranium ore body at Olympic Dam on the Roxby Downs Station, South Australia. The report includes a description of the proposal, a description of the environment likely to be affected, a discussion of the potential impacts on that environment, a discussion of the adequacy of information presented in the EIS and a discussion of the acceptability of the environmental impacts. The Department has concluded that the pre-design proposal is acceptable on environmental grounds

  8. The SESAME project. State of the art liquid metal thermal hydraulics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, F.; Shams, A.; Batta, A.; Moreau, V.; Di Piazza, I.; Gerschenfeld, A.; Planquart, P.; Tarantino, M. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    The European Sustainable Nuclear Industry Initiative (ESNII) aims at industrial application of fast reactor technology for a sustainable nuclear energy production. Currently four demonstration projects have a promising outlook in Europe, i.e. the ASTRID project in France, the MYRRHA project in Belgium, the ALFRED pan-European project to be realized in Romania, and SEALER in Sweden. Sodium and lead(-alloys) are envisaged as coolants for these reactors. Obviously, in the development of these reactors, thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key challenge with emphasis on safety issues. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge with respect to experiments and simulation techniques as pursued in the Horizon 2020 SESAME (thermal hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of MEtal cooled reactors) project.

  9. Social Impact Assessment : Guidance for assessing and managing the social impacts of projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Francis; Esteves, Ana Maria; Aucamp, Ilse; Franks, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Guidance Note is to provide advice to various stakeholders about what is expected in good practice social impact assessment (SIA) and social impact management processes, especially in relation to project development. Project development refers to dams, mines, oil and gas

  10. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  11. Impact of neutron irradiation on thermal helium desorption from iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xunxiang, E-mail: hux1@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Taller, Stephen [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The synergistic effect of neutron irradiation and transmutant helium production is an important concern for the application of iron-based alloys as structural materials in fission and fusion reactors. In this study, we investigated the impact of neutron irradiation on thermal helium desorption behavior in high purity iron. Single crystalline and polycrystalline iron samples were neutron irradiated in HFIR to 5 dpa at 300 °C and in BOR-60 to 16.6 dpa at 386 °C, respectively. Following neutron irradiation, 10 keV He ion implantation was performed at room temperature on both samples to a fluence of 7 × 10{sup 18} He/m{sup 2}. Thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) was conducted to assess the helium diffusion and clustering kinetics by analyzing the desorption spectra. The comparison of He desorption spectra between unirradiated and neutron irradiated samples showed that the major He desorption peaks shift to higher temperatures for the neutron-irradiated iron samples, implying that strong trapping sites for He were produced during neutron irradiation, which appeared to be nm-sized cavities through TEM examination. The underlying mechanisms controlling the helium trapping and desorption behavior were deduced by assessing changes in the microstructure, as characterized by TEM, of the neutron irradiated samples before and after TDS measurements.

  12. GCD TechPort Data Sheets Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project consists of three distinct project elements: the 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D MAT) project element; the Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System (CA-TPS) project element; and the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project element. 3D MAT seeks to design, develop and deliver a game changing material solution based on 3-dimensional weaving and resin infusion approach for manufacturing a material that can function as a robust structure as well as a thermal protection system. CA-TPS seeks to develop and deliver a conformal ablative material designed to be efficient and capable of withstanding peak heat flux up to 500 W/ sq cm, peak pressure up to 0.4 atm, and shear up to 500 Pa. HEEET is developing a new ablative TPS that takes advantage of state-of-the-art 3D weaving technologies and traditional manufacturing processes to infuse woven preforms with a resin, machine them to shape, and assemble them as a tiled solution on the entry vehicle substructure or heatshield.

  13. Port Menier thermal power plant: Pre-project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Port Menier, the town on Anticosti Island in the St Lawrence River estuary, is supplied with electricity from a diesel power plant having a firm capacity of 1,080 kW. Since 1987, power demand has increased at an average annual rate of 5.7%, raising the winter peak demand from 670 kW to 987 kW. The power plant is located in the center of town and is obsolete, presenting a number of architectural, environmental, and operational deficiencies. It is proposed to construct a new power plant having an initial firm capacity of 1,490 kW and storage capacity for 75,000 liters of fuel. The plant site will have an area of ca 6,265 m 2 to allow for an eventual expansion to over 3,000 kW capacity, sufficient for satisfying forecast demand over the next 20 years. Estimated cost of the new plant is ca $9.5 million. The old plant will be decommissioned and the new plant will be built at a site outside of town. The natural and human environments characteristic of the Port Menier area are detailed and the two selected sites for the new plant are described and compared. A site in the industrial zone of Port-Menier is favored. The environmental impacts of the new plant are analyzed and mitigation measures during the preconstruction, construction, and operational phases are proposed. Local economic impacts are estimated at around $990,000. 20 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project Completes Coring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the Scientific Staff of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project (CBIS Project completed its coring operations during September–December 2005 and April–May 2006. Cores were collected continuously to a total depth of 1766 m. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of impactites beneath 444 m of post-impact continental shelf sediments.The CBIS Project is a joint venture of the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS. Project activities began with a planning workshop in September 2003 attended by sixtythree scientists from ten countries. Field operations began with site preparation in July 2005, and coring began in September 2005. Drilling, Observation and Sampling of theEarth’s Continental Crust (DOSECC was the general contractor for the drilling operations throughout 2005.

  15. Project authorization process in the thermal power stations vs in the hydroelectric power stations: two weights, two measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtois, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Key topics include the long tendering process, a comparison of two projects: thermal station vs. hydroelectrical station, and the solutions towards reducing the delay in obtaining authorization. (author)

  16. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, L.

    2005-02-01

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  17. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Evaluation of the Impact of Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Couplings in Bentonite and Near-Field Rock Barriers on a Nuclear Waste Repository in a Sparsely Fractured Hard Rock. Report of BMT1C/WP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Nguyen, T.S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    This report presents the works performed for the third, also the last, phase (BMT1C) of BMT1 of the DECOVALEX III project for the period of 1999-2002. The works of BMT1 is divided into three phases: BMT1A, BMT1B and BMT1C. The BMT1A concerns with calibration of the computer codes with a reference Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan. The objective is to validate the numerical approaches, computer codes and material models, so that the teams simulating tools are at a comparable level of maturity and sophistication. The BMT1B uses the calibrated codes to perform scoping calculations, considering varying degrees of THM coupling and varying permeability values of the surrounding rock for a reference generic repository design without fractures. The aim is to identify the coupling mechanisms of importance for construction, performance and safety of the repository. BMT1C concerns with scoping calculations with different coupling combinations for the case where a horizontal fracture intersects the deposition hole and a vertical fracture zone divides two adjacent deposition tunnel/hole system. A hydrostatic condition is applied along the vertical fracture as a hydraulic boundary condition. In addition, the SKI/KTH team performed an additional calculation case of a highly fractured rock mass with two orthogonal sets of fractures with a spacing of 0.5 m. The chosen measures for evaluating the long term safety and performance of the repository are the maximal temperature created by the thermal loading from the emplaced wastes, the time for resaturation of the buffer, the maximal swelling stress developed in the buffer, the structural integrity of the rock mass and the permeability evolution in the rock mass. The analyses fro BMT1C were conducted by four research teams: SKI/KTH (Sweden), CNSC (Canada), IRSN/CEA(France) and JNC (Japan), using FEM approach with different computer codes. From the results, it is clear that the

  18. Investigating Time-Varying Drivers of Grid Project Emissions Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Emily L.; Thayer, Brandon L.; Pal, Seemita; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-15

    The emissions consequences of smart grid technologies depend heavily on their context and vary not only by geographical location, but by time of year. The same technology operated to meet the same objective may increase the emissions associated with energy generation for part of the year and decrease emissions during other times. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) tool provides the ability to estimate these seasonal variations and garner insight into the time-varying drivers of grid project emissions impacts. This work leverages GridPIQ to examine the emissions implications across years and seasons of adding energy storage technology to reduce daily peak demand in California and New York.

  19. HTGR reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion uncertainty analysis: a proposed IAEA coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyobeka, Bismark; Reitsma, Frederik; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2011-01-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis methods. In order to benefit from recent advances in modeling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors recommended that the proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling be implemented. In the paper the current status and plan are presented. The CRP will also benefit from interactions with the currently ongoing OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) UAM benchmark activity by taking into consideration the peculiarities of HTGR designs and simulation requirements. (author)

  20. A statistical proposal for environmental impact assessment of development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas C, Julian A; De J Lema T, Alvaro; Leon P, Juan Diego

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of Kachchh tidal power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ramanand; Lal, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Kachchh tidal power development project is a single-basin, single -effect and ebb generation development by construction of a tidal power barrage of about 3.25 km length across Hansthal creek. The project may disturb the ecosystem of the region. The paper deals in detail the environmental impacts of the project on climate, water velocity, flow and sedimentation pattern, water quality, flora and fauna, fishery, tourism and recreation, wild life, public health and socio-economic conditions. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification on thermal tolerance of the spider crab Hyas araneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Pörtner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Future scenarios for the oceans project combined developments of CO2 accumulation and global warming and their impact on marine ecosystems. The synergistic impact of both factors was addressed by studying the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on thermal tolerance of the cold-eurythermal spider crab Hyas araneus from the population around Helgoland. Here ambient temperatures characterize the southernmost distribution limit of this species. Animals were exposed to present day normocapnia (380 ppm CO2, CO2 levels expected towards 2100 (710 ppm and beyond (3000 ppm. Heart rate and haemolymph PO2 (PeO2 were measured during progressive short term cooling from 10 to 0°C and during warming from 10 to 25°C. An increase of PeO2 occurred during cooling, the highest values being reached at 0°C under all three CO2 levels. Heart rate increased during warming until a critical temperature (Tc was reached. The putative Tc under normocapnia was presumably >25°C, from where it fell to 23.5°C under 710 ppm and then 21.1°C under 3000 ppm. At the same time, thermal sensitivity, as seen in the Q10 values of heart rate, rose with increasing CO2 concentration in the warmth. Our results suggest a narrowing of the thermal window of Hyas araneus under moderate increases in CO2 levels by exacerbation of the heat or cold induced oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment of a Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Reliable water supplies for drinking and agriculture are some of the objectives for the sustainable development of every country. However, constructed facilities such as dams and irrigation networks and drainage can exert positive and negative effects directly or indirectly on the environment. The environmental impact assessment is a method for identifying the positive and negative effects caused by a plan and suggests performance management best practices aimed at lessening the negative impacts and augmenting the positive ones. Objectives The present study sought to evaluate the environmental impacts of the water transfer project of the Jooban Dam in two phases of preparation and operation. Materials and Methods A checklist containing the positive, negative, short-term, and long-term effects as well as the continuation and probable occurrence of these effects was used. Results The results showed that the negative environmental and social impacts of the project outweighed the positive impacts in terms of type, number, and intensity. Conclusions Unless there are well-thought out strategies for minimizing the undesirable impact on the environment, it is not advisable that such projects be permitted.

  4. Half Double Methodology – Leading projects to impact in half the time with double the impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Michael; Svejvig, Per

    this presentation to learn about the three core elements of the half-double methodology so that you can lead your projects to double the impact in half the time. Objectives: Summarize the half-double methodology and core elements of impact, flow, and leadership; explain how PMI’s project management tools can......Despite developments in agile methodologies over the last 20 years, the potential for optimization in projects is still significant. Current research shows that there are methodologies that can be used to reduce lead time and increase value creation of projects by 30% or more. Join...

  5. Attention to impact pathways in EISs of large dam projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brismar, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The importance of addressing cumulative environmental impacts in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of large development projects is increasingly underlined. However, cumulative impacts are generated through complex impact pathways, involving multiple root causes and lower and higher order effects, interlinked by cause-effect relationships. Consideration to potential impact pathways may thus be difficult without appropriate analytical methods, expertise, and supportive Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines and terms-of-references (TOR). This paper presents the results of an analysis of six EISs prepared for large dam projects between 1994 and 2001. The objective was to analyze if, how, and to what extent potential impact pathways involved in the generation of dam-related cumulative impacts have been addressed in the analyzed material. For this purpose, a theoretical framework was developed, which identifies four key root causes, their potential effects, and associated cause-effect relationships. The analysis revealed various shortcomings. Important imbalances were found in the degree of attention given to effects of different categories. Lower order effects received greater attention than higher order, and the potential effects of reservoir filling were more extensively attended to than those of flow blockage, storage, and regulation. Most importantly, little effort was made to carefully explain the potential impact pathways involved; root causes were often referred to in general terms only, and potential pathways leading up to an anticipated higher order effect or following upon an expected lower order effect were often inadequately addressed or ignored. Probable reasons for the discovered shortcomings are discussed and recommendations are presented for improving the World Bank EIA guidelines for large dam projects

  6. Environmental impact assessment for the Nova projects (Building 391 complex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Nova projects (Building 391 Complex) describes (1) the proposed actions, (2) the existing environment in and around the Livermore Valley, and (3) the potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of these facilities. It shows that the proposed action does not conflict with any Federal, State, Regional, or Local Plans and Programs. Possible alternatives to the proposed action are discussed. However, it is concluded that the proposed actions were the most reasonable of the alternatives and would involve relatively minor adverse environmental impacts

  7. Impact of an aquaculture extension project in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    productivity and the value of fish production per capita among participants. However, in the long run no similar well-determined effect emerges. Second, MAEP appears to have had no significant impact on socioeconomic status as measured by consumption expenditure of participating households. The authors argue......This paper is an impact study of key short- and long-run effects of the Danida supported Mymensingh Aquaculture Extension Project (MAEP) in Bangladesh, applying different matching and double difference estimators. Results are mixed. First, the paper finds a positive short-run impact on pond...

  8. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-01

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors

  9. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John C., E-mail: matthewsj@battelle.org [Battelle, 7231 Palmetto Dr, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Louisiana Tech University (United States); Sterling, Raymond L., E-mail: sterling@latech.edu [Louisiana Tech University (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  10. Radiological impact assessment within the IAEA Arctic Assessment Project (IASAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harmes, I.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA, a working group was created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea and bays of Novaya Zemlya and to assess the radiological impact. Existing models...

  11. Livelihood impacts of forest carbon project and its implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the impacts of forest carbon project on the livelihoods of rural households and its implications for the sustainability of forest by focusing on a regenerated forest in Humbo district of Southwestern Ethiopia. The methods through which primary data were gathered are a triangulation of household survey, ...

  12. Impact of externally funded projects on development of research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of externally funded projects on development of research capability of national agricultural research system. S K Sharma. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Projected impacts of climate change on Indian agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Projected impacts of climate change on Indian agriculture. Increase in CO2 to 550 ppm increases yields of rice, wheat, legumes and oilseeds by 10-20%. A 1oC increase in temperature may reduce yields of wheat, soybean, mustard, groundnut, and potato by 3-7%.

  14. Projected climate change impacts in rainfall erosivity over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change projections and historical analyses have shown alterations in global precipitation dynamics, and therefore, it is also expected that there will be associated changes to soil erosion rates. The impacts of climate change on soil erosion may bring serious economic, social, and environmen...

  15. Impacts of commercial agricultural development project (CADP) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the impacts of the Commercial Agricultural Development Project (CADP) on the empowerment of farmers in Kaduna State with specific reference to Lere, Giwa and Kubau Local Government Areas for the period of 2010-2016. Survey and documentary research design were employed and data sourced ...

  16. Impact of Community Driven Development Project: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates impact of Community Driven Development programme on infrastructure under National Fadama II Project in Oyo State Nigeria. Data were collected from two hundred and sixty-four farmers using multistage sampling procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and infrastructure index.

  17. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  18. Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollowed, Anne B.; Barange, Manuel; Beamish, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current literature on the projected effects of climate change on marine fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities throughout the northern hemisphere. The review addresses the following issues: (i) expected impacts on ecosystem productivity and habitat......) implications for food security and associated changes; and (v) uncertainty and modelling skill assessment. Climate change will impact fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities through a complex suite of linked processes. Integrated interdisciplinary research teams are forming...... in many regions to project these complex responses. National and international marine research organizations serve a key role in the coordination and integration of research to accelerate the production of projections of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and to move towards a future where...

  19. Quantitative indicators of the impacts generated in lineal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina N, Jesus Efren; Lema T, Alvaro de J.

    2002-01-01

    This work outlines a methodological proposal for the elaboration of quantitative indicators of the impact caused by electrical power transmission projects, using the perspective of the model of environmental administration by dimensions (physical, biotic, cultural, economic, and political). The model achieved an integral and interdisciplinary analysis, managing to determine what the degree of impact that a project generates on a dimension and its relationships to the others, moreover the indicators identified are useful tools that should help support planning, project formulation, decisions making, and environmental studies, such as: environmental management plans and greater efficiency in the estimation of administrative costs, as well as in the techniques of generating location alternatives, and also may lead to better administration of economic and human resources, among others

  20. Environmental impact assessments of wind energy projects: An Alberta example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    A description is presented of the environmental impact assessment for an Alberta windfarm, summarizing the rationale, process and results of the assessment, costs involved, and recommendations made. The Pe-kun-nee windfarm was designed as a 44 turbine, 9.9 kW windfarm. The assessment included consideration of the complete range of environmental impacts of the windfarm, including reviews of impacts associated with similar developments elsewhere. From an environmental perspective, the proposed site and transmission line route were exceedingly suitable for development. No major potential impacts were identified. Most impacts that could occur, including terrain and vegetation disturbance, were associated with the construction phase of the project. A series of mitigation measures were developed to minimize each identified impact. Monitoring during the operations phase of the development was recommended to: ensure that the revegetation of disturbed areas was adequate; verify the sound level model; and document the incidence of bird strikes. Potential aesthetic impacts were addressed through a proposed interpretive project designed to educate visitors, enhance the profile of the wind-energy industry, and provide local employment. The assessment was completed within 8 months of initiation at a cost less than $200,000

  1. Governance Impact Assessment on Large Infrastructure Project (LIP Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Zarewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkage of failures of many projects, including Large Infrastructure Projects (LIPs, to governance problems by previous studies implies that governance impacts projects’ performance. Identification and understanding of the impacts have therefore become necessary in order to ensure that projects are governed in a way that will ensure their successful delivery. This study assessed impact of governance on delivery of Large Infrastructure Projects (LIPs through a three phase research approach. The first phase involved literature review followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders/role players in the governance of eight LIPs in different locations in Nigeria in the second phase. A thematic data analysis of the study’s findings was finally conducted in the third phase to identify themes and sub-themes after which conclusions were drawn. The study established that governance impacts LIPs delivery both positively and negatively depending on how the governance is approached. Four LIPs were successful due to proper initiation, setting aside funds for the projects at the onset, proactive risk management, top management support, and simple governance policies and structures. Intuitive initiation on political exigencies, tying funding to erratic sources of funding without contingency arrangement, Procuring Authorities’ (PAs disregard for due process and consultants’ advice, failure of a Procuring Authority (PA to meet contractual obligations and change of government were identified by the study as major governance aspects that led to the abandonment of 4 LIPs. The study concluded that there was a need for significant improvement and standardisation of approaches to governance of LIPs particularly in developing countries like Nigeria and accordingly recommends the development of a governance framework containing guidelines, including sanctions for violators, to guide the governance of the projects in the country.

  2. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  3. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  4. Thermal properties variations in unconsolidated material for very shallow geothermal application (ITER project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipio, Eloisa Di; Bertermann, David

    2018-04-01

    In engineering, agricultural and meteorological project design, sediment thermal properties are highly important parameters, and thermal conductivity plays a fundamental role when dimensioning ground heat exchangers, especially in very shallow geothermal systems. Herein, the first 2 m of depth from surface is of critical importance. However, the heat transfer determination in unconsolidated material is difficult to estimate, as it depends on several factors, including particle size, bulk density, water content, mineralogy composition and ground temperature. The performance of a very shallow geothermal system, as a horizontal collector or heat basket, is strongly correlated to the type of sediment at disposal and rapidly decreases in the case of dry-unsaturated conditions. The available experimental data are often scattered, incomplete and do not fully support thermo-active ground structure modeling. The ITER project, funded by the European Union, contributes to a better knowledge of the relationship between thermal conductivity and water content, required for understanding the very shallow geothermal systems behaviour in saturated and unsaturated conditions. So as to enhance the performance of horizontal geothermal heat exchangers, thermally enhanced backfilling material were tested in the laboratory, and an overview of physical-thermal properties variations under several moisture and load conditions for different mixtures of natural material was here presented.

  5. The Research of Stakeholder Power Impact on Project Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Biskupek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The article show summarized information about stakeholders and their role in project implementation based on literature review. The second part of the article is dedicated for the research about stakeholder influence on project implementation. The only condition to participate in the survey was managing projects. Although the respondents are employed in the area of south Poland, they implement projects all over Poland. The research tool was a questionnaire which was sent by e-mail to the respondents. 90 project managers from the area of south Poland were invited to join the project, and 62 people sent back a completed questionnaire. Methodology/methods: The research was done by a questionnaire with twenty two question, which was divided into three parts. The first part was the imprint, which consisted of three questions. The second part consisted of two questions, which concerned the way of defining the word “stakeholder”. The third part concerned the topic of the research and consisted of seventeen questions. Scientific aim: The aim of the article is presenting the results of the research which was done, to show the research results of project stakeholder influence on the project implementation. Findings: The results received from the survey in the process of analysis and interpretation allow to put forward a thesis that stakeholders as a whole group are significant for the implementation of the whole project. Their impact is so important that it is possible to tell that they decide also about the project success or failure. Conclusions: The respondents show that stakeholders affect every area in large extent or very big extent. The fact has been proved in table 1 which shows the most frequently chosen answers by responders. However, by conducted analysis by the standard deviation it is possible to see a large dispersion of the results.

  6. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  7. Navajo transmission project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Dine Power Authority, a Navajo Nation enterprise, proposes to construct a 500 kilovolt transmission line planned to deliver electrical power from the Shiprock Substation in northwestern New Mexico to either the Mead or the Marketplace Substation in southern Nevada. The line would relieve constraints on transmission of electricity west from the Four Comers area; improve operational flexibility and reliability of the overall system; and allow increased economical transfers, sales, and purchases in the Rocky Mountains/Four Comers/Desert Southwest region. Also, the project allows an opportunity for the Navajo Nation to participate in the electrical utility industry and promote economic development to benefit the people of the Navajo Nation. Alternatives considered include energy conservation and electric load management, new generation facilities, use of existing transmission systems, alternative transmission technologies, no action, and the proposed action. For the proposed action, several alternative routes and ancillary facility locations are addressed: four alternative routes and five substations in the eastern portion of the project area; and six alternative routes, three substation sites, and a microwave communication facility in the western portion of the project area. The existing condition of the environmental resources in the project area is described and potential impacts on those resources as a result of the proposed action are addressed. The impacts of the proposed action would be caused mainly by access roads, tower sites, and other associated facilities on soils, vegetation, wildlife, and cultural and paleontological resources, and the impact of the transmission line's presence on visual resources and land uses

  8. Economic impact of latent heat thermal energy storage systems within direct steam generating solar thermal power plants with parabolic troughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.; Johnson, M.; Hübner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of a latent heat thermal energy storage system into a solar direct steam generation power cycle. • Parametric study of solar field and storage size for determination of the optimal layout. • Evaluation of storage impact on the economic performance of the solar thermal power plant. • Economic comparison of new direct steam generation plant layout with state-of-the-art oil plant layout. - Abstract: One possible way to further reduce levelized costs of electricity of concentrated solar thermal energy is to directly use water/steam as the primary heat transfer fluid within a concentrated collector field. This so-called direct steam generation offers the opportunity of higher operating temperatures and better exergy efficiency. A technical challenge of the direct steam generation technology compared to oil-driven power cycles is a competitive storage technology for heat transfer fluids with a phase change. Latent heat thermal energy storages are suitable for storing heat at a constant temperature and can be used for direct steam generation power plants. The calculation of the economic impact of an economically optimized thermal energy storage system, based on a latent heat thermal energy storage system with phase change material, is the main focus of the presented work. To reach that goal, a thermal energy storage system for a direct steam generation power plant with parabolic troughs in the solar field was thermally designed to determine the boundary conditions. This paper discusses the economic impact of the designed thermal energy storage system based on the levelized costs of electricity results, provided via a wide parametric study. A state-of-the-art power cycle with a primary and a secondary heat transfer fluid and a two-tank thermal energy storage is used as a benchmark technology for electricity generation with solar thermal energy. The benchmark and direct steam generation systems are compared to each other, based respectively

  9. Environmental impacts of dispersed development from federal infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Mark T

    2004-06-01

    Dispersed development, also referred to as urban growth or sprawl, is a pattern of low-density development spread over previously rural landscapes. Such growth can result in adverse impacts to air quality, water quality, human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, agricultural land, military training areas, water supply and wastewater treatment, recreational resources, viewscapes, and cultural resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is charged with protecting public health and the environment, which includes consideration of impacts from dispersed development. Specifically, because federal infrastructure projects can affect the progress of dispersed development, the secondary impacts resulting from it must be assessed in documents prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has oversight for NEPA and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act requires that U.S. EPA review and comment on federal agency NEPA documents. The adverse effects of dispersed development can be induced by federal infrastructure projects including transportation, built infrastructure, modifications in natural infrastructure, public land conversion and redevelopment of properties, construction of federal facilities, and large traffic or major growth generation developments requiring federal permits. This paper presents an approach that U.S. EPA reviewers and NEPA practitioners can use to provide accurate, realistic, and consistent analysis of secondary impacts of dispersed development resulting from federal infrastructure projects. It also presents 24 measures that can be used to mitigate adverse impacts from dispersed development by modifying project location and design, participating in preservation or restoration activities, or informing and supporting local communities in planning.

  10. Environmental characterization to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.; Greager, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the potential impact of the N-Reactor thermal plume on fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Discharge water temperatures were measured over a range of river flows and reactor operating conditions. Data were mathematically modeled to define spatial and thermal characteristics of the plume. Four species of Columbia River fish were exposed to thermal conditions expected in the plume. Exposed fish were subjected to predators and disease organisms to test for secondary effects from thermal stress. Spatial and temporal distribution of anadromous fish in the river near N-Reactor were also evaluated to define location relative to the plume. Potential thermal exposures were insufficient to kill or injure fish during operation of N-Reactor. These studies demonstrate that characterization of hydrological conditions and thermal tolerance can adequately assess potential impacts of a thermal discharge to fish

  11. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Proposed Tenaska, Washington II Generation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Power Partners, Inc. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and evaluated in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: potential air quality impacts such as emissions and their contribution to the ''greenhouse'' effect; potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields, and potential water quality impacts such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is particularly controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals. There will be a 45-day comment period, during which a Public Hearing will be held

  12. Some environmental impacts associated with project Rio Blanco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.; Whicker, F.W.; Hanson, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Project Rio Blanco, an experiment involving deep underground detonation of three 30-kiloton nuclear explosives designed to stimulate natural gas flow in geologic formations of low permeability, was conducted in western Colorado on 17 May 1973. Environmental impacts associated with this experiment were divided into three categories: radiation, ground motion, and conventional physical activities. The objective of observations made at Rio Blanco was to qualitatively and, where possible, quantitatively ascertain environmental impacts associated with the project. Observations indicated that ground motion and conventional activities appeared to cause the greatest impacts. Ground motion impacts were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravine and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Following the detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Animals receiving deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs and burrows. No mortality or injury was observed in any large animals. Based on overall results it appears important to give adequate attention to environmental effects resulting from nuclear fracturing experiments

  13. Project IMPACT: a report on barriers and facilitators to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasinsky, Margaret; Goldman, Howard H; Unützer, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    Project IMPACT is a collaborative care intervention to assist older adults suffering from major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Qualitative research methods were used to determine the barriers and facilitators to sustaining IMPACT in a primary care setting. Strong evidence supports the program's sustainability, but considerable variation exists in continuation strategies and operationalization across sites. Sustainability depended on the organizations' support of collaborative care models, the availability of staff trained in the intervention, and funding. The intervention's success was the most important sustainability factor, as documented by outcome data and through the "real world" experience of treating patients with this intervention.

  14. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States); Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L. [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a

  15. Neutron thermalization in reactor lattice cells: An NPY-project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm'ler, R.J.J.; Takac, S.M.; Weiss, Z.J.

    1966-01-01

    The NPY-Project is a joint research programme in reactor physics between Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and the International Atomic Energy Agency. One of the tasks of the project was to make a theoretical and experimental investigation of the phenomena of neutron thermalization in lattice cells, and this work is covered by the present monograph. The different lattices of the zero-power assemblies in the NPY countries offered ample opportunity for the theoreticians and experimentalists to test and compare their methods, and the exchange of experiences was stimulating and valuable. 85 refs, 26 figs, 19 tabs

  16. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay C. McCallum; Kathleen Souweine; Mary McDaniel; Bart Koppe; Christine McFarland; Katherine Butler; Christopher A. Ollson

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice b...

  17. Uncertainties in projecting climate-change impacts in marine ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Barange, Manuel; Cheung, William W. L.

    2016-01-01

    with a projection and building confidence in its robustness. We review how uncertainties in such projections are handled in marine science. We employ an approach developed in climate modelling by breaking uncertainty down into (i) structural (model) uncertainty, (ii) initialization and internal variability......Projections of the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems are a key prerequisite for the planning of adaptation strategies, yet they are inevitably associated with uncertainty. Identifying, quantifying, and communicating this uncertainty is key to both evaluating the risk associated...... and highlight the opportunities and challenges associated with doing a better job. We find that even within a relatively small field such as marine science, there are substantial differences between subdisciplines in the degree of attention given to each type of uncertainty. We find that initialization...

  18. The Impact of Project Organizational Culture on the Performance of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong Hai Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural influence has recently received significant attention from academics due to its vital role in the success or failure of a project. In the construction industry, several empirical investigations have examined the influence of culture on project management. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of project organizational culture on the performance of construction projects. A total of 199 completed construction projects in Vietnam with specific data gathering through questionnaires were analyzed. The findings reveal that contractor commitment to contract agreements is the most significant cultural factor affecting project performance. Goal alignment and reliance, contractor commitment, and worker orientation (i.e., commitment to workers contribute to improved overall performance and participant satisfaction. Contractor commitment and cooperative orientation enhance labor productivity, whereas goal alignment and trust and contractor commitment ensure learning performance (i.e., learning from experience. The findings of this study may assist construction professionals in implementing practices that can contribute to the sustainability and success of construction projects.

  19. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  20. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: Mitchell-g.Weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Münch, Anna K., E-mail: annak.muench@gmail.com [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation.

  1. Study of low energy thermal constraints for a copper-plated niobium structure carried out by thermal projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassot, H.; Durante, M.; Thiebault, A.; Vernay, E.

    1999-06-01

    In the framework of T.T.F. (Tesla Test Facility), the international collaboration on research and development of superconducting cavities, a study of a new method of manufacturing cavities was launched, which consists in deposing a metal (copper) or an alloy by thermal projection on niobium cavities in order to stiffen them. Analytical and numerical calculations showed that when cooled this bi-material cavities behave very differently in comparison with classical pure niobium cavities and strong thermal constraints do occur in niobium as well as in copper. These strong constraints may have important consequences upon the functioning of superconducting cavities. In addition these constraints may induce in time cracks in materials and interfaces. In this paper an experiment for measuring constraints at the temperature of cavity operation, i.e., at the liquid helium temperature, is proposed in order to compare the measured constraints with the calculated constraints. The sample studied has a cylindrical shape, rather representative for the geometrical shape of cavities, but easier to handle than a prototype cavity. The experimental approach consists in carrying out two deformation measurements. The first one, is done on single material sample (niobium and copper) to establish the laws of compensation of the constraint gauges as a function of temperature. The other measurement establishes the global deformations of a bi-metallic tube (Nb-Cu) when the interior surface (niobium) and the external surface (porous copper) of the tube are cooled. From these deformation data the thermal constraints of the bi-metallic tube at low temperature have been derived. The implementation of the entire setup of the methods of measuring the constraints at low temperature constitutes a new development in the field of superconducting cavities. The experiments have also indicated certain further developments which should be achieved if the plastic deformations induced by the freezing regime

  2. Environmental impact management during construction of the limestone project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Limestone Generating Station is being constructed on the Nelson River in Northern Manitoba, and will consist of a 10 unit powerhouse, 5 gate concrete spillway and earthfill dam spanning the 1.5 km width of the Nelson River. Environmental concerns associated with the project included insufficient pre- and post-construction monitoring documenting resources present or magnitude of impacts, impacts on brook trout and lake sturgeon resources, wildlife habitat loss due to construction activities, destruction or disturbance of historic or archaeological sites, degradation of nearby water courses and fish habitat by aggregate removal, in-migration of construction personnel, and various other socio-economic impacts. An overview is provided of monitoring activities and results in the above areas, which involved numerous consultants and government agencies. The project administration and workers did not find the environmental programs, including inspection and enforcement activities, to be onerous or an impediment to the project. On the contrary, the environmental requirements assisted in the general planning for certain activities, and in the general criteria for the conduct of the activities. The work permit process was particularly useful as it defined the requirements of both parties and provided the specific standards necessary determining the acceptability of the activities. 14 refs., 1 fig

  3. Impact of metals recycling on a Swedish BWR decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially contaminated metals. By proper management of the waste streams significant amounts can be free released and recycled either directly or after decontamination and melting. A significant part of the required work should be performed early in the process to make the project run smoothly without costly surprises and delays. A large portion of the clearance activities can be performed on-site. This on-site work should focus on the so called low-risk for contamination material. Other material can be decontaminated and released on site if schedule and the available facility areas so allow. It should be noted that the on-site decontamination and clearance activities can be a significant bottle neck for a decommissioning project. The availability of and access to a specialized metals recycling facility is an asset for a decommissioning project. This paper will describe the forecasted positive impact of a well-structured metals characterisation, categorisation and clearance process for a BWR plant decommissioning project. The paper is based on recent studies, performed projects and recent in-house development. (authors)

  4. Effects of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Impact Properties of 316LN Stainless Steel Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the thermal aging of nuclear primary pipe material 316LN stainless steel weld, accelerated thermal aging experiment was performed at 400℃ for 15000h. Microstructure evolution of weld after aging was investigated by TEM and HREM. Impact properties of weld thermally aged at different time was measured by Charpy impact test. Meanwhile, taking Charpy impact energy as the standard of thermal aging embrittlement, the thermal kinetics formula was obtained by the fitting method. Finally, the Charpy impact properties of the weld during 60 years of service at the actual operation temperature were estimated by the thermal kinetics formula. The results indicate that the spinodal decomposition occurs in the ferrite of the weld after thermal aging at 400℃ for 1000h, results in α (Fe-rich and α'(Cr-rich phases, and meanwhile, the G-phase is precipitated in the ferrite; the spinodal decomposition and the G-phase precipitation lead to the decrease in the impact energy of weld as time prolongs; the prediction results show that the Charpy impact energy of weld decreases quickly in the early 25 years, and then undergoes a slow decrease during the subsequent operation process.

  5. Navajo transmission project. Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Dine Power Authority, a Navajo Nation enterprise, proposes to construct a 500 kilovolt transmission line planned to deliver electrical power from the Shiprock Substation in northwestern New Mexico to the Marketplace Substation in southern Nevada. The line would relieve constraints on transmission of electricity west from the Four Corners area; improve operational flexibility and reliability of the overall system; and allow increased economical transfers, sales, and purchases in the Rocky Mountains/Four Corners/Desert Southwest region. Also, the project allows an opportunity for the Navajo Nation to participate in the electrical utility industry and promote economic development to benefit the people of the Navajo Nation. Six alternatives were considered and include (1) energy conservation and electric load management, (2) new generation facilities, (3) use of existing transmission systems, (4) alternative transmission technologies, (5) no action, and (6) the proposed action. For the proposed action, the following alternative routes and ancillary facility locations are addressed in the EIS: four alternative routes and five substations in the eastern portion of the project area; and six alternative routes, three substation sites, and a microwave communication facility in the western portion of the project area. The existing condition of the environmental resources in the project area is described, and potential impacts on those resources as a result of the proposed action are addressed. The impacts of the proposed action would be caused mainly by access roads, tower sites, and other associated facilities on soils, vegetation, wildlife, and cultural and paleontological resources; and the impact of the transmission line's presence on visual resources and land uses. Public comments on the draft EIS are addressed in this FEIS

  6. Implications of the energy efficiency in the attenuation of environmental impacts and the conservation of the energy: The case of the Thermal Power stations to Gas in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amell A, A.; Cadavid, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work a comparative analysis is done about the implication for our country, from a point of view of energetic sources conservation and environmental impact, of the execution of natural gas thermal projects with high and low efficiency technology

  7. Impact of internal variability on projections of Sahel precipitation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Pohl, Benjamin; Robson, Jon; Dong, Buwen

    2017-11-01

    The impact of the increase of greenhouse gases on Sahelian precipitation is very uncertain in both its spatial pattern and magnitude. In particular, the relative importance of internal variability versus external forcings depends on the time horizon considered in the climate projection. In this study we address the respective roles of the internal climate variability versus external forcings on Sahelian precipitation by using the data from the CESM Large Ensemble Project, which consists of a 40 member ensemble performed with the CESM1-CAM5 coupled model for the period 1920-2100. We show that CESM1-CAM5 is able to simulate the mean and interannual variability of Sahel precipitation, and is representative of a CMIP5 ensemble of simulations (i.e. it simulates the same pattern of precipitation change along with equivalent magnitude and seasonal cycle changes as the CMIP5 ensemble mean). However, CESM1-CAM5 underestimates the long-term decadal variability in Sahel precipitation. For short-term (2010-2049) and mid-term (2030-2069) projections the simulated internal variability component is able to obscure the projected impact of the external forcing. For long-term (2060-2099) projections external forcing induced change becomes stronger than simulated internal variability. Precipitation changes are found to be more robust over the central Sahel than over the western Sahel, where climate change effects struggle to emerge. Ten (thirty) members are needed to separate the 10 year averaged forced response from climate internal variability response in the western Sahel for a long-term (short-term) horizon. Over the central Sahel two members (ten members) are needed for a long-term (short-term) horizon.

  8. Potential impact of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Zhang Yue; Sun Qunli; Hu Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on the hydrological data near Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant along the Yangtze River, the present situation of the ecological environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the predicted results of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant. The standards of cooling water and the thermal tolerances indexes of aquatic organisms were investigated. The effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms were analyzed. The potential impact of Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir was explained. The results show that in the most adverse working conditions, the surface temperature near the outfall area is not more than 1℃, the temperature of thermal effluents do not exceed the suitable thermal range of fish breeding, growth and other thermal tolerances indexes. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant have no influence about fish, plankton and benthic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  9. Monitoring and optimization of thermal recovery wells at Nexen's Long Lake project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, S.; Howe, A.; Wozney, G.; Zaffar, S. [Nexen Inc. (Canada); Nelson, A. [Matrikon Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Long Lake project, operated by Nexen and situated in the Athabasca Oil Sands area in Alberta, Canada is a steam assisted gravity drainage scheme. In such thermal recovery processes, access to real time information is crucial. Nexen used specific tools to optimize monitoring in its Long Lake project and the aim of this paper is to present those customized well and facilities dashboards and reservoir trends. Real time and historical data on pressure, temperature injection and production rates are used in a Honeywell PHD Historian connected to a Delta-V DCS system to optimize recovery from the deposit. Results showed that these enhanced monitoring capabilities provided Nexen the ability to react rapidly to abnormal conditions, which resulted in significant financial benefits. The implementation of dashboard and reservoir trends in its Long Lake project helped Nexen to better monitor the reservoir and thus to optimize bitumen recovery.

  10. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  11. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  12. Impact of personal factors and furniture arrangement on the thermal plume above a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2007-01-01

    . The results reveal that the convective heat loss from the body changes inverse proportionally to the clothing thermal insulation and affects the enthalpy excess in the plume. Chair design changes the ratio between convection and radiation heat losses from the body and has significant impact on the thermal...

  13. Impacts of James Bay project on Cree communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senecal, P.; Egre, D.

    1993-01-01

    The LaGrande hydroelectric project in northwest Quebec, originally begun in 1972, was blocked by the Cree Indians and a negotiated settlement was reached in 1975 to continue it in exchange for compensation, land rights, and other matters. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement contained provisions regulating the use of land and aimed at preserving the traditional Cree way of life. Other complementary agreements were signed in the 1980s. The impact of river-system modifications on wildlife harvesting and the effect of access roads on Cree communities are discussed. Flooding of hunting lands affected some traplines, and the low productivity of shore habitats and the high levels of mercury in some fish have greatly limited use of the LaGrande reservoirs for other purposes. Stream navigation at some communities was made more difficult because of changed river flows. The impact of the roads has been more positive, since the roads have facilitated trade and reduced local prices of many goods, and made wildlife harvesting easier and more evenly distributed. An income security program for hunters, fishers, and trappers has helped preserve a traditional lifestyle. A sharp increase in salary income, indicating consolidation of the employment market in the region, is the most significant economic impact of the LaGrande project agreement. 6 refs

  14. Uncertainty in projected impacts of climate change on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raquel A.

    Evidence for shifts in the phenologies and distributions of species over recent decades has often been attributed to climate change. The prospect of greater and faster changes in climate during the 21st century has spurred a stream of studies anticipating future biodiversity impacts. Yet, uncerta......Evidence for shifts in the phenologies and distributions of species over recent decades has often been attributed to climate change. The prospect of greater and faster changes in climate during the 21st century has spurred a stream of studies anticipating future biodiversity impacts. Yet......, uncertainty is inherent to both projected climate changes and their effects on biodiversity, and needs to be understood before projections can be used. This thesis seeks to elucidate some of the uncertainties clouding assessments of biodiversity impacts from climate change, and explores ways to address them...... models, are shown to be affected by multiple uncertainties. Different model algorithms produce different outputs, as do alternative future climate models and scenarios of future emissions of greenhouse gases. Another uncertainty arises due to omission of species with small sample sizes, which...

  15. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  16. Thermal regime of the State 2-14 well, Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Priest, S.S.; Duda, L.E.; Carson, C.C.; Hendricks, J.D.; Robison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature logs were made repeatedly during breaks in drilling and both during and after flow tests in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well (State 2-14). The purpose of these logs was to assist in identifying zones of fluid loss or gain and to characterize reservoir temperatures. At the conclusion of the active phase of the project, a series of logs was begun in an attempt to establish the equilibrium temperature profile. Thermal gradients decrease from about 250 mK m-1 in the upper few hundred meters to just below 200 mK m-1 near the base of the conductive cap. Using one interpretation, thermal conductivities increase with depth (mainly because of decreasing porosity), resulting in component heat flows that agree reasonably well with the mean of about 450 mW m-2. This value agrees well with heat flow data from the shallow wells within the Salton Sea geothermal field. A second interpretation, in which measured temperature coefficients of quartz- and carbonate-rich rocks are used to correct thermal conductivity, results in lower mean conductivities that are roughly constant with depth and, consequently, systematically decreasing heat flux averaging about 350 mW m-2 below 300 m. This interpretation is consistent with the inference (from fluid inclusion studies) that the rocks in this part of the field were once several tens of degrees Celsius hotter than they are now. The age of this possible disturbance is estimated at a few thousand years. -from Authors

  17. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  18. Development of the UMTRA Project Groundwater Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, C.; Ulland, L.; Metzler, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Groundwater Restoration Project. The initiation of the scoping process and preparation of the PEIS began when the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare the PEIS was published in the Federal Register on November 18, 1992. However, planning for the PEIS began well before the publication of the NOI, with various aspects of the PEIS, such as the initial formulation of the alternatives and the format of the scoping process, being developed early on. During this preliminary planning phase, it became clear that the preparation of this PEIS posed some significant challenges while at the same time provided for significant opportunities. This paper will briefly summarize the UMTRA Project, discuss the major sections in the PEIS, and describe the challenges and opportunities that developed during the preparation of the PEIS

  19. Discussion on the post-project assessment of environmental impact for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the background of post-project assessment of environmental impact in the world and focuses on the characteristic of environmental impact assessment for Chinese nuclear facilities construction projects, analyzes the necessity, principle and contents of post-project assessment of environmental impact on current Chinese nuclear facilities operation. It is considered that to start the post-project assessment of environmental impact, perfect the post-project assessment mechanism, introduce the post-project assessment into environmental impact assessment system are just at the night time. (author)

  20. IMPACT2C: Quantifying projected impacts under 2°C warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D.; Kotova, L.; Impact2C Team

    2012-04-01

    Political discussions on the European goal to limit global warming to 2°C demand, that information is provided to society by the best available science on projected impacts and possible benefits. The new project IMPACT2C is supported by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme as a 4 year large-scale integrating project. IMPACT2C is coordinated by the Climate Service Center, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. IMPACT2C enhances knowledge, quantifies climate change impacts, and adopts a clear and logical structure, with climate and impacts modelling, vulnerabilities, risks and economic costs, as well as potential responses, within a pan-European sector based analysis. The project utilises a range of models within a multi-disciplinary international expert team and assesses effects on water, energy, infrastructure, coasts, tourism, forestry, agriculture, ecosystems services, and health and air quality-climate interactions. IMPACT2C introduces key innovations. First, harmonised socio-economic assumptions/scenarios will be used, to ensure that both individual and cross-sector assessments are aligned to the 2°C (1.5°C) scenario for both impacts and adaptation, e.g. in relation to land-use pressures between agriculture and forestry. Second, it has a core theme of uncertainty, and will develop a methodological framework integrating the uncertainties within and across the different sectors, in a consistent way. In so doing, analysis of adaptation responses under uncertainty will be enhanced. Finally, a cross-sectoral perspective is adopted to complement the sector analysis. A number of case studies will be developed for particularly vulnerable areas, subject to multiple impacts (e.g. the Mediterranean), with the focus being on cross-sectoral interactions (e.g. land use competition) and cross-cutting themes (e.g. cities). The project also assesses climate change impacts in some of the world's most vulnerable regions: Bangladesh, Africa (Nile and Niger basins), and the

  1. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  2. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. McCallum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability. Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral. Results: There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space, and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values. Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Conclusions: Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool.

  3. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary; Koppe, Bart; McFarland, Christine; Butler, Katherine; Ollson, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral). There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space), and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values). Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics) without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Final Report for Project titled High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Alahyari, Abbas [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Heat exchangers (HXs) are critical components in a wide range of heat transfer applications, from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Cooling) to automobiles to manufacturing plants. They require materials capable of transferring heat at high rates while also minimizing thermal expansion over the usage temperature range. Conventionally, metals are used for applications where effective and efficient heat exchange is required, since many metals exhibit thermal conductivity over 100 W/m K. While metal HXs are constantly being improved, they still have some inherent drawbacks due to their metal construction, in particular corrosion. Polymeric material can offer solution to such durability issues and allow designs that cannot be afforded by metal construction either due to complexity or cost. A major drawback of polymeric material is their low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5? W/mK) that would lead to large system size. Recent improvements in the area of filled polymers have highlighted the possibility to greatly improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials while retaining their inherent manufacturing advantage, and have been applied to heat sink applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a robust review of materials for the manufacturing of industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. This review consisted of material identification, literature evaluation, as well as empirical and model characterization, resulting in a database of relevant material properties and characteristics to provide guidance for future heat exchanger development.

  5. Outcomes from the EURATOM–ROSATOM ERCOSAM SAMARA projects on containment thermal-hydraulics for severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Andreani, Michele [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Guentay, Salih [Innovative, Technology Development GmbH (Switzerland); Mignot, Guillaume; Kapulla, Ralf; Paranjape, Sidharth; Sharabi, Medhat [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Kisselev, Arkadi; Yudina, Tatiana; Filippov, Aleksandr [Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Kamnev, Mikhail; Khizbullin, Akhmir; Tyurikov, Oleg [JSC “Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering”, Nizhny Novgorod 603074 (Russian Federation); Liang, Zhe [CNL-2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON L5K 1B2 (Canada); Abdo, Daniele; Brinster, Jérôme; Dabbene, Frédéric [CEA, DEN, DM2S, STMF, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kelm, Stephan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Klauck, Michael; Götz, Lasse [RWTH Aachen University (Germany); and others

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hydrogen distribution in the containment of PWR was investigated for scenario leading to stratification. • The scenario was scaled from a generic PWR containment to four facilities. • Effect of spray, cooler and heat sources was investigated experimentally and with LP and CFD. • Code-to-code benchmarks aiming a scaling up the facilities to a large containment. - Abstract: ERCOSAM and SAMARA are the acronyms for two parallel projects co-financed respectively by EURATOM and ROSATOM during the period 2010–2014 with the general aim to advance the knowledge on the phenomenology associated with the hydrogen and steam spreading and stratification in the LWR containment during a postulated severe accident. The important peculiarity of the projects was in experimental and analytical investigating the impact of systems such as spray, cooler and heat sources (simulating thermal effect of PARs) on the distribution of gas mixture (e.g. hydrogen, steam, air). This paper presents the main outcomes of the ERCOSAM–SAMARA projects.

  6. Outcomes from the EURATOM–ROSATOM ERCOSAM SAMARA projects on containment thermal-hydraulics for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, Domenico; Andreani, Michele; Guentay, Salih; Mignot, Guillaume; Kapulla, Ralf; Paranjape, Sidharth; Sharabi, Medhat; Kisselev, Arkadi; Yudina, Tatiana; Filippov, Aleksandr; Kamnev, Mikhail; Khizbullin, Akhmir; Tyurikov, Oleg; Liang, Zhe; Abdo, Daniele; Brinster, Jérôme; Dabbene, Frédéric; Kelm, Stephan; Klauck, Michael; Götz, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen distribution in the containment of PWR was investigated for scenario leading to stratification. • The scenario was scaled from a generic PWR containment to four facilities. • Effect of spray, cooler and heat sources was investigated experimentally and with LP and CFD. • Code-to-code benchmarks aiming a scaling up the facilities to a large containment. - Abstract: ERCOSAM and SAMARA are the acronyms for two parallel projects co-financed respectively by EURATOM and ROSATOM during the period 2010–2014 with the general aim to advance the knowledge on the phenomenology associated with the hydrogen and steam spreading and stratification in the LWR containment during a postulated severe accident. The important peculiarity of the projects was in experimental and analytical investigating the impact of systems such as spray, cooler and heat sources (simulating thermal effect of PARs) on the distribution of gas mixture (e.g. hydrogen, steam, air). This paper presents the main outcomes of the ERCOSAM–SAMARA projects.

  7. Severe accident analysis code Sampson for impact project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi, Ujita; Takashi, Ikeda; Masanori, Naitoh

    2001-01-01

    Four years of the IMPACT project Phase 1 (1994-1997) had been completed with financial sponsorship from the Japanese government's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. At the end of the phase, demonstration simulations by combinations of up to 11 analysis modules developed for severe accident analysis in the SAMPSON Code were performed and physical models in the code were verified. The SAMPSON prototype was validated by TMI-2 and Phebus-FP test analyses. Many of empirical correlation and conventional models have been replaced by mechanistic models during Phase 2 (1998-2000). New models for Accident Management evaluation have been also developed. (author)

  8. The radiological impact of the LEP project on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The siting of the large electron-positron (LEP) accelerator, its experimental areas, and its supporting infrastructure are discussed with respect to the radiological impact on the surrounding areas and on the population in the Pays de Gex and the Canton de Geneve. The final conclusions are based on work done by the former LEP Study Group and by the LEP Radiation Working Group. The calculations and estimates show that the stray ionizing radiation, the radioactivity, and the radiation-induced noxious chemical products released by the LEP installation will have only an insignificant impact on the area, the individual members of the public, and the population as a whole. This result for LEP 'phase 85' can also be extrapolated under reasonable assumptions for LEP 125 - a possible future development phase of the present project. (orig.)

  9. Impact of thermal power generation units on floristic diversity of Kota and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shuchita; Dadhich, K.

    2001-01-01

    The emissions from thermal power plants have great phytotoxic effects on plants due to changes in their morphology and physiology. A floristic study has been conducted near the Thermal Power Station at Kota in Rajasthan to estimate the impact of emissions from the thermal power plant on biota. It is observed that the whole vegetation, especially the perennial trees and shrubs, growing near the station were severely damaged due to effects of air pollutants emitted from the Thermal Power Station. Analysis of the fly ash reveals its composition as composed of silica, alumina, iron oxide etc. (author)

  10. Constraining the thermal conditions of impact environments through integrated low-temperature thermochronometry and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N. M.; Marchi, S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Flowers, R. M.; Metcalf, J. R.; Bottke, W. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts have a significant physical and chemical influence on the surface conditions of a planet. The cratering record is used to understand a wide array of impact processes, such as the evolution of the impact flux through time. However, the relationship between impactor size and a resulting impact crater remains controversial (e.g., Bottke et al., 2016). Likewise, small variations in the impact velocity are known to significantly affect the thermal-mechanical disturbances in the aftermath of a collision. Development of more robust numerical models for impact cratering has implications for how we evaluate the disruptive capabilities of impact events, including the extent and duration of thermal anomalies, the volume of ejected material, and the resulting landscape of impacted environments. To address uncertainties in crater scaling relationships, we present an approach and methodology that integrates numerical modeling of the thermal evolution of terrestrial impact craters with low-temperature, (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The approach uses time-temperature (t-T) paths of crust within an impact crater, generated from numerical simulations of an impact. These t-T paths are then used in forward models to predict the resetting behavior of (U-Th)/He ages in the mineral chronometers apatite and zircon. Differences between the predicted and measured (U-Th)/He ages from a modeled terrestrial impact crater can then be used to evaluate parameters in the original numerical simulations, and refine the crater scaling relationships. We expect our methodology to additionally inform our interpretation of impact products, such as lunar impact breccias and meteorites, providing robust constraints on their thermal histories. In addition, the method is ideal for sample return mission planning - robust "prediction" of ages we expect from a given impact environment enhances our ability to target sampling sites on the Moon, Mars or other solar system bodies where impacts have strongly

  11. Impact of management attitudes on perceived thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, T.; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the influence of some organizational and management characteristics on the perception of indoor environment qualities such as thermal comfort and related stress. Methods One open office in each of three organizations in Eindhoven was studied. An office environment

  12. Noxious facility impact projection: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer's ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities

  13. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O3) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics.

  14. Thermal and seismic impacts on the North Ramp at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Jung, J.

    1994-01-01

    The impacts of thermal and seismic loads on the stability of the Exploratory Studies Facility North Ramp at Yucca Mountain were assessed using both empirical and analytical approaches. This paper presents the methods and results of the analyses. Thermal loads were first calculated using the computer code STRES3D. This code calculates the conductive heat transfer through a semi-infinite elastic, isotropic, homogeneous solid and the resulting thermally-induced stresses. The calculated thermal loads, combined with simulated earthquake motion, were then modeled using UDEC and DYNA3D, numerical codes with dynamic simulation capabilities. The thermal- and seismic-induced yield zones were post-processed and presented for assessment of damage. Uncoupled bolt stress analysis was also conducted to evaluate the seismic impact on the ground support components

  15. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  16. Yakima fisheries project. Revised draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council's) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA's proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities (adaptive management); and (3) the construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery. Only minor differences in environmental consequences were found between Alternatives 1 and 2. Potentially high impacts on wild, native, and non-target fish populations under both alternatives would be mitigated through careful adherence to the adaptive management process outlined in the EIS

  17. Community-Level Impacts Projection System (CLIPS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monts, J.K.; Bareiss, E.R.

    1979-02-01

    The Community-Level Impacts Projection System includes a set of techniques for providing detailed advance information required for rational planning. The computerized system generates reports which enable the user: to describe the energy development activity in terms of its employment demands and spatial location; to estimate how many in-migrating workers will be required; to estimate the demographic characteristics of the in-migrating workers (e.g., how many elementary school children they will bring); to estimate how many additional secondary employment opportunities (e.g., employment in eating and drinking establishments and grocery stores) will be generated; to estimate what the local area's population levels in various age groups would be both with the project and without it; to estimate community population levels for both the impact case and the baseline case; and to estimate the approximate resource requirements and costs for providing additional municipal facilities and services (e.g., water treatment and distribution, wastewater treatment and collection, gas and electric distribution, police and fire protection, etc.)

  18. Environmental impact assessment of coal fired thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sadasivan, S.; Negi, B.S.; Meenakshy, V.

    1992-01-01

    Coal fly ash samples collected from various thermal power plants and one lignite ash sample were analysed for various elements such as As, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ti, V, Yb and Zn using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. The two-step maximum leachability test was also performed on all fly ash samples. 13 refs, 9 tabs

  19. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  20. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  1. Investigating the impact of different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a thermal comfort model has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact

  2. A multilevel study of the impact of project manager's leadership on extra-role performance of project team members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokory, Suzyanty Mohd; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines the impact of transformational and transactional leadership of project manager on the extra-role performance of project team members. In addition, this study also identifies factor dominant to extra-role performance of project team members when the transformational and transactional leadership of project managers are analyzed simultaneously. The study involved 175 of project team members from 35 project teams (each project team consists of different contracting companies registered in the Selangor (N = 175 from 35 contractors company). A multilevel analysis with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) approach was used in this study. The analysis showed that transformational and transactional leadership of the project manager is a positive significant with extra-role performance project team members when analyzed separately. However when the two constructs (transformational leadership and transactional leadership of project manager) were analyzed simultaneously, transformational leadership was found to have more impact on extra-role performance project team members compared to transactional leadership. These findings explained that although transformational and transactional leadership of project managers can improve extra-role performance project team members, but this study has proved that transformational leadership of project managers affect extra-role performance project team members more as compared to transactional leadership.

  3. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  4. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  5. The impact of thermal bridges on the energy demand of buildings with double brick wall constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodosiou, T.G. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50100 Kozani (Greece); Papadopoulos, A.M. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) is a milestone towards the improvement of energy efficiency in the building sector. However, even in cases where impressive measures can be implemented in the densely built urban environment, the less glamorous measure of building's envelope thermal insulation remains a prerequisite towards the improvement of the building's energy efficiency. Despite the insulation requirements specified by national regulations, thermal bridges in the building's envelope remain a weak spot in the constructions. Moreover, in many countries construction practices tend to implement only partially the insulation measures foreseen by regulations. As a result, thermal losses are in practice greater than those predicted during the design stage. This paper presents a study on representative wall thermal insulation configurations used in Greek buildings, in order to investigate the impact of the thermal bridges on the energy consumption. The double wall construction, used widely in Greece and not only there, is rather susceptible to the occurrence of thermal bridges, in contrast to a typical thermal insulating facade, like the one applied in Central Europe. The analysis of the thermal bridges' impact will in that sense also highlight the potential for energy renovation measures in older buildings. (author)

  6. Final report of the 'Nordic thermal-hydraulic and safety network (NOTNET)' - Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuunanen, J.; Tuomainen, M.

    2005-04-01

    A Nordic network for thermal-hydraulics and nuclear safety research was started. The idea of the network is to combine the resources of different research teams in order to carry out more ambitious and extensive research programs than would be possible for the individual teams. From the very beginning, the end users of the research results have been integrated to the network. Aim of the network is to benefit the partners involved in nuclear energy in the Nordic Countries (power companies, reactor vendors, safety regulators, research units). First task within the project was to describe the resources (personnel, know-how, simulation tools, test facilities) of the various teams. Next step was to discuss with the end users about their research needs. Based on these steps, few most important research topics with defined goals were selected, and coarse road maps were prepared for reaching the targets. These road maps will be used as a starting point for planning the actual research projects in the future. The organisation and work plan for the network were established. National coordinators were appointed, as well as contact persons in each participating organisation, whether research unit or end user. This organisation scheme is valid for the short-term operation of NOTNET when only Nordic organisations take part in the work. Later on, it is possible to enlarge the network e.g. within EC framework programme. The network can now start preparing project proposals and searching funding for the first common research projects. (au)

  7. IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Aksan, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

  8. Draft guidelines for the environmental impact study of the Great-Whale hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The draft guidelines on the preparation of Hydro-Quebec's environmental and social impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River hydroelectric project are detailed. The guidelines cover project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, project description, impacts of the project, mitigative measures, residual impacts and compensatory measures, environmental monitoring and follow-up programs. The proponent is asked to provide the justification for the project, including its general rationale, and to evaluate the long-term impact of the project. In justifying the project, the proponent should present energy demand and supply scenarios in sufficient detail to demonstrate the need for the project within the context of sustainable development. Long term impacts on the ecosystems of James Bay and Hudson Bay must be examined, as well as broad ecosystemic impacts such as those on the boreal forest, the tundra, as well as such considerations as global warming and changes in biological and cultural diversity

  9. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md -1 delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  10. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  11. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  12. Opposite latitudinal gradients in projected ocean acidification and bleaching impacts on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey Allen; Manzello, Derek; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and the services they provide are seriously threatened by ocean acidification and climate change impacts like coral bleaching. Here, we present updated global projections for these key threats to coral reefs based on ensembles of IPCC AR5 climate models using the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) experiments. For all tropical reef locations, we project absolute and percentage changes in aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) for the period between 2006 and the onset of annual severe bleaching (thermal stress >8 degree heating weeks); a point at which it is difficult to believe reefs can persist as we know them. Severe annual bleaching is projected to start 10-15 years later at high-latitude reefs than for reefs in low latitudes under RCP8.5. In these 10-15 years, Ωarag keeps declining and thus any benefits for high-latitude reefs of later onset of annual bleaching may be negated by the effects of acidification. There are no long-term refugia from the effects of both acidification and bleaching. Of all reef locations, 90% are projected to experience severe bleaching annually by 2055. Furthermore, 5% declines in calcification are projected for all reef locations by 2034 under RCP8.5, assuming a 15% decline in calcification per unit of Ωarag. Drastic emissions cuts, such as those represented by RCP6.0, result in an average year for the onset of annual severe bleaching that is ~20 years later (2062 vs. 2044). However, global emissions are tracking above the current worst-case scenario devised by the scientific community, as has happened in previous generations of emission scenarios. The projections here for conditions on coral reefs are dire, but provide the most up-to-date assessment of what the changing climate and ocean acidification mean for the persistence of coral reefs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Environmental Impacts of Solar Thermal Systems with Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    De Laborderie , Alexis; Puech , Clément; Adra , Nadine; Blanc , Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre , Didier; Padey , Pierryves; Payet , Jérôme; Sie , Marion; Jacquin , Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Available on: http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/057/vol14/002/ecp57vol14_002.pdf; International audience; Solar thermal systems are an ecological way of providing domestic hot water. They are experiencing a rapid growth since the beginning of the last decade. This study characterizes the environmental performances of such installations with a life-cycle approach. The methodology is based on the application of the international standards of Life Cycle Assessment. Two types of systems are presented. Fir...

  14. Analysis of thermal impact in tidal rivers and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.; Eppel, D.; Tanzer, F.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a far field mathematical model for numerical simulation of transient one or two-dimensional thermal distributions in regions with severe reversing flow conditions. The Eulerian formulation employs the integral form of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy. The two-dimensional (2 D) solution area is spanned by discrete elements of variable size and shape. The three-dimensional geometry of the flow region is accounted for by spatially intergrating over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete element. The derivation of the two-dimensional depth-averaged temperatur equations includes the constributions of the vertical variations of velocity and temperature. Surface heat transfer as well as turbulent effects are taken into account. Important mathematical and computational features of the model are summarized. There is a discussion of the four main algorithms, necessary to treat flow regions with complex shoreline geometries, viz. (i) specification of the boundary (ii) determination of all discrete element midpoints lying within the (possibly multiconnected) solution area (iii) construction of discrete elements of irregular geometry exactly matching the (curved) boundary, (iv) treatment of boundary condiditons and numerical solution of the resulting mathematical system of weakly coupled, ordinary differential equations derived from the conservation principles. Preliminary results of a computer simulation are compared with the available data for a section of the Lower Elbe river. The calculation of the two-dimensional temperature distribution includes existing power plants and industrial sites. (orig.) [de

  15. Thermal loading of bentonite. Impact on hydromechanics and permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zihms, Stephanie G.; Harrington, Jon [British Geological Survey, Nickerhill Keyworth (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Due to its favorable properties, in particular, low permeability and swelling capacity, bentonite has been favored as an engineered barrier and backfill material for the geological storage of radioactive waste. To ensure safe long-term performance it is important to understand any changes in these properties when the material is subject to heat emitting waste. As such, this study will investigate the hydro-mechanical response of bentonite under multi-step thermal loading subject to a constant volume boundary condition. The experimental set up allows continuous measurements of hydraulic and mechanical response during each phase of the thermal cycle. The constant volume cell was placed inside an oven and connected to a hydraulic system with the water reservoir located externally. A pressure gradient of 4 MPa was placed across the sample for the duration of the test in order to map the evolution of permeability. After initial hydration of the bentonite, in this case signified by reaching the asymptote in total stress, the temperature was raised in 20 C increments from 20 to 80 C followed by a final 10 C step to reach 90 C. Each temperature was held constant for at least 7-10 days to allow the stresses and hydraulic transients to equilibrate. This data set will provide an insight into the hydromechanical behavior of the bentonite and the evolution of its permeability when exposed to elevated temperatures.

  16. The iMPACT project tracker and calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Bisello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Giubilato, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2017-02-11

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. While traditional X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) fails in providing 3D images with the precision required for hadrons treatment guidance, Proton Computer Tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, can. A pCT scanner consists of a tracker system, to track protons, and of a calorimeter, to measure their residual energy. In this paper we will present the iMPACT project, which foresees a novel proton tracking detector with higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. The tracker will be matched to a fast, highly segmented proton range calorimeter.

  17. Impacts of convection on high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christof; Hintze, Meike; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal subsurface heat storage is increasingly used in order to overcome the temporal disparities between heat production from renewable sources like solar thermal installations or from industrial surplus heat and the heat demand for building climatisation or hot water supply. In this context, high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is a technology to efficiently store and retrieve large amounts of heat using groundwater wells in an aquifer to inject or withdraw hot or cold water. Depending on the local hydrogeology and temperature amplitudes during high-temperature ATES, density differences between the injected hot water and the ambient groundwater may induce significant convective flow components in the groundwater flow field. As a consequence, stored heat may accumulate at the top of the storage aquifer which reduces the heat recovery efficiency of the ATES system. Also, an accumulation of heat at the aquifer top will induce increased emissions of heat to overlying formations with potential impacts on groundwater quality outside of the storage. This work investigates the impacts of convective heat transport on the storage efficiency of a hypothetical high-temperature ATES system for seasonal heat storage as well as heat emissions to neighboring formations by numerical scenario simulations. The coupled groundwater flow and heat transport code OpenGeoSys is used to simulate a medium scale ATES system operating in a sandy aquifer of 20 m thickness with an average groundwater temperature of 10°C and confining aquicludes at top and bottom. Seasonal heat storage by a well doublet (i.e. one fully screened "hot" and "cold" well, respectively) is simulated over a period of 10 years with biannual injection / withdrawal cycles at pumping rates of 15 m³/h and for different scenarios of the temperature of the injected water (20, 35, 60 and 90 °C). Simulation results show, that for the simulated system significant convective heat transport sets in when

  18. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornig, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The book, which is an analysis and not an advocacy, examines the anatomy of the controversy that has swirled around the James Bay project - the La Grande and Great Whale projects combined - from the 1970s to the 1990s, and seeks, in the process, to determine whether there are lessons that can be learned from such an analysis that are applicable to other cases as well as to James Bay itself. The contributors are interested, at one and the same time, in finding ways to integrate the knowledge of natural scientists and social scientists to deepen the understanding of human/environment relations and to link science and policy to encourage a productive dialogue between practitioners and scholars in this increasingly important area of inquiry. The contributor's papers include the following: introduction to the issues; hydroelectric power development at James Bay: establishing a frame of reference; James Bay: environmental considerations for building large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs in Quebec; elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric power development: perception and reality; the Cree people of James Bay: assessing the social impacts of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs; culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development; and the impact of James Bay hydroelectric development on the art and craft of the James Bay Cree. The authors of the volume have attempted to stand back and examine just a few of these issues from the perspective of a variety of disciplines, and their purpose is to inform and stimulate thoughtful consideration by providing an overall perspective that might might serve to broaden the context in which specific issues can be debated. refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Draft environmental impact statement. Bison basin project, Fremont County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Construction and operation of leach uranium mine and recovery plant designed to produce one million lb of U 3 O 8 per year at a rate not to exceed 400,000 lb/y in Fremont County, Wyoming are proposed. The project site would consist of 761 acres lying 50 miles south of Riverton and 30 miles southwest of Jeffery City. The in situ leach process, implemented to mine ore contained in the Laney member of the Green River formation, would involve use of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution and an oxidizing agent injected and recovered through a complex of well patterns. Each well pattern would consist of six injection wells surrounding a central production well. Only about 40 acres would be mined, while another 13.5 acres would be excavated for equipment foundations and evaporation ponds. Recycling of mined formation water through a reverse osmosis cleanup system and placing it back into the formation after mining was complete would restore the groundwater system to its former potential. Solid wastes produced by the mining process would be removed to a licensed disposal site. Positive Impacts: Uranium ore produced by the mine and refined by the plant would aid in meeting demand for this resource which is estimated to double to a level of 15,000 tons per year within the next 5 years and to reach 45,000-50,000 tons per year by 1990. Some monetary benefits would accrue to local communities due to local expenditures resulting from construction and operation. Negative Impacts: Project activities would result in displacement of livestock grazing practices from 57 acres of land. Some local deterioration of groundwater quality would be expected, and approximately 240 acre-feet of groundwater would be removed from the aquifer permanently. Radon-222 and other small radioactive emissions would result from the solution mining process

  20. Yakima Fisheries Project : Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-05-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s fish and wildlife program, would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. Fisheries resources in the Yakima River are severely reduced from historical levels and there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) the construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. The project has been considerably revised from the original proposal described in the first draft EIS. Examined in addition to No Action (which would leave present anadromous fisheries resources unchanged in the, Basin) are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of re-establishing (via stock imported from another basin) naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 has been identified as the preferred action. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  1. On the impact of atmospheric thermal stability on the characteristics of nocturnal downslope flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1990-04-01

    The impacts of background (or ambient) and local atmospheric thermal stabilities, and slope steepness, on nighttime thermally induced downslope flow in meso-β domains (i.e., 20 200 km horizontal extent) have been investigated using analytical and numerical model approaches. Good agreement between the analytical and numerical evaluations was found. It was concluded that: (i) as anticipated, the intensity of the downslope flow increases with increased slope steepness, although the depth of the downslope flow was found to be insensitive to slope steepness in the studied situations; (ii) the intensity of the downslope flow is generally independent of background atmospheric thermal stability; (iii) for given integrated nighttime cooling across the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), Q s the local atmospheric thermal stability exerts a strong influence on downslope flow behavior: the downslope flow intensity increases when local atmospheric thermal stability increases; and (iv) the downslope flow intensity is proportional to Q s 1/2.

  2. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, J.A.; Crowe, R.D.; Apthorpe, R.; Plys, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to

  4. Impact of Redevelopment Projects on Waste Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant; Rahate, Sarvesh

    2018-05-01

    In the last few decades there has been a tremendous increase in urban population globally. Metropolitan cities in India are experiencing rapid change in their population due to migration from rural to urban areas. Due to limited land Mumbai city is experiencing vertical growth in the form of redevelopment projects, signifying a change in population density. Wastewater collection systems greatly contribute to the cost of the overall municipal sewerage system. Present study is an attempt to understand the impact of the redevelopment activities on the wastewater infrastructure. Existing sewerage network of an urban area in Central Mumbai was redesigned and analysed for four different planning scenarios with Bentley's SewerGEM. Results have shown significant change in diameters of the conduits within the sewer network, thus making it inefficient by 13, 19, 31 and 42% with each changing scenario. The results and analysis derived from the study are significant with respect to the urban town planners, developing solutions in alleviating the rising problem of sewer overflows and the economic impact being caused.

  5. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  6. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  7. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste

  8. Measuring the socio-economic impacts of agroforestry projects in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Mercer; Belita Vega; Hermie Francisco; Robin Maille

    1994-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that agroforestry projects can provide both ecological and economic benefits. Most agroforestry project evaluations, however, have failed to adequately assess the soci0-economic impacts. For example, a review of 108 agroforestry project impact evaluations by Sara Scherr of IFPRJ reported that only 8% assessed economic costs or benefits, 5%...

  9. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

    2009-01-15

    design waste temperature of 350 F and the full 60-year corrosion allowance on the tank wall of 0.060 inch. However, analysis at a more realistic temperature of 250 F or corrosion allowance of 0.025 inch results in an acceptable demand/capacity ratio according to the ASME code criteria. Thus, buckling of the primary tank is judged to be unlikely for the current lack of corrosion in the tanks, and the expectation that the maximum waste temperature will not exceed 210 F. The reinforced concrete structure was evaluated as specified by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) code requirements for nuclear safety-related structures (ACI-349). The demand was demonstrated to be lower than the capacity at all locations. Revision 1 is being issued to document changes to the anchor bolt evaluation. RPP-RPT-32237 Rev. 1, Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project-Increased Liquid Level Analysis for 241AP Tank Farms, described changes to the anchor bolt modeling and evaluation which were implemented in response to the independent reviewer's comments. Similar changes have been made in the bounding tank analysis and are documented in RPP-RPT-28968 Rev. 1. The conclusions of the previous releases of this report remain unchanged.

  10. Hierarchical biodiversity and environment impact assessment of South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China

    OpenAIRE

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this brief review, the potential environmental and biodiversity impact of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project in China on regional environments was assessed. I used the hierarchical environmental impact assessment to classify the possible impacts into three orders caused by the construction of SNWD and then presented the current research advances on each order of the impacts. Further impact assessments should be reinforced during the construction period of SNDW project for the su...

  11. Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

  12. Discussion on the method of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)

  13. Yucca Mountain Project thermal and mechanical codes first benchmark exercise: Part 3, Jointed rock mass analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal and mechanical models for intact and jointed rock mass behavior are being developed, verified, and validated at Sandia National Laboratories for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Benchmarking is an essential part of this effort and is one of the tools used to demonstrate verification of engineering software used to solve thermomechanical problems. This report presents the results of the third (and final) phase of the first thermomechanical benchmark exercise. In the first phase of this exercise, nonlinear heat conduction code were used to solve the thermal portion of the benchmark problem. The results from the thermal analysis were then used as input to the second and third phases of the exercise, which consisted of solving the structural portion of the benchmark problem. In the second phase of the exercise, a linear elastic rock mass model was used. In the third phase of the exercise, two different nonlinear jointed rock mass models were used to solve the thermostructural problem. Both models, the Sandia compliant joint model and the RE/SPEC joint empirical model, explicitly incorporate the effect of the joints on the response of the continuum. Three different structural codes, JAC, SANCHO, and SPECTROM-31, were used with the above models in the third phase of the study. Each model was implemented in two different codes so that direct comparisons of results from each model could be made. The results submitted by the participants showed that the finite element solutions using each model were in reasonable agreement. Some consistent differences between the solutions using the two different models were noted but are not considered important to verification of the codes. 9 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort—a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  15. Thermal pollution impacts on rivers and power supply in the Mississippi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Macknick, Jordan E.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Fekete, Balazs; Corsi, Fabio; Newmark, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Thermal pollution from power plants degrades riverine ecosystems with ramifications beyond the natural environment as it affects power supply. The transport of thermal effluents along river reaches may lead to plant-to-plant interferences by elevating condenser inlet temperatures at downstream locations, which lower thermal efficiencies and trigger regulatory-forced power curtailments. We evaluate thermal pollution impacts on rivers and power supply across 128 plants with once-through cooling technologies in the Mississippi River watershed. By leveraging river network topologies with higher resolutions (0.05°) than previous studies, we reveal the need to address the issue in a more spatially resolved manner, capable of uncovering diverse impacts across individual plants, river reaches and sub-basins. Results show that the use of coarse river network resolutions may lead to substantial overestimations in magnitude and length of impaired river reaches. Overall, there is a modest limitation on power production due to thermal pollution, given existing infrastructure, regulatory and climate conditions. However, tradeoffs between thermal pollution and electricity generation show important implications for the role of alternative cooling technologies and environmental regulation under current and future climates. Recirculating cooling technologies may nearly eliminate thermal pollution and improve power system reliability under stressed climate-water conditions. Regulatory limits also reduce thermal pollution, but at the expense of significant reductions in electricity generation capacity. However, results show several instances when power production capacity rises at individual plants when regulatory limits reduce upstream thermal pollution. These dynamics across energy-water systems highlight the need for high-resolution simulations and the value of coherent planning and optimization across infrastructure with mutual dependencies on natural resources to overcome

  16. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort-a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  17. THERMAL IMAGING OF Si, GaAs AND GaN -BASED DEVICES WITHIN THE MICROTHERM PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Pavageau , S.; Tessier , G.; Filloy , C.; Jerosolimski , G.; Fournier , D.; Polignano , M.-L.; Mica , I.; Cassette , S.; Aubry , R.; Durand , O.

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920); International audience; Within the european project Microtherm, we have developed a CCD-based thermoreflectance system which delivers thermal images of working integrated circuits with high spatial and thermal resolutions (down to 350 nm and 0.1 K respectively). We illustrate the performances of this set-up on several classes of semiconductor devices including high power transistors and transistor ar...

  18. Impacts of the Three Gorges Project on Local Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Liang, S.; Feng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Three Gorges Project (TGP) is the largest hydroelectric project in the world and has led to significant land cover changes in Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Since its construction the debates on its environmental and climatic impacts have never stopped, especially after the extreme drought and flood in Yangtze River Basin these years. TGP reached its final impounding water level in 2010. However, studies on systematically monitoring the long-term variations in surface and atmospheric parameters in TGRA are still lacking. In this study, three important surface parameters - surface albedo, land surface temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) and two climatic parameters - air temperature and precipitation were investigated from 2000 to 2013 by combining multiple remote sensing data and ground measurements. Results showed that along the reservoir albedo decreased significantly as a result of water impounding. Correspondingly, in the same region daytime LST decreased in spring and summer and nighttime LST increased in autumn and winter. In the western region of TGRA, albedo increased due to resettlement and LST also changed. The average ET increased by 20% in TGR but kept stable in the whole TGRA. In contrast to LST, air temperature showed less apparent spatial and temporal variability. Only in the region near the dam air temperature experienced a decrease at daytime and an increase at nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated precipitation revealed no apparent changes in TGRA and the precipitation anomaly in northwest of TGRA may not be connected with TGP. All of the findings provide a more substantial clues of local climate change caused by TGP.

  19. Thermoelectric System in Different Thermal and Electrical Configurations: Its Impact in the Figure of Merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vargas-Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze different configurations of a thermoelectric system (TES composed of three thermoelectric generators (TEGs. We present the following considerations: (a TES thermally and electrically connected in series (SC; (b TES thermally and electrically connected in parallel (PSC; and (c parallel thermally and series electrical connection (SSC. We assume that the parameters of the TEGs are temperature-independent. The systems are characterized by three parameters, as it has been showed in recent investigations, namely, its internal electrical resistance, R, thermal conductance under open electrical circuit condition, K, and Seebeck coefficient α. We derive the equivalent parameters for each of the configurations considered here and calculate the Figure of Merit Z for the equivalent system. We show the impact of the configuration of the system on Z, and we suggest optimum configuration. In order to justify the effectiveness of the equivalent Figure of Merit, the corresponding efficiency has been calculated for each configuration.

  20. Guidelines for the environmental impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River Hydroelectric Project. Backgorund information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The guidelines presented on the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the Great Whale hydroelectric project by Hydro-Quebec stipulated a project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, a project description, and that the assessment must address project impacts, mitigative and compensatory measures, environmental surveillance, monitoring, and long-term management programs. Background information presented in this document provides technical notes on the guidelines and the environmental assessment process, a glossary of terms, and biographical notes. The technical notes address guideline structure, project justification, native knowledge, evaluation issues, cumulative impacts, and the assessment and review process

  1. Guidelines for the environmental impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River Hydroelectric Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The guidelines presented on the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the Great Whale hydroelectric project by Hydro-Quebec stipulated a project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, a project description, and that the assessment must address project impacts, mitigative and compensatory measures, environmental surveillance, monitoring, and long-term management programs. Background information presented in this document provides technical notes on the guidelines and the environmental assessment process, a glossary of terms, and biographical notes. The technical notes address guideline structure, project justification, native knowledge, evaluation issues, cumulative impacts, and the assessment and review process

  2. Modelling approaches to thermal pollution in inland aquatic systems and issues related to its environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.N.; Nair, R.N.; Sadasivan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Guidelines for the safe discharge of thermal effluents in aquatic environmental systems both surface water and marine coastal out falls has become very relevant to Indian environmental conditions with its rich biodiversity. While aquatic ecology may form the basis for such guidelines, the need for regulatory approach to the related issues has become the prime mover in thermal discharge problems. This is more so since the impacts considered are under short term and long term exposure conditions where the bio acclimatization and thermal stress factors may come to cross roads. Constant temperatures and cyclic temperature elevations also causes differential thermal stress which could be site specific. The recent notification by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) revising the temperature limit for discharge of condenser cooling water from thermal power plants into coastal areas using sea water from 5 deg to 7 degC over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies. Discussions on whether the limiting temperature is to be achieved at the point of discharge or within a specified zone of the thermal plume is currently being debated. The act also stipulates installation of cooling towers using water from rivers, lakes and reservoirs irrespective of the plant location and capacity. For existing thermal plants the rise in temperature of the condenser cooling water from inlet to the let of the condenser shall not be more than 10 degC. (author)

  3. The Impact of Thermal Remediation on Soil Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Andrew; Switzer, Christine; Knapp, Charles

    2013-04-01

    In an effort to restore the social and economic value of brownfield sites contaminated by hazardous organic liquids, many new remediation techniques involving the use of elevated temperatures to desorb and extract or destroy these contaminants have been developed. These approaches are typically applied to heavily contaminated soils to effect substantial source removal from the subsurface. These processes operate over a range of temperatures from just above ambient to in excess of 1000˚C depending on technology choice and contaminant type. To facilitate the successful rehabilitation of treated soils for agriculture, biomass production, or habitat enrichment the effects of high temperatures on the ability of soil to support biological activity needs to be understood. Four soils were treated with high temperatures or artificially contaminated and subjected to a smouldering treatment (600-1100°C) in this investigation. Subsequent chemical analysis, plant growth trials and microbial analysis were used to characterise the impacts of these processes on soil geochemistry, plant health, and potential for recovery. Decreases were found in levels of carbon (>250˚C), nitrogen (>500˚C) and phosphorus (1000˚C) with intermediate temperatures having variable affects on bio-available levels. Macro and micro nutrients such as potassium, calcium, zinc and copper also showed changes with general trends towards reduced bioavailability at higher temperatures. Above 500°C, cation exchange capacity and phosphate adsorption were lowered indicating that nutrient retention will be a problem in some treated soils. In addition, these temperatures reduced the content of clay sized particles changing the texture of the soils. These changes had a statistically significant impact on plant growth with moderate growth reductions occurring at 250°C and 500°C. Above 750°C, growth was extremely limited and soils treated at these temperatures would need major restorative efforts. Microbial re

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

    2009-01-15

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al

  5. Impact of thermal stress on the growth, size-distribution and biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports an in-vivo account of the impact of thermal stress on the biomass and sizedistribution of estuarine populations of Pachymelania aurita in Epe Lagoon, Nigeria. Off all physicochemical variables investigated only water temperature was statistically different among study stations. A total of 7626 individuals of ...

  6. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Northeast Site Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, R.; Butherus, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting thermal remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site that is part of the Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project. The Northeast Site is located on the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center in Largo, Florida. The STAR Center was formerly a DOE facility. The NAPL remediation was performed at Area A and is currently being performed at Area B at the Northeast Site. The remediation at Area A was completed in 2003 and covered an area of 900 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) and a depth of remediation that extended to 10.7 m (35 ft) below ground surface. Cleanup levels achieved were at or below maximum contaminant levels in almost all locations. The remediation project at Area B is ongoing and covers an area of 3,240 m 2 (36,000 ft 2 ), a volume of 41,300 m (54,000 yd 3), and a depth of remediation to 12 m (40 ft) below ground surface. In addition, a portion of the subsurface under an occupied building in Area B is included in the remediation. The cleanup levels achieved from this remediation will be available in the Area B Final Report that will be posted on the DOE Office of Legacy Management web site (www.lm.doe.gov/land/sites/fl/ pinellas/pinellas.htm) in January 2007. Electrical resistive heating and steam were the chosen remediation methods at both areas. Lessons learned from the Area A remediation were incorporated into the Area B remediation and could benefit managers of similar remediation projects. (authors)

  8. The Impact of Project Management Maturity upon IT/IS Project Management Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcillo, Anthony Joseph, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is assumed that increasing the institutionalization (or maturity) of project management in an organization leads to greater project success, the literature has diverse views. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the correlation between project management maturity and IT/IS project outcomes. The sample consisted of two…

  9. IMPACT OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL AGING ON DWPF SIMULATED SLUDGE PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R; Michael Stone, M

    2006-01-01

    The research and development programs in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other high-level waste vitrification processes require the use of both nonradioactive waste simulants and actual waste samples. While actual waste samples are the ideal materials to study, acquiring large quantities of actual waste is difficult and expensive. Tests utilizing actual high-level waste require the use of expensive shielded cells facilities to provide sufficient shielding for the researchers. Nonradioactive waste simulants have been used for laboratory testing, pilot-scale testing and full-scale integrated facility testing. These waste simulants were designed to reproduce the chemical and, if possible, the physical properties of the actual high-level waste. This technical report documents a study on the impact of irradiating a Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and of additional tests on aging a SB3 simulant by additional thermal processing. Prior simulant development studies examined methods of producing sludge and supernate simulants and processes that could be used to alter the physical properties of the simulant to more accurately mimic the properties of actual waste. Development of a precipitated sludge simulant for the River Protection Project (RPP) demonstrated that the application of heat for a period of time could significantly alter the rheology of the sludge simulant. The RPP precipitated simulant used distillation to concentrate the sludge solids and produced a reduction in sludge yield stress of up to 80% compared to the initial sludge properties. Observations at that time suggested that a substantial fraction of the iron hydroxide had converted to the oxide during the distillation. DWPF sludge simulant studies showed a much smaller reduction in yield stress (∼10%), demonstrated the impact of shear on particle size, and showed that smaller particle sizes yielded higher yield stress products. The current study documented in this report focuses

  10. The Impact of Project Manager on Project Success – The Case of ICT Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Blaskovics, Bálint

    2016-01-01

    The project management literature on project success is rich. Numerous papers focus on the evolution of the understanding of project success, identification of success criteria and critical success factors. Critical success factors increase the potential for achieving project success, while project success can be evaluated with the help of success criteria. Although the interrelationships between critical success factors and success criteria are rarely analyzed, yet there is a strong demand f...

  11. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 8--A Field Study of Predicting Impact of Research and Development Projects in Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhorta, Man Mohanlal

    As part of Project IMPACT's effort to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a field study was conducted to identify and validate variables and their order of importance in predicting and evaluating impact of research and development (R&D) projects in vocational and technical education.…

  12. A new concept Tandem thermal dissociator/electron impact ion source for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative thermal dissociation/electron impact ionization positive ion source is presently under design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for potential use for generating RIBs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Because of the low probability of simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources, the ion beams extracted from these sources often appear as a mixture of several molecular sideband beams. In this way, the intensity of the species of interest is diluted. We have conceived an Ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source. If the concept proves to be a viable option, the source will be used as a complement to the electron beam plasma ion sources already in use at the HRIBF. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article

  13. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  14. Biological impact assessment of thermal discharges in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2007-01-01

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m 3 /sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 degC. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at ΔT 5 degC (33 degC) and ΔT 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  15. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  16. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcito, Kendyl, E-mail: kendyl.salcito@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Weiss, Mitchell G., E-mail: mitchell-g.weiss@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Wielga, Mark, E-mail: wielga@nomogaia.org [NomoGaia, 1900 Wazee Street, Suite 303, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Utzinger, Jürg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact

  17. Impact of vacancy ordering on thermal transport in crystalline phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, K S; Lange, F R L; Sittner, E R; Volker, H; Schlockermann, C; Siegrist, T; Wuttig, M

    2015-01-01

    Controlling thermal transport in solids is of paramount importance for many applications. Often thermal management is crucial for a device's performance, as it affects both reliability and power consumption. A number of intricate concepts have been developed to address this challenge, such as diamond-like coatings to enhance the thermal conductivity or low symmetry complex super-structures to reduce it. Here, a different approach is pursued, where we explore the potential of solids with a high yet controllable degree of disorder. Recently, it has been demonstrated that an unconventionally high degree of structural disorder characterizes a number of crystalline phase-change materials (PCMs). This disorder strongly impacts electronic transport and even leads to disorder induced localization (Anderson localization). This raises the question how thermal transport is affected by such conditions. Here thermal transport in highly disordered crystalline Ge-Sb-Te (GST) based PCMs is investigated. Glass-like thermal properties are observed for several crystalline PCMs, which are attributed to strong scattering by disordered point defects. A systematic study of different compounds along the pseudo-binary line between GeTe and Sb2Te3 reveals that disordered vacancies act as point defects responsible for pronounced phonon scattering. Annealing causes a gradual ordering of the vacancies and leads to a more 'crystal-like' thermal conductivity. While both vibrational and electronic degrees of freedom are affected by disorder, the consequences differ for different stoichiometries. This opens up a pathway to tune electrical and thermal transport by controlling the degree of disorder. Materials with tailored transport properties may not only help to improve power efficiency and scaling in upcoming phase-change memories but are also of fundamental interest in the field of thermoelectric materials.

  18. Impact of vacancy ordering on thermal transport in crystalline phase-change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegert, K S; Lange, F R L; Sittner, E R; Volker, H; Schlockermann, C; Wuttig, M; Siegrist, T

    2015-01-01

    Controlling thermal transport in solids is of paramount importance for many applications. Often thermal management is crucial for a device's performance, as it affects both reliability and power consumption. A number of intricate concepts have been developed to address this challenge, such as diamond-like coatings to enhance the thermal conductivity or low symmetry complex super-structures to reduce it. Here, a different approach is pursued, where we explore the potential of solids with a high yet controllable degree of disorder. Recently, it has been demonstrated that an unconventionally high degree of structural disorder characterizes a number of crystalline phase-change materials (PCMs). This disorder strongly impacts electronic transport and even leads to disorder induced localization (Anderson localization). This raises the question how thermal transport is affected by such conditions. Here thermal transport in highly disordered crystalline Ge–Sb–Te (GST) based PCMs is investigated. Glass-like thermal properties are observed for several crystalline PCMs, which are attributed to strong scattering by disordered point defects. A systematic study of different compounds along the pseudo-binary line between GeTe and Sb 2 Te 3 reveals that disordered vacancies act as point defects responsible for pronounced phonon scattering. Annealing causes a gradual ordering of the vacancies and leads to a more ‘crystal-like’ thermal conductivity. While both vibrational and electronic degrees of freedom are affected by disorder, the consequences differ for different stoichiometries. This opens up a pathway to tune electrical and thermal transport by controlling the degree of disorder. Materials with tailored transport properties may not only help to improve power efficiency and scaling in upcoming phase-change memories but are also of fundamental interest in the field of thermoelectric materials. (key issues review)

  19. Big concerns with small projects: Evaluating the socio-ecological impacts of small hydropower projects in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, Suman; Rao, Shishir; Machado, Siddarth; Prakash, Anup

    2017-05-01

    Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions. The general level of awareness about SHPs was low, and assurances of local electricity and employment generation remained largely unfulfilled. Additionally most respondents faced numerous unanticipated adverse impacts. We found a strong relationship between SHP construction and increasing levels of human-elephant conflict. Based on the disparity between assured and actual social impacts, we suggest that policies regarding SHPs be suitably revised.

  20. 78 FR 35630 - Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings In accordance with the National Environmental Policy... the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 349), located on the Tallapoosa River in Tallapoosa...

  1. 76 FR 67178 - Wells Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2149-152] Wells Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Wells... application for license for the Wells Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2149), located on the Columbia River in...

  2. Factors that Impact Software Project Success in Offshore Information Technology (IT) Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edara, Venkatarao

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are unsuccessful at a rate of 65% to 75% per year, in spite of employing the latest technologies and training employees. Although many studies have been conducted on project successes in U.S. companies, there is a lack of research studying the impact of various factors on software project success in offshore IT…

  3. Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2012-04-01

    A thermal analysis of a large-scale (e.g., 1900 gpm), open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in southeastern Washington State has been performed using a numerical modeling approach. Water temperature increases at the upgradient extraction wells in the system and at the downgradient Columbia River are potential concerns, especially since heat rejection to the subsurface will occur year-round. Hence, thermal impacts of the open-loop GSHP were investigated to identify operational scenarios that minimized downgradient environmental impacts at the river, and upgradient temperature drift at the production wells. Simulations examined the sensitivity of the system to variations in pumping rates and injected water temperatures, as well as to hydraulic conductivity estimates of the aquifer. Results demonstrated that both downgradient and upgradient thermal impacts were more sensitive to injection flow rates than estimates of hydraulic conductivity. Higher injection rates at lower temperatures resulted in higher temperature increases at the extraction wells but lower increases at the river. Conversely, lower pumping rates and higher injected water temperatures resulted in a smaller temperature increase at the extraction wells, but higher increases at the river. The scenario with lower pumping rates is operationally more efficient, but does increase the likelihood of a thermal plume discharging into the Columbia River. However, this impact would be mitigated by mixing within the hyporheic zone and the Columbia River. The impact under current operational conditions is negligible, but future increases in heat rejection could require a compromise between maximizing operational efficiency and minimizing temperature increases at the shoreline.

  4. Impact of project funding on the implementation of LEEMP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation process could make a project succeed, fail or even abandoned midstream. Information gathered from LEEMP in Imo State indicates that out of the 258 development projects embarked upon by LEEMP, only 24.4% have been completed while 75.6% are at their various completion stages after committing ...

  5. The impact of the thermal conductivities of the color conversion elements of phosphor converted LEDs under different current driving schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulmek, Paul; Nicolics, Johann [Institute of Sensor & Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Nemitz, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Susanne; Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul [Institute of Surface Technologies and Photonics, Joanneum Research Forschungsges mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 30, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); Schrank, Franz [Tridonic Jennersdorf GmbH, Technologiepark 10, A-8380 Jennersdorf (Austria); Wenzl, Franz P., E-mail: Franz-Peter.Wenzl@joanneum.at [Institute of Sensor & Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    For a systematic approach to improve the reliability and the white light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) it is imperative to gain a better understanding of the individual parameters that affect color temperature constancy and maintenance. By means of a combined optical and thermal simulation procedure, in this contribution we give a comprehensive discussion on the impact of different thermal conductivities of the color conversion elements (CCE) of phosphor converted LEDs on their respective thermal load for different current driving schemes. In particular we show that, while for the thermal load of CCEs with low thermal conductivities also effects due to the non-linearity between the blue radiant flux and the current have to be considered, these effects are largely diminished in case of CCEs with higher thermal conductivities. - Highlights: • We discuss the thermal load of phosphor based LEDs for different current driving. • We report on the time scales for the thermal load of phosphor based LEDs. • We report on the impact of the non-linearity of the radiant flux on the thermal load. • We discuss the impact of the thermal conductivity on the thermal load.

  6. Plutonium and minor actinides management in thermal high - temperature reactors - the EU FP6 project puma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijper, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    key elements, which are not covered by these other projects. Earlier projects indicate favourable characteristics of HTRs with respect to Pu burning. So, core physics of Pu/MA fuel cycles for HTRs will be investigated to optimise the CP fuel and reactor characteristics and to assure nuclear stability of a Pu/MA HTR core, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The starting point of this investigation comprises the two main contemporary HTR designs, viz. the pebble-bed type HTR, represented by the South-African PBMR, and hexagonal block type HTR, represented by the GT-MHR. It is also envisaged to optimise present Pu CP design and to explore feasibility for MA fuel. New CP designs will be explored that can withstand very high burn-ups and are well adapted for disposal after irradiation. The project benefits greatly from access to past knowledge from Belgonucleaire's Pu HTR fuel irradiation tests of the 1970-s, and also secures access to materials made at that time. (Very) High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Pu/MA transmuters are envisaged to operate in a global system of various reactor systems and fuel cycle facilities. Fuel cycle studies are envisaged to study the symbiosis to LWR, GCFR and ADS, and to quantify waste streams and radio toxic inventories. The technical, economic, environmental and socio-political impact will be assessed as well. The PUMA project runs from September 1, 2006, until August 31, 2009, and is being executed by a consortium of 15 European partner organisations and one from the USA. The paper presents an overview of planned activities and preliminary/expected results

  7. Interreg IIIA SR - AT project SOLARSTRAT. Results of the interviews with experts on solar-thermal energy utilization. Possibilities of support to thermal-solar systems installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilias, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presented the results of collecting of important data for solar-thermal market scenario modelling through interviews with Slovak stakeholders. Interviews with Slovak experts on thermal-solar energy utilisation represents important project activity in order to give a general review of current status of the market in target Bratislava region and to collect important data for next market analyses, which will be prepared by Austrian partner - IFAST. The results of face-to-face interviews and filled questionnaires can be generally presented as follows: - public attitude towards the renewable energy sources and solar energy utilisation is slowly getting better in Slovakia; - evaluating public awareness only 15% share of population is able to consider the possibilities of thermal-solar technologies; - expected increase of fossil fuels and energy prices will help to spread of thermal-solar systems through shorten the pay-back period of investment while prices of thermal-solar systems will increase only slightly; - also expected increase of political and economic public awareness about energy production and demand on thermal-solar systems will help to promote the further development of solar energy utilisation in Slovakia. Respondent were also evaluating the main barriers for better solar energy utilisation: (1) Weak public awareness, no systematic information campaign (examples from real life); (2) Missing support to installation for physical persons, no tax allowances; (3) High investment costs; (4) Unfriendly legislation Other important barriers for better development of the sector were presented. E.g. assembling companies cannot afford effective promotion, only big producers are able to fund the marketing on their products, which are mainly expensive systems. Public is still considering solar systems as too expensive ('I can't afford it'). Renewable energy sources (RES) are often presented as the alternative to nuclear energy - this argument

  8. Interreg IIIA SR - AT project SOLARSTRAT. Results of the interviews with experts on solar-thermal energy utilization. Possibilities of support to thermal-solar systems installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilias, I.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presented the results of collecting of important data for solar-thermal market scenario modelling through interviews with Slovak stakeholders. Interviews with Slovak experts on thermal-solar energy utilisation represents important project activity in order to give a general review of current status of the market in target Bratislava region and to collect important data for next market analyses, which will be prepared by Austrian partner - IFAST. The results of face-to-face interviews and filled questionnaires can be generally presented as follows: - public attitude towards the renewable energy sources and solar energy utilisation is slowly getting better in Slovakia; - evaluating public awareness only 15% share of population is able to consider the possibilities of thermal-solar technologies; - expected increase of fossil fuels and energy prices will help to spread of thermal-solar systems through shorten the pay-back period of investment while prices of thermal-solar systems will increase only slightly; - also expected increase of political and economic public awareness about energy production and demand on thermal-solar systems will help to promote the further development of solar energy utilisation in Slovakia. Respondents were also evaluating the main barriers for better solar energy utilisation: (1) Weak public awareness, no systematic information campaign (examples from real life); (2) Missing support to installation for physical persons, no tax allowances; (3) High investment costs; (4) Unfriendly legislation. Other important barriers for better development of the sector were presented. E.g. assembling companies cannot afford effective promotion, only big producers are able to fund the marketing on their products, which are mainly expensive systems. Public is still considering solar systems as too expensive ('I can't afford it'). Renewable energy sources (RES) are often presented as the alternative to nuclear energy - this

  9. The IT project manager competencies that impact project success – A qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Cristina Silva de Araújo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there is a lack of studies about the relationship of IT project manager competencies and project success, this paper will address the following research question: Which competencies should IT project managers develop in order to achieve success in IT projects? To answer this question, we conducted a qualitative research with an exploratory approach. To collect data, twelve (12 in-depth interviews were done with Brazilian project managers from different companies from several business sectors. The analysis results pointed out that for our respondents the most needed category of competencies are team management, business domain knowledge,  communication, project management and people skills. As other authors have affirmed, technical skills were considered to be less relevant to project success than interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies.

  10. Impact of a 1,000-foot thermal mixing zone on the steam electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    Thermal discharge requirements for power plants using once-through cooling systems are based on state water quality standards for temperatures that must be met outside of designated mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones. This study evaluates the impact of limiting the extent of thermal mixing zones to no more than 1,000 feet from the discharge point. Data were collected from 79 steam electric plants. Of the plants currently using once-through cooling systems, 74% could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone. Of this total, 68% would retrofit cooling towers, and 6% would retrofit diffusers. The estimated nationwide capital cost for retrofitting plants that could not meet current thermal standards at the edge of a 1,000-foot mixing zone is $21.4 billion. Conversion of a plant from once-through cooling to cooling towers or addition of diffusers would result in a lower energy output from that plant. For the affected plants, the total estimated replacement cost would be $370 to $590 million per year. Some power companies would have to construct new generating capacity to meet the increased energy demand. The estimated nationwide cost of this additional capacity would be $1.2 to $4.8 billion. In addition to the direct costs associated with compliance with a 1,000-foot mixing zone limit, other secondary environmental impacts would also occur. Generation of the additional power needed would increase carbon dioxide emissions by an estimated 8.3 million tons per year. In addition, conversion from once-through cooling systems to cooling towers at affected plants would result in increased evaporation of about 2.7 million gallons of water per minute nationwide

  11. Impact of trade in emission reduction credits on solar projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the amendment of the Clean Air Act in 1990, the possibility of trading in Emission Reduction Credits has been looked upon as a strategy for improving the economic feasibility of solar projects. This paper discusses developments towards such a market and reviews current and proposed emission trading practices. The paper analyzes how the current characteristics of the market help or hinder the trading of credits generated by solar projects, and suggests possible solutions. Emission credits from four different solar projects and their trading potentials are presented

  12. Thermal properties of methane hydrate by experiment and modeling and impacts upon technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzinski, R.P.; Gamwo, I.K.; Rosenbaum, E.J. [United States Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory; Myshakin, E.M. [NETL Support Contractor, South Park, PA (United States); Jiang, H.; Jordan, K.D. [Pittsburgh Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; English, N.J. [Dublin University College, Dublin (Ireland). Conway Inst. of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, Centre for Synthesis and Chemical Biology; Shaw, D.W. [Geneva College, Beaver Falls, PA (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The current hydrate research at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) involves both experimental and theoretical work on developing models and methods for predicting the behaviour of gas hydrates in their natural environment under production of climate change scenarios. The modeling efforts include both fundamental and reservoir scale simulations and economic modeling. The thermal properties of methane hydrate are important for hydrate production, seafloor stability and climate change scenarios. A new experimental technique and advanced molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) have determined the thermal properties of pure methane hydrate under conditions similar to naturally occurring hydrate-bearing sediments. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity values of low-porosity methane hydrate formed in the laboratory were measured using an innovative single-sided, Transient Plane Source (TPS) technique. The results were in good agreement with results from an equilibrium MDS method using in-plane polarization of the water molecules. MDS was also performed using a non-equilibrium model with a fully polarizable force field for water. The Tough+Hydrate reservoir simulator was also used to evaluate the impact of thermal conductivity on gas production from a hydrate-bearing reservoir. 42 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. Investigating the Practical Impact of Agile Practices on the Quality of Software Projects in Continuous Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Akerele; Muthu Ramachandran; Mark Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Various factors affect the impact of agile factors on the continuous delivery of software projects. This is a major reason why projects perform differently- some failing and some succeeding- when they implement some agile practices in various environments. This is not helped by the fact that many projects work within limited budget while project plans also change-- making them to fall into some sort of pressure to meet deadline when they fall behind in their planned work. This study investiga...

  14. The impact of project management on nuclear construction lead times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlaver, M.A.; Bauman, D.S.; Chapel, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A two-year study of lead times for nuclear power plants found that construction time is affected by six fundamental influences. One of the six is project management. An analysis of construction management teams at 26 nuclear units found that many of the most successful shared five general characteristics: nuclear power experience, skill in project control, adaptability and initiative, commitment to success, and communication and coordination skill

  15. Essays on oil: project evaluation and investment impact

    OpenAIRE

    Bagh, Dima

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis contains three essays related to fixed investment and crude oil. The first essay examines the implications of building a cross-border oil infrastructure project within the context of the bargaining problem (the Nash bargaining solution, and the alternating offer bargain of Rubinstein). We examine the viability of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline project, which is empl...

  16. Study of system safety evaluation on LTO of national project. Thermal fatigue evaluation of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Itoh, Takamoto; Okazaki, Masakazu; Okuda, Yukihiko; Kamaya, Masayuki; Nakamura, Akira; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Machida, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear piping has various kinds of thermal fatigue failure modes. Main causes of thermal loads are structural responses to fluid temperature changes during plant operation. These phenomena have complex mechanisms and so many patterns, that their problems still occur even though well-known issues. To prevent thermal fatigue due to above thermal loads, the JSME guideline is adopted. Both thermal load and fatigue failure mechanism have been investigated and summarized into the knowledgebase. Numerical simulation methods for thermal fatigue evaluation were studied to replace structural tests. Theses knowledge was utilized to validate and justify the JSME guideline. Furthermore, new studies have been launched to apply above knowledge to enhance plant system safety. (author)

  17. Thermal-depth matching in dynamic scene based on affine projection and feature registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Jia, Tong; Wu, Chengdong; Li, Yongqiang

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to study the construction of 3D temperature distribution reconstruction system based on depth and thermal infrared information. Initially, a traditional calibration method cannot be directly used, because the depth and thermal infrared camera is not sensitive to the color calibration board. Therefore, this paper aims to design a depth and thermal infrared camera calibration board to complete the calibration of the depth and thermal infrared camera. Meanwhile a local feature descriptors in thermal and depth images is proposed. The belief propagation matching algorithm is also investigated based on the space affine transformation matching and local feature matching. The 3D temperature distribution model is built based on the matching of 3D point cloud and 2D thermal infrared information. Experimental results show that the method can accurately construct the 3D temperature distribution model, and has strong robustness.

  18. A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemppainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, I.

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

  19. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains Appendices A--I which contain the following: glossary/abbreviations; scoping report; structure coordinate summary; air quality; biological resources; geology; noise; visual contrast rating forms; and cultural resources

  20. The Social and Economic Impacts of Space Weather (US Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.; Basoli, D.; Griot, O.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Action Plan calls for new research into the social and economic impacts of space weather and for the development of quantitative estimates of potential costs. In response to this call, NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Abt Associates are working together to identify, describe, and quantify the impact of space weather to U.S. interests. This study covers impacts resulting from both moderate and severe space weather events across four technological sectors: Electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users. It captures the full range of potential impacts, identified from an extensive literature review and from additional conversations with more than 50 sector stakeholders of diverse expertise from engineering to operations to end users. We organize and discuss our findings in terms of five broad but interrelated impact categories including Defensive Investments, Mitigating Actions, Asset Damages, Service Interruptions, and Health Effects. We also present simple, tractable estimates of the potential costs where we focused on quantifying a subset of all identified impacts that are apt to be largest and are also most plausible during moderate and more severe space weather scenarios. We hope that our systematic exploration of the social and economic impacts provides a foundation for the future work that is critical for designing technologies, developing procedures, and implementing policies that can effectively reduce our known and evolving vulnerabilities to this natural hazard.

  1. Presentation of the project Thermal processes with energy recovery for sludge and special or hazardous waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.

    2001-01-01

    Main results obtained in the framework of the project Thermal processes with energy recovery for sludge and special waste (also hazardous) disposal granted for 2.16 M Euro by the Italian Ministry of Education through Structural Funds are reported. This project is subdivided into the following four main sub projects: combustion of hazardous sludges on a demonstrative plant; combustion of sludges in fluidized bed reactors on pilot and laboratory scale; set up of a flue gas sampling device at high temperature; fluid dynamic modelling of combustion. Original and interesting results were produced mainly connected with the following aspects: combined incineration of sewage and hazardous sludges appeared to be reliable considering that gaseous emissions did not show any deterioration following the addition of chlorinated hydrocarbons to sewage sludge. Gaseous emissions were found to be not conform with the standards only in very few cases generally not linked with critical conditions: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to be a reliable parameter for emissions monitoring considering that they are produced in abundance following up set conditions due to a temperature decline or an insufficient oxygen supply; the very stringent limit at the emissions of 0.1 ng/m 3 for dioxins and furans (TE) can be respected in the most of the cases but this monitoring is very complex, time consuming and expensive. Sampling and extraction errors might considerably impact the measured value, which is much more dependent on the conditions inside the recovery boiler rather than on the combustion efficiency; metals are enriched onto the fly ashes produced in the tests carried out by rotating drum furnace more than in the tests by fluidized bed furnace; after burning chamber mode of operation did not display a direct influence on the emissions; incineration tests carried out on reduced pilot scale have shown a total absence of fragmentation during volatilisation while particulate

  2. Application of environmental impact assessment in Spain (1989-2008): the case of Road Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero Rodriguez, J.; Espigares Pinilla, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the application in Spain of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) along the first 20 years since its implementation, paying special attention to road projects. We revised all Environmental Impact Statement (EISs) published during the period 1989-2008 and monitored, among others, the following variables; the record of decision (favorable or unfavorable) of the State Authority, the type of ecosystem affected by the projects and the mitigation measures required to the developer to implement the project. The results allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of EIA procedure for road projects and to suggest some practical recommendations to improve the quality of EISs. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Environmental impact statement for the proposed Great Whale River Hydroelectric Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines are presented on the preparation of the environmental impact statement for the Great Whale hydroelectric project by Hydro-Quebec. The statement must include a project justification, description of the biophysical and social environments, a project description, and must address project impacts, mitigative and compensatory measures, environmental surveillance, monitoring, and long-term management programs. Appendices include a memorandum of understanding, list of members of the review bodies, list of briefs submitted at the public scoping hearings, and a list of public comments on the draft guidelines. 17 figs

  4. Qinshan phase II extension nuclear power project thermal stratification and fatigue stress analysis for pressurizer surge line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaofei; Zhang Yixiong; Ai Honglei

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stratification of pressurizer surge line induced by the inside fluid brings on global bending moments, local thermal stresses, unexpected displacements and support loadings of the pipe system. In order to avoid a costly three-dimensional computation, a combined 1D/2D technique has been developed and implemented to analyze the thermal stratification and fatigue stress of pressurize surge line of QINSHAN Phase II Extension Nuclear Power Project in this paper, using the computer codes SYSTUS and ROCOCO. According to the mechanical analysis results of stratification, the maximum stress and cumulative usage factor, the loadings at connections of surge line to main pipe and RCP and the displacements of surge line at supports are obtained. (authors)

  5. Analysis of the Status and Impacts of NCTR Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the University of South Florida (USF) assessed the implementation status and identified the outcomes and impacts of the results of 30 Florida Department of Transportation -sponsored NCTR research pro...

  6. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  7. Assessing Environmental Impact Indicators in Road Construction Projects in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Marzouk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main concerns in the construction industry. Environmental pollution has become a major challenge to construction projects due to the huge amount of pollution caused by construction projects. There are different types of environmental impact indicators, such as the greenhouse gas (GHG footprint, eutrophication potential (EP, acidification potential (AP, human health (HH particulate, ozone depletion, and smog. Each of these environmental impact indicators can be linked to different phases of the construction projects. The overall environmental impact indicators can be divided into direct, indirect, and operational emissions. This paper presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-based methodology for the assessment of environmental impacts in road construction projects. The model takes into account the overall life cycle of the road construction project, which is divided into: manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, maintenance phase, operational phase, recycling phase, and deconstruction phase. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The proposed model solves a major problem for road construction project teams who want to assess the environmental impact indicators associated with their project prior to the start of the execution of their projects.

  8. Project, Aerodynamic, Thermal and Ballistic Analysis of a Lifting-Body Reentry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to assess the prospects for an increasingly maneuverable reentry vehicle (RV of class "lifting body". In this regard, a project aerodynamic thermal and ballistic analysis has been conducted and the results have been compared with some well-known projects of the RV of the same class, made both in our country and abroad.The project analysis begins with finding a position of the "lifting body" vehicle in the classification system. Said classification distribution allows correct formulation of requirements for the conceptual structure of an aerospace vehicle at the initial stage of design in terms of system positions, since just the initial phase of the design often determines the success of the whole program.Then the paper compares design characteristics of the RV of class "lifting body" with vehicles such as X-15 rocket plane, the orbiter "Space Shuttle», M2-F2, HL-10, SV-5, and NASP "Hermes". It also gives a comparative estimate of the "lifting body" RV mass in a wide range of dimensions. The paper shows the sustainability of various landing complexes with reference to the Russian experience in developing the RV " Soyuz", and the conditions for using the vehicles of class "lifting body" in space programs.The aerodynamic analysis uses method for the approximate Newtonian theory to calculate aerodynamic characteristics of the perspective RV of class "lifting body" in the hypersonic descent phase. To obtain the desired aerodynamic performance and reduce balancing weight is contemplated a possibility to provide balance by introducing additional boards. The ballistic analysis considers four modes of descent:1. zero roll descent;2. maximum cross-range descent without restriction;3. maximum cross-range descent with restriction of maximum overload and maximum temperature;4. ballistic descent.To calculate the RV ballistic characteristics a system of equations of the vehicle motion in the atmosphere is used. The vehicle

  9. 197 impact of project funding on the implementation of leemp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... the positive growth of the social welfare and functions of the populace. ... In the light of the above, this study has the objective of examining the effectiveness of the funds budgeted for LEEMP projects since inception by the ...

  10. Projected impact of climate change on waves at Mumbai High

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pentapatim, S.; Deo, M.C.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    .5), a numerical wave model of the past and future wave conditions was simulated over a 40-year period. A statistical analysis of both past and projected datasets obtained significant wave heights with a 100-year return. The comparison of wave heights...

  11. Impact of Personal Growth Projects on Leadership Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Summer F.; Boyd, Barry L.; Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Within personal leadership education courses, leadership educators should include experiences which help students develop themselves as leaders. In this article, the authors discuss results from a qualitative research study involving the analysis of Personal Growth Project (PGP) assignments in a personal leadership education collegiate course. The…

  12. Impact of projected climate change on agricultural production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The climate change projections data from global climate models were downscaled using self-organising maps technique. Under the conventional practices, results show that during long rainy season (from March to May) there is yield decline of 13% for cultivar Situka, no change for cultivar Kito and increase of 10% and ...

  13. Impact of Rand devaluation on existing and planned REIPPPP Projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milazi, DBK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available to in structuring finance for utility scale renewable energy projects. Financial risks are related to the stability of future cash flows available to service debt as a result of capital intensiveness of the investment. The most common among these is interest rate...

  14. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  15. Project inspection using mobile technology - phase II : assessing the impacts of mobile technology on project inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As mobile technology becomes widely available and affordable, transportation agencies can use this : technology to streamline operations involved within project inspection. This research, conducted in two : phases, identified opportunities for proces...

  16. Red-impact project: First results of the evaluations of the impact of P and T on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, Jan; Vokal, Antonin; Gudowski, Waclaw

    2006-01-01

    The Red-Impact project (Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal) is a research project in the 6. Framework Programme of the European Commission. The main objective of the project is to assess the impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) on geological disposal and waste management. The project started with the identification of a number of representative fuel cycle scenarios. Five basis scenarios are considered for the evaluations: 2 industrial scenarios and 3 innovative scenarios. Mass flow schemes have been prepared for each basis fuel cycle scenario and the corresponding neutronic calculations have been made. A first list of performance indicators that will be calculated or estimated in the project has been prepared. As a first step the impact of 2 fuel cycle scenarios, the reference 'open cycle' scenario and of the innovative 'fast neutron Gen IV' scenario, on geological repositories in granite and clay formations have been evaluated. The results obtained show that the introduction of innovative fuel cycle scenarios can result in a considerable reduction of the needed size of the geological repository. However, the impact on the radiological consequences is rather limited. Indeed, the maximum dose, which is expected to occur a few tens of thousands year after the disposal of the waste, is essentially due to fission products and their amount is about proportional to the heat generated by nuclear fissions. (authors)

  17. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  18. Impact Analysis of Air Pollutant Emission Policies on Thermal Coal Supply Chain Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spurred by the increasingly serious air pollution problem, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to put forward specific measures of power structure adjustment and the control objectives of air pollution and coal consumption. Other policies pointed out that the coal resources regional blockades will be broken by improving transportation networks and constructing new logistics nodes. Thermal power takes the largest part of China’s total installed power generation capacity, so these policies will undoubtedly impact thermal coal supply chain member enterprises. Based on the actual situation in China, this paper figures out how the member enterprises adjust their business decisions to satisfy the requirements of air pollution prevention and control policies by establishing system dynamic models of policy impact transfer. These dynamic analyses can help coal enterprises and thermal power enterprises do strategic environmental assessments and find directions of sustainable development. Furthermore, the policy simulated results of this paper provide the Chinese government with suggestions for policy-making to make sure that the energy conservation and emission reduction policies and sustainable energy policies can work more efficiently.

  19. Impact of facially applied air movement on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting occupant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.

    2011-01-01

    implemented in practice. In this study the impact of locally applied airflow on the thermal plume generated by a sitting human body was investigated. The experiment was performed in a climate chamber with upward piston flow. A thermal manikin was sitting on a computer chair behind a table. The air speed...

  20. A comparison of the aquatic impacts of large hydro and small hydro projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lara A.

    The expansion of small hydro development in British Columbia has raised concerns surrounding the effects of these projects, and the provincial government's decision to proceed with Site C has brought attention to the impacts of large hydro. Together, these decisions highlight that there are impacts associated with all energy development. My study examines the aquatic effects of large and small hydro projects using two case study sites: Site C and the Upper Harrison Water Power Project. I first determine the aquatic effects of each of the case study sites. Next, I use existing literature and benefits transfer to determine the monetary value of these effects. My results suggest that, with mitigation, small hydro projects have less of an effect on the environment than a large hydro project per unit of electricity. I also describe the implications of my study in the context of current British Columbia energy policy. Keywords: hydropower; aquatic effects. Subject Terms: environmental impact assessment; benefits transfer.

  1. Impact of Requirements Elicitation Processes on Success of Information System Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormane Līga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements articulating user needs and corresponding to enterprise business processes are a key to successful implementation of information system development projects. However, the parties involved in projects frequently are not able to agree on a common development vision and have difficulties expressing their needs. Several industry experts have acknowledged that requirements elicitation is one of the most difficult tasks in development projects. This study investigates the impact of requirements elicitation processes on project outcomes depending on the applied project development methodology.

  2. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  3. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a highway construction project in Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the field environmental investigation and monitoring result, the radioactive environmental impact for a highway construction project in Guangdong province has been analyzed and assessed and forecacted. (authors)

  4. Phipps Bend Nuclear Energy Project. Community impact assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapp, P.C.; Teilhet, A.; Newsom, R.; Bond, M.; Garland, M.

    1977-01-01

    In late 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) proposed to build a 2 unit nuclear plant at Phipps Bend on the Holston River east of Surgoinsville, Tennessee. Total estimated cost is 1.6 billion dollars, with a generating capacity of 2,600,000 kilowatts. The facility will have an impact on Hawkins, Greene and Sullivan counties with 2,500 construction employees, a permanent work force of 300, increased availability of energy to stimulate new capital investment and the local government will need to deal with these. This report analyzed the facilities of each community in the impacted area and recommended certain action for infrastructure acquisition or improvements

  5. Yakima Fisheries Project revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) to undertake fishery research and enhancement activities in the Yakima River Basin. The State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation would jointly direct the project. The Yakima River system is a promising location for mitigation and enhancement to compensate for stock losses from development and operation of hydroelectric projects elsewhere in the Columbia Basin. The YFP would help determine the role that supplementation might play in increasing natural production of anadromous salmonids throughout the Columbia Basin. In cooperation with BPA, the project managers propose to construct, operate and maintain anadromous (e.g. salmon) fish production facilities. The goal is to conduct research activities designed to increase knowledge of supplementation techniques. These techniques would be applied to rebuild naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks historically present in the Yakima River Basin and, ultimately, those throughout the Columbia River Basin. Eventually, the YFP might involve the supplementation of all stocks of anadromous fish known to have occurred in the Yakima Basin. However, at this time only two alternatives have been proposed: Alternative 1 would supplement depressed naturally spawning populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon; Alternative 2 (preferred) would include all actions under Alternative 1; it would also add a study to determine the feasibility of re-establishing a naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho salmon in the Yakima Basin. (Coho smolts are currently being imported from another basin under the Columbia River Basin Fish Management Plan; the stock is now virtually eliminated from the Basin.)

  6. Social impacts of community renewable energy projects: findings from a woodfuel case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Jennifer C.; Simmons, Eunice A.; Convery, Ian; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There is much current interest in the potential of community-based renewable energy projects to contribute to transition towards low carbon energy systems. As well as displacing fossil fuel consumption by increasing renewable energy generation, projects are expected to have a range of social impacts which may result in additional positive sustainability outcomes. These include potential to increase: acceptance of renewable energy developments; awareness of renewable and sustainable energy technologies and issues; uptake of low carbon technologies; and sustainable/pro-environmental behaviours. To date however, there has been little investigation of whether and how these impacts occur. This paper presents results from qualitative research investigating the social impacts of a community woodfuel project as experienced by project participants and other local stakeholders. Findings show projects can raise awareness of renewable energy technologies and increase uptake of renewables. Overall the case study project successfully changed the local social context for development of woodfuel heating, reducing risk for all involved in the future development of this sector, particularly in the immediate locality. There was some evidence of increased engagement with wider sustainability issues but this was limited to direct participants, suggesting local projects need to be supported by wider systemic change to maximise impacts. - Highlights: ► We assessed the social impacts of a community woodfuel project. ► The project increased awareness and uptake of woodfuel heating. ► Impacts were achieved as a result of the locally-specific approach. ► Local projects can seed cultural change promoting transition to a low carbon society.

  7. Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

    1996-07-01

    Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

  8. The impact of friendship ties on new product development student projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kylindri, Stamatia; Blanas, George; Tanev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    The competition between firms for more effective new product development (NPD) capabilities has posed the research question: what possibilities are there to improve traditional and knowledge based project team organisation by analysing the impact of social relationships between team members......? The authors of this article tested the hypothesis that friendships have a positive impact on project team effectiveness using the cohesion social network metric. The methodology involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies applicable to social network analysis (SNA) research...

  9. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-06-3 September 2006 Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources...Cole, R. A. (2006). “ Freshwater aquatic nuisance species impacts and management costs and benefits at Federal Water resources projects,” ANSRP...Projects1 by Richard A. Cole THE ISSUE: A small fraction of the species that inhabit the nation’s fresh waters become aquatic nuisance species (ANS

  10. Comfort and performance impact of personal control over thermal environment in summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerstra, Atze C.; te Kulve, Marije; Toftum, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Field studies suggest that the availability of adjustable thermostats, operable windows and other controls has a positive impact on comfort, the incidence of building related symptoms and productivity. This laboratory study was designed to further investigate how having or not having control over...... the thermal environment affects human responses to the indoor environment.The study was conducted in summer in a field laboratory that was kept at 28°C. A total of 23 subjects were exposed twice for about 2.5h. During the first session (A) subjects were able to fine-tune their local thermal environment at any...... recorded during the first session. Thus, each subject was exposed to two customized conditions with identical exposure, only different from a psychological point of view.During the two sessions identical questionnaires and performance tests were used to evaluate subjects' comfort, SBS symptom incidence...

  11. Impact of thermal processes on CO2 injectivity into a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H Y; Liu, J S; Pan, Z J; Connell, L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how thermal gradients, caused by CO2 injection, expansion and adsorption, affect the permeability and adsorption capacity of coal during CO2 sequestration. A new permeability model is developed in which the concept of elastic modulus reduction ratio is introduced to partition the effective strain between coal matrix and fracture. This model is implemented into a fully coupled mechanical deformation, gas flow and heat transport finite element simulator. To predict the amount of CO2 sequested, the extended Langmuir sorption model is used, with parameters values taken from the literature. The coupled heat and gas flow equations, are solved in COMSOL using the finite element method. The simulation results for a constant volume reservoir demostrate that thermal strain acts to significantly reduce both CO2 injectivity and adsorption capacity. These impacts need to be considered in the calculation of the optimum injection rate and the total sequestration capacity.

  12. 139 the impact of the national fadama ii development project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    Key words: Impact, National Fadama II Facility, Poverty Alleviation, Agricultural ... production but enhance the income of the ... of employment has the higher incidence of ... This widening gap between ... each group (i.e. those earning ... Source: Field Survey data, 2007 .... increased as evidence has shown that the level.

  13. Measuring the impact of an ongoing microcredit project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksen, Steffen; Lensink, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a mixed method approach to assess the impact of a microfinance organisation in Ghana. By combining propensity score matching with a double-difference method, the authors determine that microcredit has a positive effect on expenditures but does not positively affect a series of

  14. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  15. Guidebook on environmental impact assessment for in situ leach mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of the potential environmental impact of an in situ leach (ISL) project is the first step in the permission and licensing process. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) serves as the basis for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which in turn identifies the potential environmental and socioeconomic impact of a proposed project and outlines measures to mitigate the impact. The EIS review process serves to inform the public about a proposed project as well as provide regulatory agencies with assurance that ISL technology will comply with environmental standards, and that project sites can be rehabilitated to pre-mining use. This publication provides a step-by-step description of project parameters that must be addressed in conducting an EIA and preparing an EIS. It also includes EIA/EIS case histories for current operations in Australia, the Czech Republic, Kazakhstan and the United States of America. The publication will be useful to companies considering development of ISL projects and to regulatory personnel who are responsible for writing environmental regulations and licensing ISL projects

  16. WorldSID - an international project for the harmonisation and improvement of side impact dummies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, M. [Centre Europeen d' Etudes de Securite et d' Analyse des Risques (France); Cesari, D. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite, Arcueil (France); Hautmann, E. [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany); Scherer, R. [Ford-Werke AG, Koeln (Germany); Uchimura, Takahiko [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kostyniuk, G.W. [DaimlerChrysler (United States); Asakawa, Kazuhito [JAMA (Japan); Bortenschlager, K. [Audi AG, Ingoldstadt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In order to substantiate the efficiency of side impact protection measures, various side impact dummies are legally required in various countries. Moreover, these side impact dummies do not meet the currently requested bio-fidelity requirements. The target of the WorldSID project is to develop a new 50 per cent side impact dummy with at least good to excellent biofidelity, which will be used all over the world in all side impact test procedures, and thus will considerably contribute to harmonisation. Contents of the lecture: (a) Intention, initialisation, organisation of the project. (b) Technical and bio-mechanical specifications, design. (c) Prototype - first impressions of test, handling.. (d) Further project plans, targets. (orig.)

  17. Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan

    2013-09-01

    The paper takes China's authoritative Environmental Impact Statement for the Yangzi (Yangtze) Three Gorges Project (TGP) in 1992 as a benchmark against which to evaluate emerging major environmental outcomes since the initial impoundment of the Three Gorges reservoir in 2003. The paper particularly examines five crucial environmental aspects and associated causal factors. The five domains include human resettlement and the carrying capacity of local environments (especially land), water quality, reservoir sedimentation and downstream riverbed erosion, soil erosion, and seismic activity and geological hazards. Lessons from the environmental impact assessments of the TGP are: (1) hydro project planning needs to take place at a broader scale, and a strategic environmental assessment at a broader scale is necessary in advance of individual environmental impact assessments; (2) national policy and planning adjustments need to react quickly to the impact changes of large projects; (3) long-term environmental monitoring systems and joint operations with other large projects in the upstream areas of a river basin should be established, and the cross-impacts of climate change on projects and possible impacts of projects on regional or local climate considered.

  18. The Impact of Group Design Projects in Engineering on Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Balgopal, Meena

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of incorporating group design projects into a second-year engineering class on achievement goal orientations and two academic outcomes: concept inventory and final exam scores. In this study, two sections were taught using lecture format, but one section also completed three group design projects as part of their…

  19. 77 FR 74470 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Donlin Gold Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... impacts associated with the proposed Donlin Gold Project, which would be an open pit, hardrock gold mine... proposing the development of an open pit, hardrock gold mine located 277 miles west of Anchorage, 145 miles.... Major project components include excavation of an open pit, that ultimately would be approximately 2.2...

  20. 76 FR 55155 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Keystone XL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... border of the U.S. and Canada for the transport of crude oil across the U.S./Canada international... proposed Project that is designed to transport crude oil produced from oil sands in the Western Canadian... security; environmental, cultural, and economic impacts. Before making a decision on the proposed Project...

  1. A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management Practices (BMP) project on social and economic wellbeing at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in central Eastern Cape Province. The BMP project is a knowledge-based initiative aimed at introducing management practices in order to improve ...

  2. A Conflict’s Impact on Project Goals and Reputation Risk : Lessons from Kosovo Privatization Program

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Karl

    2008-01-01

    When designing and implementing a project in a conflict-affected country, some of the conflict's more obvious impacts-damage to infrastructure and energy supplies, are apt to immediately come to mind. However, based on the experiences with the Kosovo privatization program, there are additional problems related to a conflict's aftermath that may be overlooked during a project's design but w...

  3. Impact Research Report and Site Summaries for Project ALERT. Workplace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Dale C.

    In order to evaluate the Project ALERT (Adult Literacy Enhanced & Redefined through Training) Workplace Literacy Project, data were collected to gauge the impact of the program on individual participants, the organizations in which they were employed, and to provide the use of whole language and multimedia techniques in workplace literacy…

  4. Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impacts of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extraordinary financial market conditions have disrupted the flows of equity and debt investment into U.S. renewable energy (RE) projects since the fourth quarter of 2008. The pace and structure of renewable energy project finance has been reshaped by a combination of forces, including the financial crisis, global economic recession, and major changes in federal legislation affecting renewable energy finance. This report explores the impacts of these key market events on renewable energy project financing and development.

  5. Marine ecological habitat: A case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar creek, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Naidu, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility...

  6. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    PROBLEM: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a fundamental property of construction : materials such as steel and concrete. Although the CTE of steel is a well-defined : constant, the CTE of concrete varies substantially with aggregate type...

  7. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  8. Program definition and assessment overview. [for thermal energy storage project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a program level assessment of thermal energy storage technology thrusts for the near and far term to assure overall coherent energy storage program is considered. The identification and definition of potential thermal energy storage applications, definition of technology requirements, and appropriate market sectors are discussed along with the necessary coordination, planning, and preparation associated with program reviews, workshops, multi-year plans and annual operating plans for the major laboratory tasks.

  9. Climate change impacts on projections of excess mortality at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We project the change in ozone-related mortality burden attributable to changes in climate between a historical (1995-2005) and near-future (2025-2035) time period while incorporating a non-linear and synergistic effect of ozone and temperature on mortality. We simulate air quality from climate projections varying only biogenic emissions and holding anthropogenic emissions constant, thus attributing changes in ozone only to changes in climate and independent of changes in air pollutant emissions. We estimate non-linear, spatially varying, ozone-temperature risk surfaces for 94 US urban areas using observeddata. Using the risk surfaces and climate projections we estimate daily mortality attributable to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. (moderate level) and 75 p.p.b. (US ozone NAAQS) for each time period. The average increases in city-specific median April-October ozone and temperature between time periods are 1.02 p.p.b. and 1.94 °F; however, the results variedby region . Increases in ozone because of climate change result in an increase in ozone mortality burden. Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 40 p.p.b. increases by 7.7% (1 .6-14.2%). Mortality attributed to ozone exceeding 75 p.p.b. increases by 14.2% (1.628.9%). The absolute increase in excess ozone mortality is larger for changes in moderate ozone levels, reflecting the larger number of days with moderate ozone levels. In this study we evaluate changes in ozone related mortality due to changes in biogenic f

  10. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  11. Handbook to guide the measurement and monitoring of project effectiveness and impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-15

    This handbook demonstrates the application of a tool for measuring and monitoring the impact of a development project in the Department of Quezaltenango, Guatemala. That project itself presently is a demonstration. It explores the technical feasibility and the commercial possibilities of direct geothermal heat applications to the processing of agricultural produce - with the eventual purpose of expanding agricultural exports from Guatemala. The handbook focuses on an early stage of the geothermal initiative and guides preparations for future impact measurement and monitoring of geothermal projects. Primarily, guidance is for projects in agricultural applications of geothermal heat - and basically in Quezaltenango. But the exercise and the handbook are relevant in broad outline to other, industrial applications projects as well which may be based in other departments and have immediate impact across the whole country. This handbook attempts to prepare geothermal energy planners in Guatemala for that juncture when geothermal projects can be managed by objectives. It promotes and facilitates thinking about defining specific objectives for projects that result from the demonstration at Zunil (in Quezaltenango Department); and it prompts preparations for obtaining baseline measurements and for making rational projections on the achievements of future projects.

  12. Three-Dimensional Thermal Modeling Analysis Of CST Media For The Small Ion Exchange Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum

  13. IMPACT OF GRANT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad S. PETCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian Higher Education Institutions were one of the main beneficiaries of European funding in the 2007-2013 funding excercise, especially in the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development. Analyzing the data provided by 21 public universities in Romania, we find that Universities have accessed in a significant proportion two types of projects: those dedicated to transition from school to active life and those dedicated to doctoral studies. Also, the proportion of the European funds attracted by HEIs is an overwhelming part of the allocation of reference (over 40% since 2011, and also a significant proportion of total revenues universities (~15.5 % for 2011-2014.

  14. Thermal-Mechanical Study of 3.9 GHz CW Coupler and Cavity for LCLS-II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, Ivan [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Khabiboulline, Timergali [Fermilab; Solyak, Nikolay [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Third harmonic system was originally developed by Fermilab for FLASH facility at DESY and then was adopted and modified by INFN for the XFEL project [1-3]. In contrast to XFEL project, all cryomodules in LCLS-II project will operate in CW regime with higher RF average power for 1.3 GHz and 3.9 GHz cavities and couplers. Design of the cavity and fundamental power coupler has been modified to satisfy LCLS-II requirements. In this paper we discuss the results of COMSOL thermal and mechanical analysis of the 3.9 GHz coupler and cavity to verify proposed modifica-tion of the design. For the dressed cavity we present simulations of Lorentz force detuning, helium pressure sensitivity df/dP and major mechanical resonances.

  15. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bostelmann, F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) methods. Uncertainty originates from errors in physical data, manufacturing uncertainties, modelling and computational algorithms. (The interested reader is referred to the large body of published SA and UA literature for a more complete overview of the various types of uncertainties, methodologies and results obtained). SA is helpful for ranking the various sources of uncertainty and error in the results of core analyses. SA and UA are required to address cost, safety, and licensing needs and should be applied to all aspects of reactor multi-physics simulation. SA and UA can guide experimental, modelling, and algorithm research and development. Current SA and UA rely either on derivative-based methods such as stochastic sampling methods or on generalized perturbation theory to obtain sensitivity coefficients. Neither approach addresses all needs. In order to benefit from recent advances in modelling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and in nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more robust and well validated calculation tools to meet design target accuracies. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (TWG-GCR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended that the proposed Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on

  16. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-02-01

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  17. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  18. Wildlife Impact Assessment Palisades Project, Idaho, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather-Blair, Signe

    1985-02-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions of the US Bureau of Reclamation's Palisades Project in eastern Idaho. Eight evaluation species were selected with losses expressed in the number of Habitat Units (HU's). One HU is equivalent to one acre of prime habitat. The evaluation estimated that a loss of 2454 HU's of mule deer habitat, 2276 HU's of mink habitat, 2622 HU's of mallard habitat, 805 HU's of Canada goose habitat, 2331 HU's of ruffed grouse habitat, 5941 and 18,565 HU's for breeding and wintering bald eagles, and 1336 and 704 HU's for forested and scrub-shrub wetland nongame species occurred as a result of the project. The study area currently has 29 active osprey nests located around the reservoir and the mudflats probably provide more feeding habitat for migratory shore birds and waterfowl than was previously available along the river. A comparison of flow conditions on the South Fork of the Snake River below the dam between pre- and post-construction periods also could not substantiate claims that water releases from the dam were causing more Canada goose nest losses than flow in the river prior to construction. 41 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Description of the default climate scenario for impact projects in NRP-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij W; Viner D; NOP

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Research Programme on Climate Change (NRP) is funding strategic research on climate change. One of the central research themes focuses on potential impacts of climate change. In general, results of impact projects may differ markedly, depending on input of scenario data for

  20. 77 FR 38823 - Notice of Availability of the Alta East Wind Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-052537, LLCAD05000, L51010000.FX0000, LVRWB11B4520] Notice of Availability of the Alta East Wind Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report and Proposed California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, Kern County, CA...

  1. Impact of fractionator and pipeline projects on Gulf Coast NGL markets: 1992--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of major pipeline and fractionation expansion projects on Gulf Coast NGL supply/demand balances over the next five years. Specific projects that are included in this evaluation are summarized below: NGL pipeline expansions -- (1) Seminole pipeline, MAPCO (purity products and raw mix) and (2) Sterling pipeline, Koch (purity products); Mont Belvieu fractionator expansions -- (1) Enterprise Products Company (raw mix), (2) Warren Petroleum Company (raw mix), and (3) Trident, et al. Gulf Coast II Fractionator (raw mix); Westlake Petrochemical Company (E/P splitter). The impact of these projects is evaluated for specific NGL products including: purity ethane; E/P mix; propane; N-butane

  2. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  3. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement, September 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-09-01

    BPA has been asked by PPM Energy, Inc. to interconnect 300 megawatts (MW) of electricity generated from the proposed Klondike III Wind Project to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. Orion Energy LLC has also asked BPA to interconnect 400 MW of electricity from its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, located north and east of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project. (Portland General Electric recently bought the rights to develop the proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm from Orion Energy, LLC.) Both wind projects received Site Certificates from the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council on June 30, 2006. To interconnect these projects, BPA would need to build and operate a 230-kV double-circuit transmission line about 12 miles long, expand one substation and build one new substation. The wind projects would require wind turbines, substation(s), access roads, and other facilities. Two routes for the transmission line are being considered. Both begin at PPM's Klondike Schoolhouse Substation then travel north (Proposed Action) or north and westerly (Middle Alternative) to a new BPA 230-kV substation next to BPA's existing John Day 500-kV Substation. BPA is also considering a No Action Alternative in which BPA would not build the transmission line and would not interconnect the wind projects. The proposed BPA and wind projects would be located on private land, mainly used for agriculture. If BPA decides to interconnect the wind projects, construction of the BPA transmission line and substation(s) could commence as early as the winter of 2006-07. Both wind projects would operate for much of each year for at least 20 years. The proposed projects would generally create no or low impacts. Wildlife resources and local visual resources are the only resources to receive an impact rating other than ''none'' or ''low''. The low to moderate impacts to wildlife are from the expected bird and bat mortality and the cumulative

  4. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agol, Dorice; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The

  5. Evaluating impacts of development and conservation projects using sustainability indicators: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, Dorice, E-mail: d.agol@uea.a.c.uk [University of East Anglia, School of International Development, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Latawiec, Agnieszka E., E-mail: a.latawiec@iis-rio.org [International Institute for Sustainability, Estrada Dona Castorina 124, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Opole University of Technology, Department of Production Engineering and Logistics, Luboszycka 5, 45-036 Opole (Poland); University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Strassburg, Bernardo B.N., E-mail: b.strassburg@iis-rio.org [International Institute for Sustainability, Estrada Dona Castorina 124, 22460-320 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Geography and the Environment, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    There has been an increased interest in using sustainability indicators for evaluating the impacts of development and conservation projects. Past and recent experiences have shown that sustainability indicators can be powerful tools for measuring the outcomes of various interventions, when used appropriately and adequately. Currently, there is a range of methods for applying sustainability indicators for project impact evaluation at the environment–development interface. At the same time, a number of challenges persist which have implication for impact evaluation processes especially in developing countries. We highlight some key and recurrent challenges, using three cases from Kenya, Indonesia and Brazil. In this study, we have conducted a comparative analysis across multiple projects from the three countries, which aimed to conserve biodiversity and improve livelihoods. The assessments of these projects were designed to evaluate their positive, negative, short-term, long term, direct and indirect impacts. We have identified a set of commonly used sustainability indicators to evaluate the projects and have discussed opportunities and challenges associated with their application. Our analysis shows that impact evaluation processes present good opportunities for applying sustainability indicators. On the other hand, we find that project proponents (e.g. managers, evaluators, donors/funders) face challenges with establishing full impacts of interventions and that these are rooted in monitoring and evaluation processes, lack of evidence-based impacts, difficulties of measuring certain outcomes and concerns over scale of a range of impacts. We outline key lessons learnt from the multiple cases and propose ways to overcome common problems. Results from our analysis demonstrate practical experiences of applying sustainability indicators in developing countries context where there are different prevailing socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions. The

  6. Projected impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Cui, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    Hydropower is an important renewable energy source in China, but it is sensitive to climate change, because the changing climate may alter hydrological conditions (e.g., river flow and reservoir storage). Future changes and associated uncertainties in China's gross hydropower potential (GHP) and developed hydropower potential (DHP) are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs), including a large-scale reservoir regulation model, forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Results show that the estimation of the present GHP of China is comparable to other studies; overall, the annual GHP is projected to change by −1.7 to 2 % in the near future (2020–2050) and increase by 3 to 6 % in the late 21st century (2070–2099). The annual DHP is projected to change by −2.2 to −5.4 % (0.7–1.7 % of the total installed hydropower capacity (IHC)) and −1.3 to −4 % (0.4–1.3 % of total IHC) for 2020–2050 and 2070–2099, respectively. Regional variations emerge: GHP will increase in northern China but decrease in southern China – mostly in south central China and eastern China – where numerous reservoirs and large IHCs currently are located. The area with the highest GHP in southwest China will have more GHP, while DHP will reduce in the regions with high IHC (e.g., Sichuan and Hubei) in the future. The largest decrease in DHP (in %) will occur in autumn or winter, when streamflow is relatively low and water use is competitive. Large ranges in hydropower estimates across GHMs and GCMs highlight the necessity of using multimodel assessments under climate change conditions. This study prompts the consideration of climate change in planning for hydropower development and operations in China, to be further combined with a socioeconomic analysis for strategic expansion.

  7. Beryllium Project: developing in CDTN of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with addition of beryllium oxide to increase the thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Andrade, Antonio Santos; Queiroz, Carolinne Mol; Gonzaga, Mariana de Carvalho Leal

    2013-01-01

    Although the nuclear fuel currently based on pellets of uranium dioxide be very safe and stable, the biggest problem is that this material is not a good conductor of heat. This results in an elevated temperature gradient between the center and its lateral surface, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel, which restricts the performance of the reactor, being necessary to change the fuel before its full utilization. An increase of only 5 to 10 percent in its thermal conductivity, would be a significant increase. An increase of 50 percent would be a great improvement. A project entitled 'Beryllium Project' was developed in CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, which aimed to develop fuel pellets made from a mixture of uranium dioxide microspheres and beryllium oxide powder to obtain a better heat conductor phase, filling the voids between the microspheres to increase the thermal conductivity of the pellet. Increases in the thermal conductivity in the range of 8.6% to 125%, depending on the level of addition employed in the range of 1% to 14% by weight of beryllium oxide, were obtained. This type of fuel promises to be safer than current fuels, improving the performance of the reactor, in addition to last longer, resulting in great savings. (author)

  8. Stuart oil shale project stage two: executive summary: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The project is an oil shale open pit mine and processing operation that is currently being commissioned 15 km north of Gladstone, Queensland, Australia, and is owned as a joint venture by Southern Pacific Petroleum N.L., Central Pacific Minerals N.L, and Suncor Energy Inc., a leading Canadian company that is an integrated energy company. The results of a comprehensive investigation are included of the potential environmental impacts of the project, and which are described in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). In stage two, there is included the existing mine expansion as well as the construction of an additional process plant based around a larger commercial scale ATP oil shale processing plant. The new stage two operation will be developed next to and integral with services and infrastructure provided for stage one. Described are: the assessment process, regulatory framework and the project area, the needs for an alternative to the project, the proposal itself, the existing natural, social and economic impacts, and the environmental impacts as well as plans for their mitigation. In appendices there are included a draft environmental management overview strategy and an environmental management plan. The elements covered in the report by section are: background, need for the project, the proponent, legislation and approvals, project description, environmental issues and impact management

  9. THE IMPACTS OF PRESTIGE PROJECTS ON THE SKYLINE OF ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Girginkaya Akdağ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of prestige projects for cities is related to governments’ politics and visions.  Under the effects of globalization, central and local authorities have constructed   competitive cities. But these cities also have important historical qualities hence these processes have to be made by a holistic planning vision and conservation strategy. For instance, if a city waterfront skyline has a strong image; new constructions should be designed in harmony with the local topography and urban pattern. This paper is based on mathematical and computer based approaches for evaluating aesthetic qualities of city skylines. Therefore a case study on high rise buildings in the main prestige CBD of Istanbul is done. GIS models of Maslak-Zincirlikuyu axis is made and its past, present and future skylines are extracted by database querying and visual analysis. The skylines derived are finally measured by entropy analyses based on formal aesthetic  characteristics.

  10. The impact of the human genome project on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katarzyna Doerffer; Paul Unrau.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protection approach to risk assessment assumes that cancer induction following radiation exposure is purely random. Present risk assessment methods derive risk from cancer incidence frequencies in exposed populations and associate disease outcomes totally with the level of exposure to ionizing red aeon. Exposure defines a risk factor that affects the probability of the disease outcome. But cancer risk can be affected by other risk factors such as underlying genetic factors (predisposition) of the exposed organism. These genetic risk factors are now becoming available for incorporation into ionizing radiation risk assessment Progress in the Human Genome Project (HOP) will lead to direct assays to measure the effects of genetic risk determinants in disease outcomes. When all genetic risk determinants are known and incorporated into risk assessment it will be possible to reevaluate the role of ionizing radiation in the causation of cancer. (author)

  11. Thermal acclimation modulates the impacts of temperature and enrichment on trophic interaction strengths and population dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sentis, Arnaud; Morisson, J.; Boukal S., David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 9 (2015), s. 3290-3298 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0096 Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/30.0049 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity loss * climate change * consumer-resource Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.12931/abstract

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  13. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  14. Quantifying the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huayang; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Huang, Jingzheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Feng; Toffolon, Marco

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the impact of the world’s largest dam, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River (China). The analysis uses long-term observations of river water temperature (RWT) in four stations and reconstructs the RWT that would have occurred in absence of the TGD. Relative to pre-TGD conditions, RWT consistently warmed in the region due to air temperature (AT) increase. In addition, the analysis demonstrates that the TGD significantly affected RWT in the downstream reach. At the closest downstream station (Yichang) to the TGD, the annual cycle of RWT experienced a damped response to AT and a marked seasonal alteration: warming during all seasons except for spring and early summer which were characterized by cooling. Both effects were a direct consequence of the larger thermal inertia of the massive water volume stored in the TGD reservoir, causing the downstream reach to be more thermally resilient. The approach used here to quantify the separate contributions of climate and human interventions on RWT can be used to set scientific guidelines for river management and conservation planning strategies.

  15. Certain aspects of the environmental impact of nuclear power engineering and thermal power engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malenchenko, A F [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Yadernoj Ehnergetiki

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the both environmental impact and hazard to man resulting from nuclear power engineering as compared with those of thermal power engineering. At present, in addition to such criteria, as physical-chemical characteristic of energy sources, their efficiency and accessibility for exploitation, new requirements were substantiated in relation to safety of their utilization for environment. So, one of essential problems of nuclear power engineering development consists in assessment and prediction of radioecological consequence. The analysis and operating experience of more than 1000 reactor/years with no accidents and harm for pupulation show, that in respect to impact on environment and man nuclear power engineering is much more safe in comparison with energy sources using tradidional fossile fuel.

  16. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1995-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for RIB applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article

  17. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for radioactive ion beam generationa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1996-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Technology overview: assessment of social values in thermal power plant siting, social impact methodology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology was developed to facilitate the selection of favorable thermal power plant site and design alternatives from the community perspective. A two-stage, multicriteria decision technique was employed to combine technical assessments of effects of the proposed site/design alternatives with corresponding community values. In the first stage, submodels are used to develop indices of plant impact on each of ten decision criteria. These criteria include effects on aesthetics, water quality, cost of power, air quality, ecology, social quality, local economy, recreational opportunities, cultural resources, and human health and safety. In the second stage, each of the impact indices is weighted by corresponding community values and then summed to provide an overall index of plant acceptability

  19. The Impact of Organization, Project and Governance Variables on Software Quality and Project Success

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Noura; Gravell, Andy; Wills, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a statistically tested evidence about how quality and success rate are correlated with variables reflecting the organization and aspects of its project’s governance, namely retrospectives and metrics. The results presented in this paper are based on the Agile Projects Governance Survey that collected 129 responses. This paper discuss the deep analysis of this survey, and the main findings suggest that when applying agile software development, the quality of software i...

  20. Modeling the determinants of the social impacts of agricultural development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah; Iman, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to help policy-makers improve the social sustainability of development projects, this study identifies the key determinants of farmers' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the floodwater spreading project (FWSP) on the Gareh-Bygone plain in Iran. In order to analyze the links between the various factors that affect the experience of social impact, a theoretical framework was developed. Stratified random sampling was used to survey 138 farm households from the four villages in the region. One male and one female from each house were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire, resulting in a total of 276 interviews. Structural factors were found to be the largest contribution to stakeholders' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the project. Results from a cluster analysis suggested that the level of floodwater information, level of participation, water access, ownership change, and environmental worldview were the most important factors explaining attitude towards social impact of the FWSP.

  1. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  2. Draft environmental impact statement: KENETECH/PacifiCorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement assesses the environmental consequences of a proposed windpower development project in Carbon County, between Arlington and Hanna, Wyoming. Public scoping commenced in January 1994. All issues raised during scoping and interdisciplinary team preparation of the analysis are addressed. The proposed project entails the erection of approximately 1,390 wind turbine generators and associated facilities (e.g., roads, substations, distribution and communications lines) by KENETECH Windpower, Inc. A 230-kV transmission line would be built by PacifiCorp, Inc. to connect a proposed substation on Foote Creek Rim near Arlington to the Miner's substation near Hanna. The proposed project would use standard procedures as currently employed by other right-of-way projects, plus additional project-specific and site-specific mitigation measures to ensure that project impacts are minimized on all important resources. Impacts to most resources would be negligible to moderate during the life-of-project. Potentially significant impacts resulting from the project include avian mortality; declining avian populations; threatened, endangered, candidate, and/or state sensitive species mortality and/or habitat loss; disturbance to nearby residents due to noise; changes in visual resources; disturbance of important Native American traditional sites; changes in plant community species composition due to snow redistribution; displacement of big game due to windfarm operation; and loss of sage grouse nesting habitat. The proposed project could also have numerous beneficial impacts including increased revenues generated by taxes, increased employment, and benefits derived from using a nonpolluting resource for electric power generation

  3. Final environmental impact statement Kenetech/PacifiCorp Windpower Project Carbon County, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Draft and Final Environmental Impact Statements (DEIS and FEIS) assess the environmental consequences of a proposed windpower energy development in Carbon County, Wyoming. This abbreviated FEIS revises and supplements the DEIS for the project and addresses comments expressed for the DEIS. The proposed project entails the erection of approximately 1,390 wind turbine generators and associated facilities (e.g., roads, substations, distribution and communications lines) by KENETECH Windpower, Inc. A 230-kV transmission line would be built by PacifiCorp, Inc. to connect a proposed substation on Foote Creek Rim near Arlington to the Miner's substation near Hanna. The proposed project would use standard procedures as currently employed by other right-of-way projects, plus additional project-specific and site-specific mitigation measures to ensure that project impacts are minimized on all important resources. Impacts to most resources would be negligible to moderate during the life-of-project. Potentially significant impacts from the project include avian mortality; declining avian populations; threatened, endangered, candidate, and/or state sensitive species mortality and/or habitat loss; disturbance to nearby residents due to noise; changes in visual resources; disturbance of important Native American traditional sites; changes in plant community species composition due to snow redistribution; displacement of big game due to windfarm operation; and loss of sage grouse nesting habitat. The proposed project could also have numerous beneficial impacts including increased revenues generated by taxes, increased employment, and benefits derived from using a nonpolluting resource for electric power generation

  4. The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, C.

    1986-01-01

    What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

  5. Projected Impact of Urban Growth on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Federico; Murgante, Beniamino; Martellozzo, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Human activities on land use such as intensive agricultural techniques and urbanization are generating a number of social and economic benefit for contemporary society. Besides, these phenomena are one of the most significant causes of Land Degradation. Firstly, intensive agriculture is on the one hand creating an advantage in the short-period in terms of food production, while on the other is producing serious long-period problems in terms of loss of ecosystem services, including some important for agriculture itself. Secondly, the rapid growth of urban areas in recent decades is generating deep environmental issues. The World Urbanization Prospect by the United Nations (UN) shows that more than half of the world's population today (54%) lives in urban areas. This figure was only 30% in 1950, and estimates are that it will rise to 66% by 2050. Urban growth is responsible for the increase of air pollution, waste production, energy consumption, and land take. Moreover, the expansion of urban areas is making the problem of urban heat islands more relevant, and studies are proving how land cover changes are among the main factors that affect local microclimates. Consequently, territorial planning will play an important role in the fight to mitigate the effects of climate change, as land cover has a significant impact on the energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. This study couples urban growth simulation models based on cellular automata to multiple linear regression techniques that are used to formulate equations for predicting the effects of simulated urban development on soil surface temperature. The proposed methodology is applied to the case study of the Italian national territory, considering various alternative scenarios of land use changes and of their impact on local surface temperatures. The results show that the areas with the greatest urban pressure might be subject to significant climatic changes due to the increased impact of urban heat

  6. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  7. APPLICATION OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR IMPACT ABSORPTION AND THERMAL INSULATION FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Steve Bellamy, S; William Daugherty, W; Sharon Williamson, S

    2007-01-01

    Polyurethane foam has been widely used as an impact absorbing and thermal insulating material for large radioactive materials packages, since the 1980's. With the adoption of the regulatory crush test requirement, for smaller packages, polyurethane foam has been adopted as a replacement for cane fiberboard, because of its ability to withstand the crush test. Polyurethane foam is an engineered material whose composition is much more closely controlled than that of cane fiberboard. In addition, the properties of the foam can be controlled by controlling the density of the foam. The conditions under which the foam is formed, whether confined or unconfined have an affect on foam properties. The study reported here reviewed the application of polyurethane foam in RAM packagings and compared property values reported in the literature with published property values and test results for foam specimens taken from a prototype 9977 packaging. The study confirmed that, polyurethane foam behaves in a predictable and consistent manner and fully satisfies the functional requirements for impact absorption and thermal insulation

  8. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  9. Numerical analysis of thermal impact on hydro-mechanical properties of clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As is known, high-level radioactive waste (HLW is commonly heat-emitting. Heat output from HLW will dissipate through the surrounding rocks and induce complex thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC processes. In highly consolidated clayey rocks, thermal effects are particularly significant because of their very low permeability and water-saturated state. Thermal impact on the integrity of the geological barriers is of most importance with regard to the long-term safety of repositories. This study focuses on numerical analysis of thermal effects on hydro-mechanical properties of clayey rock using a coupled thermo-mechanical multiphase flow (TH2M model which is implemented in the finite element programme OpenGeoSys (OGS. The material properties of the numerical model are characterised by a transversal isotropic elastic model based on Hooke's law, a non-isothermal multiphase flow model based on van Genuchten function and Darcy's law, and a transversal isotropic heat transport model based on Fourier's law. In the numerical approaches, special attention has been paid to the thermal expansion of three different phases: gas, fluid and solid, which could induce changes in pore pressure and porosity. Furthermore, the strong swelling and shrinkage behaviours of clayey material are also considered in the present model. The model has been applied to simulate a laboratory heating experiment on claystone. The numerical model gives a satisfactory representation of the observed material behaviour in the laboratory experiment. The comparison of the calculated results with the laboratory findings verifies that the simulation with the present numerical model could provide a deeper understanding of the observed effects.

  10. Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandani, Giada; Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (), air temperature (), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. Analysis of days under calm, clear-sky condition is reported. During daytime, sun-to-shadow differences for , apparent temperature index (ATI), and were significantly positive for all surfaces. Conversely, during nighttime, differences among all surfaces were significantly negative, whereas ATI showed significantly positive differences. Moreover, was significantly negative for grass and gravel. Relative to the shaded surfaces, was higher on white gravel and grass than gray sandstone and asphalt during nighttime, whereas gray sandstone was always the warmest surface during daytime. Conversely, no differences were found during nighttime for ATI and measured over surfaces that were exposed to sun during the day, whereas showed higher values on gravel than grass and asphalt during nighttime. An exposed surface warms less if its albedo is high, leading to a significant reduction of during daytime. These results underline the importance of considering the effects of surface characteristics on surface temperature and thermal comfort. This would be fundamental for addressing urban environment issues toward the heat island mitigation considering also the impact of urban

  11. Impact of building forms on thermal performance and thermal comfort conditions in religious buildings in hot climates: a case study in Sharjah city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaha, Emad; Helmy, Omar

    2017-11-01

    The common system used for thermal regulation in mosques of United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This system increases demands on energy consumption and increases CO2 emission. A passive design approach is one of the measures to reduce these problems. This study involved an analytical examination of building forms, followed by testing the impact of these forms on its thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort. The tests were conducted using energy simulations software packages. Passive parameters such as shading devices, thermal insulation and natural ventilation were applied in six cases, including the baseline case within each form. The obtained results showed a significant effect of mosque forms as well as passive design techniques on the thermal comfort within the structures. The findings confirmed that the use of passive design alone would not help achieve thermal comfort, but reduce the annual energy consumption by10%. By integrating a hybrid air-conditioning system as another supporting approach, the annual energy consumption could be reduced by 67.5%, which allows for the designing of a much smaller HVAC system.

  12. Chip-carrier thermal barrier and its impact on lateral thermal lens profile and beam parameter product in high power broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieprich, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Kernke, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers with high optical power density in a small focus spot are in strong commercial demand. For this purpose, the beam quality, quantified via the beam parameter product (BPP), has to be improved. Previous studies have shown that the BPP is strongly affected by current-induced heating and the associated thermal lens formed within the laser stripe. However, the chip structure and module-assembly related factors that regulate the size and the shape of the thermal lens are not well known. An experimental infrared thermographic technique is used to quantify the thermal lens profile in diode lasers operating at an emission wavelength of 910 nm, and the results are compared with finite element method simulations. The analysis indicates that the measured thermal profiles can best be explained when a thermal barrier is introduced between the chip and the carrier, which is shown to have a substantial impact on the BPP and the thermal resistance. Comparable results are observed in further measurements of samples from multiple vendors, and the barrier is only observed for junction-down (p-down) mounting, consistent with the barrier being associated with the GaAs-metal transition.

  13. Risk assessment framework on time impact: Infrastructure projects in soft soil during construction stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W. W.; Wong, K. S.; Lee, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    With the growth of economy and population, there is an increase in infrastructure construction projects. As such, it is unavoidable to have construction projects on soft soil. Without proper risk management plan, construction projects are vulnerable to different types of risks which will have negative impact on project’s time, cost and quality. Literature review showed that little or none of the research is focused on the risk assessment on the infrastructure project in soft soil. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a risk assessment framework in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage. This research was focused on the impact of risks on project time and internal risk factors. The research method was Analytical Hierarchy Process and the sample population was experienced industry experts who have experience in infrastructure projects. Analysis was completed and result showed that for internal factors, the five most significant risks on time element are lack of special equipment, potential contractual disputes and claims, shortage of skilled workers, delay/lack of materials supply, and insolvency of contractor/sub-contractor. Results indicated that resources risk factor play a critical role on project time frame in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage.

  14. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydrological Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2A Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Robin N.

    2005-02-01

    Task 2A concerns coupled TH modeling of the DST test at Yucca mountain, with given results for geologic, thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and mineralogic and petrologic characterization, as-built configuration of the test block of DST, including locations of various sensors and measuring instruments and the plans for heating and cooling, including expected heater powers at various times, and requiring predictions for distributions and evolutions of the temperature and saturation fields. Three teams of ENRESA (Spain), DOE (USA), and NRC (USA) teams participated the task with different approaches, using FEM code Bright with a double porosity structure (ENRESA), a FDM code MULTIFLO with a dual continuum approach and an active fracture model (NRC) and a FDM code TOUGH 2 with a dual permeability approach (DOE), respectively. Based on the results of the temperature and moisture distributions and temperature histories, it can be concluded that in general, the three models capture the TH response of the DST fairly well, although there are some differences between the teams' results. Conduction is the dominant heat-transfer mechanism in the fractured unsaturated rock in the DST, especially in the sub-boiling regime. However, the pore water plays an important role near the boiling point as it goes through cycles of vaporization and condensation causing the so called heat-pipe effect. A characteristic signature of heatpipes - a short lull in the rise of temperature - was captured by all three teams. The 2D modeling of the DST carried out by the ENRESA team initially was characterized by very little diffusion of vapor because the tortuosity factor was set at a low value of 0.05 and is referred to as the ND (No Diffusion) case. The recent 3D model with a tortuosity factor set at 1 and a vapor diffusion enhancement coefficient allows maximum vapor diffusion and is referred to as the MD (maximum diffusion) case. Comparative analyses of the modeling results for ND and MD cases

  15. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Chemical Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2D Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Robin N.

    2005-02-01

    Task 2D concerns numerical simulation of the coupled THC modeling of the DST test at Yucca mountain, with given results for geologic, thermal, hydrologic, mineralogic and petrologic characterization, as-built configuration of the test block of DST, including locations of various sensors and measuring instruments and the plans for heating and cooling, including expected heater powers at various times, and compared with geochemical measurements performed on gas, water, and mineral samples collected from the DST. Two teams of DOE/LBNL (USA) and JNC (Japan) participated the task with different approaches. The LBNL model represented the fractures and rock matrix by a dual-continuum concept, with the mineral-water-gas reactions treated by primarily kinetic and a few equilibrium reactions. The JNC model represented the fractures and matrix as a single effective continuum, with equilibrium mineral-water reactions controlling the chemical evolution (as well as considering aqueous species transport). The JNC team performed the coupled THC simulation of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test by the coupled THM code 'THAMES', mass transport code 'Dtransu' and geochemical code 'PHREEQE' under coupling system code 'COUPLYS'. The LBNL team simulated the THC processes include coupling between heat, water, and vapor flow; aqueous and gaseous species transport; kinetic and equilibrium mineral-water reactions; and feedback of mineral precipitation/dissolution on porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure, with the FDM code TOUGHREACT V3.0. In general, both models capture the temperature evolution in the rock fairly well, although the JNC model yielded a closer match to the initial temperature rise in the rock, probably due to the better site-specific thermal data. Both models showed the contrasting solubility effects of increasing temperature on calcite and silica solubility; yet the dual continuum approach better represented the effects of the boiling and condensation periods on

  16. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Chemical Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2D Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Robin N. [Bechtel SAlC Company, Las Vegas (US)] (comp.)

    2005-02-15

    Task 2D concerns numerical simulation of the coupled THC modeling of the DST test at Yucca mountain, with given results for geologic, thermal, hydrologic, mineralogic and petrologic characterization, as-built configuration of the test block of DST, including locations of various sensors and measuring instruments and the plans for heating and cooling, including expected heater powers at various times, and compared with geochemical measurements performed on gas, water, and mineral samples collected from the DST. Two teams of DOE/LBNL (USA) and JNC (Japan) participated the task with different approaches. The LBNL model represented the fractures and rock matrix by a dual-continuum concept, with the mineral-water-gas reactions treated by primarily kinetic and a few equilibrium reactions. The JNC model represented the fractures and matrix as a single effective continuum, with equilibrium mineral-water reactions controlling the chemical evolution (as well as considering aqueous species transport). The JNC team performed the coupled THC simulation of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test by the coupled THM code 'THAMES', mass transport code 'Dtransu' and geochemical code 'PHREEQE' under coupling system code 'COUPLYS'. The LBNL team simulated the THC processes include coupling between heat, water, and vapor flow; aqueous and gaseous species transport; kinetic and equilibrium mineral-water reactions; and feedback of mineral precipitation/dissolution on porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure, with the FDM code TOUGHREACT V3.0. In general, both models capture the temperature evolution in the rock fairly well, although the JNC model yielded a closer match to the initial temperature rise in the rock, probably due to the better site-specific thermal data. Both models showed the contrasting solubility effects of increasing temperature on calcite and silica solubility; yet the dual continuum approach better represented the effects of

  17. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydrological Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Robin N. [Bechtel SAlC Company, Las Vegas (US)] (comp.)

    2005-02-15

    Task 2A concerns coupled TH modeling of the DST test at Yucca mountain, with given results for geologic, thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and mineralogic and petrologic characterization, as-built configuration of the test block of DST, including locations of various sensors and measuring instruments and the plans for heating and cooling, including expected heater powers at various times, and requiring predictions for distributions and evolutions of the temperature and saturation fields. Three teams of ENRESA (Spain), DOE (USA), and NRC (USA) teams participated the task with different approaches, using FEM code Bright with a double porosity structure (ENRESA), a FDM code MULTIFLO with a dual continuum approach and an active fracture model (NRC) and a FDM code TOUGH 2 with a dual permeability approach (DOE), respectively. Based on the results of the temperature and moisture distributions and temperature histories, it can be concluded that in general, the three models capture the TH response of the DST fairly well, although there are some differences between the teams' results. Conduction is the dominant heat-transfer mechanism in the fractured unsaturated rock in the DST, especially in the sub-boiling regime. However, the pore water plays an important role near the boiling point as it goes through cycles of vaporization and condensation causing the so called heat-pipe effect. A characteristic signature of heatpipes - a short lull in the rise of temperature - was captured by all three teams. The 2D modeling of the DST carried out by the ENRESA team initially was characterized by very little diffusion of vapor because the tortuosity factor was set at a low value of 0.05 and is referred to as the ND (No Diffusion) case. The recent 3D model with a tortuosity factor set at 1 and a vapor diffusion enhancement coefficient allows maximum vapor diffusion and is referred to as the MD (maximum diffusion) case. Comparative analyses of the modeling results for ND and MD

  18. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  19. Gasoline standard Motor monthly Prices, Projection and Impact, during 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unidad de Planeacion Minero Energetica, UPME

    1999-01-01

    The liberation of prices for the standard gasoline and ACPM, that was given starting from January of 1.999, it outlines uncertainties on the possible prices evolution, along the supply chain until the final user, in comparison with the system previous of control and adjustment. This article presents an approach to the possible evolution of the gasoline motor prices during 1.999, in their different components. It makes it from the entrance to the producer until when one sells the public to a maximum price that includes the super tax. Additionally, it makes a preliminary calculation of the impact of the prices prospective month to month on the cost of transport of ECOPETROL revenues and the Nation revenues. The prospective annual percentage variation is presented from the entrance to the producer and of the other components of the price of the standard gasoline motor in different scenarios of the rate variation. In the most probable scenario, a variation is expected from the entrance to the producing of 1,9% and an increment in the sale price to the public, without including the super tax, of 12,6%

  20. Engineering estimates versus impact evaluation of energy efficiency projects: Regression discontinuity evidence from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Corey; Siler, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades have been gaining widespread attention across global channels as a cost-effective approach to addressing energy challenges. The cost-effectiveness of these projects is generally predicted using engineering estimates pre-implementation, often with little ex post analysis of project success. In this paper, for a suite of energy efficiency projects, we directly compare ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings to ex post econometric estimates that use 15-min interval, building-level energy consumption data. In contrast to most prior literature, our econometric results confirm the engineering estimates, even suggesting the engineering estimates were too modest. Further, we find heterogeneous efficiency impacts by time of day, suggesting select efficiency projects can be useful in reducing peak load. - Highlights: • Regression discontinuity used to estimate energy savings from efficiency projects. • Ex post econometric estimates validate ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings. • Select efficiency projects shown to reduce peak load

  1. Resource contingency program - Oregon. Final environmental impact statement, Hermiston power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA's Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA's intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future

  2. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

  3. Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project, Morrow County, Oregon: Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to transfer (wheel) electrical power from a proposed privately-owned, combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Oregon. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate up to 440 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Portland General Electric Company (PGE). The project would be built in eastern Oregon, just east of the City of Boardman in Morrow County. The proposed plant would be built on a site within the Port of Morrow Industrial Park. The proposed use for the site is consistent with the County land use plan. Building the transmission line needed to interconnect the power plant to BPA`s transmission system would require a variance from Morrow County. BPA would transfer power from the plant to its McNary-Slatt 500-kV transmission line. PGE would pay BPA for wheeling services. Key environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and evaluated in the draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) include these potential impacts: (1) air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contributions to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) health and safety impacts, such as effects of electric and magnetic fields, (3) noise impacts, (4) farmland impacts, (5) water vapor impacts to transportation, (6) economic development and employment impacts, (7) visual impacts, (8) consistency with local comprehensive plans, and (9) water quality and supply impacts, such as the amount of wastewater discharged, and the source and amount of water required to operate the plant. These and other issues are discussed in the DEIS. The proposed project includes features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on studies completed for the DEIS, adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial.

  4. A Project in Thermal Physics Involving a Car Parked in Direct Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei; Gilley, Heidi L.; Caris, Joshua B.

    1997-05-01

    A research project for introductory physics students, involving an estimate of the surface temperature of the Sun using a parked car, was carried out in the Summer 1995 Research Apprenticeships in Science Program, sponsored by Edison Industrial Systems Center, for local-area high school students. This activity entails both outdoor quantitative observations and theoretical analysis, and yields a result within 12 percent of the accepted value. It was demonstrated that the use of everyday materials and outdoor observations, such as those in this project, is not only educational but also intriguing. The success of this experiment as a summer research project will be discussed.

  5. A comparative study on the Environmental Impact Assessment of industrial projects in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaya, E. A.; Mahbub, R.

    2018-02-01

    In the past decade, mankind has been manipulating the natural environment to better suit its needs for providing buildings and infrastructure for residential, commercial, business and industrial purposes. The rapid industrialization that has taken place has generated several issues regarding the environment. Therefore, managing environmental risks in construction projects has been recognized as an important process to achieve the project objectives in terms of time, cost, quality, safety and environmental sustainability. The aim of this research is to assess the environmental impact of industrial projects to the surrounding areas. The impact to the environment can be categorized into several aspects such as ecosystem impact, natural resources impact and public impact. This research employs the quantitative approach, that is, a questionnaire survey targeted at the occupants living in the surrounding areas of the case study location, namely the industrial sites in Sabah Ammonia Urea (SAMUR), Sipitang, Sabah and Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP), Gebeng Pahang. The findings of the research show that the two projects are perceived to have negative environmental impact especially for land pollution and green-house gas emissions.

  6. Bill project for a new organisation of the electricity market (NOME): impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document reports a study of the impact of the implementation of regulated access to electricity, of a capacity obligation, and of the evolution of regulated selling prices. It outlines that the progressive opening to concurrence of electricity in European markets did not reach in France the expected objectives: to let consumers get the benefit of investment in nuclear energy, incentives for innovation and demand reduction, promotion of investments within the frame of the electricity European market, etc. The authors describe the electricity market new organisation which is defined in the bill project, and the expected impacts on the different actors, macro-economical impacts, impacts on public finance and employment, environmental impacts, social impacts, and legal impacts

  7. Thermal Power Systems, Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project. Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 1978. Volume II. Detailed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-15

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. This Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change it to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs. Accomplishments on point-focusing technology in FY 1978 are detailed.

  8. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.; Pathak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  9. Detection of impact damage on thermal protection systems using thin-film piezoelectric sensors for integrated structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jeong K.; Kuhr, Samuel J.; Jata, Kumar V.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) can be subjected to impact damage during flight and/or during ground maintenance and/or repair. AFRL/RXLP is developing a reliable and robust on-board sensing/monitoring capability for next generation thermal protection systems to detect and assess impact damage. This study was focused on two classes of metallic thermal protection tiles to determine threshold for impact damage and develop sensing capability of the impacts. Sensors made of PVDF piezoelectric film were employed and tested to evaluate the detectability of impact signals and assess the onset or threshold of impact damage. Testing was performed over a range of impact energy levels, where the sensors were adhered to the back of the specimens. The PVDF signal levels were analyzed and compared to assess damage, where digital microscopy, visual inspection, and white light interferometry were used for damage verification. Based on the impact test results, an assessment of the impact damage thresholds for each type of metallic TPS system was made.

  10. 78 FR 48713 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Ochoa Mine Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Ochoa Mine Project in Lea County, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY... Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Ochoa Mine Project (Project) and by this notice is...

  11. 76 FR 75554 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Mount Hope Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Mount Hope Project, Eureka County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Mount Hope Project and by this notice is announcing the opening of the... Mount Hope Project Draft EIS within 90 days following the date the Environmental Protection Agency...

  12. 77 FR 62256 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mount Hope Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mount Hope Project, Eureka County, NE AGENCY... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Mount Hope Project and by this notice is... Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Mount Hope Project Final EIS are available at the Battle Mountain...

  13. Impact evaluation of productive use—An implementation guideline for electrification projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Gunther; Peters, Jörg; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus in the international community that rural electrification and, in particular, the productive use of electricity contributes to poverty alleviation. At the same time, efforts to evaluate the impacts of development projects have increased substantially. This paper provides a hands-on guide for designing evaluation studies regarding the impacts of productive electricity usage. Complementary to the existing literature on evaluation methods, this guide familiarizes project managers with the concrete steps that have to be undertaken to plan and implement an evaluation. The guide comprises three modules based on enterprise surveys and on anecdotal case studies. For each module, the implementation is described on a step-by-step basis including conceptual issues as well as logistics and methodological questions. - Highlights: ► Hands-on evaluation guideline for development project managers. ► Step-by-step procedure on how to implement evaluation. ► Impacts of productive electricity use.

  14. Impact of Research and Development, Analysis, and Standardization on PV Project Financing Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones-Albertus, Rebecca [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-04-02

    The technical report discusses how R and D efforts focused on removing perceived risk from cash flows to investors have the potential to lower the cost of capital and increase the amount of leverage in a solar project. It also discusses how creating business efficiencies that allow financing transactions to occur more quickly with less effort can reduce the upfront costs associated with arranging financing for a solar project or group of projects. The paper then assesses the impact that these R and D activities might have on the volatility of PV asset cash flows and asset value, as well as the upfront costs of arranging a financial transaction. Finally, we insert these assumptions into financial models to analyze their impacts on the cost of capital for equity and debt investors, project leverage, and upfront financial transaction costs.

  15. Thermal and stress analysis of a fuel rod research project 277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to perform an analytical evaluation of a postulated loss of coolant incident in a large pressurized water reactor. A coupled thermal and stress finite element analysis of a fuel rod subjected to a hypothetical blow-down transient was carried out. The effect of two gap conditions and two initial stress states on the response of the fuel rod was studied. Both one-dimensional and three-dimensional models were investigated. To study the heat transfer in the gap region one assumes a conductive mode of heat transfer in the gap characterized by an equivalent thermal conductivity, which is dependent on the current gap width. Accordingly, coupled analysis procedure and computational scheme were established. A mesh generation computer program was developed for the three-dimensional model

  16. Micromachined single-level nonplanar polycrystalline SiGe thermal microemitters for infrared dynamic scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutenko, V. K.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.; Leonov, V.; Van Hoof, C.

    2009-05-01

    The technology for self-supported membraneless polycrystalline SiGe thermal microemitters, their design, and performance are presented. The 128-element arrays with a fill factor of 88% and a 2.5-μm-thick resonant cavity have been grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and fabricated using surface micromachining technology. The 200-nm-thick 60×60 μm2 emitting pixels enforced with a U-shape profile pattern demonstrate a thermal time constant of 2-7 ms and an apparent temperature of 700 K in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric transparency windows. The application of the devices to the infrared dynamic scene simulation and their benefit over conventional planar membrane-supported emitters are discussed.

  17. Simulation of thermal indoor climate in buildings by using human Projected Area Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays many new and old buildings in Denmark have large glass surfaces. This is a consequence of the technical development of windows with low U-values that has made it possible to build houses with windows from floor to ceiling in northern climates. On the other hand if one is sitting close to...... for dynamic building thermal analysis. The method is demonstrated in a newer apartment with windows from floor to ceiling and shows how impotent it is to include the radiant effect from the glass sur-faces and how it influences the indoor thermal climate significantly.......Nowadays many new and old buildings in Denmark have large glass surfaces. This is a consequence of the technical development of windows with low U-values that has made it possible to build houses with windows from floor to ceiling in northern climates. On the other hand if one is sitting close...

  18. Mixed oxide thermal behaviour at BOL: COMETHE III-J models and impact on power-to-melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van

    1979-01-01

    The mixed oxide thermal behaviour at beginning of life is very important because it can impose a limitation to the fuel pin peak power, and therefore to the reactor thermal output. The relevant physical processes leading to fuel restructuring are modelled in COMETHE III-J in a kinetic way. This ensures that the temperature and power history are properly taken into account. These models are described and their impact on the calculated power to melt early in life is analysed. (author)

  19. Good Vibrations: The long term impact of a prison based music project

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David; Caulfield, Laura; Atherton, Susie

    2009-01-01

    There is growing awareness amongst policy makers and those working in the criminal justice system of the contribution that can be made by the arts in prisons, in particular by more innovative projects that are often provided by charities and voluntary organisations. Numerous research studies have suggested that projects — such as music and art programmes — that offer participants a creative outlet have a positive impact on offenders, not least by encouraging them to engage with further learni...

  20. Scoping session of the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is about the scoping session which was held at the Community Center in Falls City, Texas. The purpose was to obtain public comment on the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA), specifically on the ground water project. Presentations made by the manager for the entire UMTRA program, manager of the site and ground water program, comments made by two residents of Fall City are included in this document

  1. Evaluating aggregate terrestrial impacts of road construction projects for advanced regional mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Girvetz, Evan H; McCoy, Michael C

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  2. Assessing Environmental Impact Indicators in Road Construction Projects in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Marzouk; Mohamed El-zayat; Ahmed Aboushady

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main concerns in the construction industry. Environmental pollution has become a major challenge to construction projects due to the huge amount of pollution caused by construction projects. There are different types of environmental impact indicators, such as the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint, eutrophication potential (EP), acidification potential (AP), human health (HH) particulate, ozone depletion, and smog. Each of these environmenta...

  3. Scoping session of the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-12-31

    This document is about the scoping session which was held at the Community Center in Falls City, Texas. The purpose was to obtain public comment on the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA), specifically on the ground water project. Presentations made by the manager for the entire UMTRA program, manager of the site and ground water program, comments made by two residents of Fall City are included in this document.

  4. Impacts and environmental administration in development projects: instruments for the political fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel Sanint, Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Inside the scheme of the necessary environmental administration to evaluate, to mitigate, to correct and to compensate the environmental impacts of a development project the acting diagram is presented, belonging to the multi-objective analysis, like an interesting tool that contributes to consider restrictions and to keep in mind the economic aspect inside the process of politics fixation for the interaction between the environmental authority and the developers of projects in the three basic instances contemplated by the legislation like interaction points

  5. Evaluating Aggregate Terrestrial Impacts of Road Construction Projects for Advanced Regional Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H.; Girvetz, Evan H.; McCoy, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents a GIS-based database framework used to assess aggregate terrestrial habitat impacts from multiple highway construction projects in California, USA. Transportation planners need such impact assessment tools to effectively address additive biological mitigation obligations. Such assessments can reduce costly delays due to protracted environmental review. This project incorporated the best available statewide natural resource data into early project planning and preliminary environmental assessments for single and multiple highway construction projects, and provides an assessment of the 10-year state-wide mitigation obligations for the California Department of Transportation. Incorporation of these assessments will facilitate early and more strategic identification of mitigation opportunities, for single-project and regional mitigation efforts. The data architecture format uses eight spatial scales: six nested watersheds, counties, and transportation planning districts, which were intersected. This resulted in 8058 map planning units statewide, which were used to summarize all subsequent analyses. Range maps and georeferenced locations of federally and state-listed plants and animals and a 55-class landcover map were spatially intersected with the planning units and the buffered spatial footprint of 967 funded projects. Projected impacts were summarized and output to the database. Queries written in the database can sum expected impacts and provide summaries by individual construction project, or by watershed, county, transportation district or highway. The data architecture allows easy incorporation of new information and results in a tool usable without GIS by a wide variety of agency biologists and planners. The data architecture format would be useful for other types of regional planning.

  6. Final report of the 'Nordic thermal-hydraulic and safety network (NOTNET)' - Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuunanen, J.; Tuomainen, M. [VTT Processes (Finland)

    2005-04-01

    A Nordic network for thermal-hydraulics and nuclear safety research was started. The idea of the network is to combine the resources of different research teams in order to carry out more ambitious and extensive research programs than would be possible for the individual teams. From the very beginning, the end users of the research results have been integrated to the network. Aim of the network is to benefit the partners involved in nuclear energy in the Nordic Countries (power companies, reactor vendors, safety regulators, research units). First task within the project was to describe the resources (personnel, know-how, simulation tools, test facilities) of the various teams. Next step was to discuss with the end users about their research needs. Based on these steps, few most important research topics with defined goals were selected, and coarse road maps were prepared for reaching the targets. These road maps will be used as a starting point for planning the actual research projects in the future. The organisation and work plan for the network were established. National coordinators were appointed, as well as contact persons in each participating organisation, whether research unit or end user. This organisation scheme is valid for the short-term operation of NOTNET when only Nordic organisations take part in the work. Later on, it is possible to enlarge the network e.g. within EC framework programme. The network can now start preparing project proposals and searching funding for the first common research projects. (au)

  7. Using Google Analytics to evaluate the impact of the CyberTraining project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, Conor; Crowley, Niall

    2012-11-01

    A focus on results and impact should be at the heart of every project's approach to research and dissemination. This article discusses the potential of Google Analytics (GA: http://google.com/analytics ) as an effective resource for measuring the impact of academic research output and understanding the geodemographics of users of specific Web 2.0 content (e.g., intervention and prevention materials, health promotion and advice). This article presents the results of GA analyses as a resource used in measuring the impact of the EU-funded CyberTraining project, which provided a well-grounded, research-based training manual on cyberbullying for trainers through the medium of a Web-based eBook ( www.cybertraining-project.org ). The training manual includes review information on cyberbullying, its nature and extent across Europe, analyses of current projects, and provides resources for trainers working with the target groups of pupils, parents, teachers, and other professionals. Results illustrate the promise of GA as an effective tool for measuring the impact of academic research and project output with real potential for tracking and understanding intra- and intercountry regional variations in the uptake of prevention and intervention materials, thus enabling precision focusing of attention to those regions.

  8. Approach to assessing local socio-cultural impacts using projections of population growth and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Poetsch, R.

    1977-08-01

    All assessment of future domestic development projects assumes that the problems to be examined have been properly identified and defined before the application of a projection technique. An attempt is made to codify socio-cultural problems mentioned in literature and clarify how existing demographic projection techniques can be applied to assessing the problems. The relationship between changes in local population size and composition induced by in-migration and the potential for socio-cultural incompatibilities is described heuristically. For simplification, the problems expected to emerge from differences in demographic composition are classified into three categories: (1) service needs, such as those for housing, recreation, and education; (2) types of social organizations related to capacities for, or constraints on, reaping the benefits of rapid economic development and social changes (e.g., employment and income); and (3) attitudes, values, and cultural perspectives. These areas of concern are very broad, and quantitative projections of population size and composition are more easily related to the first than to the third. Although demographic projection provides a valuable tool for estimating future social change, the knowledge about cause and effect is not sufficient to support the quantification of socio-cultural impact. Therefore, the projections are used only as relative indicators and the assessments of socio-cultural impact based on them are qualitative only. Therefore, identification and assessment of socio-cultural impacts are a means of developing plans to overcome the expected problems.

  9. Impact of tensile strain on the thermal transport of zigzag hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbon: An equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Ishtiaque Ahmed; Intisar Khan, Asir; Subrina, Samia

    2018-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of single layer strained hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbon (h-BNNR) has been computed using the Green—Kubo formulation of Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (EMD) simulation. We have investigated the impact of strain on thermal transport of h-BNNR by varying the applied tensile strain from 1% upto 5% through uniaxial loading. The thermal conductivity of h-BNNR decreases monotonically with the increase of uniaxial tensile strain keeping the sample size and temperature constant. The thermal conductivity can be reduced upto 86% for an applied uniaxial tensile strain of 5%. The impact of temperature and width variation on the thermal conductivity of h-BNNR has also been studied under different uniaxial tensile strain conditions. With the increase in temperature, the thermal conductivity of strained h-BNNR exhibits a decaying characteristics whereas it shows an opposite pattern with the increasing width. Such study would provide a good insight on the strain tunable thermal transport for the potential device application of boron nitride nanostructures.

  10. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation

  11. Structural-Phase Transformations of CuZn Alloy Under Thermal-Impact Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Chaplygina, A. A.; Kulagina, V. V.; Chaplygin, P. A.; Starostenkov, M. D.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Monte Carlo method, special features of structural - phase transformations in β-brass are investigated during thermal impact using thermal cycling as an example (a number of successive order - disorder and disorder - order phase transitions in the course of several heating - cooling cycles). It is shown that a unique hysteresis is observed after every heating and cooling cycle, whose presence indicates irreversibility of the processes, which suggests a difference in the structural - phase states both in the heating and cooling stages. A conclusion is drawn that the structural - phase transformations in the heating and cooling stages occur within different temperature intervals, where the thermodynamic stimuli of one or the other structural - phase state are low. This is also demonstrated both in the plots of configurational energy, long- and short-range order parameter, atomic structure variations, and structural - phase state distributions. Simultaneously, there coexist ordered and disordered phases and a certain collection of superstructure domains. This implies the presence of low - stability states in the vicinity of the order - disorder phase transition. The results of investigations demonstrate that the structural - phase transitions within two successive heating and cooling cycles at the same temperature are different in both stages. These changes, though not revolutionary, occur in every cycle and decrease with the increasing cycle number. In fact, the system undergoes training with a tendency towards a certain sequence of structural - phase states.

  12. The Impact of Organizational Knowledge Integrators on Cooperative R&D Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulathsinhala, Nadika

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that R&D projects that incorporate external knowledge sources not only depend on the number of sources, but also on integrating the right source. An organizational knowledge integrator has a natural interest due to its position in the value chain and the technology...... phase to pull the knowledge from earlier phases of development closer towards commercialization. The aim of the paper is to examine if organizational knowledge integrators in R&D projects have a positive impact on innovative performance compared to projects that do not involve a knowledge integrator...

  13. The impacts of the 1995 financial institution environmental guidelines on power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.L.; Schott, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, two of the most influential international financial institutions, The World Bank and The US Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) issued new environmental guidelines. These guidelines, particularly the World Bank guidelines, are used as a benchmark for evaluating the environmental acceptability of a project by many financial institutions, project developers, private investors, the public, and many developing countries. The impact of these guidelines must be well understood by developers of power projects in order to obtain the necessary financing, in addition to attracting investors, and obtaining national approvals and general public acceptance

  14. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-01-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow ( 3 (1,650-yd 3 ) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m 3 ($2,412/yd 3 ). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of gas emissions and environmental impact of a Cuban thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas Aroche, Juan Alberto; Alvarez Hernandez, Orlando H; Fuentes Quevedo, Eduardo; Teutelo Nunnez, Raisa

    2006-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained in the characterization of gas emissions and the impact of two fire-tube boilers in a Cuban thermal power plant. The results of the SO 2 and NO X sampling were collected in specific solutions for each pollutant. The sampling of suspended particulates in chimneys/pipes/stacks was made by collecting them in a filterholder for their analysis by means of the gravimetric method. Flow measurements were also made by using pressure sensors of Pilot tube-type speedometers. The dispersion modelling of pollutants poured out of the chimneys was developed running the program for the concentration calculation from continuous industrial sources and following the methodology approved by the Cuban standard according to Berliand model. The authors conclude that when burning national crude oil in the studied boilers, sulphur dioxide concentrations and suspended particulates are higher than the internationally standardized level

  16. Economic and environmental impacts of proposed changes to Clean Water Act thermal discharge requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economic and environmental impact to the power industry of limiting thermal mixing zones to 1000 feet and eliminating the Clean Water Act section 316(a) variance. Power companies were asked what they would do if these two conditions were imposed. Most affected plants would retrofit cooling towers and some would retrofit diffusers. Assuming that all affected plants would proportionally follow the same options as the surveyed plants, the estimated capital cost of retrofitting cooling towers or diffusers at all affected plants exceeds $20 billion. Since both cooling towers and diffusers exert an energy penalty on a plant's output, the power companies must generate additional power. The estimated cost of the additional power exceeds $10 billion over 20 years. Generation of the extra power would emit over 8 million tons per year of additional carbon dioxide. Operation of the new cooling towers would cause more than 1.5 million gallons per minute of additional evaporation

  17. Impact of coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on surrounding vegetative environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, D.K.; Senger, C.B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Vegetative system around the thermal power plants are exposed to perpetual emissions of particulates as well as gaseous pollutants in various forms and nature. These emissions evidently are reflected in plant responses. In order to assess the response of natural flora of this region, 2 plant species, that is Mangifera indica and Holarrhina artidysentrica and certain pollution sensitive parameter, such as leaf area, pH of wash water of foliage and sugar content of the leaves were identified for this study. It was observed that the pH of wash solution of leaves was close to neutral in upstream locations and in polluted zone pH was acidic. Leaf area was higher in least polluted zone and lower in more polluted locations. Dust deposition on leaves was observed be lower in upstream locations and higher in influenced areas. Sugar variations in leaves showed negative impact in affected areas. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Thermal Impact Analysis of Circulating Current in High Power Modular Online Uninterruptible Power Supplies Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In modular uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), several DC/AC modules are required to work in parallel. This structure allows the system to be more reliable and flexible. These DC/AC modules share the same DC bus and AC critical bus. Module differences, such as filter inductor, filter capacitor......, control parameters, and so on, will make it possible for the potential zero sequence current to flow among the modules. This undesired type of circulating current will bring extra losses to the power semiconductor devices in the system, which should be paid special attention in high power application...... scenarios. In this paper, plug’n’play modules and cycle control are discussed and validated through experimental results. Moreover, potential zero sequence circulating current impact on power semiconductor devices thermal performance is also analyzed in this paper....

  19. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  20. Environmental impact evaluation from large energy projects; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental de grandes projetos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Alberto [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    This paper builds up theoretical framework and methodological approaches to assess environmental impacts from large energy projects. It aims towards the definition of concrete tools, and technical proceedings to allow identification and quantification (or weighing) of effects on the natural and social environment. The environmental impacts assessment, (EIA), studies are described as important instruments in planning and in the choice of alternative energy policies. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  1. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 Projects Monitoring the Effects of Thermal Stress on Coral Bleaching

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate change impacts have been identified as one of the greatest global threats to coral reef ecosystems. As temperature rise, mass bleaching, and infectious...

  2. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix A: BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. Final project description - Revision 1, March 27, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendix A of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. This document is the Northstar Development Project, Final Project Description, Revision 1 for BPXA Northstar Project

  3. Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the physical impacts of a nearshore sand extraction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Ouellet, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the potential physical impacts of a nearshore sand extraction project in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Canada, sand extraction is mainly limited to the Beaufort Sea area, where in 1982 alone 15 million tonnes of aggregate was dredged to satisfy the requirements of offshore petroleum exploration; but there is much experience in nearshore dredging in Europe. Criteria related to impacts, developed for conditions prevailing in the North Sea (England) and the Gulf of Gascogne (France) are adapted to meet the more moderate hydrodynamic impacts of an extraction project in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Potential impacts of extraction projects include destruction of sand bars or dunes, direct erosion resulting from beach drawdown or sedimentation interference, and impacts on littoral drift due to modified wave refraction patterns. Three schemes for the sand extraction are considered, and from the results, a fourth scheme is elaborated in such a way as to limit the negative impacts to the minor category. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Environmental impact assessment for uranium mine, mill and in situ leach projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Environmental impact assessments and/or statements are an inherent part of any uranium mining project and are a prerequisite for the future opening of an exploitation and its final closure and decommissioning. Since they contain all information related to the physical, biological, chemical and economic condition of the areas where industrial projects are proposed or planned, they present invaluable guidance for the planning and implementation of environmental mitigation as well as environmental restoration after the mine is closed. They further yield relevant data on the socio-economic impacts of a project. The present report provides guidance on the environmental impact assessment of uranium mining and milling projects, including in situ leach projects which will be useful for companies in the process of planning uranium developments as well as for the regional or national authorities who will assess such developments. Additional information and advice is given through environmental case histories from five different countries. Those case histories are not meant to be prescriptions for conducting assessments nor even firm recommendations, but should serve as examples for the type and extent of work involved in assessments. A model assessment and licensing process is recommended based on the experience of the five countries

  6. Environmental impact assessment for uranium mine, mill and in situ leach projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Environmental impact assessments and/or statements are an inherent part of any uranium mining project and are a prerequisite for the future opening of an exploitation and its final closure and decommissioning. Since they contain all information related to the physical, biological, chemical and economic condition of the areas where industrial projects are proposed or planned, they present invaluable guidance for the planning and implementation of environmental mitigation as well as environmental restoration after the mine is closed. They further yield relevant data on the socio-economic impacts of a project. The present report provides guidance on the environmental impact assessment of uranium mining and milling projects, including in situ leach projects which will be useful for companies in the process of planning uranium developments as well as for the regional or national authorities who will assess such developments. Additional information and advice is given through environmental case histories from five different countries. Those case histories are not meant to be prescriptions for conducting assessments nor even firm recommendations, but should serve as examples for the type and extent of work involved in assessments. A model assessment and licensing process is recommended based on the experience of the five countries. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. 76 FR 21403 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...: (1) The cumulative impacts of mining and related actions on affected resources, for example water... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNV010000.L19900000.EX0000 241A; 11-08807... the Genesis Project, Eureka County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. WindNet: Improving the impact assessment of wind power projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing international demand for renewable energy has led to rapid growth in the wind power sector and wind farms are becoming an increasingly common feature of landscapes and seascapes in many countries. However, as the most appropriate locations within established markets are taken up, and as wind power penetrates new markets, there is an increasing likelihood that proposed projects will encroach on sensitive landscapes and residential areas. This will present challenges for the industry, particularly due to the impact that public opinion can have upon the outcomes of planning decisions about specific projects. This article introduces the four key dimensions of the WindNet programme, which are helping to elucidate some of the socio-technical debates that will likely shape the future of the wind power sector. The article outlines studies investigating (1 public responses to cumulative landscape and visual impacts, (2 the auditory impact of wind power projects on human health, (3 the science of wind farm design and its implications for planning, and (4 the relevance of the democratic deficit explanation of the so-called "social gap" in wind farm siting. The outcomes of the research being conducted by WindNet stand to help reduce uncertainty within the planning process and assist in providing a more comprehensive and fairer assessment of the possible impacts associated with wind power project development.

  9. Impact Assessment of the Fish for Every Family Project in Occidental Mindoro, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei A. Pangilinan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish for Every Family Project (FFEFP is one of the initiatives of Plan International that responds to the issue of malnutrition among Filipino children. FFEFP aims to promote and develop backyard tilapia fish farming in Isabela, Mindoro Occidental, Southern Leyte, and Western Samar, Philippines. These are the areas in the country where malnutrition is commonly observed. This study explores the adoption to The Fish for Every Family Project (FFEFP, and assesses its impacts in different levels. This impact assessment of FFEFP was conducted in Occidental Mindoro. The researchers used purposive sampling to touch base directly with a representative sample of the FFEFP beneficiaries in three out of four municipalities in Mindoro Occidental. The data were gathered through focus group discussions with the key officials in the area and some tilapia cage culture technology adopters. Key informant interviews (KIIs of all project stakeholders were also conducted as well. In order to validate the information gathered from the respondents and to see the fish farms used, field visits and ocular inspection were made. The study revealed that the FFEFP has various impacts to the beneficiaries, adopters, and replicators of tilapia. The impacts occurred at three levels: individual, family, and community. It was found out that the project was able to provide self-satisfaction among the beneficiaries and build stronger relationships among the members of the family and of the community.

  10. The Human Genome Project and Eugenics: Identifying the Impact on Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. The Impact of Dwindling Donor Funding on HIV and AIDS Projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to investigate the impact of dwindling donor funding on HIV and AIDS projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study surveyed literature on the effects of diminishing donor funding on people living with HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors associated with reduced donor funding identified in this study ...

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Two Globalization Projects on College Students' Cultural Competence and Cultural Intelligence (CQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural competence and CQ involve awareness of cultural similarities and differences, knowledge of differences in cultural values, and intercultural encounters. To assess college students' cultural competence and cultural intelligence gains, this experimental study evaluated the impact of two globalization projects on these two constructs. The…

  13. 77 FR 21722 - Gore Creek Restoration Project; Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... District Ranger, P.O. Box 7, Yampa, Colorado 80483 or email comments to comments-rocky-mountain-medicine... causing adverse impacts to stream networks within the project boundary. Proposed Action The Yampa Ranger..., road decommissioning, new road construction, and dispersed campsite decommissioning along streams...

  14. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendix K (continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices K (continued) of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  15. Scientific Knowledge and Attitude Change: The Impact of a Citizen Science Project. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Dominique; Lewenstein, Bruce; Bonney, Rick

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants' attitudes toward science and the environment, on their…

  16. Impact of Fadama Development Project on the Income of the Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the impact of fadama II development project on the income of the rural farmers in Kajuru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The objectives of the study are to assess fadama farmer's income before and after joining the group, to assess fadama farmers income to those of non-fadama farmers.

  17. Mitigation and monitoring plan for impacted wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The UMTRA Project is the result of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act(UMTRA) which was passed in response to the public's concern over the potential public health hazards related to uranium mill tailings and associated contaminated material at abandoned or otherwise uncontrolled inactive processing sites throughout the United States. The Gunnison, Colorado abandoned uranium mill site is one of the sites slated for cleanup by the DOE under authority of UMTRA. The contaminated material at this site will be transported to a disposal site on US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land east of Gunnison. Remedial action activities will temporarily disturb 0.8 acre and permanently eliminate 5.1 acres of wetlands. This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for the 5.9 acres of impacted wetlands. In conjunction with the mitigation of the permanently impacted wetlands through the enhancement of wetland and adjacent riparian areas, impacts to wildlife as a result of this project will also be mitigated. However, wildlife mitigation is not the focus of this document and is covered in relevant BLM permits for this project. This plan proposes the enhancement of a 3:1 ratio of impacted wetlands in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, plus the enhancement of riparian areas for wildlife mitigation. Included in this mitigation plan is a monitoring plan to ensure that the proposed measures are working and being maintained

  18. A framework for testing the ability of models to project climate change and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Madsen, H.; Andréassian, V.

    2014-01-01

    Models used for climate change impact projections are typically not tested for simulation beyond current climate conditions. Since we have no data truly reflecting future conditions, a key challenge in this respect is to rigorously test models using proxies of future conditions. This paper presents...... a validation framework and guiding principles applicable across earth science disciplines for testing the capability of models to project future climate change and its impacts. Model test schemes comprising split-sample tests, differential split-sample tests and proxy site tests are discussed in relation...... to their application for projections by use of single models, ensemble modelling and space-time-substitution and in relation to use of different data from historical time series, paleo data and controlled experiments. We recommend that differential-split sample tests should be performed with best available proxy data...

  19. The SCAR project - accidental thermal-hydraulics: from the simulation to the simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvacque, M.; Faydide, B.; Parent, M.; Iffenecker, F.; Pentori, B.; Dumas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The integration of the CATHARE code in the reactor simulators was completed in the beginning of the years 1990 with the design of the simulators SIPA1 and SIPA2. The SCAR project (Simulator CAthare Release), presented in this paper, is the following of this application. The objective is the adaptation of a reference CATHARE code version to the simulators environment, in order to realize the convergence between the safety analysis tool and the simulator. (A.L.B.)

  20. Interpretation of the microwave non-thermal radiation of the Moon during impact events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grimalsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent observations of the non-thermal electromagnetic (EM emission at wavelengths of 2.5cm, 13cm, and 21cm are summarized. After strong impacts of meteorites or spacecrafts (Lunar Prospector with the Moon's surface, the radio emissions in various frequency ranges were recorded. The most distinctive phenomenon is the appearance of quasi-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of 3–10K during several hours. The mechanism concerning the EM emission from a propagating crack within a piezoactive dielectric medium is considered. The impact may cause the global acoustic oscillations of the Moon. These oscillations lead to the crackening of the Moon's surface. The propagation of a crack within a piezoactive medium is accompanied by the excitation of an alternative current source. It is revealed that the source of the EM emission is the effective transient magnetization that appears in the case of a moving crack in piezoelectrics. The moving crack creates additional non-stationary local mechanical stresses around the apex of the crack, which generate the non-stationary electromagnetic field. For the cracks with a length of 0.1–1µm, the maximum of the EM emission may be in the 1–10GHz range.

  1. A combination thermal dissociation/electron impact ionization source for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Welton, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The flourishing interest in radioactive ion beams (RIBs) with intensities adequate for astrophysics and nuclear physics research place a premium on targets that will swiftly release trace amounts of short lived radio-nuclei in the presence of bulk quantities of target material and ion sources that have the capability of efficiently ionizing the release products. Because of the low probability of simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecules containing the element of interest with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources, the species of interest is often distributed in several mass channels in the form of molecular sideband beams and, consequently, the intensity is diluted. The authors have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source to address these problems. If the concept proves to be a viable option, the source will be used as a complement to the electron beam plasma ion sources already in use at the HRIBF. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article

  2. Impact of dissolution on the sedimentary record of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Kelly, D. Clay; Gibbs, Samantha; Farley, Kenneth; Eccles, Laurie; Lindemann, T. Logan; Smith, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    The input of massive amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and ocean at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ˜55.53 Ma) resulted in pervasive carbonate dissolution at the seafloor. At many sites this dissolution also penetrated into the underlying sediment column. The magnitude of dissolution at and below the seafloor, a process known as chemical erosion, and its effect on the stratigraphy of the PETM, are notoriously difficult to constrain. Here, we illuminate the impact of dissolution by analyzing the complete spectrum of sedimentological grain sizes across the PETM at three deep-sea sites characterized by a range of bottom water dissolution intensity. We show that the grain size spectrum provides a measure of the sediment fraction lost during dissolution. We compare these data with dissolution and other proxy records, electron micrograph observations of samples and lithology. The complete data set indicates that the two sites with slower carbonate accumulation, and less active bioturbation, are characterized by significant chemical erosion. At the third site, higher carbonate accumulation rates, more active bioturbation, and possibly winnowing have limited the impacts of dissolution. However, grain size data suggest that bioturbation and winnowing were not sufficiently intense to diminish the fidelity of isotopic and microfossil assemblage records.

  3. Collateral effects of renewable energies deployment in Spain: Impact on thermal power plants performance and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Fermin; Martinez-Val, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    The quest for renewable energy sources has been strong in Spain for a couple of decades, and has produced outstanding results, notably in windpower. Solar technologies also had a prompt response to the promoting legislation of 2007. This evolution has generated side effects in the electricity generation system as a whole, and all this phenomenology is analysed in this paper under the consideration of the three objectives theoretically guiding electricity policy nowadays: security of supply (at macro and micro level), environmental quality, and economic competitiveness. The analysis points out some unbalance among the objectives, which can evolve to a scenario where back-up power is going to be a critical point for the stability of the system. Such a back-up service will surely be provided by gas-fired combined cycles (GFCC). The estimated projections of the generation system show that the required back-up power will grow about 8-9 GW by year 2020, for complying with the objective of attaining a share of 40% renewable electricity. However, collateral effects as the decline in the load factor of GFCC, as well as a reduction in spot price of electricity, can cast many doubts about the feasibility to reach that back-up power level. - Highlights: → Renewable energy will not match power peaks with high level of confidence. → Fossil thermal plants have become back-up systems to substitute for renewable energy. → Estimations show that 8-9 GW of additional combined cycles will be needed by 2020. → Electricity from renewable energy will provoke long periods of low spot prices. → Lack of economic feasibility of thermal plants threatens long term security of supply.

  4. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  5. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sethi, Gautam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report uses statistical analysis to evaluate the impact of wind power projects on property values, and fails to uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts.

  6. DAE, BRNS co-ordinated research project (CRP) on the thermal ecological studies (TES) - a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.V.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present studies underscored the value of long term base line data on temperature and other physico-chemical parameters of natural water bodies as an essential pre-requisite for sitting power plants, planning industrial discharges into natural water bodies, ensuring minimal impacts on fauna and flora

  7. Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, G.A.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

  8. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  9. Modelling climate impact on floods under future emission scenarios using an ensemble of climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, F.; Cloke, H. L.; He, Y.; Freer, J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2012-04-01

    Evidence provided by modelled assessments of climate change impact on flooding is fundamental to water resource and flood risk decision making. Impact models usually rely on climate projections from Global and Regional Climate Models, and there is no doubt that these provide a useful assessment of future climate change. However, cascading ensembles of climate projections into impact models is not straightforward because of problems of coarse resolution in Global and Regional Climate Models (GCM/RCM) and the deficiencies in modelling high-intensity precipitation events. Thus decisions must be made on how to appropriately pre-process the meteorological variables from GCM/RCMs, such as selection of downscaling methods and application of Model Output Statistics (MOS). In this paper a grand ensemble of projections from several GCM/RCM are used to drive a hydrological model and analyse the resulting future flood projections for the Upper Severn, UK. The impact and implications of applying MOS techniques to precipitation as well as hydrological model parameter uncertainty is taken into account. The resultant grand ensemble of future river discharge projections from the RCM/GCM-hydrological model chain is evaluated against a response surface technique combined with a perturbed physics experiment creating a probabilisic ensemble climate model outputs. The ensemble distribution of results show that future risk of flooding in the Upper Severn increases compared to present conditions, however, the study highlights that the uncertainties are large and that strong assumptions were made in using Model Output Statistics to produce the estimates of future discharge. The importance of analysing on a seasonal basis rather than just annual is highlighted. The inability of the RCMs (and GCMs) to produce realistic precipitation patterns, even in present conditions, is a major caveat of local climate impact studies on flooding, and this should be a focus for future development.

  10. More with thermal energy storage. Report 5. Modelling systems. Effects of thermal energy storage systems on the environment. Modelling individual projects. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 5. Modellering systemen. Effecten van bodemenergiesystemen op hun omgeving. Modellering individuele projecten. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drijver, B.; De Jonge, H. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This report describes the results of the modeling of three existing thermal energy storage projects in the framework of the MMB project. The aim of the modeling of these projects is to gain insight in the reliability of the predicted hydrological and thermal effects, the causes of any deviations and improvements that are possible to improve the reliability of the predictions [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme

  11. Modelling of risk events with uncertain likelihoods and impacts in large infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    to prevent future budget overruns. One of the central ideas is to introduce improved risk management processes and the present paper addresses this particular issue. A relevant cost function in terms of unit prices and quantities is developed and an event impact matrix with uncertain impacts from independent......This paper presents contributions to the mathematical core of risk and uncertainty management in compliance with the principles of New Budgeting laid out in 2008 by the Danish Ministry of Transport to be used in large infrastructure projects. Basically, the new principles are proposed in order...... uncertain risk events is used to calculate the total uncertain risk budget. Cost impacts from the individual risk events on the individual project activities are kept precisely track of in order to comply with the requirements of New Budgeting. Additionally, uncertain likelihoods for the occurrence of risk...

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Contamination on the Thermal Stability of Jet A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    discernible negative impact on thermal stability due to FAME contamination. 15. SUBJECT TERMS FAME, biodiesel , Jet A, contamination, FAME...in diesel fuel as world governments mandate use of sustainable sources in transportation fuels to mitigate CO2 impact and reduce dependency on crude...components has been and will continue to be through trucks and pipelines – the same transportation methods used to transport other transportation

  13. A comparative entropy based analysis of Cu and Fe3O4/methanol Powell-Eyring nanofluid in solar thermal collectors subjected to thermal radiation, variable thermal conductivity and impact of different nanoparticles shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Wasim; Aziz, Asim

    2018-06-01

    The efficiency of any nanofluid based thermal solar system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids, type and shape of nanoparticles, nanoparticles volumetric concentration in the base fluid and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. The recent research in the field of thermal solar energy has been focused to increase the efficiency of solar thermal collector systems. In the present research a simplified mathematical model is studied for inclusion in the thermal solar systems with the aim to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid is induced by non-uniform stretching of porous horizontal surface with fluid occupying a space over the surface. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluid is to vary as a linear function of temperature and the thermal radiation is to travel a short distance in the optically thick nanofluid. Numerical scheme of Keller box is implemented on the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are resultant after application of similarity transformation to governing nonlinear partial differential equations. The impact of non dimensional physical parameters appearing in the system have been observed on velocity and temperature profiles along with the entropy of the system. The velocity gradient (skin friction coefficient) and the strength of convective heat exchange (Nusselt number) are also investigated.

  14. State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, Michael C.; Lantz, Eric; Johnson, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ► We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ► Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. ► Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

  15. SUPPRESSION OF PARALLEL TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT MAGNETIZED PLASMAS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE NON-THERMAL AND THERMAL ASPECTS OF SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.bian@physics.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The transport of the energy contained in electrons, both thermal and suprathermal, in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of the flare phenomenon, from the spatial distribution of hard X-ray emission to global energetics. Motivated by recent RHESSI observations that point to the existence of a mechanism that confines electrons to the coronal parts of flare loops more effectively than Coulomb collisions, we here consider the impact of pitch-angle scattering off turbulent magnetic fluctuations on the parallel transport of electrons in flaring coronal loops. It is shown that the presence of such a scattering mechanism in addition to Coulomb collisional scattering can significantly reduce the parallel thermal and electrical conductivities relative to their collisional values. We provide illustrative expressions for the resulting thermoelectric coefficients that relate the thermal flux and electrical current density to the temperature gradient and the applied electric field. We then evaluate the effect of these modified transport coefficients on the flare coronal temperature that can be attained, on the post-impulsive-phase cooling of heated coronal plasma, and on the importance of the beam-neutralizing return current on both ambient heating and the energy loss rate of accelerated electrons. We also discuss the possible ways in which anomalous transport processes have an impact on the required overall energy associated with accelerated electrons in solar flares.

  16. Adapting social impact assessment to address a project's human rights impacts and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteves, Ana Maria; Factor, Gabriela; Vanclay, Frank; Gotzmann, Nora; Moreira, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    We address the weaknesses inherent in the social risk assessments undertaken for business, especially hi the extractive industries. In contrast to the conventional approach that considers consequence to the company rather than to impacted communities, conformance with the United Nations Guiding

  17. International evaluation of Swedish research projects on the environmental impacts of wood fuel harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, M [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands (United Kingdom); Kellomaeki, S [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forestry; Larsen, J B [Royal Veterinary Univ., Fredriksberg (Denmark). Dept. of Economics and Natural Resources

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme on the Environmental Impacts of Wood Fuel Harvest. Thereafter, the projects are evaluated separately. The Committee was unanimous in its conclusions. Evaluated projects: Whole tree harvesting effects on forest soil; Whole tree utilization - forest yield; Nature conservation/Forest energy; Utilizing hardwoods from first thinnings of spruce as fuel wood

  18. International evaluation of Swedish research projects on the environmental impacts of wood fuel harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, M. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands (United Kingdom); Kellomaeki, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forestry; Larsen, J.B. [Royal Veterinary Univ., Fredriksberg (Denmark). Dept. of Economics and Natural Resources

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme on the Environmental Impacts of Wood Fuel Harvest. Thereafter, the projects are evaluated separately. The Committee was unanimous in its conclusions. Evaluated projects: Whole tree harvesting effects on forest soil; Whole tree utilization - forest yield; Nature conservation/Forest energy; Utilizing hardwoods from first thinnings of spruce as fuel wood

  19. International evaluation of Swedish research projects on the environmental impacts of wood fuel harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, M.; Kellomaeki, S.; Larsen, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK's aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme on the Environmental Impacts of Wood Fuel Harvest. Thereafter, the projects are evaluated separately. The Committee was unanimous in its conclusions. Evaluated projects: Whole tree harvesting effects on forest soil; Whole tree utilization - forest yield; Nature conservation/Forest energy; Utilizing hardwoods from first thinnings of spruce as fuel wood

  20. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Oriol, L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chartier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38 - Grenoble, (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 244}Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  1. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Oriol, L.; Chartier, F.; Mutti, P.; AlMahamid, I.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The 232 Th, 237 Np, 241 Am, and 244 Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  2. NAVFAC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Project; OTEC System Design Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    1-12. 37. Hoepner, Thomas, and Sabine Lattemann. “Chemical impacts from seawater desalination plants- a case study of the northern Red Sea... Jaime Echeverria. "Managing Water for People and Nature." Science 292 (2001): 1071-072. 46. Kalogirou, Soteris A. "Seawater desalination using...Lattemann Sabine . “Protecting the Marine Environment.” Seawater Desalination (2009): 273-299. 55. Lattemann, Sabine , and Thomas Hopner. "Environmental

  3. X-rays in protoplanetary disks : Their impact on the thermal and chemical structure, a grid of models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Kamp, I.; Meijerink, R.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W. F.; Spaans, M.C.

    X-rays impact protoplanetary disks hydrostatic, thermal and chemical structure. The range of efficiency of X-rays is explored using a grid modelling approach: different parameters affects the structure of the disk, this determines different contribution of the X-ray radiation to the chemistry and

  4. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Mathematical Models of Coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes for Nuclear Waste Repositories. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Tsang, C.F. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Div.; Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Kautzky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2005-02-15

    DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project

  5. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Mathematical Models of Coupled Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes for Nuclear Waste Repositories. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O.; Kautzky, F.

    2005-02-01

    DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project. The

  6. Choice of baseline climate data impacts projected species' responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Hartley, Andrew J; Butchart, Stuart H M; Willis, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Climate data created from historic climate observations are integral to most assessments of potential climate change impacts, and frequently comprise the baseline period used to infer species-climate relationships. They are often also central to downscaling coarse resolution climate simulations from General Circulation Models (GCMs) to project future climate scenarios at ecologically relevant spatial scales. Uncertainty in these baseline data can be large, particularly where weather observations are sparse and climate dynamics are complex (e.g. over mountainous or coastal regions). Yet, importantly, this uncertainty is almost universally overlooked when assessing potential responses of species to climate change. Here, we assessed the importance of historic baseline climate uncertainty for projections of species' responses to future climate change. We built species distribution models (SDMs) for 895 African bird species of conservation concern, using six different climate baselines. We projected these models to two future periods (2040-2069, 2070-2099), using downscaled climate projections, and calculated species turnover and changes in species-specific climate suitability. We found that the choice of baseline climate data constituted an important source of uncertainty in projections of both species turnover and species-specific climate suitability, often comparable with, or more important than, uncertainty arising from the choice of GCM. Importantly, the relative contribution of these factors to projection uncertainty varied spatially. Moreover, when projecting SDMs to sites of biodiversity importance (Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas), these uncertainties altered site-level impacts, which could affect conservation prioritization. Our results highlight that projections of species' responses to climate change are sensitive to uncertainty in the baseline climatology. We recommend that this should be considered routinely in such analyses. © 2016 John Wiley

  7. Preliminary draft: environmental impact statement for Hot Engineering Test Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.W.; Baxter, B.J.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1978-08-01

    The project considered is the Hot Engineering Test Project (HETP), which is to be located in largely existing facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The project is a part of the National High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Recycle Program, which seeks to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the recycle processes. The HETP will attempt to confirm the operability of the processes (proven feasible in cold or nonradioactive, benchtop experimentation) under the more realistic radioactive condition. As such, the operation will involve the reprocessing and refabrication of spent HTGR fuel rods obtained from the Fort St. Vrain reactor. The reference fuel is highly enriched uranium. No significant radiological impacts are expected from routine operation of the facility to any biota or ecosystem. Concentrations of one or more radionuclides in Whiteoak Lake will increase as a result of the combination of HETP wastes with other ORNL wastes. Nonradiological effects from construction activities and routine operation should be insignificant on land and water use and on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. No significant socioeconomic impacts should occur from either construction or operation of the facility. Some conservative accident scenarios depict significant releases of radioactivity. Effects should be localized and would not be severe for all but the most unlikely of such incidents. No significant long-term commitment of resources is expected to be required for the project. Nor are any large quantities of scarce or critical resources likely to be irreversibly or irretrievably committed to the project. Principal alternatives considered were: relocation of the project site, postponement of the project schedule, project cancellation, and chemical process variations

  8. Report of year 2000 version on feasibility study for joint implementation. Repowering project of Ashuganji Thermal Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on the repowering project of Ashuganji Thermal Power Station in the People's Republic of Bangladesh to link the project to the clean development mechanism (CDM). The project calls for adding gas turbines respectively having output of 31 MW to the existing units No. 3, 4 and 5 (each having an output of 150 MW) to make the plant into the waste gas re-combustion type compound cycle system. The construction cost would be 140 billion yen. The annual reduction of fuel per unit would be 28 kt, which can result in reduction of 2.1 million tons from the three units over the period of 25 years. The annual reduction in CO2 emission from a unit would be 77 kt, resulting in reduction of 5.8 million tons from the three units over 25 years. The return on investment effect was evaluated. In the main case (the output increase as a result of the repowering is used to supplement the current power supply shortage), the required period to recover the investment will be ten years on the basis of introducing private sector fund, but the internal profitability would be 8.09%, being far below the discount rate of 15%, and the current discount worth is also negative, hence the project would not be feasible. However, since there are no problems in repaying the loans, application of the low-interest special Yen loan is desired to eliminate the state of chronic power shortage. The discharge right transaction case (550 yen/ton of CO2) was also found unworkable to recover the investment. (NEDO)

  9. Report of year 2000 version on feasibility study for joint implementation. Repowering project of Ashuganji Thermal Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Discussions were given on the repowering project of Ashuganji Thermal Power Station in the People's Republic of Bangladesh to link the project to the clean development mechanism (CDM). The project calls for adding gas turbines respectively having output of 31 MW to the existing units No. 3, 4 and 5 (each having an output of 150 MW) to make the plant into the waste gas re-combustion type compound cycle system. The construction cost would be 140 billion yen. The annual reduction of fuel per unit would be 28 kt, which can result in reduction of 2.1 million tons from the three units over the period of 25 years. The annual reduction in CO2 emission from a unit would be 77 kt, resulting in reduction of 5.8 million tons from the three units over 25 years. The return on investment effect was evaluated. In the main case (the output increase as a result of the repowering is used to supplement the current power supply shortage), the required period to recover the investment will be ten years on the basis of introducing private sector fund, but the internal profitability would be 8.09%, being far below the discount rate of 15%, and the current discount worth is also negative, hence the project would not be feasible. However, since there are no problems in repaying the loans, application of the low-interest special Yen loan is desired to eliminate the state of chronic power shortage. The discharge right transaction case (550 yen/ton of CO2) was also found unworkable to recover the investment. (NEDO)

  10. A new multi-scale platform for advanced nuclear thermal-hydraulics status and prospects of the Neptune project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.; Boudier, P.; Hervieu, E.; Boucker, M.; Peturaud, P.; Guelfi, A.; Fillion, P.; Grandotto, M.; Herard, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Further to a thorough analysis of the industrial needs and of the limitations of current simulation tools, EDF (Electricite de France) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) launched in 2001 a new long-term joint development program for the next generation of nuclear reactors simulation tools. The NEPTUNE Project, which constitutes the Thermal-Hydraulics part of this comprehensive program, aims at building a new software platform for advanced two-phase flow thermal-hydraulics allowing easy multi-scale and multi-disciplinary calculations meeting the industrial needs. The NEPTUNE activities include software development, research in physical modeling and numerical methods, the development of advanced instrumentation techniques and performance of new experimental programs. The work focuses on the four different simulation scales: DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation), local CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), component (subchannel-type analysis) and system scales. New physical models and numerical methods are being developed for each scale as well as for their coupling. This paper gives an overview of the NEPTUNE activities. It presents the main scientific and technical achievements obtained during Phase 1 (2002-2003) and at the beginning of Phase 2 (2004- 2006). Planned work for the future is also presented. (authors)

  11. The impact of human-biometeorological factors on perceived thermal comfort in urban public places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Maras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the understanding of the impact of meteorological stressors on human perceptions of thermal comfort, it is essential to examine in detail the joint variability of atmospheric conditions and human perception. We designed an interdisciplinary experimental setup to generate data of both human-biometeorological and individual human perception at two different urban public places in the city of Aachen, Germany. Meteorological measurements at the human-biometeorological standard height of 1.1 m a.g.l. were taken during typical winter weather situations as well as extreme summer weather situations to analyze potentially seasonal effects. Pedestrians and tourists at the study site were selected as participants for face-to-face questionnaire-based interviews. We took measurements and held interviews between 10:00 h and 17:00 h (CEST/CET to record the daytime agreement/deviations at different inner urban measurement locations. Based on an overall physical approach of thermal load, UTCI (Universal Thermal Climate Index values are calculated. A maximum of +34.1 °C for summertime and a minimum of +2.6 °C for wintertime could be found. The meteorological parameters of air temperature (Ta$T_{a}$, mean radiant temperature (Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and vapor pressure (VP are compared with data perceived by the persons interviewed. In winter, Ta$T_{a }$ shows a significant relation to the overall weather perception (r=0.28$r = 0.28$; p<0.05$p<0.05$ while the overall comfort of the participants is significantly related to perceived solar heat (r=0.27$r = 0.27$; p<0.5$p<0.5$ as well as to perceived Ta$T_{a}$ (r=0.4$r = 0.4$; p<0.002$p<0.002$. Quite different resulting patterns occurred for the summer campaign. None of the physical variables significantly affected the weather perception. Only the perceived Ta$T_{a}$ revealed a significant relation to the overall weather perception (r=0.27$r=0.27$; p<0.002$p<0.002$.

  12. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  13. Comparing the sustainability impacts of solar thermal and natural gas combined cycle for electricity production in Mexico: Accounting for decision makers' priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Irene; Caldés, Natalia; Oltra, Christian; Sala, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive sustainability assessment of the electricity generation with two alternative electricity generation technologies by estimating its economic, environmental and social impacts through the "Framework for Integrated Sustainability Assessment" (FISA). Based on a Multiregional Input Output (MRIO) model linked to a social risk database (Social Hotspot Database), the framework accounts for up to fifteen impacts across the three sustainability pillars along the supply chain of the electricity production from Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) technologies in Mexico. Except for value creation, results show larger negative impacts for NGCC, particularly in the environmental pillar. Next, these impacts are transformed into "Aggregated Sustainability Endpoints" (ASE points) as a way to support the decision making in selecting the best sustainable project. ASE points obtained are later compared to the resulting points weighted by the reported priorities of Mexican decision makers in the energy sector obtained from a questionnaire survey. The comparison shows that NGCC achieves a 1.94 times worse negative score than STE, but after incorporating decision makerś priorities, the ratio increases to 2.06 due to the relevance given to environmental impacts such as photochemical oxidants formation and climate change potential, as well as social risks like human rights risks.

  14. El'gygytgyn impact crater, Chukotka, Arctic Russia: Impact cratering aspects of the 2009 ICDP drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, Christian; Pittarello, Lidia; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Raschke, Ulli; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Melles, Martin; Minyuk, Pavel; Spray, John

    2013-01-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure in Chukutka, Arctic Russia, is the only impact crater currently known on Earth that was formed in mostly acid volcanic rocks (mainly of rhyolitic, with some andesitic and dacitic, compositions). In addition, because of its depth, it has provided an excellent sediment trap that records paleoclimatic information for the 3.6 Myr since its formation. For these two main reasons, because of the importance for impact and paleoclimate research, El'gygytgyn was the subject of an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilling project in 2009. During this project, which, due to its logistical and financial challenges, took almost a decade to come to fruition, a total of 642.3 m of drill core was recovered at two sites, from four holes. The obtained material included sedimentary and impactite rocks. In terms of impactites, which were recovered from 316.08 to 517.30 m depth below lake bottom (mblb), three main parts of that core segment were identified: from 316 to 390 mblb polymict lithic impact breccia, mostly suevite, with volcanic and impact melt clasts that locally contain shocked minerals, in a fine-grained clastic matrix; from 385 to 423 mblb, a brecciated sequence of volcanic rocks including both felsic and mafic (basalt) members; and from 423 to 517 mblb, a greenish rhyodacitic ignimbrite (mostly monomict breccia). The uppermost impactite (316–328 mblb) contains lacustrine sediment mixed with impact-affected components. Over the whole length of the impactite core, the abundance of shock features decreases rapidly from the top to the bottom of the studied core section. The distinction between original volcanic melt fragments and those that formed later as the result of the impact event posed major problems in the study of these rocks. The sequence that contains fairly unambiguous evidence of impact melt (which is not very abundant anyway, usually less than a few volume%) is only about 75 m thick. The reason for

  15. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Quan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of the long distance between ecosystems and the inconsistency of impact events. In this study, a model was proposed for the analysis of the impacts of IBWTPs on regional ecological security. It is based on the telecoupling framework, and the Driver‐Pressure‐State‐ Impact‐Response (DPSIR model was used to improve the analysis procedure within the telecoupling framework. The Middle Line of the South‐to‐North Water Diversion Project was selected as a case study to illustrate the specific analysis procedure. We realized that information sharing is a key issue in the management of regional security, and that the ecological water requirement, in the form of a single index, could be used to quantitatively assess the impacts on ecological security from IBWTPs.

  16. Cumulative biological impacts framework for solar energy projects in the California Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank W.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Soong, Oliver; Stoms, David M.; Dashiell, Stephanie; Hannah, Lee; Wilkinson, Whitney; Dingman, John

    2013-01-01

    This project developed analytical approaches, tools and geospatial data to support conservation planning for renewable energy development in the California deserts. Research focused on geographical analysis to avoid, minimize and mitigate the cumulative biological effects of utility-scale solar energy development. A hierarchical logic model was created to map the compatibility of new solar energy projects with current biological conservation values. The research indicated that the extent of compatible areas is much greater than the estimated land area required to achieve 2040 greenhouse gas reduction goals. Species distribution models were produced for 65 animal and plant species that were of potential conservation significance to the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan process. These models mapped historical and projected future habitat suitability using 270 meter resolution climate grids. The results were integrated into analytical frameworks to locate potential sites for offsetting project impacts and evaluating the cumulative effects of multiple solar energy projects. Examples applying these frameworks in the Western Mojave Desert ecoregion show the potential of these publicly-available tools to assist regional planning efforts. Results also highlight the necessity to explicitly consider projected land use change and climate change when prioritizing areas for conservation and mitigation offsets. Project data, software and model results are all available online.

  17. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  18. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF INNOVATIVE PROJECTS ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific paper evaluates the impact of innovative projects on the competitiveness of agricultural holdings in SR. Evaluation of the impact of innovative projects on competitiveness of agricultural holdings was realized on the selected holdings in Nitra and Trnava region. For the evaluation was used RCR coefficient. With the use of RCR coefficient could be confirmed the scientific hypothesis - The innovative projects realized through Program for rural development SR 2007-2013 have positive impact on competitiveness of agricultural holdings. The possibilities for EU financial support for innovative projects in SR represent important source for introduction of new innovative technologies into production process and in future they can significantly contribute to the growth of competitiveness of agricultural subjects. Therefore, to increase competitiveness of agricultural holdings it is important to focus on modernization of machinery and buildings, use of natural sources for energy production, but also to increase the education and the flow of information between rural inhabitants, mainly farmers. In competitive area of EU agricultural sector it is necessary that agricultural holdings will innovate, not only to create independent flow of innovative products and knowledge, but also to increase its value on internal market. Agricultural holdings –receivers of financial support – have expressed the opinion that financial support realized through PRD SR 2007-2013 had definitely allowed them to implement new processes and products.

  19. CDM sustainable development impacts developed for the UNEP project 'CD4CDM'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olhoff, Anne; Markandya, Anil; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Taylor, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), an innovative cooperative mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, is designed with the dual aim of assisting developing countries in achieving sustainable development (SD) and of assisting industrialised countries in achieving compliance with their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction commitments. The SD dimension is not merely a requirement of the CDM; it should be seen as a main driver for developing country interest in participating in CDM projects. This is so, since apart from GHG emission reductions CDM projects will have a number of impacts in the host countries, including impacts on economic and social development and on the local environment. Furthermore, the selecting of the SD criteria and the assessment of the SD impacts are sovereign matters of the host countries in the current operationalisation of the Kyoto Protocol. National authorities can thus use the SD dimension to evaluate key linkages between national development goals and CDM projects, with the aim of selecting and designing CDM projects so that they create and maximise synergies with local development goals. (au)

  20. Environmental impact studies of projects be licensed under the Atomic Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The German Law on Environmental Impact Assessment (UVPG) defines projects to be licensed under the Atomic Law that require an environmental impact study (EIS). Since the project concepts as defined in the UVPG are often not the same as those defined in the Atomic Law (AtG), the licensing authority has to decide which project should be subjected to an EIA. Additionally, Article 37 of the EURATOM Treaty obliges every Member State to communicate certain data relating to the impact of emissions of radioactive substances to the Commission. This is independent of the EIA. A licence may only be granted by the competent authorities if an opinion has been received from the Commission pursuant to Article 37. In either case, the licensing authority is the first point of contact for the applicant if the question arises of whether a project has to be subjected to an EIA. A ''voluntary'' EIA should be regarded with caution because of the complexity of such a procedure within the licensing process requiring considerable resources of time and manpower, and the danger of a loss of credibility of the EIA. (orig.)

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment Process for Oil, Gas and Mining Projects in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson and Chilenye Nwapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas development projects are well known to have damaging environmental effects, and that is especially true in the Niger Delta region. Since the enactment of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act in Nigeria in 1992, there has been a general perception that EIAs are seldom carried out in the region. This article presents a critical analysis of legislation and practice concerning the environmental impact assessment (EIA process for oil and gas projects in Nigeria, the world’s twelfth largest producer of crude oil. It discusses a range of reasons why the impacts of oil and gas projects are not being managed well, despite the legal requirements for EIAs. A review of Nigeria’s environmental governance is presented along with a comprehensive discussion of the EIA process and its significant deficiencies. We argue that the EIA system for oil and gas projects in Nigeria reflects tokenism, resulting in the concentration of benefits of developments in big corporations and government officials. The EIA process in Nigeria faces many challenges that must be addressed in order to improve its effectiveness and alleviate the environmental burdens on this rich oil-producing region.

  2. Simulating The Impact Of The Material Flow In The Jordanian Construction Supply Chain And Its Impact On Project Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ghaith Al-Werikat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the new developments and challenges within the construction industry improving the construction supply chain is becoming a major concern to both governments and industries. Improving the construction supply chain helps in improving the quality of construction projects reducing cost wastes delays and other disruptions. This paper discusses the analysis of material flow in the construction supply chain. The methodology consisted of preliminary investigations survey and simulation development to analyse the extent of impact that material flow has on construction projects in Jordan. Both the main survey and the investigations revealed that material flow delays are caused mainly by 3 types of delays late delivery wrong specification and material damaged on site. The highest impact regarding late deliveries was scaffolding with a 16 probability of occurrence a 2-day delay on the activitys duration. Concrete ranked highest regarding wrong specification with a 19 probability of occurrence an 8-day delay the activitys duration. Regarding materials damaged on site bricks ranked highest with a 9 probability of occurrence a 3-day delay on the duration. The simulation results exhibited a delay of 50 on the projects duration and a probability of a delay occurring is 9.2.

  3. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  4. Impact of mining projects on the socio-economics of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.; Yerpude, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Nuclear facility projects in Finland: quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaatainen, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, three public EIA hearings arranged by the contact authority concerning nuclear facilities were organised in 1999: the EIAs of two reactors planned to be constructed in Eurajoki (Olkiluoto) and in Loviisa, and the EIA of a final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel, to be situated either in Olkiluoto, Loviisa, Romuvaara or Kivetty. Additionally, an application for a decision-in-principle concerning a final disposal facility to be constructed in Olkiluoto was submitted. The Ministry of Trade and Industry is the contact authority in all nuclear projects in Finland. Probably due to the simultaneity of the processes and the great importance of nuclear facility projects to the whole of society, the public opinions did not include only views about environmental impacts of each project, but also opposing and overall views about the use of nuclear energy and its safety. As for the final disposal project, alternative methods were introduced and opposition to the project itself was expressed instead of or in addition to the environmental impacts. (author)

  6. Environmental-impact assessment of dams and reservoir projects (review and a case study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dams and reservoirs are among one of the most sensitive of all development Project, in terms of pervasiveness of their influence in altering the environmental conditions and resources. In the present study, major dams and reservoir projects are reviewed, from the environmental point of view. Dams and Reservoir projects bring about major changes in the immediate environment, thus affecting public health, settlements, farmlands, roads and historical sites. Impacts on human population and wildlife may be profound. Tropical diseases, involving fresh-water hosts or vectors in their transmission, are often common around new reservoirs. Large lakes create limnological changes, excessive evaporation, seepage, disturbance in water-table and increased tendencies of landslides and earthquakes. Micro climatic changes are possible, such as fog formation, increased cloudiness and modified rainfall-patterns. Retention of sediment results in silting up of reservoirs. Water shortages on mountain rivers may leave unsightly dry river-beds below a dam. Sediment deposition and growth of vegetation in reservoir affects the water-extraction for navigation power-generation and fishing. Various dams and reservoir projects in the world are critically studied, in terms of creating environmental impacts. The Kala Bagh Dam project (Pakistan), which is ready for construction, has been analysed as a case study, by matrix method. Analyses show that adverse effects of this dam are less than the benefits. It is recommended that based on the experience, appropriate lines and strategies may be drawn up to evaluate the local projects. Multidisciplinary experts need to be involved, for assessing environmental impacts and suggesting mitigation measures, to combat the adverse effects. (author)

  7. The PHILOSOL project: a strategic market development of the solar thermal sector in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiorgas, Michaelis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Berkmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Given the rapid development of the European ST market and the tremendous potential of the local markets due to favorable climatic conditions, the local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of the EU face the opportunity to enter this rapidly growing market with reliable technologies and know-how. In order to assist them, the PHILOSOL project aimed at stimulating awareness of the local authorities, promoting the use of ST technology and involving the local market actors in business partenariat meetings. The experiences of the more ST technology mature countries show that more than a product and a subsidy programme are needed. Amongst others, the motivation of the population by information and image campaigns can assist solar energy in becoming an intrinsic part of household technology

  8. Multi scale analysis of thermal-hydraulics of nuclear reactors - the neptune project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:The NEPTUNE project aims at building a new two-phase thermalhydraulic platform for nuclear reactor simulation. It is jointly developed by CEA-DEN and EDF-DRD and also supported by IRSN and FRAMATOME-ANP. NEPTUNE is a new generation multi-scale platform. The system scale models the whole reactor circuit with 0D, 1D and 3D modules and is generally applied with a coarse meshing including about a thousand meshes. The component scale models components like the reactor Core or Steam Generators with a finer nodalization and is generally applied with 10 4 to 10 5 meshes. Since these components contain rod bundles or tube bundles the physical modelling uses a homogenization technique with a porosity. For some specific applications it was found necessary to add a two-phase CFD tool able to zoom on a portion of the circuit where small scale phenomena are of importance for design purpose or safety issues. Here the basic equations are still averaged like in RANS approach for single phase, but the space resolution is finer than in component codes and typical application may require 10 5 to 10 7 meshes. These three scales have to be coupled in order to simulate many reactor transients where both local effects and system effects play a role. In addition, two-phase Direct Numerical Simulation Tools with Interface Tracking Techniques can be used for even smaller scale investigations for a better understanding of basic physical processes and for developing closure relations for averaged models. The main challenges of this project are here presented and some first results are presented. (authors)

  9. Proposed modifications to the Lower Mokelumne River Project, California: FERC Project No. 2916-004. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This final environmental impact statement (FEIS) has been prepared for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) to consider modifications to the existing Lower Mokelumne River Project (LMRP) (FERC Project No. 2916-004) in California. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations in the lower Mokelumne River have experienced recent declines and fish kills associated, in part, with discharges from Camanche Dam. The California Department of Fish and Game and the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance have asked the Commission to investigate and correct these problems. A wide range of different mitigation actions has been proposed by parties participating in the scoping of this proceeding, and staff has evaluated these proposed actions in this assessment. The staff is recommending a combination of flow and non-flow modifications to the existing license, including new minimum flow and minimum pool elevation requirements at Camanche Reservoir, ramping rates on dam releases, interim attraction and out-migrant spike flows, instream habitat improvements, and a series of studies and monitoring to determine feasible means for solving off-site fish passage problems.

  10. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide

  11. Thermal Modeling Analysis Of CST Media In The Small Column Ion Exchange Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds

  12. Impact analysis of rural electrification projects in sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Tanguy

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews trends in rural electrification over the past 30 years in Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, it is shown that motivations for rural electrification programs have evolved significantly over the years, following changes in development paradigms. The author finds, however, that knowledge of the impact of this has only marginally improved: low connection rates and weak productive utilization identified in the 1980's remain true today, and impacts on such dimensions as health, education, or income, though often used to justify projects, are largely undocumented. Indeed impact evaluations are methodologically challenging in the field of infrastructures and have been limited thus far. Nevertheless examples of recent or ongoing impact evaluations of rural electrification programs offer promising avenues for identifying both the effect of electricity per se and the relative effectiveness of approaches to promoting it

  13. 76 FR 12096 - McCloud-Pit Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mccloud-Pit... Pit Rivers in Shasta County, California and has prepared a final environmental impact statement (EIS... and the alternatives for relicensing the McCloud-Pit Project. The final EIS documents the views of...

  14. Developing benefit schemes and financial compensation measures for fishermen impacted by marine renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Kieran; O’Hagan, Anne Marie; Dalton, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fishermen are arguably the stakeholder group most likely to be directly impacted by the expansion of the marine renewable energy (MRE) sector. The potential opposition of fishermen may hinder the development of MRE projects and the provision of benefit schemes could to enhance acceptance. Benefit schemes refer to additional voluntary measures that are provided by a developer to local stakeholders. The aim of this study is to explore the issue of the provision of benefit packages to local fishing communities and financial compensation measures for fishermen who may be impacted by MRE projects. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen fishermen from three separate case study sites around the island of Ireland where MRE projects were being developed. In addition, ten company fisheries liaison officers (CFLOs) who have worked on MRE projects in the UK and Ireland were also interviewed. The interviews were analysed under the headings of local employment, benefits in kind, compensation and community funds and ownership of projects. Analysis shows that there is uncertainty among fishermen over whether they would benefit or gain employment from MRE. Provision of re-training schemes and preferential hiring practices could be used by MRE developers to reduce this uncertainty. There was also agreement between fishermen and CFLOs on the need for the provision of an evidence-base and a standard approach for the calculation of disruption payments. A formal structure for the provision of benefit schemes for fishermen would be useful. Furthermore, schemes that provide a range of benefits to fishermen and other stakeholders over the lifetime of a MRE project are more likely to be successful at enhancing acceptance. - Highlights: • There is uncertainty among fishermen over benefits from MRE projects. • Re-training is required for fishermen to avail of employment opportunities. • Evidence-base is required for calculation of disruption payments.

  15. Analysis of the impact of thermal resistance of the roof on the performance of photovoltaic roof tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the issues related to the impact of thermal resistance of the roof on the electrical parameters of photovoltaic roof tiles. The methodology of determination of the thermal resistance and thermal transmittance factor was presented in accordance with the applicable legal regulations and standards. A test station was presented for the purpose of measurement of the parameters of photovoltaic roof tiles depending on the structure of the roof substrate. Detailed analysis of selected building components as well as their impact on the design thermal resistance factor and thermal transmittance factor was carried out. Results of our own studies, which indicated a relation between the type of the roof structure and the values of the electricity generated by photovoltaic tiles, were presented. Based on the calculations, it was concluded that the generated outputs in the respective constructions differ by maximum 6%. For cells with the highest temperature, the performance of the PV roof tiles on the respective roof constructions fell within the range between 0.4% and 1.2% (depending on the conducted measurement and amounted to 8.76% (in reference to 9.97% for roof tiles with the lowest temperature.

  16. Potential impact of thermal effects during ultrasonic neurostimulation: retrospective numerical estimation of temperature elevation in seven rodent setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Charlotte; Mateo, Philippe; Tanter, Mickaël; Aubry, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, a handful but growing number of groups have reported worldwide successful low intensity focused ultrasound induced neurostimulation trials on rodents. Its effects range from movement elicitations to reduction of anesthesia time or reduction of the duration of drug induced seizures. The mechanisms underlying ultrasonic neuromodulation are still not fully understood. Given the low intensities used in most of the studies, a mechanical effect is more likely to be responsible for the neuromodulation effect, but a clear description of the thermal and mechanical effects is necessary to optimize clinical applications. Based on five studies settings, we calculated the temperature rise and thermal doses in order to evaluate its implication in the neuromodulation phenomenon. Our retrospective analysis shows thermal rise ranging from 0.002 °C to 0.8 °C in the brain for all setups, except for one setup for which the temperature increase is estimated to be as high as 7 °C. We estimate that in the latter case, temperature rise cannot be neglected as a possible cause of neuromodulation. Simulations results were supported by temperature measurements on a mouse with two different sets of parameters. Although the calculated temperature is compatible with the absence of visible thermal lesions on the skin, it is high enough to impact brain circuits. Our study highlights the usefulness of performing thermal simulations prior to experiment in order to fully take into account not only the impact of the peak intensity but also pulse duration and pulse repetition.

  17. People's perception on impacts of hydro-power projects in Bhagirathi river valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, G C S; Punetha, Disha

    2017-04-01

    The people's perception on environmental and socio-economic impacts due to three hydro-electric projects (HEPs; commissioned and under construction) were studied in the north-west Indian Himalaya. Surveys among 140 project-affected people (PAPs) using a checklist of impacts indicate that among the negative impacts, decrease in flora/fauna, agriculture, flow of river, aesthetic beauty; and increase in water pollution, river bed quarrying for sand/stone, human settlement on river banks and social evils; and among the positive impacts, increase in standard of living, road connectivity, means of transport, public amenities, tourism and environmental awareness were related with HEPs. The PAPs tend to forget the negative impacts with the age of the HEPs after it becomes functional, and the positive impacts seem to outweigh the negative impacts. Study concludes that it is difficult to separate the compounding impacts due to HEP construction and other anthropogenic and natural factors, and in the absence of cause-and-effect analyses, it is hard to dispel the prevailing notion that HEPs are undesirable in the study area that led to agitations by the environmentalists and stopped construction of one of these HEPs. To overcome the situation, multi-disciplinary scientific studies involving the PAPs need to be carried out in planning and decision-making to make HEPs environment friendly and sustainable in this region. There is also a need to adopt low carbon electric power technologies and promote a decentralized energy strategy through joint ventures between public and private companies utilizing locally available renewable energy resources.

  18. Impact of organic-mineral matter interactions on thermal reaction pathways for coal model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Struss, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    Coal is a complex, heterogeneous solid that includes interdispersed mineral matter. However, knowledge of organic-mineral matter interactions is embryonic, and the impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction is incomplete. Clay minerals, for example, are known to be effective catalysts for organic reactions. Furthermore, clays such as montmorillonite have been proposed to be key catalysts in the thermal alteration of lignin into vitrinite during the coalification process. Recent studies by Hatcher and coworkers on the evolution of coalified woods using microscopy and NMR have led them to propose selective, acid-catalyzed, solid state reaction chemistry to account for retained structural integrity in the wood. However, the chemical feasibility of such reactions in relevant solids is difficult to demonstrate. The authors have begun a model compound study to gain a better molecular level understanding of the effects in the solid state of organic-mineral matter interactions relevant to both coal formation and processing. To satisfy the need for model compounds that remain nonvolatile solids at temperatures ranging to 450 C, model compounds are employed that are chemically bound to the surface of a fumed silica (Si-O-C{sub aryl}linkage). The organic structures currently under investigation are phenethyl phenyl ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) derivatives, which serve as models for {beta}-alkyl aryl ether units that are present in lignin and lignitic coals. The solid-state chemistry of these materials at 200--450 C in the presence of interdispersed acid catalysts such as small particle size silica-aluminas and montmorillonite clay will be reported. Initial focus will be on defining the potential impact of these interactions on coal pyrolysis and liquefaction.

  19. Potential impact of enhanced fracture-toughness data on pressurized-thermal-shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Theiss, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is involved with the generation of ''enhanced'' fracture-initiation toughness and fracture-arrest toughness data of prototypic nuclear reactor vessel steels. These two sets of data are enhanced because they have distinguishing characteristics that could potentially impact PWR pressure vessel integrity assessments for the pressurized-thermal shock (PTS) loading condition which is a major plant-life extension issue to be confronted in the 1990's. Currently, the HSST Program is planning experiments to verify and quantify, for A533B steel, the distinguishing characteristic of elevated initiation-fracture toughness for shallow flaws which has been observed for other steels. Deterministic and probabilistic fracture-mechanics analyses were performed to examine the influence of the enhanced initiation and arrest fracture-toughness data on the cleavage fracture response of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel subjected to PTS loading. The results of the analyses indicated that application of the enhanced K Ia data does reduce the conditional probability of failure P(F|E); however, it does not appear to have the potential to significantly impact the results of PTS analyses. The application of enhanced fracture-initiation-toughness data for shallow flaws also reduces P(F|E), but it does appear to have a potential for significantly affecting the results of PTS analyses. The effect of including Type I warm prestress in probabilistic fracture-mechanics analyses is beneficial. The benefit is transient dependent and, in some cases, can be quite significant. 19 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  20. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-01

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  1. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-26

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  2. Investigation of the impacts of thermal pretreatment on waste activated sludge and development of a pretreatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Gillian; Parker, Wayne

    2013-09-15

    This study investigated the impacts of high pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) pretreatment on the distribution of chemical oxygen demand (COD) species in waste activated sludge (WAS). In the first phase of the project, WAS from a synthetically-fed biological reactor (BR) was fed to an aerobic digester (AD). In the second phase, WAS from the BR was pretreated by HPTH at 150 °C and 3 bars for 30 min prior to being fed to the AD. A range of physical, biochemical and biological properties were regularly measured in each process stream in both phases. The COD of the BR WAS consisted of storage products (XSTO), active heterotrophs (XH) and endogenous decay products (XE). Pretreatment did not increase the extent to which the BR WAS was aerobically digested and hence it was concluded that the unbiodegradable COD fraction, i.e. XE, was unchanged by pretreatment. However, pretreatment did increase the rate of degradation as it converted 36% of XH to readily biodegradable COD (SB) and the remaining XH to slowly biodegradable COD (XB). Furthermore, XSTO was fully converted to SB by pretreatment. Although pretreatment did not change the VSS concentration in the downstream aerobic digester, it did decrease the ISS concentration by 46 ± 11%. This reduced the total mass of solids produced by the digester by 21 ± 8%. A COD-based HPTH pretreatment model was developed and calibrated. When this model was integrated into BioWin 3.1(®), it was able to accurately simulate both the steady state performance of the overall system employed in this study as well as dynamic respirometry results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Restoration of a forested wetland ecosystem in a thermally impacted stream corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.; McKee, W.H. Jr.; Dulohery, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3,020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 50 C. The nearly continuous flood of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. Research has been ongoing to determine methods to reintroduce tree species characteristic of more mature forested wetlands. The goal of the restoration is to create structural and biological diversity in the forest canopy by establishing a mix of species typically present in riparian and wetland forests of the area

  4. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  5. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Ban-Weiss, George A; Sailor, David

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians. (letter)

  6. Teachers' Experiences and Perceptions of a Community Music Project: Impacts on Community and New Ways of Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansio, Hei; Seppälä, Piia; Houni, Pia

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research discusses a Finnish community music project aimed at school pupils with disabilities. The practices of this project define community music as community-driven, goal-oriented participatory music-making with a musician as a facilitator. Instead of the effects on pupils, this research investigates the project's impacts on…

  7. 75 FR 70348 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Project in Mariposa County, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway... Restoration Project in Mariposa County, California. DATES: Public circulation of this document will begin on... project on Wednesday, December 8, 2010 between 4 p.m. and 7 p.m. in Mariposa. The location is Mariposa...

  8. Environmental Impacts of the Production and Application of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Mireille; Woods, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    One of the potential benefits of biochar is carbon sequestration. To determine the overall net sequestration potential it is important to analyse the full supply chain, assessing both the direct and indirect emissions associated with the production and application of biochar. However, it is essential to also incorporate additional environmental impact categories to ensure the assessment of a more complete environmental impact profile. This paper uses a full life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the results from the EuroChar, 'biochar for carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere', project. This EU Seventh Framework Programme project aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar, and in particular explore possible pathways for its introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe. The LCA methodology, according to the ISO standards, is applied to the project-specific supply chains to analyse the environmental impacts of biochar production and application. Two conversion technologies for the production of biochar are assessed, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), in order to provide conversion efficiencies and emission factors for the biochar production component of the supply chain. The selected feedstocks include those derived from waste residues and dedicated crops. For the end use stage, various forms and methods for biochar application are considered. In addition to the Global Warming Potential category, other environmental impact categories are also included in the analysis. The resulting 'feedstock * conversion technology' matrix provides nine pathways for the production and application of biochar, which are applied as a representative basis for the scenario modelling. These scenarios have been developed in order to assess the feedstock and land availability in Europe for the production and application of biochar and to give an order of

  9. Impacts of Underwater Noise on Marine Vertebrates: Project Introduction and First Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; van Elk, Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise from pile driving and stress reactions caused by anthropogenic noise is investigated. Animals are equipped with DTAGs capable of recording the actual surrounding noise field of free-swimming harbor porpoises and seals. Acoustic noise mapping including porpoise detectors in the Natura 2000 sites of the North and Baltic Seas will help to fully understand current noise impacts.

  10. Mega-science accelerator projects in China and their impact on economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuang

    2012-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of national economy in China, a number of mega-science projects have been or being constructed. In respect to the large accelerator-based projects, the Beijing Electron-Positron Colliders (BEPC) and its upgrading project BEPCⅡ, the Hefei Light Source (HLS), the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) and its Cooling Storage Rings (HIRFL-CSR) and the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) were successfully constructed and put into operation. The Beijing Radioactive Ion Facility (BRIF) and the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) are under construction. A particle accelerator is an integration of many HI-tech components. In order to reach the scientific goal of an accelerator project, a great deal new technologies need to be developed during its construction and operation and thus speed up technology development and this will positively impact on the economy. In this paper, the mega-science accelerator projects are briefly described and applications of accelerators in the economy are reviewed. The paper emphasizes spin-off of the accelerator technology developed during R and D and construction of the projects. Approaches of collaboration between academia and industry are discussed. With some examples, the benefits experienced in the laboratory-industry collaboration and approach of its economic compact are illustrated. (author)

  11. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  12. Environmental impact assessment on the radioactive of a REE separation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nana; Zhu Yucheng; Cai Minqi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of field actual environment and analysis of radioactive sources, and industrial process techniques, environmental impact of the radioactive from a REE separation project has been analyzed, assessed and forecasted. The investigation and monitoring of actual radioactive in the environment indicated that value of assessment factors remained within the range of natural background level as a whole. The maximum annual individual effective dose for occupational worker and the public were forecasted and were found to be 1.622 mSv/a and 0.029 mSv/a respectively. Both of the values are lower than annual dose limit respectively. The radioactive impact of this project on the environment will comply with the standard limit of law and requirements after the reservation measures are carried out to REE. (authors)

  13. Impact of Thermal Plumes Generated by Occupant Simulators with Different Complexity of Body Geometry on Airflow Pattern in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    The impact of thermal plumes generated by human body simulators with different geometry on the airflow pattern in a full scale room with displacement ventilation (supply air temperature 21.6°C, total flow rate 80 L/s) was studied when two seated occupants were simulated first by two thermal...... manikins resembling accurately human body shape and then by two heated cylinders. The manikins and the cylinders had the same surface area of 1.63 m2 and the same heat generation of 73 W. CO2 supplied from the top of the heat sources was used for simulating bio-effluents. CO2 concentration was measured...

  14. Analysis on environmental impact of radiation from metallurgical project for rare metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zitong; Zhang Baozeng

    2012-01-01

    Rare metals are the composition of many high-property metal materials, which has a wide range of uses in the field of national defense advanced science technology. Since Ta-Nb material is associated radioactive mineral resources, and it contains high radionuclide, resulting in some radioactive indicators in process and workplace of the Ta-Nb smelting projects were significantly higher than that of the surrounding environmental radiation background. Based on the analysis of Ta-Nb smelting projects, the major sources of pollution were identified. and the possible radiation impact of the project was analyzed and evaluated, corrective measures on the process layout were also proposed, and reasonable suggestions of how to optimize the radiation protection were made. (authors)

  15. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE HIGHWAY 25 EXPANSION PROJECT ON AIR QUALITY IN MONTREAL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIABURU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of the highway 25 expansion project on air quality in montreal using gis. The aim of the paper is to assess local air pollution implications of the Highway 25 expansion project from Montreal. The basic concept of the roadway air dispersion model consists in calculating air pollutant levels in the vicinity of a highway by considering it as a line source. To fulfill this assessment, GIS software was used in order to determine pollutant distribution around the study area based on data collected by existing air monitoring stations located in the City of Montreal. GIS interpolation methods, notably Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, was used to generate maps of pollutant concentrations across the study area. From the results, recommendations will be made in regards to the project and appropriate mitigatory alternatives suggested.

  16. Project Mapping to Build Capacity and Demonstrate Impact in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Searby, N. D.; Murphy, K. J.; Mataya, C. J.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Stevens, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Diverse organizations are increasingly using project mapping to communicate location-based information about their activities. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD), through the Earth Science Data Systems and Applied Sciences' Capacity Building Program (CBP), has created a geographic information system of all ESD projects to support internal program management for the agency. The CBP's NASA DEVELOP program has built an interactive mapping tool to support capacity building for the program's varied constituents. This presentation will explore the types of programmatic opportunities provided by a geographic approach to management, communication, and strategic planning. We will also discuss the various external benefits that mapping supports and that build capacity in the Earth sciences. These include activities such as project matching (location-focused synergies), portfolio planning, inter- and intra-organizational collaboration, science diplomacy, and basic impact analysis.

  17. Impact of Aneurysm Projection on Intraoperative Complications During Surgical Clipping of Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Kosuke; Yoshino, Kumiko; Koyama, Takashi; Lo, Benjamin; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Yamagata, Sen

    2016-03-01

    Surgical clipping of ruptured posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms is a well-established procedure to date. However, preoperative factors associated with procedure-related risk require further elucidation. To investigate the impact of the direction of aneurysm projection on the incidence of procedure-related complications during surgical clipping of ruptured PCoA aneurysms. A total of 65 patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, prospective, observational cohort database in this study. The aneurysms were categorized into lateral and posterior projection groups, depending on direction of the dome. Characteristics and operative findings of each projection group were identified. We also evaluated any correlation of aneurysm projection with the incidence of procedure-related complications. Patients with ruptured PCoA aneurysms with posterior projection more likely presented with good-admission-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (P = .01, χ test) and were less to also have intracerebral hematoma (P = .01). These aneurysms were found to be associated with higher incidence of intraoperative rupture (P = .02), complex clipping with fenestrated clips (P = .02), and dense adherence to PCoA or its perforators (P = .04) by univariate analysis. Aneurysms with posterior projection were also correlated with procedure-related complications, including postoperative cerebral infarction or hematoma formation (odds ratio, 5.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-31.1; P = .04) by multivariable analysis. Ruptured PCoA aneurysms with posterior projection carried a higher risk of procedure-related complications of surgical clipping than those with lateral projection.

  18. Project report for fiscal 1998 on the research cooperation promotion project/research cooperation related to practical use of a thermal efficiency enhancing system for use in thermal power plants; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo / karyoku hatsudensho ni okeru netsu koritsu kojo system no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Thermal efficiency enhancing system technology for existing thermal power plants is studied jointly with Indonesia to achieve energy conservation and power generation cost reduction and serve for suppressing CO2 emission. Site investigations were carried out for the study on enhancing thermal efficiency in component devices, including improvements in a device to rinse small pipes in condensers and in materials used in air preheaters, as well as for heat management and efficient operation of the plants. Indonesian engineers were received to develop device designing and thermal efficiency controlling programs, and for technical guidance. Site seminars were held to proliferate the achievements. Under the trend of increasing electric power demand, Indonesia is apt to place first priority on stabilized operation of power plants, with the efforts of thermal efficiency management staying behind partly due to fossil fuel price being low. The present project has made it possible to utilize hereafter the result of the rough design on improving the thermal efficiency in existing thermal power plants as has been done under the present project. Receiving the researchers and holding the site seminars also helped transfer the technologies on the thermal efficiency improving processes, and device maintenance and management methods. The project has also contributed to the consciousness reformation. (NEDO)

  19. The Abbey Theatre Digital Archive: a digitization project with dramatic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cox

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available National University of Ireland Galway digitized the archive of the Abbey Theatre between 2012 and 2015. This was the largest theatre archive digitization project worldwide and it has had a major impact on the University and its Library. The scale of the digitization project presented a series of challenges, including fragile material, limited time, streamlined workflows, complex digital rights management and effective systems. The project was completed on time and on budget in 2015, using a ‘more product, less process’ approach. Access to the Abbey Theatre Digital Archive has delivered strong academic impact for the University, generating new research income and international connections as well as contributing to improved institutional ranking. The Digital Archive enables new types of research, including text and data mining, and has reshaped undergraduate curricula. It has also had a transformative effect on the Library as leader of the project. The role of the archivist has changed and partnerships with the academic community have strengthened. A growing emphasis on digital publication has been a catalyst for a function- rather than subject-based organizational structure which promotes participation in digital scholarship initiatives, with archives and special collections occupying a new position of prominence.

  20. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Summary of results - an updated impact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avermann, M.; Bischoff, L.; Brockmeyer, P.; Buhl, D.; Deutsch, A.; Dressler, B. O.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.; Stoeffler, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Ontario Geological Survey initiated a research project on the Sudbury structure (SS) in cooperation with the University of Muenster. The project included field mapping (1984-1989) and petrographic, chemical, and isotope analyses of the major stratigraphic units of the SS. Four diploma theses and four doctoral theses were performed during the project (1984-1992). Specific results of the various investigations are reported. Selected areas of the SS were mapped and sampled: Footwall rocks; Footwall breccia and parts of the sublayer and lower section of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC); Onaping Formation and the upper section of the SIC; and Sudbury breccia and adjacent Footwall rocks along extended profiles up to 55 km from the SIC. All these stratigraphic units of the SS were studied in substantial detail by previous workers. The most important characteristic of the previous research is that it was based either on a volcanic model or on a mixed volcanic-impact model for the origin of the SS. The present project was clearly directed toward a test of the impact origin of the SS without invoking an endogenic component. In general, our results confirm the most widely accepted stratigraphic division of the SS. However, our interpretation of some of the major stratigraphic units is different from most views expressed. The stratigraphy of the SS and its new interpretation is given as a basis for discussion.