Optimal Couple Projections for Domain Adaptive Sparse Representation-based Classification.
Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Huaijiang; Porikli, Fatih; Liu, Yazhou; Sun, Quansen
2017-08-29
In recent years, sparse representation based classification (SRC) is one of the most successful methods and has been shown impressive performance in various classification tasks. However, when the training data has a different distribution than the testing data, the learned sparse representation may not be optimal, and the performance of SRC will be degraded significantly. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose an optimal couple projections for domain-adaptive sparse representation-based classification (OCPD-SRC) method, in which the discriminative features of data in the two domains are simultaneously learned with the dictionary that can succinctly represent the training and testing data in the projected space. OCPD-SRC is designed based on the decision rule of SRC, with the objective to learn coupled projection matrices and a common discriminative dictionary such that the between-class sparse reconstruction residuals of data from both domains are maximized, and the within-class sparse reconstruction residuals of data are minimized in the projected low-dimensional space. Thus, the resulting representations can well fit SRC and simultaneously have a better discriminant ability. In addition, our method can be easily extended to multiple domains and can be kernelized to deal with the nonlinear structure of data. The optimal solution for the proposed method can be efficiently obtained following the alternative optimization method. Extensive experimental results on a series of benchmark databases show that our method is better or comparable to many state-of-the-art methods.
Projected coupled cluster theory.
Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2017-08-14
Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions. The non-orthogonal nature of states resulting from the application of symmetry projection operators furnishes particle-hole excitations to all orders, thus creating an obstacle for the exact evaluation of overlaps. Here we provide a solution via a disentanglement framework theory that can be approximated rigorously and systematically. Results of projected coupled cluster theory are presented for molecules and the Hubbard model, showing that spin projection significantly improves unrestricted coupled cluster theory while restoring good quantum numbers. The energy of projected coupled cluster theory reduces to the unprojected one in the thermodynamic limit, albeit at a much slower rate than projected Hartree-Fock.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-06-01
Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Coupling of Nuclear Reactors and Desalination Systems with participation of institutes from nine Member States. The CRP was initiated as a step forward for facilitating an early deployment in developing countries, where nuclear desalination is being considered as an option to cope with fresh water deficit as well as energy in the coming decade. The CRP has enabled the IAEA and participating institutes to accumulate relevant information on the latest research and development in the field of nuclear desalination and share it with interested Member States. The CRP has produced optimum coupling configurations of nuclear and desalination systems, evaluated their performance and identified technical features, which may require further assessment for detailed specifications of large-scale nuclear desalination plants. This publication highlights the outcomes of projects under this CRP and draw lessons and suggestions for further investigation for deployment of nuclear desalination
Rabin, Sam; Alexander, Peter; Anthoni, Peter; Henry, Roslyn; Huntingford, Chris; Pugh, Thomas; Rounsevell, Mark; Arneth, Almut
2017-04-01
A major question facing humanity is how well agricultural production systems will be able to feed the world in a future of rapid climate change, population growth, and demand shifts—all while minimizing our impact on the natural world. Global modeling has frequently been used to investigate certain aspects of this question, but in order to properly address the challenge, no one part of the human-environmental system can be assessed in isolation. It is especially critical that the effect on agricultural yields of changing temperature and precipitation regimes (including seasonal timing and frequency and intensity of extreme events), as well as rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, be taken into account when planning for future food security. Coupled modeling efforts, where changes in various parts of the Earth system are allowed to feed back onto one another, represent a powerful strategy in this regard. This presentation describes the structure and initial results of an effort to couple a biologically-representative vegetation and crop production simulator, LPJ-GUESS, with the climate emulator IMOGEN and the land-use model PLUMv2. With IMOGEN providing detailed future weather simulations, LPJ-GUESS simulates natural vegetation as well as cropland and pasture/rangeland; the simulated exchange of greenhouse gases between the land and atmosphere feeds back into IMOGEN's predictions. LPJ-GUESS also produces potential vegetation yields for irrigated vs. rainfed crops under three levels of nitrogen fertilizer addition. PLUMv2 combines these potential yields with endogenous demand and agricultural commodity price to calculate an optimal set of land use distributions and management strategies across the world for the next five years of simulation, based on socio-economic scenario data. These land uses are then fed back into LPJ-GUESS, and the cycle of climate, greenhouse gas emissions, crop yields, and land-use change continues. The globally gridded nature of the
Characteristics for Software Optimization Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iulian NITESCU
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The increasing of the software systems complexity imposes the identification and implementation of some methods and techniques in order to manage it. The software optimization project is a way in which the software complexity is controlled. The software optimization project must face to the organization need to earn profit. The software optimization project is an integrated part of the application cycle because share same resources, depends on other stages and influences next phases. The optimization project has some particularities because it works on an finished product around its quality. The process is quality and performance oriented and it assumes that the product life cycle is almost finished.
Optimizing Chromatic Coupling Measurement in the LHC
Persson, Tobias
2016-01-01
Optimizing chromatic coupling measurement in the LHC Chromatic coupling introduces a dependency of transverse coupling with energy. LHC is equipped with skew sextupoles to compensate the possible adverse effects of chromatic coupling. In 2012 a beam-based correction was calculated and applied successfully for the fist time. However, the method used to reconstruct the chromatic coupling was dependent on stable tunes and equal chromaticities between the horizontal and vertical planes. In this article an improved method to calculate the chromatic coupling without these constraints is presented.
The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Satz, Emmanuel
This paper analyzes the optimal income tax treatment of couples. Each couple is modelled as a single rational economic agent supplying labor along two dimensions: primary and secondary earnings. We consider fully general joint income tax systems. Separate taxation is never optimal if social welfare...... that many actual redistribution systems, featuring family-based transfers combined with individually-based taxes, generate schedules with negative jointness...
Reflector optimization for coupled liquid hydrogen moderator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Furusaka, M.
1991-01-01
As a part of optimization studies on a coupled liquid hydrogen moderator system, the optimal thickness of the reflector, the effects of neutron absorbing liners and other beam hole/moderator on the cold-neutron-beam intensity were studied experimentally. It turns out that the optimal thickness is rather thick in this system and the existence of Cd liners around the beam extraction hole considerably reduces the cold neutron beam intensity, while the existence of other beam hole and moderator does not give an important intensity reduction. (author)
The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes the general nonlinear optimal income tax for couples, a multidimensional screening problem. Each couple consists of a primary earner who always participates in the labor market, but makes an hours-of-work choice, and a secondary earner who chooses whether or not to work....... If second-earner participation is a signal of the couple being better (worse) off, we prove that optimal tax schemes display a positive tax (subsidy) on secondary earnings and that the tax (subsidy) on secondary earnings decreases with primary earnings and converges to zero asymptotically. We present...... calibrated microsimulations for the United Kingdom showing that decreasing tax rates on secondary earnings is quantitatively significant and consistent with actual income tax and transfer programs....
Coupled multiscale simulation and optimization in nanoelectronics
2015-01-01
Designing complex integrated circuits relies heavily on mathematical methods and calls for suitable simulation and optimization tools. The current design approach involves simulations and optimizations in different physical domains (device, circuit, thermal, electromagnetic) and in a range of electrical engineering disciplines (logic, timing, power, crosstalk, signal integrity, system functionality). COMSON was a Marie Curie Research Training Network created to meet these new scientific and training challenges by (a) developing new descriptive models that take these mutual dependencies into account, (b) combining these models with existing circuit descriptions in new simulation strategies, and (c) developing new optimization techniques that will accommodate new designs. The book presents the main project results in the fields of PDAE modeling and simulation, model order reduction techniques and optimization, based on merging the know-how of three major European semiconductor companies with the combined expe...
Project Management Yinyang: Coupling project success and client satisfaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Greg Stewart Usher
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Our research applies paradox theory to a project management construct to help project management researchers and practitioners understand the tensions that can exist between project success and client satisfaction. Our research highlights that although project success and client satisfaction are both present within a project management construct, they also belong to different functional systems. Project success and client satisfaction have different systemic-discourses and use different language games to convey information. These distinctions can create latent and sometimes salient tensions within the project management construct that project managers must understand, embrace, and work with. We have used a Grounded Theory (GT methodology to explore the lived experience of project managers, and from this have identified a phenomenon which we have termed project management yinyang. Project management yinyang is the state that exists when both project success and Client satisfaction are tightly coupled within the project management construct. Project management yinyang highlights that these two phenomena cannot be viewed as separate elements because the ‘seed’ of each exists within the other. And to truly achieve one, you must also achieve the other. Our findings indicate that in order to create project management yinyang the project manager must embrace a paradoxical yet holistic philosophy. They must understand the complementarity, interdependency, and structural coupling that exists between the positivist and interpretivist paradigms within the project management construct. They must understand how satisfaction (Yin and success (Yang are created through focus. Furthermore, they must understand how project management yinyang is separate from, but borne from, the convergence of the other two elements.
Optimal Discount Rates for Government Projects
Park, Sangkyun
2012-01-01
Project selection based on the net present value can be optimal only if the discount rate is optimal. The optimal discount rate for a government project can be a risk-free rate, a comparable market rate (market interest rate corresponding to the risk of cash flows to the government), or an adjusted market rate, depending on circumstances. This paper clarifies the conditions for each case. Provided that the optimal discount rate is the comparable market rate, it varies across intervention meth...
Cascade-robustness optimization of coupling preference in interconnected networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xue-Jun; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Yan-Bo; Xia, Yong-Xiang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A specific memetic algorithm was proposed to optimize coupling links. • A small toy model was investigated to examine the underlying mechanism. • The MA optimized strategy exhibits a moderate assortative pattern. • A novel coupling coefficient index was proposed to quantify coupling preference. - Abstract: Recently, the robustness of interconnected networks has attracted extensive attentions, one of which is to investigate the influence of coupling preference. In this paper, the memetic algorithm (MA) is employed to optimize the coupling links of interconnected networks. Afterwards, a comparison is made between MA optimized coupling strategy and traditional assortative, disassortative and random coupling preferences. It is found that the MA optimized coupling strategy with a moderate assortative value shows an outstanding performance against cascading failures on both synthetic scale-free interconnected networks and real-world networks. We then provide an explanation for this phenomenon from a micro-scope point of view and propose a coupling coefficient index to quantify the coupling preference. Our work is helpful for the design of robust interconnected networks.
Optimized Projection Matrix for Compressive Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianping Xu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS is mainly concerned with low-coherence pairs, since the number of samples needed to recover the signal is proportional to the mutual coherence between projection matrix and sparsifying matrix. Until now, papers on CS always assume the projection matrix to be a random matrix. In this paper, aiming at minimizing the mutual coherence, a method is proposed to optimize the projection matrix. This method is based on equiangular tight frame (ETF design because an ETF has minimum coherence. It is impossible to solve the problem exactly because of the complexity. Therefore, an alternating minimization type method is used to find a feasible solution. The optimally designed projection matrix can further reduce the necessary number of samples for recovery or improve the recovery accuracy. The proposed method demonstrates better performance than conventional optimization methods, which brings benefits to both basis pursuit and orthogonal matching pursuit.
Optimal estimation of the optomechanical coupling strength
Bernád, József Zsolt; Sanavio, Claudio; Xuereb, André
2018-06-01
We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to obtain information about the value of the nonlinear optomechanical coupling strength. In particular, we discuss the minimum mean-square error estimator and a quantum Cramér-Rao-type inequality for the estimation of the coupling strength. Our estimation strategy reveals some cases where quantum statistical inference is inconclusive and merely results in the reinforcement of prior expectations. We show that these situations also involve the highest expected information losses. We demonstrate that interaction times on the order of one time period of mechanical oscillations are the most suitable for our estimation scenario, and compare situations involving different photon and phonon excitations.
Synchronization-optimized networks for coupled nearly identical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
From the stability criteria of the MSF, we construct optimal networks ... of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social sci- ..... In figure 3a, a sample of initial network of 32 coupled nearly identical Rössler oscilla-.
REPNET: project scheduling and workflow optimization for Construction Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Alvise Bragadin
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Project planning and control are core processes for construction management. In practice project planning is achieved by network - based techniques like Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM.Indeed many researchers and practitioners claims that networking techniques as such do not provide a suitable model for construction projects. Construction process modeling should incorporate for specific features of resource flows through project activities. So an improved resource scheduling method for construction is developed, called REPNET, based on a precedence network plotted on a resource–space chart and presented with a flow-line chart. The heuristics of REPNET are used to carry out resource timing while optimizing processes flows and resource usage. The method has been tested on a sample project.
Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.
Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua
2014-01-01
Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.
Measurement and Optimization of Local Coupling from RHIC BPM Data
Calaga, Rama; Bai, Mei; Fischer, Wolfram; Franchi, Andrea; Tomas, Rogelio
2005-01-01
Global coupling in RHIC is routinely corrected by using three skew quadrupole families to minimize the tune split. In this paper we aim to re-optimize the coupling at top energy by minimizing resonance driving terms and the C-matrix in two steps: 1. Find the best configuration of the three skew quadrupole families and 2. Identify locations with coupling sources by inspection of the driving terms and the C-matrix around the ring. The measurements of resonance terms and C-matrix are presented.
Coupled Low-thrust Trajectory and System Optimization via Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control
Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob Aldo; Ghosh, Alexander R.
2015-01-01
The optimization of low-thrust trajectories is tightly coupled with the spacecraft hardware. Trading trajectory characteristics with system parameters ton identify viable solutions and determine mission sensitivities across discrete hardware configurations is labor intensive. Local independent optimization runs can sample the design space, but a global exploration that resolves the relationships between the system variables across multiple objectives enables a full mapping of the optimal solution space. A multi-objective, hybrid optimal control algorithm is formulated using a multi-objective genetic algorithm as an outer loop systems optimizer around a global trajectory optimizer. The coupled problem is solved simultaneously to generate Pareto-optimal solutions in a single execution. The automated approach is demonstrated on two boulder return missions.
Design and Optimization of UWB for Air Coupled GPR Applications
2014-10-01
of 1°. 36 Figure 36: Measured (dashed) versus simulation (solid) radiation pattern at 1.9GHz Figure 37: Measured ...Evans, S. "Radio techniques for the measurement of ice thickness." Polar Record 11.73 (1963): 406-410. Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ...directed gain and radiation efficiency. DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF UWB ANTENNA FOR AIR COUPLED GPR APPLICATIONS A
On Shape Optimization for an Evolution Coupled System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leugering, G.; Novotny, A. A.; Perla Menzala, G.; Sokołowski, J.
2011-01-01
A shape optimization problem in three spatial dimensions for an elasto-dynamic piezoelectric body coupled to an acoustic chamber is introduced. Well-posedness of the problem is established and first order necessary optimality conditions are derived in the framework of the boundary variation technique. In particular, the existence of the shape gradient for an integral shape functional is obtained, as well as its regularity, sufficient for applications e.g. in modern loudspeaker technologies. The shape gradients are given by functions supported on the moving boundaries. The paper extends results obtained by the authors in (Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 33(17):2118–2131, 2010) where a similar problem was treated without acoustic coupling.
Optimal projection of observations in a Bayesian setting
Giraldi, Loic; Le Maî tre, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar
2018-01-01
, and the one that maximizes the mutual information between the parameter of interest and the projected observations. The first two optimization problems are formulated as the determination of an optimal subspace and therefore the solution is computed using
Optimal and Miniaturized Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonant Systems
Hu, Hao
Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies for communication and recharging devices have recently attracted significant research attention. Conventional WPT systems based either on far-field or near-field coupling cannot provide simultaneously high efficiency and long transfer range. The Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) method was introduced recently, and it offers the possibility of transferring power with high efficiency over longer distances. Previous SCMR research has only focused on how to improve its efficiency and range through different methods. However, the study of optimal and miniaturized designs has been limited. In addition, no multiband and broadband SCMR WPT systems have been developed and traditional SCMR systems exhibit narrowband efficiency thereby imposing strict limitations on simultaneous wireless transmission of information and power, which is important for battery-less sensors. Therefore, new SCMR systems that are optimally designed and miniaturized in size will significantly enhance various technologies in many applications. The optimal and miniaturized SCMR systems are studied here. First, analytical models of the Conformal SCMR (CSCMR) system and thorough analysis and design methodology have been presented. This analysis specifically leads to the identification of the optimal design parameters, and predicts the performance of the designed CSCMR system. Second, optimal multiband and broadband CSCMR systems are designed. Two-band, three-band, and four-band CSCMR systems are designed and validated using simulations and measurements. Novel broadband CSCMR systems are also analyzed, designed, simulated and measured. The proposed broadband CSCMR system achieved more than 7 times larger bandwidth compared to the traditional SCMR system at the same frequency. Miniaturization methods of SCMR systems are also explored. Specifically, methods that use printable CSCMR with large capacitors, novel topologies including meandered, SRRs, and
Elements of a compatible optimization theory for coupled systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnemay, A.
1969-01-01
The first theory deals with the compatible optimization in coupled systems. A game theory for two players and with a non-zero sum is first developed. The conclusions are then extended to the case of a game with any finite number of players. After this essentially static study, the dynamic aspect of the problem is applied to the case of games which evolve. By applying PONTRYAGIN maximum principle it is possible to derive a compatible optimisation theorem which constitutes a necessary condition. (author) [fr
Optimal taxation of married couples with household production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen
2007-01-01
of commodity taxes, efficient taxation requires joint taxation of the family. In the presence of restricted commodity taxation, the income tax should compensate for the erroneous commodity taxes. In this case, individual taxation is typically optimal, but not necessarily with a higher rate on primary earners......The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use...
Optimizing phonon space in the phonon-coupling model
Tselyaev, V.; Lyutorovich, N.; Speth, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2017-08-01
We present a new scheme to select the most relevant phonons in the phonon-coupling model, named here the time-blocking approximation (TBA). The new criterion, based on the phonon-nucleon coupling strengths rather than on B (E L ) values, is more selective and thus produces much smaller phonon spaces in the TBA. This is beneficial in two respects: first, it curbs the computational cost, and second, it reduces the danger of double counting in the expansion basis of the TBA. We use here the TBA in a form where the coupling strength is regularized to keep the given Hartree-Fock ground state stable. The scheme is implemented in a random-phase approximation and TBA code based on the Skyrme energy functional. We first explore carefully the cutoff dependence with the new criterion and can work out a natural (optimal) cutoff parameter. Then we use the freshly developed and tested scheme for a survey of giant resonances and low-lying collective states in six doubly magic nuclei looking also at the dependence of the results when varying the Skyrme parametrization.
Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jia; Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang; Nie, Xingchen; Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).
Nuclear-thermal-coupled optimization code for the fusion breeding blanket conceptual design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jia, E-mail: lijia@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jiang, Kecheng; Zhang, Xiaokang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Nie, Xingchen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Zhu, Qinjun; Liu, Songlin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • A nuclear-thermal-coupled predesign code has been developed for optimizing the radial build arrangement of fusion breeding blanket. • Coupling module aims at speeding up the efficiency of design progress by coupling the neutronics calculation code with the thermal-hydraulic analysis code. • Radial build optimization algorithm aims at optimal arrangement of breeding blanket considering one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria such as material temperature limit and available TBR. - Abstract: Fusion breeding blanket as one of the key in-vessel components performs the functions of breeding the tritium, removing the nuclear heat and heat flux from plasma chamber as well as acting as part of shielding system. The radial build design which determines the arrangement of function zones and material properties on the radial direction is the basis of the detailed design of fusion breeding blanket. For facilitating the radial build design, this study aims for developing a pre-design code to optimize the radial build of blanket with considering the performance of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic simultaneously. Two main features of this code are: (1) Coupling of the neutronics analysis with the thermal-hydraulic analysis to speed up the analysis progress; (2) preliminary optimization algorithm using one or multiple specified objectives subject to the design criteria in the form of constrains imposed on design variables and performance parameters within the possible engineering ranges. This pre-design code has been applied to the conceptual design of water-cooled ceramic breeding blanket in project of China fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR).
DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, K.V.
1996-02-01
TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.
Topology optimization for optical projection lithography with manufacturing uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2014-01-01
to manufacturing without additional optical proximity correction (OPC). The performance of the optimized device is robust toward the considered process variations. With the proposed unified approach, the design for photolithography is achieved by considering the optimal device performance and manufacturability......This article presents a topology optimization approach for micro-and nano-devices fabricated by optical projection lithography. Incorporating the photolithography process and the manufacturing uncertainties into the topology optimization process results in a binary mask that can be sent directly...
Coupled hydrogen moderator optimization with ortho/para hydrogen ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Teshigawara, Makoto; Watanabe, Noboru; Ikeda, Yujiro
2004-01-01
Neutronic performance of a coupled hydrogen moderator was studied as a function of para hydrogen concentration, moderator thickness and height, premoderator thickness, etc. for the J-PARC spallation neutron source. It was found that a thick (140 mm) moderator with 100% para-hydrogen was optimal to provide a high time- and energy-integrated neutron intensity below 15 meV and high pulse-peak intensities at lower energies. Distribution of the cold neutrons on a moderator viewed surface was studied and found to exhibit an intensity-enhanced region at the fringe part near the premoderator. This rather peculiar distribution suggested that the moderator and the viewed surface must be designed so as to take the full advantage of the brighter region near the premoderator
Optimal fringe angle selection for digital fringe projection technique.
Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Song
2013-10-10
Existing digital fringe projection (DFP) systems mainly use either horizontal or vertical fringe patterns for three-dimensional shape measurement. This paper reveals that these two fringe directions are usually not optimal where the phase change is the largest to a given depth variation. We propose a novel and efficient method to determine the optimal fringe angle by projecting a set of horizontal and vertical fringe patterns onto a step-height object and by further analyzing two resultant phase maps. Experiments demonstrate the existence of the optimal angle and the success of the proposed optimal angle determination method.
Methods of Choosing an Optimal Portfolio of Projects
Yakovlev, A.; Chernenko, M.
2016-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of existing methods for a portfolio of project optimization. The necessity for their improvement is shown. It is suggested to assess the portfolio of projects on the basis of the amount in the difference between the results and costs during development and implementation of selected projects and the losses caused by non-implementation or delayed implementation of projects that were not included in the portfolio. Consideration of capital and current costs compon...
Project STOP (Spectral Thermal Optimization Program)
Goldhammer, L. J.; Opjorden, R. W.; Goodelle, G. S.; Powe, J. S.
1977-01-01
The spectral thermal optimization of solar cell configurations for various solar panel applications is considered. The method of optimization depends upon varying the solar cell configuration's optical characteristics to minimize panel temperatures, maximize power output and decrease the power delta from beginning of life to end of life. Four areas of primary investigation are: (1) testing and evaluation of ultraviolet resistant coverslide adhesives, primarily FEP as an adhesive; (2) examination of solar cell absolute spectral response and corresponding cell manufacturing processes that affect it; (3) experimental work with solar cell manufacturing processes that vary cell reflectance (solar absorptance); and (4) experimental and theoretical studies with various coverslide filter designs, mainly a red rejection filter. The Hughes' solar array prediction program has been modified to aid in evaluating the effect of each of the above four areas on the output of a solar panel in orbit.
Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moody, D.C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.
2002-01-01
The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.
Combinatorial Optimization in Project Selection Using Genetic Algorithm
Dewi, Sari; Sawaluddin
2018-01-01
This paper discusses the problem of project selection in the presence of two objective functions that maximize profit and minimize cost and the existence of some limitations is limited resources availability and time available so that there is need allocation of resources in each project. These resources are human resources, machine resources, raw material resources. This is treated as a consideration to not exceed the budget that has been determined. So that can be formulated mathematics for objective function (multi-objective) with boundaries that fulfilled. To assist the project selection process, a multi-objective combinatorial optimization approach is used to obtain an optimal solution for the selection of the right project. It then described a multi-objective method of genetic algorithm as one method of multi-objective combinatorial optimization approach to simplify the project selection process in a large scope.
Optimizing 4DCBCT projection allocation to respiratory bins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O’Brien, Ricky T; Kipritidis, John; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J
2014-01-01
4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging image guidance strategy used in radiotherapy where projections acquired during a scan are sorted into respiratory bins based on the respiratory phase or displacement. 4DCBCT reduces the motion blur caused by respiratory motion but increases streaking artefacts due to projection under-sampling as a result of the irregular nature of patient breathing and the binning algorithms used. For displacement binning the streak artefacts are so severe that displacement binning is rarely used clinically. The purpose of this study is to investigate if sharing projections between respiratory bins and adjusting the location of respiratory bins in an optimal manner can reduce or eliminate streak artefacts in 4DCBCT images. We introduce a mathematical optimization framework and a heuristic solution method, which we will call the optimized projection allocation algorithm, to determine where to position the respiratory bins and which projections to source from neighbouring respiratory bins. Five 4DCBCT datasets from three patients were used to reconstruct 4DCBCT images. Projections were sorted into respiratory bins using equispaced, equal density and optimized projection allocation. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections was used to assess streaking and the consistency of the segmented volume of a fiducial gold marker was used to assess motion blur. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections using displacement binning and optimized projection allocation was 30%–50% smaller than conventional phase based binning and 59%–76% smaller than conventional displacement binning indicating more uniformly spaced projections and fewer streaking artefacts. The standard deviation in the marker volume was 20%–90% smaller when using optimized projection allocation than using conventional phase based binning suggesting more uniform marker segmentation and less motion blur. Images
Optimization education after project implementation: sharing "lessons learned" with staff.
Vaughn, Susan
2011-01-01
Implementations involving healthcare technology solutions focus on providing end-user education prior to the application going "live" in the organization. Benefits to postimplementation education for staff should be included when planning these projects. This author describes the traditional training provided during the implementation of a bar-coding medication project and then the optimization training 8 weeks later.
Multi-objective genetic optimization of linear construction projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatma A. Agrama
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In the real world, the majority cases of optimization problems, met by engineers, are composed of several conflicting objectives. This paper presents an approach for a multi-objective optimization model for scheduling linear construction projects. Linear construction projects have many identical units wherein activities repeat from one unit to another. Highway, pipeline, and tunnels are good examples that exhibit repetitive characteristics. These projects represent a large portion of the construction industry. The present model enables construction planners to generate optimal/near-optimal construction plans that minimize project duration, total work interruptions, and total number of crews. Each of these plans identifies, from a set of feasible alternatives, optimal crew synchronization for each activity and activity interruptions at each unit. This model satisfies the following aspects: (1 it is based on the line of balance technique; (2 it considers non-serial typical activities networks with finish–start relationship and both lag or overlap time between activities is allowed; (3 it utilizes a multi-objective genetic algorithms approach; (4 it is developed as a spreadsheet template that is easy to use. Details of the model with visual charts are presented. An application example is analyzed to illustrate the use of the model and demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of linear construction projects.
On projection methods, convergence and robust formulations in topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Fengwen; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
alleviated using various projection methods. In this paper we show that simple projection methods do not ensure local mesh-convergence and propose a modified robust topology optimization formulation based on erosion, intermediate and dilation projections that ensures both global and local mesh-convergence.......Mesh convergence and manufacturability of topology optimized designs have previously mainly been assured using density or sensitivity based filtering techniques. The drawback of these techniques has been gray transition regions between solid and void parts, but this problem has recently been...
Optimizing development projects in mature basins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swan, P.J. [BP Exploration, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
1995-08-01
BP Exploration wishes to grow its gas business substantially and the Southern North Sea area expects to be a significant contributor to this growth. The Southern North Sea gas basin is characterised by a relatively large number of small prospects and discoveries lying within the catchment areas of existing pipeline systems serving larger fields currently in production. This growth will be achieved through expansion of production from existing large mature fields and new satellite developments, connected to existing pipeline systems. Significant modification to existing infrastructure will be required to bring the new production on stream. The low materiality of many of these new developments means that, based on current cost paradigms, they are sub-economic or do not offer returns commensurate with the risk. Also, implementation based on classical approaches tends to be resource-intensive in terms of key skills. Critical areas of concern in delivering growth objectives therefore relate to management of cost, implementation time and productivity of key human resources. The general approach adopted in pursuit of high performance includes a number of features: Innovative approaches to the service industries; simplification of equipment; streamlining of methodologies; application of novel technology; alignment of motivation of all contributors to overall objectives; and shifting the paradigm of risk. BP believes that this approach is a major breakthrough in extending and expanding the life of its assets in the Southern North Sea and is representative of the trend of optimization in the extended life of the Basin in general.
A Multi-Model Reduction Technique for Optimization of Coupled Structural-Acoustic Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Creixell Mediante, Ester; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Brunskog, Jonas
2016-01-01
Finite Element models of structural-acoustic coupled systems can become very large for complex structures with multiple connected parts. Optimization of the performance of the structure based on harmonic analysis of the system requires solving the coupled problem iteratively and for several frequ....... Several methods are compared in terms of accuracy and size of the reduced systems for optimization of simple models....
Optimal projection of observations in a Bayesian setting
Giraldi, Loic
2018-03-18
Optimal dimensionality reduction methods are proposed for the Bayesian inference of a Gaussian linear model with additive noise in presence of overabundant data. Three different optimal projections of the observations are proposed based on information theory: the projection that minimizes the Kullback–Leibler divergence between the posterior distributions of the original and the projected models, the one that minimizes the expected Kullback–Leibler divergence between the same distributions, and the one that maximizes the mutual information between the parameter of interest and the projected observations. The first two optimization problems are formulated as the determination of an optimal subspace and therefore the solution is computed using Riemannian optimization algorithms on the Grassmann manifold. Regarding the maximization of the mutual information, it is shown that there exists an optimal subspace that minimizes the entropy of the posterior distribution of the reduced model; a basis of the subspace can be computed as the solution to a generalized eigenvalue problem; an a priori error estimate on the mutual information is available for this particular solution; and that the dimensionality of the subspace to exactly conserve the mutual information between the input and the output of the models is less than the number of parameters to be inferred. Numerical applications to linear and nonlinear models are used to assess the efficiency of the proposed approaches, and to highlight their advantages compared to standard approaches based on the principal component analysis of the observations.
Optimized application of systems engineering to nuclear waste repository projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miskimin, P.A.; Shepard, M.
1986-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to describe a fully optimized application of systems engineering methods and philosophy to the management of a large nuclear waste repository project. Knowledge gained from actual experience with the use of the systems approach on two repository projects is incorporated in the material presented. The projects are currently evaluating the isolation performance of different geologic settings and are in different phases of maturity. Systems engineering methods were applied by the principal author at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the form of a functional analysis. At the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), the authors assisted the intergrating contractor with the development and application of systems engineering methods. Based on this experience and that acquired from other waste management projects, an optimized plan for applying systems engineering techniques was developed. The plan encompasses the following aspects: project organization, developing and defining requirements, assigning work responsibilities, evaluating system performance, quality assurance, controlling changes, enhancing licensability, optimizing project performance, and addressing regulatory issues. This information is presented in the form of a roadmap for the practical application of system engineering principles to a nuclear waste repository project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pittner, Jiri; Lischka, Hans; Barbatti, Mario
2009-01-01
The usage of time-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms and partially coupled time-dependent equations are investigated to accelerate non-adiabatic dynamics simulations at multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) level. The quality of the results and computational costs are compared against non-adiabatic benchmark dynamics calculations using non-adiabatic coupling vectors. In the comparison between the time-derivative couplings and coupling vectors, deviations in the adiabatic population of individual trajectories were observed in regions of rapid variation of the coupling terms. They, however, affected the average adiabatic population to only about 5%. For small multiconfiguration spaces, dynamics with time-derivative couplings are significantly faster than those with coupling vectors. This relation inverts for larger configuration spaces. The use of the partially coupled equations approach speeds up the simulations significantly while keeping the deviations in the population below few percent. Imidazole and the methaniminium cation are used as test examples
Topology optimization of Halbach magnet arrays using isoparametric projection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jaewook; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Dede, Ercan M.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Design method of Halbach magnet array is proposed using topology optimization. • Magnet strength and direction are simultaneously optimized by isoparametric projection. • For manufacturing feasibility of magnet, penalization and extrusion schemes are proposed. • Design results of circular shaped Halbach arrays are provided. • Halbach arrays in linear actuator are optimized to maximize magnetic force. - Abstract: Topology optimization using isoparametric projection for the design of permanent magnet patterns in Halbach arrays is proposed. Based on isoparametric shape functions used in the finite element analysis, the permanent magnet strength and magnetization directions in a Halbach array are simultaneously optimized for a given design goal. To achieve fabrication feasibility of a designed Halbach magnet array, two design schemes are combined with the isoparametric projection method. First, a penalization scheme is proposed for designing the permanent magnets to have discrete magnetization direction angles. Second, an extrusion scheme is proposed for the shape regularization of the permanent magnet segments. As a result, the method systematically finds the optimal permanent magnet patterns of a Halbach array considering manufacturing feasibility. In two numerical examples, a circular shaped permanent magnet Halbach array is designed to minimize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density and to maximize the upward direction magnetic flux density inside the magnet array. Logical extension of the method to the design of permanent magnet arrays in linear actuators is provided, where the design goal is to maximize the actuator magnetic force.
Topology optimization of Halbach magnet arrays using isoparametric projection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jaewook, E-mail: jaewooklee@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Nomura, Tsuyoshi [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Research Institute of North America, 1555 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America, 1555 Woodridge Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Design method of Halbach magnet array is proposed using topology optimization. • Magnet strength and direction are simultaneously optimized by isoparametric projection. • For manufacturing feasibility of magnet, penalization and extrusion schemes are proposed. • Design results of circular shaped Halbach arrays are provided. • Halbach arrays in linear actuator are optimized to maximize magnetic force. - Abstract: Topology optimization using isoparametric projection for the design of permanent magnet patterns in Halbach arrays is proposed. Based on isoparametric shape functions used in the finite element analysis, the permanent magnet strength and magnetization directions in a Halbach array are simultaneously optimized for a given design goal. To achieve fabrication feasibility of a designed Halbach magnet array, two design schemes are combined with the isoparametric projection method. First, a penalization scheme is proposed for designing the permanent magnets to have discrete magnetization direction angles. Second, an extrusion scheme is proposed for the shape regularization of the permanent magnet segments. As a result, the method systematically finds the optimal permanent magnet patterns of a Halbach array considering manufacturing feasibility. In two numerical examples, a circular shaped permanent magnet Halbach array is designed to minimize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density and to maximize the upward direction magnetic flux density inside the magnet array. Logical extension of the method to the design of permanent magnet arrays in linear actuators is provided, where the design goal is to maximize the actuator magnetic force.
Synchronization-optimized networks for coupled nearly identical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-01-24
Jan 24, 2014 ... The extension of the master stability function (MSF) to analyse stability of generalized synchronization for coupled nearly identical oscillators is discussed. The nearly identical nature of the coupled oscillators is due to some parameter mismatch while the dynamical equations are the same for all the ...
Adaptive coupling optimized spiking coherence and synchronization in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.
Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo; Wu, Ya'nan
2013-09-01
In this paper, we have numerically studied the effect of adaptive coupling on the temporal coherence and synchronization of spiking activity in Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks. It is found that random shortcuts can enhance the spiking synchronization more rapidly when the increment speed of adaptive coupling is increased and can optimize the temporal coherence of spikes only when the increment speed of adaptive coupling is appropriate. It is also found that adaptive coupling strength can enhance the synchronization of spikes and can optimize the temporal coherence of spikes when random shortcuts are appropriate. These results show that adaptive coupling has a big influence on random shortcuts related spiking activity and can enhance and optimize the temporal coherence and synchronization of spiking activity of the network. These findings can help better understand the roles of adaptive coupling for improving the information processing and transmission in neural systems.
Electrochemical Single-Molecule Transistors with Optimized Gate Coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Osorio, Henrry M.; Catarelli, Samantha; Cea, Pilar
2015-01-01
Electrochemical gating at the single molecule level of viologen molecular bridges in ionic liquids is examined. Contrary to previous data recorded in aqueous electrolytes, a clear and sharp peak in the single molecule conductance versus electrochemical potential data is obtained in ionic liquids....... These data are rationalized in terms of a two-step electrochemical model for charge transport across the redox bridge. In this model the gate coupling in the ionic liquid is found to be fully effective with a modeled gate coupling parameter, ξ, of unity. This compares to a much lower gate coupling parameter...
Coupling between a multi-physics workflow engine and an optimization framework
Di Gallo, L.; Reux, C.; Imbeaux, F.; Artaud, J.-F.; Owsiak, M.; Saoutic, B.; Aiello, G.; Bernardi, P.; Ciraolo, G.; Bucalossi, J.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Fausser, C.; Galassi, D.; Hertout, P.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Li-Puma, A.; Zani, L.
2016-03-01
A generic coupling method between a multi-physics workflow engine and an optimization framework is presented in this paper. The coupling architecture has been developed in order to preserve the integrity of the two frameworks. The objective is to provide the possibility to replace a framework, a workflow or an optimizer by another one without changing the whole coupling procedure or modifying the main content in each framework. The coupling is achieved by using a socket-based communication library for exchanging data between the two frameworks. Among a number of algorithms provided by optimization frameworks, Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have demonstrated their efficiency on single and multiple criteria optimization. Additionally to their robustness, GAs can handle non-valid data which may appear during the optimization. Consequently GAs work on most general cases. A parallelized framework has been developed to reduce the time spent for optimizations and evaluation of large samples. A test has shown a good scaling efficiency of this parallelized framework. This coupling method has been applied to the case of SYCOMORE (SYstem COde for MOdeling tokamak REactor) which is a system code developed in form of a modular workflow for designing magnetic fusion reactors. The coupling of SYCOMORE with the optimization platform URANIE enables design optimization along various figures of merit and constraints.
Optimization of tritium management within the ITER project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortes, P.; Elbez-Uzan, J.; Glugla, M.; Rosanvallon, S.; Ciattaglia, S.; Iseli, M.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.
2009-01-01
The authors describe the tritium cycle existing within the ITER project and which has been considered since its beginning. They indicate how confinement systems ensure tritium confinement, how tritium is recovered and processed. They indicate the different tritium management optimization ways which have been identified and integrated into the ITER design
Coupling Matched Molecular Pairs with Machine Learning for Virtual Compound Optimization.
Turk, Samo; Merget, Benjamin; Rippmann, Friedrich; Fulle, Simone
2017-12-26
Matched molecular pair (MMP) analyses are widely used in compound optimization projects to gain insights into structure-activity relationships (SAR). The analysis is traditionally done via statistical methods but can also be employed together with machine learning (ML) approaches to extrapolate to novel compounds. The here introduced MMP/ML method combines a fragment-based MMP implementation with different machine learning methods to obtain automated SAR decomposition and prediction. To test the prediction capabilities and model transferability, two different compound optimization scenarios were designed: (1) "new fragments" which occurs when exploring new fragments for a defined compound series and (2) "new static core and transformations" which resembles for instance the identification of a new compound series. Very good results were achieved by all employed machine learning methods especially for the new fragments case, but overall deep neural network models performed best, allowing reliable predictions also for the new static core and transformations scenario, where comprehensive SAR knowledge of the compound series is missing. Furthermore, we show that models trained on all available data have a higher generalizability compared to models trained on focused series and can extend beyond chemical space covered in the training data. Thus, coupling MMP with deep neural networks provides a promising approach to make high quality predictions on various data sets and in different compound optimization scenarios.
Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer results of PUSKURI project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olin, M.; Rasilainen, K.; Itaelae, A.
2011-08-01
In the report main results form a KYT2010 programme's project Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer (PUSKURI) are presented. In THC modelling, Aku Itaelae made and published his Master of Science Thesis. Itaelae was able to successfully model the LOT-experiment. Additionally, he also listed problems and development proposals for THC-modelling of bentonite buffer. VTT and Numerola created in collaboration a model coupling saturation, diffusion and cation exchange; the model was implemented and tested in Numerrin, COMSOL and TOUGHREACT. Petri Jussila's PhD THM-model was implemented into COMSOL to facilitate further development. At GTK, the mineralogical characterisation of bentonite was planned. The previous THM model (Jussila's model) including only small deformations was successfully generalized to finite deformations in way at least formally preserving the original formalism. It appears that the theory allows also a possibility to include finite plastic deformations in the theory. In order to measure the relevant mechanical properties of compacted bentonite, two different experiments, namely hydrostatic compression experiment and one-dimensional compression experiment were designed. In the hydrostatic compression experiment, a cylindrical sample of compacted bentonite covered with liquid rubber coating is placed in the sample chamber equipped with a piston. The same device was also used in one-dimensional compression experiment. X-ray microtomographic techniques were used in order to study the basic mechanisms of water transport in bentonite. The preliminary results indicate that in the present experimental set-up, water transport is dominated by a dispersive mechanism such as diffusion of vapour in gas phase or diffusion of water in solid phase. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junhua Wang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Wireless charging is the key technology to realize real autonomy of mobile robots. As the core part of wireless power transfer system, coupling mechanism including coupling coils and compensation topology is analyzed and optimized through simulations, to achieve stable and practical wireless charging suitable for ordinary robots. Multi-layer coil structure, especially double-layer coil is explored and selected to greatly enhance coupling performance, while shape of ferrite shielding goes through distributed optimization to guarantee coil fault tolerance and cost effectiveness. On the basis of optimized coils, primary compensation topology is analyzed to adopt composite LCL compensation, to stabilize operations of the primary side under variations of mutual inductance. Experimental results show the optimized system does make sense for wireless charging application for robots based on magnetic resonance coupling, to realize long-term autonomy of robots.
Wang, Junhua; Hu, Meilin; Cai, Changsong; Lin, Zhongzheng; Li, Liang; Fang, Zhijian
2018-05-01
Wireless charging is the key technology to realize real autonomy of mobile robots. As the core part of wireless power transfer system, coupling mechanism including coupling coils and compensation topology is analyzed and optimized through simulations, to achieve stable and practical wireless charging suitable for ordinary robots. Multi-layer coil structure, especially double-layer coil is explored and selected to greatly enhance coupling performance, while shape of ferrite shielding goes through distributed optimization to guarantee coil fault tolerance and cost effectiveness. On the basis of optimized coils, primary compensation topology is analyzed to adopt composite LCL compensation, to stabilize operations of the primary side under variations of mutual inductance. Experimental results show the optimized system does make sense for wireless charging application for robots based on magnetic resonance coupling, to realize long-term autonomy of robots.
Ananiev, Sergey
2006-01-01
The paper demonstrates the equivalence between the optimality criteria (OC) method, initially proposed by Bendsoe & Kikuchi for topology optimization problem, and the projected gradient method. The equivalence is shown using Hestenes definition of Lagrange multipliers. Based on this development, an alternative formulation of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition is suggested. Such reformulation has some advantages, which will be also discussed in the paper. For verification purposes the modi...
The optimized baseline project: Reinventing environmental restoration at Hanford
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodenough, J.D.; Janaskie, M.T.; Kleinen, P.J.
1994-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) is using a strategic planning effort (termed the Optimized Baseline Project) to develop a new approach to the Hanford Environmental Restoration program. This effort seeks to achieve a quantum leap improvement in performance through results oriented prioritization of activities. This effort was conducted in parallel with the renegotiation of the Tri-Party Agreement and provided DOE with an opportunity to propose innovative initiatives to promote cost effectiveness, accelerate progress in the Hanford Environmental Restoration Program and involve stakeholders in the decision-making process. The Optimized Baseline project is an innovative approach to program planning and decision-making in several respects. First, the process is a top down, value driven effort that responds to values held by DOE, the regulatory community and the public. Second, planning is conducted in a way that reinforces the technical management process at Richland, involves the regulatory community in substantive decisions, and includes the public. Third, the Optimized Baseline Project is being conducted as part of a sitewide Hanford initiative to reinvent Government. The planning process used for the Optimized Baseline Project has many potential applications at other sites and in other programs where there is a need to build consensus among diverse, independent groups of stakeholders and decisionmakers. The project has successfully developed and demonstrated an innovative approach to program planning that accelerates the pace of cleanup, involves the regulators as partners with DOE in priority setting, and builds public understanding and support for the program through meaningful opportunities for involvement
Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization.
Bokrantz, Rasmus; Miettinen, Kaisa
2015-10-01
To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose-volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose-volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan.
Projections onto the Pareto surface in multicriteria radiation therapy optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bokrantz, Rasmus; Miettinen, Kaisa
2015-01-01
Purpose: To eliminate or reduce the error to Pareto optimality that arises in Pareto surface navigation when the Pareto surface is approximated by a small number of plans. Methods: The authors propose to project the navigated plan onto the Pareto surface as a postprocessing step to the navigation. The projection attempts to find a Pareto optimal plan that is at least as good as or better than the initial navigated plan with respect to all objective functions. An augmented form of projection is also suggested where dose–volume histogram constraints are used to prevent that the projection causes a violation of some clinical goal. The projections were evaluated with respect to planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered by step-and-shoot and sliding window and spot-scanned intensity modulated proton therapy. Retrospective plans were generated for a prostate and a head and neck case. Results: The projections led to improved dose conformity and better sparing of organs at risk (OARs) for all three delivery techniques and both patient cases. The mean dose to OARs decreased by 3.1 Gy on average for the unconstrained form of the projection and by 2.0 Gy on average when dose–volume histogram constraints were used. No consistent improvements in target homogeneity were observed. Conclusions: There are situations when Pareto navigation leaves room for improvement in OAR sparing and dose conformity, for example, if the approximation of the Pareto surface is coarse or the problem formulation has too permissive constraints. A projection onto the Pareto surface can identify an inaccurate Pareto surface representation and, if necessary, improve the quality of the navigated plan
Resource allocation in IT projects: using schedule optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Chilton
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Resource allocation is the process of assigning resources to tasks throughout the life of a project. Despite sophisticated software packages devoted to keeping track of tasks, resources and resource assignments, it is often the case that project managers find some resources over-allocated and therefore unable to complete the assigned work in the allotted amount of time. Most scheduling software has provisions for leveling resources, but the techniques for doing so simply add time to the schedule and may cause delays in tasks that are critical to the project in meeting deadlines. This paper presents a software application that ensures that resources are properly balanced at the beginning of the project and eliminates the situation in which resources become over-allocated. It can be used in a multi-project environment and reused throughout the project as tasks, resource assignments and availability, and the project scope change. The application utilizes the bounded enumeration technique to formulate an optimal schedule for which both the task sequence and resource availability are taken into account. It is run on a database server to reduce the running time and make it a viable application for practitioners.
Projector primary-based optimization for superimposed projection mappings
Ahmed, Bilal; Lee, Jong Hun; Lee, Yong Yi; Lee, Kwan H.
2018-01-01
Recently, many researchers have focused on fully overlapping projections for three-dimensional (3-D) projection mapping systems but reproducing a high-quality appearance using this technology still remains a challenge. On top of existing color compensation-based methods, much effort is still required to faithfully reproduce an appearance that is free from artifacts, colorimetric inconsistencies, and inappropriate illuminance over the 3-D projection surface. According to our observation, this is due to the fact that overlapping projections are treated as an additive-linear mixture of color. However, this is not the case according to our elaborated observations. We propose a method that enables us to use high-quality appearance data that are measured from original objects and regenerate the same appearance by projecting optimized images using multiple projectors, ensuring that the projection-rendered results look visually close to the real object. We prepare our target appearances by photographing original objects. Then, using calibrated projector-camera pairs, we compensate for missing geometric correspondences to make our method robust against noise. The heart of our method is a target appearance-driven adaptive sampling of the projection surface followed by a representation of overlapping projections in terms of the projector-primary response. This gives off projector-primary weights to facilitate blending and the system is applied with constraints. These samples are used to populate a light transport-based system. Then, the system is solved minimizing the error to get the projection images in a noise-free manner by utilizing intersample overlaps. We ensure that we make the best utilization of available hardware resources to recreate projection mapped appearances that look as close to the original object as possible. Our experimental results show compelling results in terms of visual similarity and colorimetric error.
Hydraulic analysis and optimization design in Guri rehabilitation project
Cheng, H.; Zhou, L. J.; Gong, L.; Wang, Z. N.; Wen, Q.; Zhao, Y. Z.; Wang, Y. L.
2016-11-01
Recently Dongfang was awarded the contract for rehabilitation of 6 units in Guri power plant, the biggest hydro power project in Venezuela. The rehabilitation includes, but not limited to, the extension of output capacity by about 50% and enhancement of efficiency level. To achieve the targets the runner and the guide vanes will be replaced by the newly optimized designs. In addition, the out-of-date stay vanes with straight plate shape will be modified into proper profiles after considering the application feasibility in field. The runner and vane profiles were optimized by using state-of-the-art flow simulation techniques. And the hydraulic performances were confirmed by the following model tests. This paper describes the flow analysis during the optimization procedure and the comparison between various technical concepts.
CREATION OF OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF AN INVESTMENT PROJECT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Višnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The selection of an investment project is formulated as a multi-criteria decision-making problem. This paper presents a case in which the decision-maker uses nine criteria or rather attributes (Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Payback Period, Accounting Rate of Return, Cumulative Cash Flows, Return on Investment, Net Profit Margin, Interest Coverage Ratio and Current Ratio. Individual utility functions are constructed for each attribute separately, as well as a global utility function representing a weighted sum of individual utility functions. For every attribute a finite set of ordered pairs or utility points is determined, taking into account the decision-maker’s assessment. The given points are then approximated by the utility function. Finally, according to the decision-maker’s assessment the optimization problem is solved with the purpose of achieving an optimal performance for each project. By way of negotiation the performances on offer approach the optimal performance of the project with the purpose of realising an agreement between the decision-maker and the investor.
Coordination Implications of Software Coupling in Open Source Projects
Amrit, Chintan Amrit; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Ågerfalk, Pär
2010-01-01
The effect of software coupling on the quality of software has been studied quite widely since the seminal paper on software modularity by Parnas [1]. However, the effect of the increase in software coupling on the coordination of the developers has not been researched as much. In commercial
Galerkin v. discrete-optimal projection in nonlinear model reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barone, Matthew Franklin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antil, Harbir [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)
2015-04-01
Discrete-optimal model-reduction techniques such as the Gauss{Newton with Approximated Tensors (GNAT) method have shown promise, as they have generated stable, accurate solutions for large-scale turbulent, compressible ow problems where standard Galerkin techniques have failed. However, there has been limited comparative analysis of the two approaches. This is due in part to difficulties arising from the fact that Galerkin techniques perform projection at the time-continuous level, while discrete-optimal techniques do so at the time-discrete level. This work provides a detailed theoretical and experimental comparison of the two techniques for two common classes of time integrators: linear multistep schemes and Runge{Kutta schemes. We present a number of new ndings, including conditions under which the discrete-optimal ROM has a time-continuous representation, conditions under which the two techniques are equivalent, and time-discrete error bounds for the two approaches. Perhaps most surprisingly, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that decreasing the time step does not necessarily decrease the error for the discrete-optimal ROM; instead, the time step should be `matched' to the spectral content of the reduced basis. In numerical experiments carried out on a turbulent compressible- ow problem with over one million unknowns, we show that increasing the time step to an intermediate value decreases both the error and the simulation time of the discrete-optimal reduced-order model by an order of magnitude.
An advanced Lithium-ion battery optimal charging strategy based on a coupled thermoelectric model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing
2017-01-01
Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.
Optimal control of quantum systems: a projection approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.-J.; Hwang, C.-C.; Liao, T.-L.; Chou, G.-L.
2005-01-01
This paper considers the optimal control of quantum systems. The controlled quantum systems are described by the probability-density-matrix-based Liouville-von Neumann equation. Using projection operators, the states of the quantum system are decomposed into two sub-spaces, namely the 'main state' space and the 'remaining state' space. Since the control energy is limited, a solution for optimizing the external control force is proposed in which the main state is brought to the desired main state at a certain target time, while the population of the remaining state is simultaneously suppressed in order to diminish its effects on the final population of the main state. The optimization problem is formulated by maximizing a general cost functional of states and control force. An efficient algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, using the hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecular population transfer problem as an illustrative example, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for a quantum system initially in a mixed state or in a pure state is investigated through numerical simulations
Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects
Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer
2013-04-01
In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential for the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquakes at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized
All-at-once Optimization for Coupled Matrix and Tensor Factorizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Evrim, Acar Ataman; Kolda, Tamara G.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.
2011-01-01
.g., the person by person social network matrix or the restaurant by category matrix, and higher-order tensors, e.g., the "ratings" tensor of the form restaurant by meal by person. In this paper, we are particularly interested in fusing data sets with the goal of capturing their underlying latent structures. We...... formulate this problem as a coupled matrix and tensor factorization (CMTF) problem where heterogeneous data sets are modeled by fitting outer-product models to higher-order tensors and matrices in a coupled manner. Unlike traditional approaches solving this problem using alternating algorithms, we propose...... an all-at-once optimization approach called CMTF-OPT (CMTF-OPTimization), which is a gradient-based optimization approach for joint analysis of matrices and higher-order tensors. We also extend the algorithm to handle coupled incomplete data sets. Using numerical experiments, we demonstrate...
Optimization of Multiresonant Wireless Power Transfer Network Based on Generalized Coupled Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transfer network (MCRWPTN system can realize wireless power transfer for some electrical equipment real-time and high efficiency in a certain spatial scale, which resolves the contradiction between power transfer efficiency and the power transfer distance of the wireless power transfer. A fully coupled resonant energy transfer model for multirelay coils and ports is established. A dynamic adaptive impedance matching control based on fully coupling matrix and particle swarm optimization algorithm based on annealing is developed for the MCRWPTN. Furthermore, as an example, the network which has twenty nodes is analyzed, and the best transmission coefficient which has the highest power transfer efficiency is found using the optimization algorithm, and the coupling constraints are considered simultaneously. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by the simulation results.
Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quinby, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caulfield, Emmet [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gerritsen, Margot [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Diffendorfer, Jay [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Haines, Seth [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)
2014-03-01
Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.
Ullah, Hakeem; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Fiza, Mehreen
2015-01-01
In this paper we applied a new analytic approximate technique Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) for treatment of coupled differential- difference equations (DDEs). To see the efficiency and reliability of the method, we consider Relativistic Toda coupled nonlinear differential-difference equation. It provides us a convenient way to control the convergence of approximate solutions when it is compared with other methods of solution found in the literature. The obtained solutions show that OHAM is effective, simpler, easier and explicit. PMID:25874457
Ullah, Hakeem; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Fiza, Mehreen
2015-01-01
In this paper we applied a new analytic approximate technique Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) for treatment of coupled differential-difference equations (DDEs). To see the efficiency and reliability of the method, we consider Relativistic Toda coupled nonlinear differential-difference equation. It provides us a convenient way to control the convergence of approximate solutions when it is compared with other methods of solution found in the literature. The obtained solutions show that OHAM is effective, simpler, easier and explicit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irwin Yousept
2010-07-01
Full Text Available An optimal control problem arising in the context of 3D electromagnetic induction heating is investigated. The state equation is given by a quasilinear stationary heat equation coupled with a semilinear time harmonic eddy current equation. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and the presence of pointwise inequality state-constraints represent the main challenge of the paper. In the first part of the paper, the existence and regularity of the state are addressed. The second part of the paper deals with the analysis of the corresponding linearized equation. Some suffcient conditions are presented which guarantee thesolvability of the linearized system. The final part of the paper is concerned with the optimal control. The aim of the optimization is to find the optimal voltage such that a desired temperature can be achieved optimally. The corresponding first-order necessary optimality condition is presented.
Formulation analysis and computation of an optimization-based local-to-nonlocal coupling method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Elia, Marta [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present an optimization-based coupling method for local and nonlocal continuum models. Our approach couches the coupling of the models into a control problem where the states are the solutions of the nonlocal and local equations, the objective is to minimize their mismatch on the overlap of the local and nonlocal problem domains, and the virtual controls are the nonlocal volume constraint and the local boundary condition. We present the method in the context of Local-to-Nonlocal di usion coupling. Numerical examples illustrate the theoretical properties of the approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Liu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports investigations on the effect of antenna mutual coupling on performance of training-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO channel estimation. The influence of mutual coupling is assessed for two training-based channel estimation methods, Scaled Least Square (SLS and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE. It is shown that the accuracy of MIMO channel estimation is governed by the sum of eigenvalues of channel correlation matrix which in turn is influenced by the mutual coupling in transmitting and receiving array antennas. A water-filling-based procedure is proposed to optimize the training signal transmission to minimize the MIMO channel estimation errors.
Concurrent, parallel, multiphysics coupling in the FACETS project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cary, J R; Carlsson, J A; Hakim, A H; Kruger, S E; Miah, M; Pletzer, A; Shasharina, S [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Candy, J; Groebner, R J [General Atomics (United States); Cobb, J; Fahey, M R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Cohen, R H; Epperly, T [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Estep, D J [Colorado State University (United States); Krasheninnikov, S [University of California at San Diego (United States); Malony, A D [ParaTools, Inc (United States); McCune, D C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); McInnes, L; Balay, S [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Pankin, A, E-mail: cary@txcorp.co [Lehigh University (United States)
2009-07-01
FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations), is now in its third year. The FACETS team has developed a framework for concurrent coupling of parallel computational physics for use on Leadership Class Facilities (LCFs). In the course of the last year, FACETS has tackled many of the difficult problems of moving to parallel, integrated modeling by developing algorithms for coupled systems, extracting legacy applications as components, modifying them to run on LCFs, and improving the performance of all components. The development of FACETS abides by rigorous engineering standards, including cross platform build and test systems, with the latter covering regression, performance, and visualization. In addition, FACETS has demonstrated the ability to incorporate full turbulence computations for the highest fidelity transport computations. Early indications are that the framework, using such computations, scales to multiple tens of thousands of processors. These accomplishments were a result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among computational physics, computer scientists and applied mathematicians on the team.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sondos Mehri
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Electronic biomedical implantable sensors need power to perform. Among the main reported approaches, inductive link is the most commonly used method for remote powering of such devices. Power efficiency is the most important characteristic to be considered when designing inductive links to transfer energy to implantable biomedical sensors. The maximum power efficiency is obtained for maximum coupling and quality factors of the coils and is generally limited as the coupling between the inductors is usually very small. This paper is dealing with geometry optimization of inductively coupled printed spiral coils for powering a given implantable sensor system. For this aim, Iterative Procedure (IP and Genetic Algorithm (GA analytic based optimization approaches are proposed. Both of these approaches implement simple mathematical models that approximate the coil parameters and the link efficiency values. Using numerical simulations based on Finite Element Method (FEM and with experimental validation, the proposed analytic approaches are shown to have improved accurate performance results in comparison with the obtained performance of a reference design case. The analytical GA and IP optimization methods are also compared to a purely Finite Element Method based on numerical optimization approach (GA-FEM. Numerical and experimental validations confirmed the accuracy and the effectiveness of the analytical optimization approaches to design the optimal coil geometries for the best values of efficiency.
Optimal power and distribution control for weakly-coupled-core reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oohori, Takahumi; Kaji, Ikuo
1977-01-01
A numerical procedure has been devised for obtaining the optimal power and distribution control for a weakly-coupled-core reactor. Several difficulties were encountered in solving this optimization problem: (1) nonlinearity of the reactor kinetics equations; (2) neutron-leakage interaction between the cores; (3) localized power changes occurring in addition to the total power changes; (4) constraints imposed on the states - e.g. reactivity, reactor period. To obviate these difficulties, use is made of the generalized Newton method to convert the problem into an iterative sequence of linear programming problems, after approximating the differential equations and the integral performance criterion by a set of discrete algebraic equations. In this procedure, a heuristic but effective method is used for deriving an initial approximation, which is then made to converge toward the optimal solution. Delayed-neutron one-group point reactor models embodying transient temperature feed-back to the reactivity are used in obtaining the kinetics equations for the weakly-coupled-core reactor. The criterion adopted for determining the optimality is a norm relevant to the deviations of neutron density from the desired trajectories or else to the time derivatives of the neutron density; uniform control intervals are prescribed. Examples are given of two coupled-core reactors with typical parameters to illustrate the results obtained with this procedure. A comparison is also made between the coupled-core reactor and the one-point reactor. (auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Bivde
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Coupling is an interdependence relationship between the modules of object-oriented software. It is a property with the most influence on quality attributes of the object-oriented software. Coupling with high values results in complex software design hence software professionals try to keep the coupling as low as possible. The values of coupling metrics are dependent on the type of input source code. Reusability is the main feature of object-oriented languages, so coupling occurs due to reuse of code modules. This paper investigates a correlation between the values of coupling metrics and the number of classes in the multimedia Java code. Here, a case study of a banking multimedia Java project with its forty different versions is conducted to comments on this correlation. The analysis of the results shows that, if the input source code is with a large number of classes then it results in high coupling values.
Public Project Portfolio Optimization under a Participatory Paradigm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Fernandez
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A new democracy paradigm is emerging through participatory budgeting exercises, which can be defined as a public space in which the government and the society agree on how to adapt the priorities of the citizenship to the public policy agenda. Although these priorities have been identified and they are likely to be reflected in a ranking of public policy actions, there is still a challenge of solving a portfolio problem of public projects that should implement the agreed agenda. This work proposes two procedures for optimizing the portfolio of public actions with the information stemming from the citizen participatory exercise. The selection of the method depends on the information about preferences collected from the participatory group. When the information is sufficient, the method behaves as an instrument of legitimate democracy. The proposal performs very well in solving two real-size examples.
Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project
Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.
1980-05-01
The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.
Optimal linear-quadratic control of coupled parabolic-hyperbolic PDEs
Aksikas, I.; Moghadam, A. Alizadeh; Forbes, J. F.
2017-10-01
This paper focuses on the optimal control design for a system of coupled parabolic-hypebolic partial differential equations by using the infinite-dimensional state-space description and the corresponding operator Riccati equation. Some dynamical properties of the coupled system of interest are analysed to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the linear-quadratic (LQ)-optimal control problem. A state LQ-feedback operator is computed by solving the operator Riccati equation, which is converted into a set of algebraic and differential Riccati equations, thanks to the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the parabolic operator. The results are applied to a non-isothermal packed-bed catalytic reactor. The LQ-optimal controller designed in the early portion of the paper is implemented for the original nonlinear model. Numerical simulations are performed to show the controller performances.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo
2015-01-01
Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water...... quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen...
Gradient optimization of finite projected entangled pair states
Liu, Wen-Yuan; Dong, Shao-Jun; Han, Yong-Jian; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin
2017-05-01
Projected entangled pair states (PEPS) methods have been proven to be powerful tools to solve strongly correlated quantum many-body problems in two dimensions. However, due to the high computational scaling with the virtual bond dimension D , in a practical application, PEPS are often limited to rather small bond dimensions, which may not be large enough for some highly entangled systems, for instance, frustrated systems. Optimization of the ground state using the imaginary time evolution method with a simple update scheme may go to a larger bond dimension. However, the accuracy of the rough approximation to the environment of the local tensors is questionable. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the imaginary time evolution method with a simple update, Monte Carlo sampling techniques and gradient optimization will offer an efficient method to calculate the PEPS ground state. By taking advantage of massive parallel computing, we can study quantum systems with larger bond dimensions up to D =10 without resorting to any symmetry. Benchmark tests of the method on the J1-J2 model give impressive accuracy compared with exact results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thang Manh Hoang; Nakagawa, Masahiro
2008-01-01
In this paper, a chaotic secure communication system is proposed by using the schemes of projective-lag and/or projective-anticipating synchronizations of coupled multidelay feedback systems and the modulation technique of synchronization-manifold shift keying. Further, the security of the proposed system is enhanced by using non-stationary dynamics in the master and/or non-stationary synchronization manifolds. The specific examples using modified Ikeda systems demonstrate and verify the effectiveness of the proposed system
Demosaicking Based on Optimization and Projection in Different Frequency Bands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omer OsamaA
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A fast and effective iterative demosaicking algorithm is described for reconstructing a full-color image from single-color filter array data. The missing color values are interpolated on the basis of optimization and projection in different frequency bands. A filter bank is used to decompose an initially interpolated image into low-frequency and high-frequency bands. In the low-frequency band, a quadratic cost function is minimized in accordance with the observation that the low-frequency components of chrominance slowly vary within an object region. In the high-frequency bands, the high-frequency components of the unknown values are projected onto the high-frequency components of the known values. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with seven state-of-the-art demosaicking algorithms showed that it outperforms all of them for 20 images on average in terms of objective quality and that it is competitive with them from the subjective quality and complexity points of view.
PDVSA Petrolera Sinovensa reservoir engineering project and optimization study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos, O. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrolera Sinovensa; Patino, J. [Kizer Energy Inc., Katy, TX (United States); Chalifoux, G.V. [Petrospec Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2009-07-01
This paper presented a development plan for an extra-heavy oil field in Venezuela's Orinoco belt involving cold heavy oil production (CHOP) as well as a thermal follow-up process to increase the ultimate recovery factor. A reservoir simulation model was used to model various reservoir formations in order to assess their oil recovery potential. Several thermal recovery processes were considered, such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), horizontal alternate steam drive (HASD), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), horizontal continuous steam drive, and combined drive drainage (CDD). A geological static model and dynamic reservoir model were coupled for the well optimization evaluation. Production data were used to identify trends related to specific geological conditions. The study also examined methods of improving slotted liner designs and evaluated the use of electric heating as a means of improving CHOP performance. Results of the study showed that CDD offered the highest recovery rates as a follow-up to CHOP. The CDD process allowed for the use of existing wells drilled in the field. New horizontal wells will be placed between the existing wells. It was concluded that a CDD pilot should be implemented in order to prepare for a commercial implementation plan. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.
Optimizing the financial structure and maximizing the future value of your generation project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arulampalam, G.; Letellier, M.
2004-01-01
This paper discusses ways of optimizing the financial structure and maximizing the future value of an electric power generation project. It outlines the project structure, the sponsor objectives, project finance lending criteria, project timeline, risk mitigation, bank and institutional financing, sponsor's role, impact of financing choices on project value, and impact of penalties and derivative products
Parametric Design Optimization Of A Novel Permanent Magnet Coupling Using Finite Element Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Högberg, Stig; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim
2014-01-01
A parametric design optimization routine has been applied to a novel magnetic coupling with improved recyclability. Coupling designs are modeled in a 3-D finite element environ- ment, and evaluated by three design objectives: pull-out torque, torque density by magnet mass, and torque density...... by total mass. Magnet and outer core thicknesses are varied discretely, whereas outer dimensions and air-gap length are kept constant. Comparative trends as a function of pole number and dimensions are depicted. A compromise exist between the design objectives, in which favoring one might reduce the other...
Optimization of control bars patterns and fuel recharges of coupled form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J.
2006-01-01
In this work a system coupled for the optimization of fuel recharges and control bars patterns in boiling water reactors (BWR by its initials in English) is presented. It was used a multi state recurrent neural net like optimization technique. This type of neural net has been used in the solution of diverse problems, in particular the design of patterns of control bars and the design of the fuel recharge. However, these problems have been resolved in an independent way with different optimization techniques. The system was developed in FORTRAN 77 language, it calls OCORN (Optimization of Cycles of Operation using Neural Nets) and it solves both problems of combinatory optimization in a coupled way. OCORN begins creating a seed recharge by means of an optimization through the Haling principle. Later on a pattern of control bars for this recharge seed is proposed. Then a new fuel recharge is designed using the control bars patterns previously found. By this way an iterative process begins among the optimization of control bars patterns and the fuel recharge until a stop criteria it is completed. The stop criteria is completed when the fuel recharges and the control bars patterns don't vary in several successive iterations. The final result is an optimal fuel recharge and its respective control bars pattern. In this work the obtained results by this system for a cycle of balance of 18 months divided in 12 steps of burnt are presented. The obtained results are very encouraging, since the fuel recharge and the control bars pattern, its fulfill with the restrictions imposed in each one of the problems. (Author)
This report summarizes Phase II (site optimization) of the Nationwide Fund-lead Pump and Treat Optimization Project. This phase included conducting Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) at each of the 20 sites selected in Phase I.
Nath, Sunil
2018-05-01
Metabolic energy obtained from the coupled chemical reactions of oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS) is harnessed in the form of ATP by cells. We experimentally measured thermodynamic forces and fluxes during ATP synthesis, and calculated the thermodynamic efficiency, η and the rate of free energy dissipation, Φ. We show that the OX PHOS system is tuned such that the coupled nonequilibrium processes operate at optimal η. This state does not coincide with the state of minimum Φ but is compatible with maximum Φ under the imposed constraints. Conditions that must hold for species concentration in order to satisfy the principle of optimal efficiency are derived analytically and a molecular explanation based on Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis is suggested. Differences of the proposed principle with Prigogine's principle are discussed.
Optimal arm posture control and tendon traction forces of a coupled tendon-driven manipulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Shugen
1997-01-01
In this study, the optimum arm posture of a coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator arm (or CT Arm) at maximum payload output was derived and the corresponding tendon traction forces were also analyzed, during management of a heavy payload by the manipulator in a gravity environment. The CT Arm is special tendon traction transmission mechanism in which a pair of tendons used to drive a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the base-side joints. This mechanism enables optimal utilization of the coupled drive function of tendon traction forces and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit large payload capability. The properties of the CT Arm mechanism are elucidated by the proposed optimal posture control scheme. Computer simulation was also executed to verify the validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)
Communication: Time-dependent optimized coupled-cluster method for multielectron dynamics
Sato, Takeshi; Pathak, Himadri; Orimo, Yuki; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.
2018-02-01
Time-dependent coupled-cluster method with time-varying orbital functions, called time-dependent optimized coupled-cluster (TD-OCC) method, is formulated for multielectron dynamics in an intense laser field. We have successfully derived the equations of motion for CC amplitudes and orthonormal orbital functions based on the real action functional, and implemented the method including double excitations (TD-OCCD) and double and triple excitations (TD-OCCDT) within the optimized active orbitals. The present method is size extensive and gauge invariant, a polynomial cost-scaling alternative to the time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method. The first application of the TD-OCC method of intense-laser driven correlated electron dynamics in Ar atom is reported.
Globus, M; Ratner, M
2002-01-01
Operation characteristics of a scintillation crystal, linked with the photomultiplier by a long transparent lightguide, are considered (such detection systems are used for monitoring the seawater pollution, scintillation measurements in magnetic field, etc.). This system is optimized with respect to the refractive index of the liquid, coupling the crystal with the lightguide, and the roughness degree of the crystal surface. It is shown that the energy resolution of the system can be significantly improved by using the coupling liquid with a refractive index somewhat less than that of the lightguide (a difference of about 0.2 is optimal). Light output and especially energy resolution becomes better with an increase of the roughness degree of the reflecting surface.
Preliminary optimization experiments of coupled liquid hydrogen moderator for KENS-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, N.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Inoue, K.; Furusaka, M.; Ikeda, S.; Arai, M.; Iwasa, H.
1989-01-01
As a preliminary optimization experiment on the cold-neutron source for KENS-II, energy and time distributions of cold neutrons emanating from coupled liquid-hydrogen moderators with and without a premoderator in a graphite reflector were measured and compared with those from a decoupled liquid-hydrogen moderator. The results showed that the energy spectra from the coupled liquid-hydrogen moderators are almost the same as those from a decoupled one. Relative gain of the former to the latter is fairly high, more than 5, and further increases with increasing wavelength. The broadening of the neutron pulse width in coupled moderators at the cold-neutron region is not so significant and only 1.5 times compared to the solid methane moderator presently operated at KENS-II. 2 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
How to Optimally Interdict a Belligerent Project to Develop a Nuclear Weapon
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Skroch, Eric
2004-01-01
... a large-scale project management model that includes alternate development paths to achieve certain key technical milestones We show how such a project can be optimally accelerated by expediting critical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Ye. Uvarov
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In the article the basic problem of substantiation of parameters of optimization model of organizationaltechnological solutions for investment-building projects in the system of project management is considered.
Optimal control of two coupled spinning particles in the Euler–Lagrange picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delgado-Téllez, M; Ibort, A; Peña, T Rodríguez de la; Salmoni, R
2016-01-01
A family of optimal control problems for a single and two coupled spinning particles in the Euler–Lagrange formalism is discussed. A characteristic of such problems is that the equations controlling the system are implicit and a reduction procedure to deal with them must be carried out. The reduction of the implicit control equations arising in these problems will be discussed in the slightly more general setting of implicit equations defined by invariant one-forms on Lie groups. As an example the first order differential equations describing the extremal solutions of an optimal control problem for a single spinning particle, obtained by using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle (PMP), will be found and shown to be completely integrable. Then, again using PMP, solutions for the problem of two coupled spinning particles will be characterized as solutions of a system of coupled non-linear matrix differential equations. The reduction of the implicit system will show that the reduced space for them is the product of the space of states for the independent systems, implying the absence of ‘entanglement’ in this instance. Finally, it will be shown that, in the case of identical systems, the degree three matrix polynomial differential equations determined by the optimal feedback law, constitute a completely integrable Hamiltonian system and some of its solutions are described explicitly. (paper)
Improvement of RETRAN-MASTER-TORC transient capability and coupling optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.; Joo, H. G.; Seo, K. W.; Whang, D. H.; Lee, C. C.; Zee, S. Q.
2003-11-01
This work is to improve MASTER-TORC transient calculation capability by complementing the previously developed consolidated code system RETRAN- MASTER-TORC, and to reduce the computing time by coupling optimization. The coupling soundness and optimization performance of the consolidated code system are evaluated by solving a YGN3 control bank ejection accident and the OECD Main Steam Line Break(MSLB) benchmark problems. The YGN3 control bank ejection accident is analyzed by the MASTER-TORC system. Most of all results including the transient core power, peak power and time are similar with those from the MASTER-COBRA system. In the computing time, the MASTER- TORC system is proved to be same as the MASTER-COBRA system, which means the coupling is sound and well-optimized. In the analysis of the OECD MSLB benchmark problem, the RETRAN-MASTER-TORC system shows the very similar results with the RETRAN-MASTER-COBRA system. However, minor differences due to fuel conductivity and thermal capacity model are noticed. In TORC, these parameters are treated as constants, while they are modeled as temperature dependent functions in COBRA. Therefore, in the future, TORC need to complement the temperature dependent thermal properties for accurate fuel and cladding temperature calculation. In the computing time for this problem, RETRAN-MASTER-TORC system shows a little bit faster than COBRA case
Optimal control of orientation and entanglement for two dipole-dipole coupled quantum planar rotors.
Yu, Hongling; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel
2018-05-09
Optimal control simulations are performed for orientation and entanglement of two dipole-dipole coupled identical quantum rotors. The rotors at various fixed separations lie on a model non-interacting plane with an applied control field. It is shown that optimal control of orientation or entanglement represents two contrasting control scenarios. In particular, the maximally oriented state (MOS) of the two rotors has a zero entanglement entropy and is readily attainable at all rotor separations. Whereas, the contrasting maximally entangled state (MES) has a zero orientation expectation value and is most conveniently attainable at small separations where the dipole-dipole coupling is strong. It is demonstrated that the peak orientation expectation value attained by the MOS at large separations exhibits a long time revival pattern due to the small energy splittings arising form the extremely weak dipole-dipole coupling between the degenerate product states of the two free rotors. Moreover, it is found that the peak entanglement entropy value attained by the MES remains largely unchanged as the two rotors are transported to large separations after turning off the control field. Finally, optimal control simulations of transition dynamics between the MOS and the MES reveal the intricate interplay between orientation and entanglement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wahlen-Strothman, J. M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Henderson, T. H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Hermes, M. R. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Degroote, M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Qiu, Y. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Zhao, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Dukelsky, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Scuseria, G. E. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
2018-01-03
Coupled cluster and symmetry projected Hartree-Fock are two central paradigms in electronic structure theory. However, they are very different. Single reference coupled cluster is highly successful for treating weakly correlated systems, but fails under strong correlation unless one sacrifices good quantum numbers and works with broken-symmetry wave functions, which is unphysical for finite systems. Symmetry projection is effective for the treatment of strong correlation at the mean-field level through multireference non-orthogonal configuration interaction wavefunctions, but unlike coupled cluster, it is neither size extensive nor ideal for treating dynamic correlation. We here examine different scenarios for merging these two dissimilar theories. We carry out this exercise over the integrable Lipkin model Hamiltonian, which despite its simplicity, encompasses non-trivial physics for degenerate systems and can be solved via diagonalization for a very large number of particles. We show how symmetry projection and coupled cluster doubles individually fail in different correlation limits, whereas models that merge these two theories are highly successful over the entire phase diagram. Despite the simplicity of the Lipkin Hamiltonian, the lessons learned in this work will be useful for building an ab initio symmetry projected coupled cluster theory that we expect to be accurate in the weakly and strongly correlated limits, as well as the recoupling regime.
Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui
2009-01-01
A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.
Optimal control of transverse mode coupling instability based on the two particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogata, Atsushi
1985-01-01
The optimal regulator design technique is applied to asymptotically stabilize the transverse mode coupling instability of a storage ring. The state equations are based on the two particle model. These are a pair of equation sets, one for the first and one for the second half of the synchrotron phase. Each set consists of first-order difference equations in vector-matrix form, with time step equal to the revolution time of the ring. Solution of the discrete Riccati equation gives the optimal gain matrix of the transverse feedback. Computer simulations are carried out to verify its effectiveness. Some modifications necessary to apply it to the real accelerator operation are made. The old methods, the classical output feedback and the reactive feedback, are interpreted from the viewpoint of the optimal control. (orig.)
Quantum optimal control theory and dynamic coupling in the spin-boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jirari, H.; Poetz, W.
2006-01-01
A Markovian master equation describing the evolution of open quantum systems in the presence of a time-dependent external field is derived within the Bloch-Redfield formalism. It leads to a system-bath interaction which depends on the control field. Optimal control theory is used to select control fields which allow accelerated or decelerated system relaxation, or suppression of relaxation (dissipation) altogether, depending on the dynamics we impose on the quantum system. The control-dissipation correlation and the nonperturbative treatment of the control field are essential for reaching this goal. The optimal control problem is formulated within Pontryagin's minimum principle and the resulting optimal differential system is solved numerically. As an application, we study the dynamics of a spin-boson model in the strong coupling regime under the influence of an external control field. We show how trapping the system in unstable quantum states and transfer of population can be achieved by optimized control of the dissipative quantum system. We also used optimal control theory to find the driving field that generates the quantum Z gate. In several cases studied, we find that the selected optimal field which reduces the purity loss significantly is a multicomponent low-frequency field including higher harmonics, all of which lie below the phonon cutoff frequency. Finally, in the undriven case we present an analytic result for the Lamb shift at zero temperature
Optimizing strategy for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Remon Fayek Aziz
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of a contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. Cash flow analysis of construction projects has a long history and has been an important topic in construction management. Determination of project cash flows is very sensitive, especially for repetitive construction projects. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data for repetitive construction projects such as: project duration, project cost, project/bid price, project cash flows, project maximum working capital and project net present value that is equivalent to net profit at the beginning of the project. A simplified multi-objective optimization formulation will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor comparing with more feasible options that are generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. This mathematical formulation is intended to give more scenarios which provide a practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate the applications of proposed technique to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.
Optimizing Outcome in the University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects
Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja
2016-06-01
Transferring inventions of academic scientists to private enterprises for the purpose of commercialization is long known as University-Industry (firm) Technology Transfer While the importance of this phenomenon is simultaneously raising in public and private sector, only a part of patented academic inventions succeed in passing the process of commercialization. Despite the fact that formal Technology Transfer process and licencing of patented innovations to third party is the main legal tool for safeguarding rights of academic inventors in commercialization of their inventions, it is not sufficient for transmitting tacit knowledge which is necessary in exploitation of transferred technology. Existence of reciprocal and complementary relations between formal and informal technology transfer process has resulted in formation of different models for university-industry organizational collaboration or even integration where licensee firms keep contact with academic inventors after gaining legal right for commercialization of their patented invention. Current paper argues that despite necessity for patents to legally pass the right of commercialization of an invention, they are not sufficient for complete knowledge transmission in the process of technology transfer. Lack of efficiency of formal mechanism to end the Technology Transfer loop makes an opportunity to create innovative interpersonal and organizational connections among patentee and licensee company. With emphasize on need for further elaboration of informal mechanisms as critical and underappreciated aspect of technology transfer process, article will try to answer the questions of how to optimize knowledge transmission process in the framework of University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects? What is the theoretical basis for university-industry technology transfer process? What are organization collaborative models which can enhance overall performance by improving transmission of knowledge in
OPTIMIZING OUTCOME IN THE UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamed ALAVI
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Transferring inventions of academic scientists to private enterprises for the purpose of commercialization is long known as University-Industry (firm Technology Transfer While the importance of this phenomenon is simultaneously raising in public and private sector, only a part of patented academic inventions succeed in passing the process of commercialization. Despite the fact that formal Technology Transfer process and licencing of patented innovations to third party is the main legal tool for safeguarding rights of academic inventors in commercialization of their inventions, it is not sufficient for transmitting tacit knowledge which is necessary in exploitation of transferred technology. Existence of reciprocal and complementary relations between formal and informal technology transfer process has resulted in formation of different models for university-industry organizational collaboration or even integration where licensee firms keep contact with academic inventors after gaining legal right for commercialization of their patented invention. Current paper argues that despite necessity for patents to legally pass the right of commercialization of an invention, they are not sufficient for complete knowledge transmission in the process of technology transfer. Lack of efficiency of formal mechanism to end the Technology Transfer loop makes an opportunity to create innovative interpersonal and organizational connections among patentee and licensee company. With emphasize on need for further elaboration of informal mechanisms as critical and underappreciated aspect of technology transfer process, article will try to answer the questions of how to optimize knowledge transmission process in the framework of University-Industry Technology Transfer Projects? What is the theoretical basis for university-industry technology transfer process? What are organization collaborative models which can enhance overall performance by improving transmission of
Project Guardian: Optimizing Electronic Warfare Systems for Ground Combat Vehicles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Parks, Jack G; Jackson, William; Revello, James; Soltesz, James
1995-01-01
.... The study, Project Guardian, represents a new process for determining the optimum set of sensors and countermeasures for a specific vehicle class under the constraints of threat projection, combat...
Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic nonlinear gyros coupled with dead-zone input
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.
2008-01-01
This paper addresses the synchronization problem of drive-response chaotic gyros coupled with dead-zone nonlinear input. Using the sliding mode control technique, a novel control law is established which guarantees generalized projective synchronization even when the dead-zone nonlinearity is present. Numerical simulations are presented to verify that the synchronization can be achieved by using the proposed synchronization scheme
Optimal control of dissipative nonlinear dynamical systems with triggers of coupled singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedrih, K
2008-01-01
This paper analyses the controllability of motion of nonconservative nonlinear dynamical systems in which triggers of coupled singularities exist or appear. It is shown that the phase plane method is useful for the analysis of nonlinear dynamics of nonconservative systems with one degree of freedom of control strategies and also shows the way it can be used for controlling the relative motion in rheonomic systems having equivalent scleronomic conservative or nonconservative system For the system with one generalized coordinate described by nonlinear differential equation of nonlinear dynamics with trigger of coupled singularities, the functions of system potential energy and conservative force must satisfy some conditions defined by a Theorem on the existence of a trigger of coupled singularities and the separatrix in the form of 'an open a spiral form' of number eight. Task of the defined dynamical nonconservative system optimal control is: by using controlling force acting to the system, transfer initial state of the nonlinear dynamics of the system into the final state of the nonlinear dynamics in the minimal time for that optimal control task
Optimal control of dissipative nonlinear dynamical systems with triggers of coupled singularities
Stevanović Hedrih, K.
2008-02-01
This paper analyses the controllability of motion of nonconservative nonlinear dynamical systems in which triggers of coupled singularities exist or appear. It is shown that the phase plane method is useful for the analysis of nonlinear dynamics of nonconservative systems with one degree of freedom of control strategies and also shows the way it can be used for controlling the relative motion in rheonomic systems having equivalent scleronomic conservative or nonconservative system For the system with one generalized coordinate described by nonlinear differential equation of nonlinear dynamics with trigger of coupled singularities, the functions of system potential energy and conservative force must satisfy some conditions defined by a Theorem on the existence of a trigger of coupled singularities and the separatrix in the form of "an open a spiral form" of number eight. Task of the defined dynamical nonconservative system optimal control is: by using controlling force acting to the system, transfer initial state of the nonlinear dynamics of the system into the final state of the nonlinear dynamics in the minimal time for that optimal control task
Contribution to the optimization of the coupling of nuclear reactors to desalination processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dardour, S.
2007-04-01
This work deals with modelling, simulation and optimization of the coupling between nuclear reactors (PWR, modular high temperature reactors) and desalination processes (multiple effect distillation, reverse osmosis). The reactors considered in this study are PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and GTMHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor). The desalination processes retained are MED (Multi Effect Distillation) and SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis). A software tool: EXCELEES of thermodynamic modelling of coupled systems, based on the Engineering Algebraic Equation Solver has been developed. Models of energy conversion systems and of membrane desalination processes and distillation have been developed. Based on the first and second principles of thermodynamics, these models have allowed to determine the optimal running point of the coupled systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been completed by a first economic evaluation. Based on the use of the DEEP software of the IAEA, this evaluation has confirmed the interest to use these types of reactors for desalination. A modelling tool of thermal processes of desalination in dynamic condition has been developed too. This tool has been applied to the study of the dynamics of an existing plant and has given satisfying results. A first safety checking has been at last carried out. The transients able to jeopardize the integrated system have been identified. Several measures aiming at consolidate the safety have been proposed. (O.M.)
Thermal-economic modeling and optimization of vertical ground-coupled heat pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran 16488 (Iran)
2009-04-15
The optimal design process of a ground source heat pump includes thermal modeling of the system and selection of optimal design parameters which affect the system performance as well as initial and operational costs. In this paper, the modeling and optimizing processes of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with closed vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHX) are presented. To verify the modeling procedure of heat pump and VGHX systems, the simulation outputs were compared with the corresponding values reported in the literature and acceptable accuracy was obtained. Then an objective function (the sum of annual operating and investment costs of the system) was defined and minimized, exposed to the specified constraints to estimate the optimum design parameters (decision variables). Two Nelder-Mead and genetic algorithm optimization techniques were applied to guarantee the validity of the optimization results. For the given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of heat pump design parameters (saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator) as well as VGHX design parameters (inlet and outlet temperatures of the ground water source, pipe diameter, depth and number of boreholes) were predicted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, soil type, and number of boreholes were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of change in optimum design parameters with increase in the investment and electricity costs was performed. (author)
Thermal-economic modeling and optimization of vertical ground-coupled heat pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad
2009-01-01
The optimal design process of a ground source heat pump includes thermal modeling of the system and selection of optimal design parameters which affect the system performance as well as initial and operational costs. In this paper, the modeling and optimizing processes of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) with closed vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHX) are presented. To verify the modeling procedure of heat pump and VGHX systems, the simulation outputs were compared with the corresponding values reported in the literature and acceptable accuracy was obtained. Then an objective function (the sum of annual operating and investment costs of the system) was defined and minimized, exposed to the specified constraints to estimate the optimum design parameters (decision variables). Two Nelder-Mead and genetic algorithm optimization techniques were applied to guarantee the validity of the optimization results. For the given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of heat pump design parameters (saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator) as well as VGHX design parameters (inlet and outlet temperatures of the ground water source, pipe diameter, depth and number of boreholes) were predicted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, soil type, and number of boreholes were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of change in optimum design parameters with increase in the investment and electricity costs was performed
Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor
Mkhabela, Peter Tshepo
The research conducted within the framework of this PhD thesis is devoted to the high-fidelity multi-physics (based on neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling) analysis of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a HTR design. The core design and safety analysis methods are considerably less developed and mature for HTR analysis than those currently used for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Compared to LWRs, the HTR transient analysis is more demanding since it requires proper treatment of both slower and much longer transients (of time scale in hours and days) and fast and short transients (of time scale in minutes and seconds). There is limited operation and experimental data available for HTRs for validation of coupled multi-physics methodologies. This PhD work developed and verified reliable high fidelity coupled multi-physics models subsequently implemented in robust, efficient, and accurate computational tools to analyse the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic behaviour for design optimization and safety evaluation of PBMR concept The study provided a contribution to a greater accuracy of neutronics calculations by including the feedback from thermal hydraulics driven temperature calculation and various multi-physics effects that can influence it. Consideration of the feedback due to the influence of leakage was taken into account by development and implementation of improved buckling feedback models. Modifications were made in the calculation procedure to ensure that the xenon depletion models were accurate for proper interpolation from cross section tables. To achieve this, the NEM/THERMIX coupled code system was developed to create the system that is efficient and stable over the duration of transient calculations that last over several tens of hours. Another achievement of the PhD thesis was development and demonstration of full-physics, three-dimensional safety analysis
A generalized public goods game with coupling of individual ability and project benefit
Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; He, Yun-Xin; Zhong, Chen-Yang; Chen, Rong-Da; Qiu, Tian; Shi, Yong-Dong; Ren, Fei
2017-08-01
Facing a heavy task, any single person can only make a limited contribution and team cooperation is needed. As one enjoys the benefit of the public goods, the potential benefits of the project are not always maximized and may be partly wasted. By incorporating individual ability and project benefit into the original public goods game, we study the coupling effect of the four parameters, the upper limit of individual contribution, the upper limit of individual benefit, the needed project cost and the upper limit of project benefit on the evolution of cooperation. Coevolving with the individual-level group size preferences, an increase in the upper limit of individual benefit promotes cooperation while an increase in the upper limit of individual contribution inhibits cooperation. The coupling of the upper limit of individual contribution and the needed project cost determines the critical point of the upper limit of project benefit, where the equilibrium frequency of cooperators reaches its highest level. Above the critical point, an increase in the upper limit of project benefit inhibits cooperation. The evolution of cooperation is closely related to the preferred group-size distribution. A functional relation between the frequency of cooperators and the dominant group size is found.
Xue, Lingyun; Li, Guang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping
2018-03-01
Multiple LED-based spectral synthesis technology has been widely used in the fields of solar simulator, color mixing, and artificial lighting of plant factory and so on. Generally, amounts of LEDs are spatially arranged with compact layout to obtain the high power density output. Mutual thermal spreading among LEDs will produce the coupled thermal effect which will additionally increase the junction temperature of LED. Affected by the Photoelectric thermal coupling effect of LED, the spectrum of LED will shift and luminous efficiency will decrease. Correspondingly, the spectral synthesis result will mismatch. Therefore, thermal management of LED spatial layout plays an important role for multi-LEDs light source system. In the paper, the thermal dissipation network topology model considering the mutual thermal spreading effect among the LEDs is proposed for multi-LEDs system with various types of power. The junction temperature increment cased by the thermal coupling has the great relation with the spatial arrangement. To minimize the thermal coupling effect, an optimized method of LED spatial layout for the specific light source structure is presented and analyzed. The results showed that layout of LED with high-power are arranged in the corner and low-power in the center. Finally, according to this method, it is convenient to determine the spatial layout of LEDs in a system having any kind of light source structure, and has the advantages of being universally applicable to facilitate adjustment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C
2013-01-01
A unified χ-criterion for heat devices (including heat engines and refrigerators), which is defined as the product of the energy conversion efficiency and the heat absorbed per unit time by the working substance (de Tomás et al 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 010104), is optimized for tight-coupling heat engines and refrigerators operating between two heat baths at temperatures T c and T h ( > T c ). By taking a new convention on the thermodynamic flux related to the heat transfer between two baths, we find that for a refrigerator tightly and symmetrically coupled with two heat baths, the coefficient of performance (i.e., the energy conversion efficiency of refrigerators) at maximum χ asymptotically approaches √(ε C ) when the relative temperature difference between two heat baths ε C -1 ≡(T h -T c )/T c is sufficiently small. Correspondingly, the efficiency at maximum χ (equivalent to maximum power) for a heat engine tightly and symmetrically coupled with two heat baths is proved to be η C /2+η C 2 /8 up to the second order term of η C ≡ (T h − T c )/T h , which reverts to the universal efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling heat engines operating between two heat baths at small temperature difference in the presence of left–right symmetry (Esposito et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 130602). (fast track communication)
Study of Bio-Mimicry Surfaces for Optimization of Coupling Performance in Wheelchair Racing Gloves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clara Usma
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In wheelchair racing, the optimal pair of gloves, as well as knowledge of conditioning of glove-rim contact surfaces can have a significant impact on race performance. Extreme temperatures, humidity, wet or dry conditions can considerably influence not only the hand-rim friction coupling (effectiveness of the athlete’s push cycle but also the risk of injuries, blisters or sore areas which in turn, can influence the endurance of the athlete across long distance events. This paper reports an experimental study of the effect of bio-mimicry surface textures as a supplement for heightening glove-rim coupling for dry and wet weather conditions. The paper also provides recommendations for the practical implementation of the study findings through a proposal for the design and development of a pair of bespoke gloves for a wheelchair racing athlete for initial prototyping and performance trials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Johan
2005-02-01
A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)
2005-02-15
A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to
On optimal control of a sweeping process coupled with an ordinary differential equation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adam, Lukáš; Outrata, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 9 (2014), s. 2709-2738 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) SVV-2013-267315 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimal control * variational inequality * variational analysis * coderivative * solution map * queuing theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.768, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/MTR/adam-0434417.pdf
Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects
Li, Ming; Wu, Guangdong
2014-01-01
Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illus...
Fiber coupled diode laser beam parameter product calculation and rules for optimized design
Wang, Zuolan; Segref, Armin; Koenning, Tobias; Pandey, Rajiv
2011-03-01
The Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of a passive, lossless system is a constant and cannot be improved upon but the beams may be reshaped for enhanced coupling performance. The function of the optical designer of fiber coupled diode lasers is to preserve the brightness of the diode sources while maximizing the coupling efficiency. In coupling diode laser power into fiber output, the symmetrical geometry of the fiber core makes it highly desirable to have symmetrical BPPs at the fiber input surface, but this is not always practical. It is therefore desirable to be able to know the 'diagonal' (fiber) BPP, using the BPPs of the fast and slow axes, before detailed design and simulation processes. A commonly used expression for this purpose, i.e. the square root of the sum of the squares of the BPPs in the fast and slow axes, has been found to consistently under-predict the fiber BPP (i.e. better beam quality is predicted than is actually achievable in practice). In this paper, using a simplified model, we provide the proof of the proper calculation of the diagonal (i.e. the fiber) BPP using BPPs of the fast and slow axes as input. Using the same simplified model, we also offer the proof that the fiber BPP can be shown to have a minimum (optimal) value for given diode BPPs and this optimized condition can be obtained before any detailed design and simulation are carried out. Measured and simulated data confirms satisfactory correlation between the BPPs of the diode and the predicted fiber BPP.
Generalized projective synchronization of two coupled complex networks of different sizes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ke-Zan; He En; Zeng Zhao-Rong; Chi, K. Tse
2013-01-01
We investigate a new generalized projective synchronization between two complex dynamical networks of different sizes. To the best of our knowledge, most of the current studies on projective synchronization have dealt with coupled networks of the same size. By generalized projective synchronization, we mean that the states of the nodes in each network can realize complete synchronization, and the states of a pair of nodes from both networks can achieve projective synchronization. Using the stability theory of the dynamical system, several sufficient conditions for guaranteeing the existence of the generalized projective synchronization under feedback control and adaptive control are obtained. As an example, we use Chua's circuits to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach
Optimizing strategy software for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Remon Fayek Aziz
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data using Optimizing Strategy Software (OSS for repetitive construction projects with identical activity’s duration in case of single number of crew such as: project duration, project/bid price, project maximum working capital, and project net present value of the studied project. A simplified multi-objective optimization software (OSS will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor compared with more feasible options generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. OSS is intended to give more scenarios which provide practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price, and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. OSS is designed by java programing code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Ranking the obtained optimal plans according to a set of planner specified weights representing the relative importance of duration, price, maximum working capital and net present value in the analyzed project; (2 Visualizing and viewing the generated optimal trade-off; and (3 Providing seamless integration with available project management calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of OSS, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; (4 A connecting module. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of the proposed software (OSS to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.
Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua
2017-01-01
, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates......In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines...
Yan, Rongge; Guo, Xiaoting; Cao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Changgeng
2018-05-01
Magnetically coupled resonance (MCR) wireless power transfer (WPT) system is a promising technology in electric energy transmission. But, if its system parameters are designed unreasonably, output power and transmission efficiency will be low. Therefore, optimized parameters design of MCR WPT has important research value. In the MCR WPT system with designated coil structure, the main parameters affecting output power and transmission efficiency are the distance between the coils, the resonance frequency and the resistance of the load. Based on the established mathematical model and the differential evolution algorithm, the change of output power and transmission efficiency with parameters can be simulated. From the simulation results, it can be seen that output power and transmission efficiency of the two-coil MCR WPT system and four-coil one with designated coil structure are improved. The simulation results confirm the validity of the optimization method for MCR WPT system with designated coil structure.
Nguyen, Howard; Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark
2012-01-01
KINETICS is a coupled dynamics and chemistry atmosphere model that is data intensive and computationally demanding. The potential performance gain from using a supercomputer motivates the adaptation from a serial version to a parallelized one. Although the initial parallelization had been done, bottlenecks caused by an abundance of communication calls between processors led to an unfavorable drop in performance. Before starting on the parallel optimization process, a partial overhaul was required because a large emphasis was placed on streamlining the code for user convenience and revising the program to accommodate the new supercomputers at Caltech and JPL. After the first round of optimizations, the partial runtime was reduced by a factor of 23; however, performance gains are dependent on the size of the data, the number of processors requested, and the computer used.
Optimization of conventional rule curves coupled with hedging rules for reservoir operation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taghian, Mehrdad; Rosbjerg, Dan; Haghighi, Ali
2014-01-01
As a common approach to reservoir operating policies, water levels at the end of each time interval should be kept at or above the rule curve. In this study, the policy is captured using rationing of the target yield to reduce the intensity of severe water shortages. For this purpose, a hybrid...... to achieve the optimal water allocation and the target storage levels for reservoirs. As a case study, a multipurpose, multireservoir system in southern Iran is selected. The results show that the model has good performance in extracting the optimum policy for reservoir operation under both normal...... model is developed to optimize simultaneously both the conventional rule curve and the hedging rule. In the compound model, a simple genetic algorithm is coupled with a simulation program, including an inner linear programming algorithm. In this way, operational policies are imposed by priority concepts...
Multidisciplinary Aerospace Systems Optimization: Computational AeroSciences (CAS) Project
Kodiyalam, S.; Sobieski, Jaroslaw S. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The report describes a method for performing optimization of a system whose analysis is so expensive that it is impractical to let the optimization code invoke it directly because excessive computational cost and elapsed time might result. In such situation it is imperative to have user control the number of times the analysis is invoked. The reported method achieves that by two techniques in the Design of Experiment category: a uniform dispersal of the trial design points over a n-dimensional hypersphere and a response surface fitting, and the technique of krigging. Analyses of all the trial designs whose number may be set by the user are performed before activation of the optimization code and the results are stored as a data base. That code is then executed and referred to the above data base. Two applications, one of the airborne laser system, and one of an aircraft optimization illustrate the method application.
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mei, Sun; Chang-Yan, Zeng; Li-Xin, Tian
2009-01-01
Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand–supply of energy resource in some regions of China
Generalized Projective Synchronization between Two Complex Networks with Time-Varying Coupling Delay
Sun, Mei; Zeng, Chang-Yan; Tian, Li-Xin
2009-01-01
Generalized projective synchronization (GPS) between two complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a nonlinear controller and adaptive updated laws are designed. Feasibility of the proposed scheme is proven in theory. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented, using the energy resource system and Lü's system [Physica A 382 (2007) 672] as the nodes of the networks. GPS between two energy resource complex networks with time-varying coupling delay is achieved. This study can widen the application range of the generalized synchronization methods and will be instructive for the demand-supply of energy resource in some regions of China.
Sippel, Sebastian; Zscheischler, Jakob; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Orth, Rene; Reichstein, Markus; Vogel, Martha; Seneviratne, Sonia I.
2017-05-01
The Earth's land surface and the atmosphere are strongly interlinked through the exchange of energy and matter. This coupled behaviour causes various land-atmosphere feedbacks, and an insufficient understanding of these feedbacks contributes to uncertain global climate model projections. For example, a crucial role of the land surface in exacerbating summer heat waves in midlatitude regions has been identified empirically for high-impact heat waves, but individual climate models differ widely in their respective representation of land-atmosphere coupling. Here, we compile an ensemble of 54 combinations of observations-based temperature (T) and evapotranspiration (ET) benchmarking datasets and investigate coincidences of T anomalies with ET anomalies as a proxy for land-atmosphere interactions during periods of anomalously warm temperatures. First, we demonstrate that a large fraction of state-of-the-art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive produces systematically too frequent coincidences of high T anomalies with negative ET anomalies in midlatitude regions during the warm season and in several tropical regions year-round. These coincidences (high T, low ET) are closely related to the representation of temperature variability and extremes across the multi-model ensemble. Second, we derive a land-coupling constraint based on the spread of the T-ET datasets and consequently retain only a subset of CMIP5 models that produce a land-coupling behaviour that is compatible with these benchmark estimates. The constrained multi-model simulations exhibit more realistic temperature extremes of reduced magnitude in present climate in regions where models show substantial spread in T-ET coupling, i.e. biases in the model ensemble are consistently reduced. Also the multi-model simulations for the coming decades display decreased absolute temperature extremes in the constrained ensemble. On the other hand, the differences between projected
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sippel
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The Earth's land surface and the atmosphere are strongly interlinked through the exchange of energy and matter. This coupled behaviour causes various land–atmosphere feedbacks, and an insufficient understanding of these feedbacks contributes to uncertain global climate model projections. For example, a crucial role of the land surface in exacerbating summer heat waves in midlatitude regions has been identified empirically for high-impact heat waves, but individual climate models differ widely in their respective representation of land–atmosphere coupling. Here, we compile an ensemble of 54 combinations of observations-based temperature (T and evapotranspiration (ET benchmarking datasets and investigate coincidences of T anomalies with ET anomalies as a proxy for land–atmosphere interactions during periods of anomalously warm temperatures. First, we demonstrate that a large fraction of state-of-the-art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 archive produces systematically too frequent coincidences of high T anomalies with negative ET anomalies in midlatitude regions during the warm season and in several tropical regions year-round. These coincidences (high T, low ET are closely related to the representation of temperature variability and extremes across the multi-model ensemble. Second, we derive a land-coupling constraint based on the spread of the T–ET datasets and consequently retain only a subset of CMIP5 models that produce a land-coupling behaviour that is compatible with these benchmark estimates. The constrained multi-model simulations exhibit more realistic temperature extremes of reduced magnitude in present climate in regions where models show substantial spread in T–ET coupling, i.e. biases in the model ensemble are consistently reduced. Also the multi-model simulations for the coming decades display decreased absolute temperature extremes in the constrained ensemble. On the other hand
Power Grid Construction Project Portfolio Optimization Based on Bi-level programming model
Zhao, Erdong; Li, Shangqi
2017-08-01
As the main body of power grid operation, county-level power supply enterprises undertake an important emission to guarantee the security of power grid operation and safeguard social power using order. The optimization of grid construction projects has been a key issue of power supply capacity and service level of grid enterprises. According to the actual situation of power grid construction project optimization of county-level power enterprises, on the basis of qualitative analysis of the projects, this paper builds a Bi-level programming model based on quantitative analysis. The upper layer of the model is the target restriction of the optimal portfolio; the lower layer of the model is enterprises’ financial restrictions on the size of the enterprise project portfolio. Finally, using a real example to illustrate operation proceeding and the optimization result of the model. Through qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, the bi-level programming model improves the accuracy and normative standardization of power grid enterprises projects.
Optimal truss and frame design from projected homogenization-based topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, S. D.; Sigmund, O.; Groen, J. P.
2018-01-01
In this article, we propose a novel method to obtain a near-optimal frame structure, based on the solution of a homogenization-based topology optimization model. The presented approach exploits the equivalence between Michell’s problem of least-weight trusses and a compliance minimization problem...... using optimal rank-2 laminates in the low volume fraction limit. In a fully automated procedure, a discrete structure is extracted from the homogenization-based continuum model. This near-optimal structure is post-optimized as a frame, where the bending stiffness is continuously decreased, to allow...
Optimized optical devices for edge-coupling-enabled silicon photonics platform
Png, Ching Eng; Ang, Thomas Y. L.; Ong, Jun Rong; Lim, Soon Thor; Sahin, Ezgi; Chen, G. F. R.; Tan, D. T. H.; Guo, Tina X.; Wang, Hong
2018-02-01
We present a library of high-performance passive and active silicon photonic devices at the C-band that is specifically designed and optimized for edge-coupling-enabled silicon photonics platform. These devices meet the broadband (100 nm), low-loss (= 25 Gb/s), and polarization diversity requirements (TE and TM polarization extinction ratio beam splitters (PBSs), and high-speed modulators are some of the devices within our library. In particular, we have designed and fabricated inverse taper fiber-to-waveguide edge couplers of tip widths ranging from 120 nm to 200 nm, and we obtained a low coupling loss of 1.80+/-0.28 dB for 160 nm tip width. To achieve polarization diversity operation for inverse tapers, we have experimentally realized different designs of polarization beam splitters (PBS). Our optimized PBS has a measured extinction ratio of <= 25 dB for both the quasiTE modes, and quasi-TM modes. Additionally, a broadband (100 nm) directional coupler with a 50/50 power splitting ratio was experimentally realized on a small footprint of 20×3 μm2 . Last but not least, high-speed silicon modulators with a range of carrier doping concentrations and offset of the PN junction can be used to optimise the modulation efficiency, and insertion losses for operation at 25 GHz.
Coupled electrostatic-elastic analysis for topology optimization using material interpolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alwan, A; Ananthasuresh, G K
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel analytical formulation for the coupled partial differential equations governing electrostatically actuated constrained elastic structures of inhomogeneous material composition. We also present a computationally efficient numerical framework for solving the coupled equations over a reference domain with a fixed finiteelement mesh. This serves two purposes: (i) a series of problems with varying geometries and piece-wise homogeneous and/or inhomogeneous material distribution can be solved with a single pre-processing step (ii) topology optimization methods can be easily implemented by interpolating the material at each point in the reference domain from a void to a dielectric or a conductor. This is attained by considering the steady-state electrical current conduction equation with a 'leaky capacitor' model instead of the usual electrostatic equation. This formulation is amenable for both static and transient problems in the elastic domain coupled with the quasi-electrostatic electric field. The procedure is numerically implemented on the COMSOL Multiphysics (registered) platform using the weak variational form of the governing equations. Examples have been presented to show the accuracy and versatility of the scheme. The accuracy of the scheme is validated for the special case of piece-wise homogeneous material in the limit of the leaky-capacitor model approaching the ideal case
Anticipating and projective-anticipating synchronization of coupled multidelay feedback systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang, Thang Manh; Nakagawa, Masahiro
2007-01-01
In this Letter, the model of coupled multidelay feedback systems is investigated with the schemes of anticipating and projective-anticipating synchronizations. Under these synchronization schemes, the slave anticipates the master's trajectory. Moreover, with projective-anticipating synchronization there exists a scale factor in the amplitudes of the master's and slave's state variables. In the both cases, the driving signals are in the form of multiple nonlinear transformations of delayed state variable. The Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory is used to consider the sufficient condition for synchronization. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes is confirmed by the numerical simulation of specific examples with modified Ikeda and Mackey-Glass systems
Yang, Shaoping
This dissertation is an investigation of two aspects of coupling condensation nucleation light scattering detection (CNLSD) with supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). In the first part, it was demonstrated that CNLSD was compatible with packed column SFC using either pure CO2 or organic solvent modified CO2 as mobile phases. Factors which were expected to affect the interface between SFC and CNLSD were optimized for the detector to reach low detection limits. With SFC using pure CO2 as mobile phase, the detection limit of CNLSD with SFC was observed to be at low nanogram levels, which was at the same level of flame ionization detection (FID) coupled with SFC. For SFC using modified CO2 as mobile phase, detection limits at the picogram level were observed for CNLSD at optimal conditions, which were at least ten times lower than those reached by evaporative light scattering detection. In the second part, particle size distributions of aerosols produced from rapid expansion of supercritical solutions were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The effect of the factors, which were investigated in the first part for their effects on signal intensities and signal to noise ratios (S/N), on particle size distributions (PSDs) of both analyte and background were investigated. Whenever possible, both particle sizes and particle number obtained from PSDs were used to explain the optimization results. In general, PSD data support the observations made in the first part. The detection limits of CNLSD obtained were much higher than predicted. PSDs did not provide direct explanation of this problem. The amount of analyte deposited in the transport tubing, evaporated to gas phase, and condensed to form particles was determined experimentally. Almost no analyte was found in the gas phase. Less than 3% was found in the particle forms. The vast majority of analyte was lost in the transport tubing, especially in the short distance after supercritical fluid expansion. A
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuguan Hou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For the case of the single snapshot, the integrated SNR gain could not be obtained without the multiple snapshots, which degrades the mutual coupling correction performance under the lower SNR case. In this paper, a Convex Chain MUSIC (CC-MUSIC algorithm is proposed for the mutual coupling correction of the L-shaped nonuniform array with single snapshot. It is an online self-calibration algorithm and does not require the prior knowledge of the correction matrix initialization and the calibration source with the known position. An optimization for the approximation between the no mutual coupling covariance matrix without the interpolated transformation and the covariance matrix with the mutual coupling and the interpolated transformation is derived. A global optimization problem is formed for the mutual coupling correction and the spatial spectrum estimation. Furthermore, the nonconvex optimization problem of this global optimization is transformed as a chain of the convex optimization, which is basically an alternating optimization routine. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improve the resolution ability and the estimation accuracy of the multisources with the single snapshot.
Zhang, Guannan; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.; Hilty, Christian
2016-11-01
Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of 13C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as 1H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). We demonstrate the calculation of [13C, 1H] chemical shift correlations of the carbanionic active sites from hyperpolarized styrene polymerized using sodium naphthalene as an initiator. While off resonance decoupling by SHOT pulses does not enhance the resolution in the same way as a 2D NMR spectrum would, the ability to obtain the correlations in single scans makes this method ideal for determination of chemical shifts in on-going reactions on the second time scale. In addition, we present a novel SHOT pulse that allows to scale J-splittings 50% larger than the respective J-coupling constant. This feature can be used to enhance the resolution of the indirectly detected chemical shift and reduce peak overlap, as demonstrated in a model reaction between p-anisaldehyde and isobutylamine. For both pulses, the accuracy is evaluated under changing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the peaks from reactants and reaction products, with an overall standard deviation of chemical shift differences compared to reference spectra of 0.02 ppm when measured on a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Notably, the appearance of decoupling side-bands, which scale with peak intensity, appears to be of secondary importance.
Optimizing Prevention of HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy in Discordant African Couples.
Wall, Kristin M; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Haddad, Lisa B; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Onwubiko, Udodirim; Chomba, Elwyn; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
2017-08-01
Dual method use, which combines condoms with a more effective modern contraceptive to optimize prevention of HIV and unplanned pregnancy, is underutilized in high-risk heterosexual couples. Heterosexual HIV-discordant Zambian couples were enrolled from couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services into an open cohort with 3-monthly follow-up (1994-2012). Relative to dual method use, defined as consistent condom use plus modern contraception, we examine predictors of (1) condom-only use (suboptimal pregnancy prevention) or (2) modern contraceptive use with inconsistent condom use (effective pregnancy prevention and suboptimal HIV prevention). Among 3,049 couples, dual method use occurred in 28% of intervals in M+F- and 23% in M-F+, p HIV+ (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR = 1.15); baseline oral contraceptive pill (aHR = 0.76), injectable (aHR = 0.48), or implant (aHR = 0.60) use; woman's age (aHR = 1.04 per 5 years) and lifetime number of sex partners (aHR = 1.01); postpartum periods (aHR = 1.25); and HIV stage of the index partner III/IV versus I (aHR = 1.10). Predictors (p HIV+ male circumcision (aHR = 1.51), while time-varying implant use was associated with more consistent condom use (aHR = 0.80). Three-quarters of follow-up intervals did not include dual method use. This highlights the need for counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission and enable safer conception.
Development of coupled models and their validation against experiments -DECOVALEX project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephansson, O.; Jing, L.; Kautsky, F.
1995-01-01
DECOVALEX is an international co-operative research project for theoretical and experimental studies of coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical processes in hard rocks. Different mathematical models and computer codes have been developed by research teams from different countries. These models and codes are used to study the so-called Bench Mark Test and Test Case problems developed within this project. Bench-Mark Tests are defined as hypothetical initial-boundary value problems of a generic nature, and Test Cases are experimental investigations of part or full aspects of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in hard rocks. Analytical and semi-analytical solutions related to coupled T-H-M processes are also developed for problems with simpler geometry and initial-boundary conditions. These solutions are developed to verify algorithms and their computer implementations. In this contribution the motivation, organization and approaches and current status of the project are presented, together with definitions of Bench-Mark Tests and Test Case problems. The definition and part of results for a BMT problem (BMT3) for a near-field repository model are described as an example. (authors). 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs
Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Liu, Bo
This paper investigates optimization design of the thickness of the sound package performed on a passenger automobile. The major characteristics indexes for performance selected to evaluate the processes are the SPL of the exterior noise and the weight of the sound package, and the corresponding parameters of the sound package are the thickness of the glass wool with aluminum foil for the first layer, the thickness of the glass fiber for the second layer, and the thickness of the PE foam for the third layer. In this paper, the process is fundamentally with multiple performances, thus, the grey relational analysis that utilizes grey relational grade as performance index is especially employed to determine the optimal combination of the thickness of the different layers for the designed sound package. Additionally, in order to evaluate the weighting values corresponding to various performance characteristics, the principal component analysis is used to show their relative importance properly and objectively. The results of the confirmation experiments uncover that grey relational analysis coupled with principal analysis methods can successfully be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness for each layer of the sound package material. Therefore, the presented method can be an effective tool to improve the vehicle exterior noise and lower the weight of the sound package. In addition, it will also be helpful for other applications in the automotive industry, such as the First Automobile Works in China, Changan Automobile in China, etc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Prabhu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT mixed grinding wheel has been used in the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID grinding process to analyze the surface characteristics of AISI D2 Tool steel material. CNT grinding wheel is having an excellent thermal conductivity and good mechanical property which is used to improve the surface finish of the work piece. The multiobjective optimization of grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis has been used to optimize the process parameters of ELID grinding process. Based on the Taguchi design of experiments, an L9 orthogonal array table was chosen for the experiments. The confirmation experiment verifies the proposed that grey-based Taguchi method has the ability to find out the optimal process parameters with multiple quality characteristics of surface roughness and metal removal rate. Analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used to verify and validate the model. Empirical model for the prediction of output parameters has been developed using regression analysis and the results were compared for with and without using CNT grinding wheel in ELID grinding process.
Optimization of a hardware implementation for pulse coupled neural networks for image applications
Gimeno Sarciada, Jesús; Lamela Rivera, Horacio; Warde, Cardinal
2010-04-01
Pulse Coupled Neural Networks are a very useful tool for image processing and visual applications, since it has the advantages of being invariant to image changes as rotation, scale, or certain distortion. Among other characteristics, the PCNN changes a given image input into a temporal representation which can be easily later analyzed for pattern recognition. The structure of a PCNN though, makes it necessary to determine all of its parameters very carefully in order to function optimally, so that the responses to the kind of inputs it will be subjected are clearly discriminated allowing for an easy and fast post-processing yielding useful results. This tweaking of the system is a taxing process. In this paper we analyze and compare two methods for modeling PCNNs. A purely mathematical model is programmed and a similar circuital model is also designed. Both are then used to determine the optimal values of the several parameters of a PCNN: gain, threshold, time constants for feed-in and threshold and linking leading to an optimal design for image recognition. The results are compared for usefulness, accuracy and speed, as well as the performance and time requirements for fast and easy design, thus providing a tool for future ease of management of a PCNN for different tasks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, A.
1997-01-01
Background, objective, scope, detailed working plan and follow-up and final product of the project ''Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment'' are described
Optimization of an Efficient and Sustainable Sonogashira Cross-Coupling Protocol
Walter, Philipp E.
2012-12-01
Cross coupling reactions are a well-established tool in modern organic synthesis and play a crucial role in the synthesis of a high number of organic compounds. Their importance is highlighted by the Nobel Prize in chemistry to Suzuki, Heck and Negishi in 2010. The increasing importance of sustainability requirements in chemical production has furthermore promoted the development of cross-coupling protocols that comply with the principles of “Green Chemistry”1. The Sonogashira reaction is today the most versatile and powerful way to generate aryl alkynes, a moiety recurring in many pharmaceutical and natural products. Despite many improvements to the original reaction, reports on generally applicable protocols that work under sustainable conditions are scarce. Our group recently reported an efficient protocol for a copperfree Sonogashira cross-coupling at low temperature, in aqueous medium and with no addition of organic solvents or additives2. The goal of this work was to further investigate the effects of different reaction parameters on the catalytic activity in order to optimize the protocol. Limitations of the protocol were tested in respect to reaction temperature, heating method, atmosphere, base type and amount, catalyst loading, reaction time and work up procedure. The reaction worked successfully under air and results were not affected by the presence of oxygen in the water phase. Among a variety of bases tested, triethylamine was confirmed to give the best results and its required excess could be reduced from nine to four equivalents. Catalyst loading could also be reduced by up to 90%: Good to near quantitative yields for a broad range of substrates were achieved using a catalyst concentration of 0.25mol% and 5 eq of Et3N at 50°C while more reactive substrates could be coupled with a catalyst concentration as low as 0.025mol%. Filtration experiments showed the possibility of a simplified work up procedure and a protocol completely free of organic
Optimizing the Prioritization of Natural Disaster Recovery Projects
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Aftanas, Jason M
2007-01-01
.... This work will focus on promoting objectivity in the project prioritizing process, improving the communication of the overall base recovery requirement, increasing efficiency in utilizing human and monetary resources, and the creation of a usable and repeatable decision-making tool based on Value-Focused Thinking and integer programming methods.
Optimizing integrated reference cases in the OCTAVIUS project
Kvamsdal, H.M.; Ehlers, S.; Kather, A.; Khakharia, P.M.; Nienoord, M.; Fosbøl, P.L.
2016-01-01
Adding a carbon capture plant to a power plant reduces the efficiency of said power plant. In order to keep this drop in efficiency as small as possible, several optimisation studies are performed in the OCTAVIUS project. Based on the work of the European Benchmarking Task Force-EBTF within the
Learning and Optimization of Cognitive Capabilities. Final Project Report.
Lumsdaine, A.A.; And Others
The work of a three-year series of experimental studies of human cognition is summarized in this report. Proglem solving and learning in man-machine interaction was investigated, as well as relevant variables and processes. The work included four separate projects: (1) computer-aided problem solving, (2) computer-aided instruction techniques, (3)…
Solar Collector Design Optimization: A Hands-on Project Case Study
Birnie, Dunbar P., III; Kaz, David M.; Berman, Elena A.
2012-01-01
A solar power collector optimization design project has been developed for use in undergraduate classrooms and/or laboratories. The design optimization depends on understanding the current-voltage characteristics of the starting photovoltaic cells as well as how the cell's electrical response changes with increased light illumination. Students…
Optimized iteration in coupled Monte-Carlo - Thermal-hydraulics calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoogenboom, J.E.; Dufek, J.
2013-01-01
This paper describes an optimised iteration scheme for the number of neutron histories and the relaxation factor in successive iterations of coupled Monte Carlo and thermal-hydraulic reactor calculations based on the stochastic iteration method. The scheme results in an increasing number of neutron histories for the Monte Carlo calculation in successive iteration steps and a decreasing relaxation factor for the spatial power distribution to be used as input to the thermal-hydraulics calculation. The theoretical basis is discussed in detail and practical consequences of the scheme are shown, among which a nearly linear increase per iteration of the number of cycles in the Monte Carlo calculation. The scheme is demonstrated for a full PWR type fuel assembly. Results are shown for the axial power distribution during several iteration steps. A few alternative iteration methods are also tested and it is concluded that the presented iteration method is near optimal. (authors)
Optimization of the Coupled Cluster Implementation in NWChem on Petascale Parallel Architectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anisimov, Victor; Bauer, Gregory H.; Chadalavada, Kalyana; Olson, Ryan M.; Glenski, Joseph W.; Kramer, William T.; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol
2014-09-04
Coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) algorithm has been optimized in NWChem software package. This modification alleviated the communication bottleneck and provided from 2- to 5-fold speedup in the CCSD iteration time depending on the problem size and available memory. Sustained 0.60 petaflop/sec performance on CCSD(T) calculation has been obtained on NCSA Blue Waters. This number included all stages of the calculation from initialization till termination, iterative computation of single and double excitations, and perturbative accounting for triple excitations. In the section of perturbative triples alone, the computation maintained 1.18 petaflop/sec performance level. CCSD computations have been performed on Guanine-Cytosine deoxydinucleotide monophosphate (GC-dDMP) to probe the conformational energy difference in DNA single strand in A- and B-conformations. The computation revealed significant discrepancy between CCSD and classical force fields in prediction of relative energy of A- and B-conformations of GC-dDMP.
Optimization of spring exchange coupled ferrites, studied by in situ neutron diffraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia
Strong permanent magnets with a high energy-product are vital for a great number of electronic devices, these can be found in transformers, loudspeakers, windmills etc. Normally the preferred type of magnets are Rare Earth Metals (REM) containing magnets. REM excels since the magnetic contributio...... with varying temperature (fixed flow) or varying flow (fixed temperature) has been performed. To optimize the exchange-coupling several experiments with fixed temperature and flow, have been performed where the conversion from spinel to metal has been varied....... reduced. These metal oxides are antiferromagnetically ordered an is therefore considered a parasitic phase. However by fine-tuning the reaction temperature and hydrogen flow rate the occurrence of the phase can be minimized. In order to distinguish between Co and Fe Neutrons are chosen. Since neutrons...
Horizontal ground coupled heat pump: Thermal-economic modeling and optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad [Energy Systems Improvement Laboratory (ESIL), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) (Iran)
2010-12-15
The modeling and optimizing processes of a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) with closed Horizontal Ground Heat eXchanger (HGHX) are presented in this paper. After thermal modeling of GCHP including HGHX, the optimum design parameters of the system were estimated by minimizing a defined objective function (total of investment and operation costs) subject to a list of constraints. This procedure was performed applying Genetic Algorithm technique. For given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator as well as inlet and outlet temperatures of the water source in cooling and heating modes were predicted. Then, for our case study, the design parameters as well as the configuration of HGHX were obtained. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, and soil type were discussed. (author)
Horizontal ground coupled heat pump: Thermal-economic modeling and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanaye, Sepehr; Niroomand, Behzad
2010-01-01
The modeling and optimizing processes of a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) with closed Horizontal Ground Heat eXchanger (HGHX) are presented in this paper. After thermal modeling of GCHP including HGHX, the optimum design parameters of the system were estimated by minimizing a defined objective function (total of investment and operation costs) subject to a list of constraints. This procedure was performed applying Genetic Algorithm technique. For given heating/cooling loads and various climatic conditions, the optimum values of saturated temperature/pressure of condenser and evaporator as well as inlet and outlet temperatures of the water source in cooling and heating modes were predicted. Then, for our case study, the design parameters as well as the configuration of HGHX were obtained. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of change in the total annual cost of the system and optimum design parameters with the climatic conditions, cooling/heating capacity, and soil type were discussed.
Optimizing investments in coupled offshore wind -electrolytic hydrogen storage systems in Denmark
Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Eichman, Joshua; Hu, Weihao; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Chen, Zhe
2017-08-01
In response to electricity markets with growing levels of wind energy production and varying electricity prices, this research examines incentives for investments in integrated renewable energy power systems. A strategy for using optimization methods for a power system consisting of wind turbines, electrolyzers, and hydrogen fuel cells is explored. This research reveals the investment potential of coupling offshore wind farms with different hydrogen systems. The benefits in terms of a return on investment are demonstrated with data from the Danish electricity markets. This research also investigates the tradeoffs between selling the hydrogen directly to customers or using it as a storage medium to re-generate electricity at a time when it is more valuable. This research finds that the most beneficial configuration is to produce hydrogen at a time that complements the wind farm and sell the hydrogen directly to end users.
Optimizing load transfer in multiwall nanotubes through interwall coupling: Theory and simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, E.M.; Letertre, A.; McCarthy, M.A.; Curtin, W.A.; Xia, Z.
2010-01-01
An analytical model is developed to determine the length scales over which load is transferred from outer to inner walls of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a function of the amount of bonding between walls. The model predicts that the characteristic length for load transfer scales as l∼t√(E/μ-bar), where t is the CNT wall spacing, E is the effective wall Young's modulus, and μ-bar is the average interwall shear modulus due to interwall coupling. Molecular dynamics simulations for MWCNTs with up to six walls, and with interwall coupling achieved by interwall sp 3 bonding at various densities, provide data against which the model is tested. For interwall bonding having a uniform axial distribution, the analytic and simulation models agree well, showing that continuum mechanics concepts apply down to the atomic scale in this problem. The simulation models show, however, that load transfer is sensitive to natural statistical fluctuations in the spatial distribution of the interwall bonding between pairs of walls, and such fluctuations generally increase the net load transfer length needed to fully load an MWCNT. Optimal load transfer is achieved when bonding is uniformly distributed axially, and all interwall regions have the same shear stiffness, implying a linear decrease in the number of interwall bonds with distance from the outer wall. Optimal load transfer into an n-wall MWCNT is shown to occur over a length of ∼1.5nl. The model can be used to design MWCNTs for structural materials, and to interpret load transfer characteristics deduced from experiments on individual MWCNTs.
Ranger project starts-up amid doubts and optimism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, B.
1982-01-01
After two and a half years construction and commissioning, the Ranger uranium project was officially opened on November 20, 1981. It was later closed for four days in connection with possible breaches of environmental regulations owing to the appearance of islands in the tailings dam. Contracts currently held represent a production commitment slightly in excess of the design capacity of the plant for the next decade
Turbine hydraulic assessment and optimization in rehabilitation projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornard, L; Debeissat, F; Labrecque, Y; Sabourin, M; Tomas, L
2014-01-01
As turbines age after years of operation, a major rehabilitation is needed to give new life. The owner has two choices: resetting the turbine to the original state or an upgrade with new hydraulic components designed and optimized using state of the art technology. The second solution is by far a more interesting option which can maximize the efficiency gain, increase the turbine capacity and revenues, eliminate cavitation erosion and the needs for repair, reduce the turbine instabilities and smooth unit regulation, and adapt the design to new operation conditions. This paper shows some aspects of the turbine hydraulic assessment and possible solutions to improve existing water passages
Analysis and Optimization of Four-Coil Planar Magnetically Coupled Printed Spiral Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadeque Reza Khan
2016-08-01
Full Text Available High-efficiency power transfer at a long distance can be efficiently established using resonance-based wireless techniques. In contrast to the conventional two-coil-based inductive links, this paper presents a magnetically coupled fully planar four-coil printed spiral resonator-based wireless power-transfer system that compensates the adverse effect of low coupling and improves efficiency by using high quality-factor coils. A conformal architecture is adopted to reduce the transmitter and receiver sizes. Both square architecture and circular architectures are analyzed and optimized to provide maximum efficiency at a certain operating distance. Furthermore, their performance is compared on the basis of the power-transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load. Square resonators can produce higher measured power-transfer efficiency (79.8% than circular resonators (78.43% when the distance between the transmitter and receiver coils is 10 mm of air medium at a resonant frequency of 13.56 MHz. On the other hand, circular coils can deliver higher power (443.5 mW to the load than the square coils (396 mW under the same medium properties. The performance of the proposed structures is investigated by simulation using a three-layer human-tissue medium and by experimentation.
Coupling Network Computing Applications in Air-cooled Turbine Blades Optimization
Shi, Liang; Yan, Peigang; Xie, Ming; Han, Wanjin
2018-05-01
Through establishing control parameters from blade outside to inside, the parametric design of air-cooled turbine blade based on airfoil has been implemented. On the basis of fast updating structure features and generating solid model, a complex cooling system has been created. Different flow units are modeled into a complex network topology with parallel and serial connection. Applying one-dimensional flow theory, programs have been composed to get pipeline network physical quantities along flow path, including flow rate, pressure, temperature and other parameters. These inner units parameters set as inner boundary conditions for external flow field calculation program HIT-3D by interpolation, thus to achieve full field thermal coupling simulation. Referring the studies in literatures to verify the effectiveness of pipeline network program and coupling algorithm. After that, on the basis of a modified design, and with the help of iSIGHT-FD, an optimization platform had been established. Through MIGA mechanism, the target of enhancing cooling efficiency has been reached, and the thermal stress has been effectively reduced. Research work in this paper has significance for rapid deploying the cooling structure design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongjun Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm coupled with the finite element limit equilibrium method (FELEM for the minimum factor of safety and the location of associated noncircular critical failure surfaces for various geotechnical practices. During the search process, the stress compatibility constraints coupled with the geometrical and kinematical compatibility constraints are firstly established based on the features of slope geometry and stress distribution to guarantee realistic slip surfaces from being unreasonable. Furthermore, in the FELEM, based on rigorous theoretical analyses and derivation, it is noted that the physical meaning of the factor of safety can be formulated on the basis of strength reserving theory rather than the overloading theory. Consequently, compared with the limit equilibrium method (LEM and the shear strength reduction method (SSRM through several numerical examples, the FELEM in conjunction with the improved search strategy is proved to be an effective and efficient approach to routine analysis and design in geotechnical practices with a high level of confidence.
Analysis and Optimization of Four-Coil Planar Magnetically Coupled Printed Spiral Resonators.
Khan, Sadeque Reza; Choi, GoangSeog
2016-08-03
High-efficiency power transfer at a long distance can be efficiently established using resonance-based wireless techniques. In contrast to the conventional two-coil-based inductive links, this paper presents a magnetically coupled fully planar four-coil printed spiral resonator-based wireless power-transfer system that compensates the adverse effect of low coupling and improves efficiency by using high quality-factor coils. A conformal architecture is adopted to reduce the transmitter and receiver sizes. Both square architecture and circular architectures are analyzed and optimized to provide maximum efficiency at a certain operating distance. Furthermore, their performance is compared on the basis of the power-transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load. Square resonators can produce higher measured power-transfer efficiency (79.8%) than circular resonators (78.43%) when the distance between the transmitter and receiver coils is 10 mm of air medium at a resonant frequency of 13.56 MHz. On the other hand, circular coils can deliver higher power (443.5 mW) to the load than the square coils (396 mW) under the same medium properties. The performance of the proposed structures is investigated by simulation using a three-layer human-tissue medium and by experimentation.
1978-05-01
The purpose of this study is to provide an independent identification, classification, and analysis of significant freight car coupling systems concepts offering potential for improved safety and operating costs over the present system. The basic met...
An Optimal Design of Multiple Antenna Positions on Mobile Devices Based on Mutual Coupling Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peerapong Uthansakul
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The topic of practical implementation of multiple antenna systems for mobile communications has recently gained a lot of attention. Due to the area constraint on a mobile device, the problem of how to design such a system in order to achieve the best benefit is still a huge challenge. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA is used to find the optimal antenna positions on a mobile device. Two cases of 3×3 and 4×4 MIMO systems are undertaken. The effect of mutual coupling based on Z-parameter is the main factor to determine the MIMO capacity concerning the objective function of GA search. The results confirm the success of the proposed method to design MIMO antenna positions on a mobile device. Moreover, this paper introduces the method to design the antenna positions for the condition of nondeterministic channel. The concern of channel variation has been included in the process of finding optimal MIMO antenna positions. The results suggest that the averaging position from all GA solutions according to all channel conditions provides the most acceptable benefit.
DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WASHENFELDER DJ
2008-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control
Air-cathode structure optimization in separator-coupled microbial fuel cells
Zhang, Xiaoyuan
2011-12-01
Microbial fuel cells (MFC) with 30% wet-proofed air cathodes have previously been optimized to have 4 diffusion layers (DLs) in order to limit oxygen transfer into the anode chamber and optimize performance. Newer MFC designs that allow close electrode spacing have a separator that can also reduce oxygen transfer into the anode chamber, and there are many types of carbon wet-proofed materials available. Additional analysis of conditions that optimize performance is therefore needed for separator-coupled MFCs in terms of the number of DLs and the percent of wet proofing used for the cathode. The number of DLs on a 50% wet-proofed carbon cloth cathode significantly affected MFC performance, with the maximum power density decreasing from 1427 to 855mW/m 2 for 1-4 DLs. A commonly used cathode (30% wet-proofed, 4 DLs) produced a maximum power density (988mW/m 2) that was 31% less than that produced by the 50% wet-proofed cathode (1 DL). It was shown that the cathode performance with different materials and numbers of DLs was directly related to conditions that increased oxygen transfer. The coulombic efficiency (CE) was more affected by the current density than the oxygen transfer coefficient for the cathode. MFCs with the 50% wet-proofed cathode (2 DLs) had a CE of >84% (6.8A/m 2), which was substantially larger than that previously obtained using carbon cloth air-cathodes lacking separators. These results demonstrate that MFCs constructed with separators should have the minimum number of DLs that prevent water leakage and maximize oxygen transfer to the cathode. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weixu Dai; Weiwei Wu; Bo Yu; Yunhao Zhu
2016-01-01
A success probability orientated optimization model for resource al ocation of the technological innovation multi-project system is studied. Based on the definition of the technological in-novation multi-project system, the leveling optimization of cost and success probability is set as the objective of resource al ocation. The cost function and the probability function of the optimization model are constructed. Then the objective function of the model is constructed and the solving process is explained. The model is applied to the resource al ocation of an enterprise’s technological innovation multi-project system. The results show that the pro-posed model is more effective in rational resource al ocation, and is more applicable in maximizing the utility of the technological innovation multi-project system.
Solving Multi-Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem using Ant Colony Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsiang-Hsi Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper applied Ant Colony Optimization (ACO to develop a resource constraints scheduling model to achieve the resource allocation optimization and the shortest completion time of a project under resource constraints and the activities precedence requirement for projects. Resource leveling is also discussed and has to be achieved under the resource allocation optimization in this research. Testing cases and examples adopted from the international test bank were studied for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results showed that the solutions of different cases all have a better performance within a reasonable time. These can be obtained through ACO algorithm under the same constrained conditions. A program was written for the proposed model that is able to automatically produce the project resource requirement figure after the project duration is solved.
Stošić, Dušan; Auroux, Aline
Basic principles of calorimetry coupled with other techniques are introduced. These methods are used in heterogeneous catalysis for characterization of acidic, basic and red-ox properties of solid catalysts. Estimation of these features is achieved by monitoring the interaction of various probe molecules with the surface of such materials. Overview of gas phase, as well as liquid phase techniques is given. Special attention is devoted to coupled calorimetry-volumetry method. Furthermore, the influence of different experimental parameters on the results of these techniques is discussed, since it is known that they can significantly influence the evaluation of catalytic properties of investigated materials.
Optimizing the Time Performance of Subcontractors in Building Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andy K.W Ng
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The main contractors of Hong Kong building projects tend to subcontract most of their work. However, many of the subcontractors complain that they are not being fully utilized due main contractors’ poor site coordination of temporary works and interfacing works and plant supports etc. A list of critical site coordination problems caused by main contractors that had adversely influence to the time performance of subcontractors was prepared. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data to generate multiple regression equations that explain how the critical site coordination problems affected the time performance of different types of subcontractor. The survey results were validated by neural network analysis. Backward elimination method was adopted to identify the ‘most critical’ site coordination problems that enable main contractors to formulate measures to enhance their site management system.
Optimizing integrated reference cases in the OCTAVIUS project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kvamsdal, Hanne M.; Ehlers, Sören; Kather, Alfons
2016-01-01
. This is important especially for the coal fired power plant, where integration of waste heat from the capture plant or the CO2 compressor intercoolers can lead to a significant increase in overall efficiency. The configuration of intercoolers for the CO2 compressor is adapted to achieve the highest overall...... the CESAR, CAESAR, and DECARBit projects, two reference power plants are modelled in Ebsilon®Professional. The first is an 800 MWe coal case, the second a 430 MWe natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) case. For each power plant two separate capture plants are considered: one using 30 wt% MEA as solvent system...... efficiency. For the natural gas combined cycle plant, integration is not that beneficial, since there is no heat sink available in the water steam cycle. In the end, the cost of electricity and cost of CO2 avoided is calculated for all four cases. While the CESAR1 solvent system in a conventional absorber...
3DEXPERIENCE: a digital platform to optimize nuclear projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grand, T.; Le Ngoc
2016-01-01
Dassault Systemes has developed a digital platform 3DEXPERIENCE that enables all the enterprises working on a project to use common software and built databases in a collaborative environment. Now It is possible to simulate all the construction steps of a reactor and 3DEXPERIENCE is already used in the Chinese and Russian nuclear industries. For instance 3DEXPERIENCE allows the testing of different construction scenarios in order to find the best one to cope with the delay of a supplier for a component. The Russian feedback experience shows an average 15% gain in engineering man-hours for the construction of a reactor and up to 25% for its commissioning. The use of 3DEXPERIENCE for the dismantling of ancient facilities is more difficult since in most cases it does not exist a digital description of the facility. (A.C.)
Optimization of advanced plants operation: The Escrime project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiche, C.; Papin, B.
1994-01-01
The Escrime program aims at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers under normal or accidental plant operation. Basic principles we keep in mind are the following: human operators are likely to be necessary in the operation of future plants because we cannot demonstrate that plant design is error free, so unexpected situation can still happen; automation must not release the operators from their decisional role but only help them avoiding situations of cognitive overload which can lead to increase the risk of errors; the optimum share of tasks between human and automatic systems must be based on a critical analysis of the tasks and of the way they are handled. The last point appeared to be of major importance. The corresponding analysis of the French PWR's operating procedures enabled us to define a unified scheme for plant operation under the form of a hierarchy of goals and means. Beyond this analysis, development of a specific testing facility is under way to check the relevance of the proposed plant operation organization and to test the human-machine cooperation in different situations for various levels of automation. 7 refs, 4 figs
Xue, Yan
The optimal growth and its relationship with the forecast skill of the Zebiak and Cane model are studied using a simple statistical model best fit to the original nonlinear model and local linear tangent models about idealized climatic states (the mean background and ENSO cycles in a long model run), and the actual forecast states, including two sets of runs using two different initialization procedures. The seasonally varying Markov model best fit to a suite of 3-year forecasts in a reduced EOF space (18 EOFs) fits the original nonlinear model reasonably well and has comparable or better forecast skill. The initial error growth in a linear evolution operator A is governed by the eigenvalues of A^{T}A, and the square roots of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A^{T}A are named singular values and singular vectors. One dominant growing singular vector is found, and the optimal 6 month growth rate is largest for a (boreal) spring start and smallest for a fall start. Most of the variation in the optimal growth rate of the two forecasts is seasonal, attributable to the seasonal variations in the mean background, except that in the cold events it is substantially suppressed. It is found that the mean background (zero anomaly) is the most unstable state, and the "forecast IC states" are more unstable than the "coupled model states". One dominant growing singular vector is found, characterized by north-south and east -west dipoles, convergent winds on the equator in the eastern Pacific and a deepened thermocline in the whole equatorial belt. This singular vector is insensitive to initial time and optimization time, but its final pattern is a strong function of initial states. The ENSO system is inherently unpredictable for the dominant singular vector can amplify 5-fold to 24-fold in 6 months and evolve into the large scales characteristic of ENSO. However, the inherent ENSO predictability is only a secondary factor, while the mismatches between the model and data is a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonky Indrajaya
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Forest plantation may contribute economically and socially as a provider of wood raw materials for industry and providing jobs for local people. In addition, forest plantation may also contribute as watershed protection and carbon sequestration. Projects on carbon sequestration from plantation forest can be conducted in two types: (1 afforestation and (2 lengthening forest rotation. One of the potential carbon markets operationalized in the field is voluntary market with Verified Carbon Standard mechanism. This study aimed to analyze the optimal rotations of gmelina forests on two carbon projects: lengthening rotation and afforestation. The method used in this study was by using Hartman model ( i.e. Faustmann by maximizing profit with the revenue source from timber and carbon sequestration project. The results of this study showed that carbon price will affect the optimal rotation for lengthening forest rotation of VCS project. Meanwhile, for VCS afforestation project, carbon price had no effect on the optimal rotation on gmelina forest. The NPV value of afforestation project was relatively higher than that of NPV value of lengthening forest rotation project, since the amount of carbon that can be credited relatively higher in afforestation project.
A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs
Long, Quan; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Wang, Suojin
2014-01-01
A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.
A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs
Long, Quan
2014-01-09
A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Fabian; Römer, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.roemer@kit.edu; Fidlin, Alexander; Seemann, Wolfgang [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)
2016-11-15
This paper presents a method to optimize the energy efficiency of walking bipedal robots by more than 80 % in a speed range from 0.3 to 2.3 m/s using elastic couplings—mechanical springs with movement speed independent parameters. The considered planar robot consists of a trunk, two two-segmented legs, two actuators in the hip joints, two actuators in the knee joints and an elastic coupling between the shanks. It is modeled as underactuated system to make use of its natural dynamics and feedback controlled via input–output linearization. A numerical optimization of the joint angle trajectories as well as the elastic couplings is performed to minimize the average energy expenditure over the whole speed range. The elastic couplings increase the swing leg motion’s natural frequency thus making smaller steps more efficient which reduce the impact loss at the touchdown of the swing leg. The process of energy turnover is investigated in detail for the robot with and without elastic coupling between the shanks. Furthermore, the influences of the elastic couplings’ topology and of joint friction are analyzed. It is shown that the optimization of the robot’s motion and elastic coupling towards energy efficiency leads to a slightly slower convergence rate of the controller, yet no loss of stability, but a lower sensitivity with respect to disturbances. The optimal elastic coupling discovered via numerical optimization is a linear torsion spring with transmissions between the shanks. A design proposal for this elastic coupling—which does not affect the robot’s trunk and parallel shank motion and can be used to enhance an existing robot—is given for planar as well as spatial robots.
The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study
Scriven, M. C.
1979-01-01
Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.
EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angulo, C.; Bogusch, E.; Bredimas, A.; Delannay, N.; Viala, C.; Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E.; Chauvet, V.; Hittner, D.; Fütterer, M.A.; Groot, S. de; Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K.; Moron, R.; Baudrand, O.; Griffay, G.; Baaten, A.; Segurado-Gimenez, J.
2012-01-01
Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.
EUROPAIRS: The European project on coupling of High Temperature Reactors with industrial processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angulo, C., E-mail: carmen.angulo@gdfsuez.com [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Bogusch, E. [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Bredimas, A. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Delannay, N. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Viala, C. [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Ruer, J.; Muguerra, Ph.; Sibaud, E. [SAIPEM S.A., 1/7 Avenue San Fernando, 78884 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex (France); Chauvet, V. [LGI Consulting, 37 rue de la Grange aux Belles, 75010 Paris (France); Hittner, D. [AREVA NP Inc., 3315 Old Forest Road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Fuetterer, M.A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Groot, S. de [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lensa, W. von; Verfondern, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse,52425 Juelich (Germany); Moron, R. [Solvay SA, rue du Prince Albert 33, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baudrand, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Griffay, G. [Arcelor Mittal Maizieres Research SA, rue Luigi Cherubini 1A5, 39200 Saint Denis (France); Baaten, A. [USG/Baaten Energy Consulting, Burgermeester-Ceulen-Straat 78, 6212CT Maastricht (Netherlands); Segurado-Gimenez, J. [Tractebel Engineering S.A. (GDF SUEZ), Avenue Ariane 7, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)
2012-10-15
Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing such a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, just as the electro-nuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project ( (www.europairs.eu)) presently on-going in the frame of the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7). Although small and of short duration (21 months), EUROPAIRS is of strategic importance: it generates the boundary conditions for rapid demonstration of collocating HTR with industrial processes as proposed by the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN). This paper presents the main goals, the organization and the working approach of EUROPAIRS. It also presents the status of the viability assessment studies for coupling HTR with industrial end-user systems as one of the main pillars of the project. The main goal of the viability assessment is to identify developments required to remove the last technological and licensing barriers for a viable coupling scheme. The study is expected to result in guidelines for directing the choice of an industrial scale prototype.
Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai
2016-04-01
A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.
A homotopy algorithm for digital optimal projection control GASD-HADOC
Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen; Davis, Lawrence D.
1993-01-01
The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) compensator was developed to facilitate the design of control laws for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The compensator is computed by solving two algebraic equations for which standard closed-loop solutions exist. Unfortunately, the minimal dimension of an LQG compensator is almost always equal to the dimension of the plant and can thus often violate practical implementation constraints on controller order. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control-design for high-order systems such as flexible space structures. This deficiency motivated the development of techniques that enable the design of optimal controllers whose dimension is less than that of the design plant. A homotopy approach based on the optimal projection equations that characterize the necessary conditions for optimal reduced-order control. Homotopy algorithms have global convergence properties and hence do not require that the initializing reduced-order controller be close to the optimal reduced-order controller to guarantee convergence. However, the homotopy algorithm previously developed for solving the optimal projection equations has sublinear convergence properties and the convergence slows at higher authority levels and may fail. A new homotopy algorithm for synthesizing optimal reduced-order controllers for discrete-time systems is described. Unlike the previous homotopy approach, the new algorithm is a gradient-based, parameter optimization formulation and was implemented in MATLAB. The results reported may offer the foundation for a reliable approach to optimal, reduced-order controller design.
Monitoring and optimization of thermal recovery wells at Nexen's Long Lake project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furtado, S.; Howe, A.; Wozney, G.; Zaffar, S. [Nexen Inc. (Canada); Nelson, A. [Matrikon Inc. (Canada)
2011-07-01
The Long Lake project, operated by Nexen and situated in the Athabasca Oil Sands area in Alberta, Canada is a steam assisted gravity drainage scheme. In such thermal recovery processes, access to real time information is crucial. Nexen used specific tools to optimize monitoring in its Long Lake project and the aim of this paper is to present those customized well and facilities dashboards and reservoir trends. Real time and historical data on pressure, temperature injection and production rates are used in a Honeywell PHD Historian connected to a Delta-V DCS system to optimize recovery from the deposit. Results showed that these enhanced monitoring capabilities provided Nexen the ability to react rapidly to abnormal conditions, which resulted in significant financial benefits. The implementation of dashboard and reservoir trends in its Long Lake project helped Nexen to better monitor the reservoir and thus to optimize bitumen recovery.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John
2004-12-14
This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28
Application of an integrated model for evaluation and optimization of business projects portfolios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camila Costa Dutra
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This work presents an application of an integrated model for the evaluation and probabilistic optimization of projects portfolios, integrating economic, risk and social and environmental impacts analysis. The model uses the Monte Carlo simulation and linear programming techniques for treatment of uncertainties and optimization of projects portfolio. The integrated model was applied in a Brazilian company of electricity distributions. The portfolio of selected projects was related to the expansion of the supply of electricity in a town in the south of the country and the analysis horizon was set in ten years. The aim of the application was to maximize the return for the implementation of a substation and a transmission line in a set of projects, which are diverse in terms of costs, benefits and environmental and social impacts. As a result, the model generates: i an analysis of each individual projects, from budget information (costs and benefits involved and estimation of social and environmental impacts generated by the project and the risks (uncertainties involved and ii the optimum combination of projects that the company should prioritize to ensure the best financial return and lower social and environmental impacts, thus generating an optimal portfolio.
APPLICATION OF AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF BUSINESS PROJECTS PORTFOLIOS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Auxiliadora Cannarozzo Tinoco
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This work presents an application of an integrated model for the evaluation and probabilistic optimization of projects portfolios, integrating economic, risk and social and environmental impacts analysis. The model uses the Monte Carlo simulation and linear programming techniques for treatment of uncertainties and optimization of projects portfolio. The integrated model was applied in a Brazilian company of electricity distributions. The portfolio of selected projects was related to the expansion of the supply of electricity in a town in the south of the country and the analysis horizon was set in ten years. The aim of the application was to maximize the return for the implementation of a substation and a transmission line in a set of projects, which are diverse in terms of costs, benefits and environmental and social impacts. As a result, the model generates: i an analysis of each individual projects, from budget information (costs and benefits involved and estimation of social and environmental impacts generated by the project and the risks (uncertainties involved and ii the optimum combination of projects that the company should prioritize to ensure the best financial return and lower social and environmental impacts, thus generating an optimal portfolio
Genetic algorithm for project time-cost optimization in fuzzy environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan Md. Ariful Haque
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research is to develop a more realistic approach to solve project time-cost optimization problem under uncertain conditions, with fuzzy time periods. Design/methodology/approach: Deterministic models for time-cost optimization are never efficient considering various uncertainty factors. To make such problems realistic, triangular fuzzy numbers and the concept of a-cut method in fuzzy logic theory are employed to model the problem. Because of NP-hard nature of the project scheduling problem, Genetic Algorithm (GA has been used as a searching tool. Finally, Dev-C++ 4.9.9.2 has been used to code this solver. Findings: The solution has been performed under different combinations of GA parameters and after result analysis optimum values of those parameters have been found for the best solution. Research limitations/implications: For demonstration of the application of the developed algorithm, a project on new product (Pre-paid electric meter, a project under government finance launching has been chosen as a real case. The algorithm is developed under some assumptions. Practical implications: The proposed model leads decision makers to choose the desired solution under different risk levels. Originality/value: Reports reveal that project optimization problems have never been solved under multiple uncertainty conditions. Here, the function has been optimized using Genetic Algorithm search technique, with varied level of risks and fuzzy time periods.
Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illustrate the robust model, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is modified to solve the project example. The results show that, by means of adjusting the time and cost robust coefficients, the robust Pareto sets for time-cost tradeoff can be obtained according to different acceptable risk level, from which the decision maker could choose the preferred construction alternative.
Optimized image acquisition for breast tomosynthesis in projection and reconstruction space
Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Baker, Jay A.; Samei, Ehsan
2009-01-01
Breast tomosynthesis has been an exciting new development in the field of breast imaging. While the diagnostic improvement via tomosynthesis is notable, the full potential of tomosynthesis has not yet been realized. This may be attributed to the dependency of the diagnostic quality of tomosynthesis on multiple variables, each of which needs to be optimized. Those include dose, number of angular projections, and the total angular span of those projections. In this study, the authors investigat...
Infidelity and Behavioral Couple Therapy: Optimism in the Face of Betrayal
Atkins, David C.; Eldridge, Kathleen A.; Baucom, Donald H.; Christensen, Andrew
2005-01-01
Infidelity is a common issue with which distressed couples and their therapists grapple. However, there are no data on the efficacy of commonly used therapies to treat couples in which there has been an affair. In the present exploratory study, the authors examined the therapy outcomes of a sample of infidelity couples (n=19) who had participated…
Optimal sampling plan for clean development mechanism energy efficiency lighting projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Xianming; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng
2013-01-01
Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built to assist the sampling plan for CDM projects. • The model minimises the total metering cost by the determination of optimal sample size. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is maintained. • The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM projects as well. - Abstract: Clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers are always interested in achieving required measurement accuracies with the least metering cost. In this paper, a metering cost minimisation model is proposed for the sampling plan of a specific CDM energy efficiency lighting project. The problem arises from the particular CDM sampling requirement of 90% confidence and 10% precision for the small-scale CDM energy efficiency projects, which is known as the 90/10 criterion. The 90/10 criterion can be met through solving the metering cost minimisation problem. All the lights in the project are classified into different groups according to uncertainties of the lighting energy consumption, which are characterised by their statistical coefficient of variance (CV). Samples from each group are randomly selected to install power meters. These meters include less expensive ones with less functionality and more expensive ones with greater functionality. The metering cost minimisation model will minimise the total metering cost through the determination of the optimal sample size at each group. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost objective. The optimal solution to the minimisation problem will therefore minimise the metering cost whilst meeting the 90/10 criterion, and this is verified by a case study. Relationships between the optimal metering cost and the population sizes of the groups, CV values and the meter equipment cost are further explored in three simulations. The metering cost minimisation model proposed for lighting systems is applicable to other CDM projects as
Joint optimization scheduling for water conservancy projects in complex river networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we simulated water flow in a water conservancy project consisting of various hydraulic structures, such as sluices, pumping stations, hydropower stations, ship locks, and culverts, and developed a multi-period and multi-variable joint optimization scheduling model for flood control, drainage, and irrigation. In this model, the number of sluice holes, pump units, and hydropower station units to be opened were used as decision variables, and different optimization objectives and constraints were considered. This model was solved with improved genetic algorithms and verified using the Huaian Water Conservancy Project as an example. The results show that the use of the joint optimization scheduling led to a 10% increase in the power generation capacity and a 15% reduction in the total energy consumption. The change in the water level was reduced by 0.25 m upstream of the Yundong Sluice, and by 50% downstream of pumping stations No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4. It is clear that the joint optimization scheduling proposed in this study can effectively improve power generation capacity of the project, minimize operating costs and energy consumption, and enable more stable operation of various hydraulic structures. The results may provide references for the management of water conservancy projects in complex river networks.
Strongly Coupled Fluid-Body Dynamics in the Immersed Boundary Projection Method
Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.
2014-11-01
A computational algorithm is developed to simulate dynamically coupled interaction between fluid and rigid bodies. The basic computational framework is built upon a multi-domain immersed boundary method library, whirl, developed in previous work. In this library, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. A solver for the dynamics of rigid-body systems is also included. The fluid and rigid-body solvers are strongly coupled with an iterative approach based on the block Gauss-Seidel method. Interfacial force, with its intimate connection with the Lagrange multipliers used in the fluid solver, is used as the primary iteration variable. Relaxation, developed from a stability analysis of the iterative scheme, is used to achieve convergence in only 2-4 iterations per time step. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of linked plates and three-dimensional propulsion of flexible fluked tail. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.
On the similarities between micro/nano lithography and topology optimization projection methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansen, Miche; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Schevenels, Mattias
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to incorporate a model for micro/nano lithography production processes in topology optimization. The production process turns out to provide a physical analogy for projection filters in topology optimization. Blueprints supplied by the designers cannot be directly used...... as inputs to lithographic processes due to the proximity effect which causes rounding of sharp corners and geometric interaction of closely spaced design elements. Therefore, topology optimization is applied as a tool for proximity effect correction. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the robust...... projection filter can be used to account for uncertainties due to lithographic production processes which results in manufacturable blueprint designs and eliminates the need for subsequent corrections....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tinggui Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Complex engineering system optimization usually involves multiple projects or tasks. On the one hand, dependency modeling among projects or tasks highlights structures in systems and their environments which can help to understand the implications of connectivity on different aspects of system performance and also assist in designing, optimizing, and maintaining complex systems. On the other hand, multiple projects or tasks are either happening at the same time or scheduled into a sequence in order to use common resources. In this paper, we propose a dynamic intelligent decision approach to dependency modeling of project tasks in complex engineering system optimization. The approach takes this decision process as a two-stage decision-making problem. In the first stage, a task clustering approach based on modularization is proposed so as to find out a suitable decomposition scheme for a large-scale project. In the second stage, according to the decomposition result, a discrete artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybees is developed for the resource constrained multiproject scheduling problem. Finally, a certain case from an engineering design of a chemical processing system is utilized to help to understand the proposed approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campozana, Fernando P.; Almeida, Renato L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Madeira, Marcelo G.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Spinola, Marcio [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
To design, modify, and expand surface facilities is a multidisciplinary task which involves substantial financial resources. It can take months or years to complete, depending on the size and level of detail of the project. Nowadays, the use of Next Generation Reservoir Simulators (NGRS) is the most sophisticated and reliable way of obtaining field performance evaluation since they can couple surface and subsurface equations, thus eliminating the need of lengthy multiphase flow tables. Furthermore, coupling a NGRS with an optimizer is the best way to accomplish a large number of simulation runs on the search for optimized solutions when facilities are being modified and/or expanded. The suggested workflow is applied to a synthetic field which reproduces typical Brazilian offshore deep water scenarios. Hundreds of coupled simulation runs were performed and the results show that it is possible to find optimal diameters for the production lines as well as the ideal location for the production / injection platform. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Yuan; Zong Gongjun; Wang Hongru; Qin Yongwen; Huang Xinmiao; Jiang Haibin
2009-01-01
Objective: To explore the optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus angiographically in experimental goats. Methods: Eight healthy goats underwent right atrial angiography by using 6 F pig tail catheters. Under fluoroscopic monitoring the contrast media (total 110 ml, flow rate 12 ml/ s, pressure 800 psi) was injected continuously while a serious exposures were performed from RAO position to LAO position (totally 180 degree rotation). The maximum diameter of the tricuspid annulus in every picture was measured and the results were compared with that obtained from sonography. Results: The procedure was successful in all 8 experimental goats. The optimal project position to display the tricuspid annulus was at 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO position. Conclusion: In angiography, the tricuspid annulus can be best demonstrated at the project position of 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO. (authors)
Optimized image acquisition for breast tomosynthesis in projection and reconstruction space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Baker, Jay A.; Samei, Ehsan
2009-01-01
Breast tomosynthesis has been an exciting new development in the field of breast imaging. While the diagnostic improvement via tomosynthesis is notable, the full potential of tomosynthesis has not yet been realized. This may be attributed to the dependency of the diagnostic quality of tomosynthesis on multiple variables, each of which needs to be optimized. Those include dose, number of angular projections, and the total angular span of those projections. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of these acquisition parameters on the overall diagnostic image quality of breast tomosynthesis in both the projection and reconstruction space. Five mastectomy specimens were imaged using a prototype tomosynthesis system. 25 angular projections of each specimen were acquired at 6.2 times typical single-view clinical dose level. Images at lower dose levels were then simulated using a noise modification routine. Each projection image was supplemented with 84 simulated 3 mm 3D lesions embedded at the center of 84 nonoverlapping ROIs. The projection images were then reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm at different combinations of acquisition parameters to investigate which of the many possible combinations maximizes the performance. Performance was evaluated in terms of a Laguerre-Gauss channelized Hotelling observer model-based measure of lesion detectability. The analysis was also performed without reconstruction by combining the model results from projection images using Bayesian decision fusion algorithm. The effect of acquisition parameters on projection images and reconstructed slices were then compared to derive an optimization rule for tomosynthesis. The results indicated that projection images yield comparable but higher performance than reconstructed images. Both modes, however, offered similar trends: Performance improved with an increase in the total acquisition dose level and the angular span. Using a constant dose level and angular
Does air-sea coupling influence model projections of the effects of the Paris Agreement?
Klingaman, Nicholas; Suckling, Emma; Sutton, Rowan; Dong, Buwen
2017-04-01
The 2015 Paris Agreement includes the long-term goal to hold global-mean temperature to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels", with the further stated aim of limiting the global-mean warming to 1.5°C, in the belief that this would "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change". However, it is not clear which risks and impacts would be avoided, or reduced, by achieving a 1.5°C warming instead of a 2.0°C warming. Initial efforts to quantify changes in risk have focused on analysis of existing CMIP5 simulations at levels of global-mean warming close to 1.5°C or 2.0°C, by taking averages over ≈20 year periods. This framework suffers from several drawbacks, however, including the effect of model internal multi-decadal variability, the influence of coupled-model systematic errors on regional circulation patterns, and the presence of a warming trend across the averaging period (i.e., the model is not in steady state). To address these issues, the "Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts" (HAPPI) project is performing large ensembles of atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for present-day and 1.5°C and 2.0°C scenarios. While these experiments reduce the complications from a limited dataset and coupled-model systematic errors, the use of atmosphere-only models neglects feedbacks between the atmosphere and ocean, which may have substantial effects on the representation of local and regional extremes, and hence on the response of these extremes to global-mean warming. We introduce a set of atmosphere-ocean coupled simulations that incorporate much of the HAPPI experiment design, yet retain a representation of air-sea feedbacks. We use the Met Office Unified Model Global Ocean Mixed Layer (MetUM-GOML) model, which comprises the MetUM atmospheric model coupled to many columns of the one-dimensional K Profile Parameterization mixed-layer ocean. Critically, the MetUM-GOML ocean mean
Coupled rolling motion: a student project in non-holonomic mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janova, Jitka; Musilova, Jana; Bartos, JirI
2009-01-01
This paper presents an original undergraduate student project in theoretical mechanics: a demonstration of theory and experiment agreement inspired by a recently theoretically treated mechanical problem of coupled rolling motion of two cylinders. The problem of a mechanical system subjected to non-holonomic constraints is theoretically and numerically solved. Subsequently, the solution is quantitatively verified by a simple and inexpensive experiment, originally proposed and constructed by the authors. The comparison of results of the theoretical study with experimental output shows that there are instruments to directly verify rather abstract mathematical theories even on the undergraduate level. Moreover, combining the theoretical description of the problem with an appropriate laboratory experiment and computational procedures gives students a more complex view of the physical problem as a whole. This paper can be used by physics teachers on the undergraduate university level as an inspiration for an interesting student project. Moreover, the theoretical part of this paper itself can be used by interested intermediate students themselves as a good exercise in theoretical mechanics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brut, F.
1982-01-01
The spectroscopy of odd-A nuclei, in the 1p and 2s-1d shells, is studied in the framework of the projected Hartree-Fock method and by the generator coordinate method. The nuclear effective interactions of Cohen and Kurath, on the one hand, and of Kuo or Preedom-Wildenthal, on the other hand, are used. The binding energies, the nuclear spectra, the static moments and the electromagnetic transitions obtained by these two approaches are compared to the same quantities given by a complete diagonalization in the shell model basis. This study of light nuclei gives some possibilities to put in order the energy levels by coupled rotational bands. In the microscopic approach, thus we find all the elements of the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson. To give evidence of such a relation, the functions of the angle β, in the integrals of the projection method of Peierls and Yoccoz, for a Slater determinant, are developed in the vicinity of the bounds β = O and β = π. The microscopic coefficients are evaluated in the Hartree-Fock approximation, using the particle-hole formalism. Calculations are made for 20 Ne and 21 Ne and the resulting microscopic coefficients are compared with the corresponding terms of the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson [fr
Optimization of High-Q Coupled Nanobeam Cavity for Label-Free Sensing
Yaseen, Mohammad; Yang, Yi-Chun; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Chang, Yia-Chung
2015-01-01
We numerically and experimentally investigated the lateral coupling between photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam (NB) cavities, pursuing high sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) label-free biosensor. We numerically carried out 3D finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) and the finite element method (FEM) simulations. We showed that when two PhC NB cavities separated by a small gap are evanescently coupled, the variation in the gap width significantly changes the coupling efficiency between the ...
Huang, Daizheng; Wu, Zhihui
2017-01-01
Accurately predicting the trend of outpatient visits by mathematical modeling can help policy makers manage hospitals effectively, reasonably organize schedules for human resources and finances, and appropriately distribute hospital material resources. In this study, a hybrid method based on empirical mode decomposition and back-propagation artificial neural networks optimized by particle swarm optimization is developed to forecast outpatient visits on the basis of monthly numbers. The data outpatient visits are retrieved from January 2005 to December 2013 and first obtained as the original time series. Second, the original time series is decomposed into a finite and often small number of intrinsic mode functions by the empirical mode decomposition technique. Third, a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network is constructed to forecast each intrinsic mode functions. To improve network performance and avoid falling into a local minimum, particle swarm optimization is employed to optimize the weights and thresholds of back-propagation artificial neural networks. Finally, the superposition of forecasting results of the intrinsic mode functions is regarded as the ultimate forecasting value. Simulation indicates that the proposed method attains a better performance index than the other four methods.
Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ok-Yeon; Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In
2017-07-01
Using 32 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, this study examines the veracity in the simulation of cloud amount and their radiative effects (CREs) in the historical run driven by observed external radiative forcing for 1850-2005, and their future changes in the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario runs for 2006-2100. Validation metrics for the historical run are designed to examine the accuracy in the representation of spatial patterns for climatological mean, and annual and interannual variations of clouds and CREs. The models show large spread in the simulation of cloud amounts, specifically in the low cloud amount. The observed relationship between cloud amount and the controlling large-scale environment are also reproduced diversely by various models. Based on the validation metrics, four models—ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, HadGEM2-CC, and HadGEM2-ES—are selected as best models, and the average of the four models performs more skillfully than the multimodel ensemble average. All models project global-mean SST warming at the increase of the greenhouse gases, but the magnitude varies across the simulations between 1 and 2 K, which is largely attributable to the difference in the change of cloud amount and distribution. The models that simulate more SST warming show a greater increase in the net CRE due to reduced low cloud and increased incoming shortwave radiation, particularly over the regions of marine boundary layer in the subtropics. Selected best-performing models project a significant reduction in global-mean cloud amount of about -0.99% K-1 and net radiative warming of 0.46 W m-2 K-1, suggesting a role of positive feedback to global warming.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yudi, Xiao; Xingkui, Mao; Mao, Lin
2017-01-01
The coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) has great effect on the transmitting power capability and efficiency of magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system. The key objective i.e. the efficiency coefficient kQ is introduced in the design of CMRU or the coupled windings based on the mutual...... inductance model. Then the design method with orthogonal experiments and finite element method simulation is proposed to maximize the kQ due to low precise analytical model of AC resistance and inductance for PCB windings at high- frequency. The method can reduce the design iterations and thereby can get...... more optimal design results. The experiments verified the design objective of kQ as well as the design method effectively. In the optimal PCB windings prototype at operating frequency of 4 MHz, the kQ and the maximum efficiency are increased by about 12% and 4% respectively....
Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aveyard, R., E-mail: r.a.aveyard@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rieger, B., E-mail: b.rieger@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.
Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aveyard, R.; Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J.; Rieger, B.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.
Verbist, Bie; Klambauer, Günter; Vervoort, Liesbet; Talloen, Willem; Shkedy, Ziv; Thas, Olivier; Bender, Andreas; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Hochreiter, Sepp
2015-05-01
The pharmaceutical industry is faced with steadily declining R&D efficiency which results in fewer drugs reaching the market despite increased investment. A major cause for this low efficiency is the failure of drug candidates in late-stage development owing to safety issues or previously undiscovered side-effects. We analyzed to what extent gene expression data can help to de-risk drug development in early phases by detecting the biological effects of compounds across disease areas, targets and scaffolds. For eight drug discovery projects within a global pharmaceutical company, gene expression data were informative and able to support go/no-go decisions. Our studies show that gene expression profiling can detect adverse effects of compounds, and is a valuable tool in early-stage drug discovery decision making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
An Extension of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to Coupled Schrödinger-KdV Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hakeem Ullah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the approximate solution of the coupled Schrödinger-KdV equation by using the extended optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM. We obtained the extended OHAM solution of the problem and compared with the exact, variational iteration method (VIM and homotopy perturbation method (HPM solutions. The obtained solution shows that extended OHAM is effective, simpler, easier, and explicit and gives a suitable way to control the convergence of the approximate solution.
Adaptive neuro-fuzzy optimization of wind farm project net profit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Nikolić, Vlastimir; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Mohd Shuib, Nor Liyana; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha; Akib, Shatirah
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Analyzing of wind farm project investment. • Net present value (NPV) maximization of the wind farm project. • Adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) optimization of the number of wind turbines to maximize NPV. • The impact of the variation in the wind farm parameters. • Adaptive neuro fuzzy application. - Abstract: A wind power plant which consists of a group of wind turbines at a specific location is also known as wind farm. To maximize the wind farm net profit, the number of turbines installed in the wind farm should be different in depend on wind farm project investment parameters. In this paper, in order to achieve the maximal net profit of a wind farm, an intelligent optimization scheme based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is applied. As the net profit measures, net present value (NPV) and interest rate of return (IRR) are used. The NPV and IRR are two of the most important criteria for project investment estimating. The general approach in determining the accept/reject/stay in different decision for a project via NPV and IRR is to treat the cash flows as known with certainty. However, even small deviations from the predetermined values may easily invalidate the decision. In the proposed model the ANFIS estimator adjusts the number of turbines installed in the wind farm, for operating at the highest net profit point. The performance of proposed optimizer is confirmed by simulation results. Some outstanding properties of this new estimator are online implementation capability, structural simplicity and its robustness against any changes in wind farm parameters. Based on the simulation results, the effectiveness of the proposed optimization strategy is verified
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olin, M.; Rasilainen, K.; Itaelae, A. [and others
2011-08-15
In the report main results form a KYT2010 programme's project Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer (PUSKURI) are presented. In THC modelling, Aku Itaelae made and published his Master of Science Thesis. Itaelae was able to successfully model the LOT-experiment. Additionally, he also listed problems and development proposals for THC-modelling of bentonite buffer. VTT and Numerola created in collaboration a model coupling saturation, diffusion and cation exchange; the model was implemented and tested in Numerrin, COMSOL and TOUGHREACT. Petri Jussila's PhD THM-model was implemented into COMSOL to facilitate further development. At GTK, the mineralogical characterisation of bentonite was planned. The previous THM model (Jussila's model) including only small deformations was successfully generalized to finite deformations in way at least formally preserving the original formalism. It appears that the theory allows also a possibility to include finite plastic deformations in the theory. In order to measure the relevant mechanical properties of compacted bentonite, two different experiments, namely hydrostatic compression experiment and one-dimensional compression experiment were designed. In the hydrostatic compression experiment, a cylindrical sample of compacted bentonite covered with liquid rubber coating is placed in the sample chamber equipped with a piston. The same device was also used in one-dimensional compression experiment. X-ray microtomographic techniques were used in order to study the basic mechanisms of water transport in bentonite. The preliminary results indicate that in the present experimental set-up, water transport is dominated by a dispersive mechanism such as diffusion of vapour in gas phase or diffusion of water in solid phase. (orig.)
An optimization algorithm for simulation-based planning of low-income housing projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed M. Marzouk
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Construction of low-income housing projects is a replicated process and is associated with uncertainties that arise from the unavailability of resources. Government agencies and/or contractors have to select a construction system that meets low-income housing projects constraints including project conditions, technical, financial and time constraints. This research presents a framework, using computer simulation, which aids government authorities and contractors in the planning of low-income housing projects. The proposed framework estimates the time and cost required for the construction of low-income housing using pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls. Five main components constitute the proposed framework: a network builder module, a construction alternative selection module, a simulation module, an optimization module and a reporting module. An optimization module utilizing a genetic algorithm enables the defining of different options and ranges of parameters associated with low-income housing projects that influence the duration and total cost of the pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls method. A computer prototype, named LIHouse_Sim, was developed in MS Visual Basic 6.0 as proof of concept for the proposed framework. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the use of the developed framework and to illustrate its essential features.
Optimal Conformal Polynomial Projections for Croatia According to the Airy/Jordan Criterion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dražen Tutić
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The paper describes optimal conformal polynomial projections for Croatia according to the Airy/Jordan criterion. A brief introduction of history and theory of conformal mapping is followed by descriptions of conformal polynomial projections and their current application. The paper considers polynomials of degrees 1 to 10. Since there are conditions in which the 1st degree polynomial becomes the famous Mercator projection, it was not considered specifically for Croatian territory. The area of Croatia was defined as a union of national territory and the continental shelf. Area definition data were taken from the Euro Global Map 1:1 000 000 for Croatia, as well as from two maritime delimitation treaties. Such an irregular area was approximated with a regular grid consisting of 11 934 ellipsoidal trapezoids 2' large. The Airy/Jordan criterion for the optimal projection is defined as minimum of weighted mean of Airy/Jordan measure of distortion in points. The value of the Airy/Jordan criterion is calculated from all 11 934 centres of ellipsoidal trapezoids, while the weights are equal to areas of corresponding ellipsoidal trapezoids. The minimum is obtained by Nelder and Mead’s method, as implemented in the fminsearch function of the MATLAB package. Maps of Croatia representing the distribution of distortions are given for polynomial degrees 2 to 6 and 10. Increasing the polynomial degree results in better projections considering the criterion, and the 6th degree polynomial provides a good ratio of formula complexity and criterion value.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brester Christina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In every organization, project management raises many different decision-making problems, a large proportion of which can be efficiently solved using specific decision-making support systems. Yet such kinds of problems are always a challenge since there is no time-efficient or computationally efficient algorithm to solve them as a result of their complexity. In this study, we consider the problem of optimal financial investment. In our solution, we take into account the following organizational resource and project characteristics: profits, costs and risks.
Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali
2015-01-01
Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Do Guen Yoo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.
2015-01-01
We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier
PORTFOLIO SELECTION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECTS USING PROMETHEE V WITH C-OPTIMAL CONCEPT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonatas A. de Almeida
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a multicriteria decision model for selecting a portfolio of information system (IS projects, which integrates strategic and organizational view within a multicriteria decision structure. The PROMETHEE V method, based on outranking relations is applied, considering the c-optimal concept in order to overcome some scaling problems found in the classical PROMETHEE V approach. Then, a procedure is proposed in order to make a final analysis of the c-optimal portfolios found as a result of using PROMETHEE V. Also, the organizational view is discussed, including some factors that may influence decision making on IS projects to be included in the portfolio, such as adding the company's strategic vision and technical aspects that demonstrate how IS contributes value to a company's business.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Henrique Lermen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The PERT/CPM is a technique widely used in both the scheduling and in the project feasibility in terms of cost control and time. In order to optimize time and costs involved in production, the work presented here aims to apply the PERT/CPM technique in the production project of the Horizontal Laminator, a machine used to cut polyurethane foam blocks in the mattresses industries. For the application of PERT/CPM technique in the project of Horizontal Laminator production were identified the activities that compose the project, the dependence between them, the normal and accelerated durations and the normal and accelerated costs. In this study, deterministic estimates for the duration of the activities were considered. The results show that the project can be completed in 520 hours at a total cost of R$7,042.50, when all activities are performed in their normal durations. When all the activities that compose the critical path are accelerated, the project can be completed in 333.3 hours at a total cost of R$9,263.01. If the activities slacks have been exploited, it can obtain a final total cost of R$6,157.8, without changing the new duration of the project. It is noteworthy that the final total cost of the project if the slacks are used, will be lower than the initial cost. Regarding the initial cost of the project, after the application of the PERT/CPM technique, it presents a decrease of 12.56% of the total project cost.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范刚启; 赵扬; 沈卫平; 曹树平; 吕莉君
2007-01-01
Objective: to select the optimal acupuncture therapeutic projects on cerebral infarction-related motor dysfunction of lower limbs. Methods: to optimize the combination projects on 4 factors and 3 levels affecting the acupuncture effect on cerebral infarction by using orthogonal design targeting on patients with cerebral infarction-related motor dysfunction of lower limbs, and Fugl-Meyer score of limb motor function was taken as indexes. Results: The relatively optimal Fugl-Meyer score of lower limb function can be obtained within 3-day duration of cerebral infarction. Conclusions: As far as the considered factors and levels are concerned, the previously mentioned project is the optimal acupuncture therapeutic project for cerebral infarction-related motor dysfunction of lower limbs.%目的:优选脑梗塞下肢运动功能障碍针刺治疗方案.方法:以脑梗塞下肢功能障碍患者为观察对象,以Fugl-Meyer肢体运动功能积分为指标,应用正交设计法,对影响脑梗塞针刺疗效的4因素3水平搭配组合方案进行优选.结果:在脑梗塞病程3 d内,可获得相对最佳的下肢功能Fugl-Meyer积分效应.结论:对于所考察的因素和水平来说,前述方案即为脑梗塞下肢运动功能障碍的针刺治疗优选方案.
An optimized outlier detection algorithm for jury-based grading of engineering design projects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Espensen, Christina; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
2016-01-01
This work characterizes and optimizes an outlier detection algorithm to identify potentially invalid scores produced by jury members while grading engineering design projects. The paper describes the original algorithm and the associated adjudication process in detail. The impact of the various...... (the base rule and the three additional conditions) play a role in the algorithm's performance and should be included in the algorithm. Because there is significant interaction between the base rule and the additional conditions, many acceptable combinations that balance the FPR and FNR can be found......, but no true optimum seems to exist. The performance of the best optimizations and the original algorithm are similar. Therefore, it should be possible to choose new coefficient values for jury populations in other cultures and contexts logically and empirically without a full optimization as long...
Realization of universal optimal quantum machines by projective operators and stochastic maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sciarrino, F.; Sias, C.; Ricci, M.; De Martini, F.
2004-01-01
Optimal quantum machines can be implemented by linear projective operations. In the present work a general qubit symmetrization theory is presented by investigating the close links to the qubit purification process and to the programmable teleportation of any generic optimal antiunitary map. In addition, the contextual realization of the N→M cloning map and of the teleportation of the N→(M-N) universal-NOT (UNOT) gate is analyzed by a very general angular momentum theory. An extended set of experimental realizations by state symmetrization linear optical procedures is reported. These include the 1→2 cloning process, the UNOT gate and the quantum tomographic characterization of the optimal partial transpose map of polarization encoded qubits
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions
Driscoll, Simon; Bozzo, Alessio; Gray, Lesley J.; Robock, Alan; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.
2012-01-01
The ability of the climate models submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) database to simulate the Northern Hemisphere winter climate following a large tropical volcanic eruption is assessed. When sulfate aerosols are produced by volcanic injections into the tropical stratosphere and spread by the stratospheric circulation, it not only causes globally averaged tropospheric cooling but also a localized heating in the lower stratosphere, which can cause major dynamical feedbacks. Observations show a lower stratospheric and surface response during the following one or two Northern Hemisphere (NH) winters, that resembles the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Simulations from 13 CMIP5 models that represent tropical eruptions in the 19th and 20th century are examined, focusing on the large-scale regional impacts associated with the large-scale circulation during the NH winter season. The models generally fail to capture the NH dynamical response following eruptions. They do not sufficiently simulate the observed post-volcanic strengthened NH polar vortex, positive NAO, or NH Eurasian warming pattern, and they tend to overestimate the cooling in the tropical troposphere. The findings are confirmed by a superposed epoch analysis of the NAO index for each model. The study confirms previous similar evaluations and raises concern for the ability of current climate models to simulate the response of a major mode of global circulation variability to external forcings. This is also of concern for the accuracy of geoengineering modeling studies that assess the atmospheric response to stratosphere-injected particles.
Ocean response to volcanic eruptions in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 simulations
Ding, Yanni
2014-09-01
We examine the oceanic impact of large tropical volcanic eruptions as they appear in ensembles of historical simulations from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. These models show a response that includes lowering of global average sea surface temperature by 0.1–0.3 K, comparable to the observations. They show enhancement of Arctic ice cover in the years following major volcanic eruptions, with long-lived temperature anomalies extending to the middepth and deep ocean on decadal to centennial timescales. Regional ocean responses vary, although there is some consistent hemispheric asymmetry associated with the hemisphere in which the eruption occurs. Temperature decreases and salinity increases contribute to an increase in the density of surface water and an enhancement in the overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean following these eruptions. The strength of this overturning increase varies considerably from model to model and is correlated with the background variability of overturning in each model. Any cause/effect relationship between eruptions and the phase of El Niño is weak.
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations of climate following volcanic eruptions
Driscoll, Simon
2012-09-16
The ability of the climate models submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) database to simulate the Northern Hemisphere winter climate following a large tropical volcanic eruption is assessed. When sulfate aerosols are produced by volcanic injections into the tropical stratosphere and spread by the stratospheric circulation, it not only causes globally averaged tropospheric cooling but also a localized heating in the lower stratosphere, which can cause major dynamical feedbacks. Observations show a lower stratospheric and surface response during the following one or two Northern Hemisphere (NH) winters, that resembles the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Simulations from 13 CMIP5 models that represent tropical eruptions in the 19th and 20th century are examined, focusing on the large-scale regional impacts associated with the large-scale circulation during the NH winter season. The models generally fail to capture the NH dynamical response following eruptions. They do not sufficiently simulate the observed post-volcanic strengthened NH polar vortex, positive NAO, or NH Eurasian warming pattern, and they tend to overestimate the cooling in the tropical troposphere. The findings are confirmed by a superposed epoch analysis of the NAO index for each model. The study confirms previous similar evaluations and raises concern for the ability of current climate models to simulate the response of a major mode of global circulation variability to external forcings. This is also of concern for the accuracy of geoengineering modeling studies that assess the atmospheric response to stratosphere-injected particles.
Optimization of the Geometric Beta for the SSR2 Cavities of the Project X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solyak, N.; Vostrikov, A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Awida, M.H.; Berrutti, P.; Gonin, I.V.
2012-01-01
Project X based on the 3 GeV CW superconducting Linac and is currently in the R and D phase. The CW SC Linac starts from a low-energy SCRF section (2.1 - 165 MeV) containing three different types of resonators. HWR f = 162.5 MHz (2.1 - 11 MeV) having beta= 0.11, SSR1 f = 325 MHz (11 - 35 MeV) having beta = 0.21. In this paper we present the analysis that lead to the final design of SSR2 f = 325 MHz cavity (35 - 165 MeV). We present the results of optimization of the geometric beta and the comparison between single, double and triple spoke resonators used in Project X frontend. A β optimization has been carried out for the last spoke cavity section of Project X front end. The optimization process of β opt for a single spoke resonator family SSR2 shown that β opt = 0.47 looks better than the previous choice, which is β opt = 0.4. This change can save some cavities and provide the same final energy for this section, 160 MeV. Single double and triple spoke resonator performances have been compared. The best option is the single spoke resonator SSR2 because the NTTF of a multi-spoke resonator is much narrower than a single one. In the energy range considered (40-160 MeV) the most efficient resonator is the single spoke one.
The technical and economical optimization of the French geological repository project - 59275
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raffard, Rodolphe; Labalette, Thibaud
2012-01-01
Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Act of 28 June 2006 made the choice of reversible geological repository for long term management of high level and long-lived intermediate level waste. Andra is in charge of designing, building and operating the future industrial repository Cigeo. Current major issues consist in preparing the application to be examined in 2015, planning the construction so that operation would start in 2025 and optimizing the design on both technical and economical points of view. The Dossier 2005 -provided by Andra prior to the 2006 Act- established the feasibility of the project, especially towards compliance with safety and reversibility. Design options were presented at that time with the objective of demonstrating feasibility without ruling out possibilities of further optimization. Along with the scientific and technical review of Dossier 2005, a number of design optimization topics were identified in 2006. Working groups involved Andra's specialists as well as external experts. A particular attention was given to (i) the industrial experience of waste producers and (ii) the characteristics of the clay layer investigated in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory. The 2006 optimization topics were prioritized taking into account their economical impact and the development plan of the project
3D DSA findings of uterine artery and its optimal projection position
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Weifu; Zhang Aiwu; Zhou Chunze; Lu Dong; Xiao Jingkun; Wang Weiyu; Zhang Xingming; Zhang Zhengfeng; Hou Changlong
2011-01-01
Objective: to observe the origin site, anatomic features of uterine artery with 3D DSA and to discuss the optimal projection position in order to improve the success rate of super-selective catheterization of uterine artery. Methods: Prospective pelvic angiography was performed in 42 adult females (a total of 84 uterine arteries). 3D DSA was carried out with 206 ° rotation. 3D reconstruction of the obtained images was performed and the angiographic manifestations of the uterine artery were analyzed. The optimal projection position for the displaying of uterine artery was discussed. The quality of images obtained with the projection angle of 15 °-25 °, 25 °-35 ° and 35 °-45 ° was determined and the results were compared with each other. Results: The orifices of all 84 uterine arteries could be well demonstrated on 3D DSA images. The uterine artery was originated from the anterior trunk of internal iliac artery (n=58, 69%), from main stem of internal iliac artery (n=16, 19.1%), from internal pudenda artery (n=8, 9.5%) and from inferior gluteal artery (n=2, 2.4%). The best projection position to show the opening and route of the uterine artery was contralateral oblique view of 25-35 degrees (P<0.05). Conclusion: 3D DSA can clearly display the anatomy of the uterine artery, which is very helpful for the management of super-selective catheterization of uterine artery. The optimal projection position for uterine artery is contralateral oblique view of 25-35 degrees. (authors)
Prabhakar, G. P.; Walker, S.
2005-01-01
Our research helps to judge ‘maturity’ as an asset to projects and heightens awareness of situational leadership, using intercultural team maturity levels as a tool for optimal project leadership success.\\ud \\ud This study focuses on exactly how to analyse the team members’ ability to adapt to complex intercultural project environments, using an intercultural team maturity model.
Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gasper, John R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Laboratory; Mahalik, Matthew R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Hayse, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory; Saha, Samrat [Argonne National Laboratory; Wigmosta, Mark S. [PNNL; Voisin, Nathalie [PNNL; Rakowski, Cynthia [PNNL; Coleman, Andre [PNNL; Lowry, Thomas S. [SNL
2014-05-19
This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Jian; Cong, Weijian; Fan, Jingfan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Chen, Yang
2014-01-01
The clinical value of the 3D reconstruction of a coronary artery is important for the diagnosis and intervention of cardiovascular diseases. This work proposes a method based on a deformable model for reconstructing coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images acquired from different angles. First, an external force back-projective composition model is developed to determine the external force, for which the force distributions in different views are back-projected to the 3D space and composited in the same coordinate system based on the perspective projection principle of x-ray imaging. The elasticity and bending forces are composited as an internal force to maintain the smoothness of the deformable curve. Second, the deformable curve evolves rapidly toward the true vascular centerlines in 3D space and angiographic images under the combination of internal and external forces. Third, densely matched correspondence among vessel centerlines is constructed using a curve alignment method. The bundle adjustment method is then utilized for the global optimization of the projection parameters and the 3D structures. The proposed method is validated on phantom data and routine angiographic images with consideration for space and re-projection image errors. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for the reconstruction of coronary arteries from two monoplane angiographic images. The proposed method can achieve a mean space error of 0.564 mm and a mean re-projection error of 0.349 mm. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahimpour, M.R.; Bahmanpour, A.M.
2011-01-01
In this study, a thermally-coupled reactor containing the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction in the exothermic side and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane in the endothermic side has been modified using a hydrogen perm-selective membrane as the shell of the reactor to separate the produced hydrogen from the dehydrogenation process. Permeated hydrogen enters another section called permeation side to be collected by Argon, known as the sweep gas. This three-sided reactor has been optimized using differential evolution (DE) method to predict the conditions at which the reactants' conversion and also the hydrogen recovery yield would be maximized. Minimizing the CO 2 and CH 4 yield in the reactor's outlet as undesired products is also considered in the optimization process. To reach this goal, optimal initial molar flow rate and inlet temperature of three sides as well as pressure of the exothermic side have been calculated. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional reactor data of the Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), the membrane dual - type reactor suggested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, and the membrane coupled reactor presented for methanol synthesis. The comparison shows acceptable enhancement in the reactor's performance and that the production of hydrogen as a valuable byproduct should also be considered.
Aksikas, I.; Moghadam, A. Alizadeh; Forbes, J. F.
2018-04-01
This paper deals with the design of an optimal state-feedback linear-quadratic (LQ) controller for a system of coupled parabolic-hypebolic non-autonomous partial differential equations (PDEs). The infinite-dimensional state space representation and the corresponding operator Riccati differential equation are used to solve the control problem. Dynamical properties of the coupled system of interest are analysed to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the LQ-optimal control problem and also to guarantee the exponential stability of the closed-loop system. Thanks to the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the parabolic operator and also the fact that the hyperbolic-associated operator Riccati differential equation can be converted to a scalar Riccati PDE, an algorithm to solve the LQ control problem has been presented. The results are applied to a non-isothermal packed-bed catalytic reactor. The LQ optimal controller designed in the early portion of the paper is implemented for the original non-linear model. Numerical simulations are performed to show the controller performances.
Optimization of top coupling grating for very long wavelength QWIP based on surface plasmon
Wang, Guodong; Shen, Junling; Liu, Xiaolian; Ni, Lu; Wang, Saili
2017-09-01
The relative coupling efficiency of two-dimensional (2D) grating based on surface plasmon for very long wavelength quantum well infrared detector is analyzed by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method algorithm. The relative coupling efficiency with respect to the grating parameters, such as grating pitch, duty ratio, and grating thickness, is analyzed. The calculated results show that the relative coupling efficiency would reach the largest value for the 14.5 μm incident infrared light when taking the grating pitch as 4.4 μm, the duty ratio as 0.325, and the grating thickness as 0.07 μm, respectively.
Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.
Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu
2011-10-01
This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Optimized coupling of cold atoms into a fiber using a blue-detuned hollow-beam funnel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulin, Jerome; Light, Philip S.; Kashyap, Raman; Luiten, Andre N. [Frequency Standards and Metrology Group, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Perth (Australia); Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3A7 (Canada); Frequency Standards and Metrology, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Perth (Australia)
2011-11-15
We theoretically investigate the process of coupling cold atoms into the core of a hollow-core photonic-crystal optical fiber using a blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian beam. In contrast to the use of a red-detuned Gaussian beam to couple the atoms, the blue-detuned hollow beam can confine cold atoms to the darkest regions of the beam, thereby minimizing shifts in the internal states and making the guide highly robust to heating effects. This single optical beam is used as both a funnel and a guide to maximize the number of atoms into the fiber. In the proposed experiment, Rb atoms are loaded into a magneto-optical trap (MOT) above a vertically oriented optical fiber. We observe a gravito-optical trapping effect for atoms with high orbital momentum around the trap axis, which prevents atoms from coupling to the fiber: these atoms lack the kinetic energy to escape the potential and are thus trapped in the laser funnel indefinitely. We find that by reducing the dipolar force to the point at which the trapping effect just vanishes, it is possible to optimize the coupling of atoms into the fiber. Our simulations predict that by using a low-power (2.5 mW) and far-detuned (300 GHz) Laguerre-Gaussian beam with a 20-{mu}m-radius core hollow fiber, it is possible to couple 11% of the atoms from a MOT 9 mm away from the fiber. When the MOT is positioned farther away, coupling efficiencies over 50% can be achieved with larger core fibers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy B Hallett
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Antiretrovirals have substantial promise for HIV-1 prevention, either as antiretroviral treatment (ART for HIV-1-infected persons to reduce infectiousness, or as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV-1-uninfected persons to reduce the possibility of infection with HIV-1. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in long-term partnerships (one member is infected and the other is uninfected are a priority for prevention interventions. Earlier ART and PrEP might both reduce HIV-1 transmission in this group, but the merits and synergies of these different approaches have not been analyzed.We constructed a mathematical model to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of different strategies, including earlier initiation of ART and/or PrEP, for HIV-1 prevention for serodiscordant couples. Although the cost of PrEP is high, the cost per infection averted is significantly offset by future savings in lifelong treatment, especially among couples with multiple partners, low condom use, and a high risk of transmission. In some situations, highly effective PrEP could be cost-saving overall. To keep couples alive and without a new infection, providing PrEP to the uninfected partner could be at least as cost-effective as initiating ART earlier in the infected partner, if the annual cost of PrEP is 70% effective.Strategic use of PrEP and ART could substantially and cost-effectively reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. New and forthcoming data on the efficacy of PrEP, the cost of delivery of ART and PrEP, and couples behaviours and preferences will be critical for optimizing the use of antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonnemay, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
The first theory deals with the compatible optimization in coupled systems. A game theory for two players and with a non-zero sum is first developed. The conclusions are then extended to the case of a game with any finite number of players. After this essentially static study, the dynamic aspect of the problem is applied to the case of games which evolve. By applying PONTRYAGIN maximum principle it is possible to derive a compatible optimisation theorem which constitutes a necessary condition. (author) [French] La premiere these traite de l'optimalisation compatible des systemes couples. Une theorie du jeu a deux joueurs et a somme non nulle est d'abord developpee. Ses conclusions sont etendues ensuite au jeu a un nombre fini quelconque de joueurs. Apres cette etude essentiellement statique, l'aspect dynamique du probleme est introduit dans les jeux evolutifs. L'application du principe du maximum de PONTRYAGIN permet d'enoncer un theoreme d'optimalite compatible qui constitue une condition necessaire. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonnemay, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
The first theory deals with the compatible optimization in coupled systems. A game theory for two players and with a non-zero sum is first developed. The conclusions are then extended to the case of a game with any finite number of players. After this essentially static study, the dynamic aspect of the problem is applied to the case of games which evolve. By applying PONTRYAGIN maximum principle it is possible to derive a compatible optimisation theorem which constitutes a necessary condition. (author) [French] La premiere these traite de l'optimalisation compatible des systemes couples. Une theorie du jeu a deux joueurs et a somme non nulle est d'abord developpee. Ses conclusions sont etendues ensuite au jeu a un nombre fini quelconque de joueurs. Apres cette etude essentiellement statique, l'aspect dynamique du probleme est introduit dans les jeux evolutifs. L'application du principe du maximum de PONTRYAGIN permet d'enoncer un theoreme d'optimalite compatible qui constitue une condition necessaire. (auteur)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaozhe WANG
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The preliminary phase is significant during the whole design process of a large airplane because of its enormous potential in enhancing the overall performance. However, classical sequential designs can hardly adapt to modern airplanes, due to their repeated iterations, long periods, and massive computational burdens. Multidisciplinary analysis and optimization demonstrates the capability to tackle such complex design issues. In this paper, an integrated optimization method for the preliminary design of a large airplane is proposed, accounting for aerodynamics, structure, and stability. Aeroelastic responses are computed by a rapid three-dimensional flight load analysis method combining the high-order panel method and the structural elasticity correction. The flow field is determined by the viscous/inviscid iteration method, and the cruise stability is evaluated by the linear small-disturbance theory. Parametric optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm to seek the minimal weight of a simplified plate-beam wing structure in the cruise trim condition subject to aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and stability constraints, and the optimal wing geometry shape, front/rear spar positions, and structural sizes are obtained simultaneously. To reduce the computational burden of the static aeroelasticity analysis in the optimization process, the Kriging method is employed to predict aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices of different aerodynamic shapes. The multidisciplinary analyses guarantee computational accuracy and efficiency, and the integrated optimization considers the coupling effect sufficiently between different disciplines to improve the overall performance, avoiding the limitations of sequential approaches utilized currently. Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Integrated optimization, Multidisciplinary analysis, Large airplane, Preliminary design
Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Brown, Tom; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)
2013-05-15
Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is first demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be robust and convergent. It is then applied to the European power system in order to find its cost-optimal development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions until 2050.
Optimization of spring exchange coupled ferrites, studied by in situ neutron diffraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia
origins from the 4f orbitals which can contain up to 14 electrons. But since REM are both expensive and difficult to mine, a great demand has come for cheaper types of magnets with a similar magnetic performance. A candidate could be the transition metal oxides. Here the magnetic contribution origins from...... the magnetic energy product. For the exchange coupling to happen it is crucial to have the right ratio between the hard and the soft phase but also to control the size of the particles since exchange coupling is a very small range effect. In this study, nanoparticles of the spinel CoFe2O4 (hard magnet...
Pervushin, Konstantin; Ono, Akira; Fernández, César; Szyperski, Thomas; Kainosho, Masatsune; Wüthrich, Kurt
1998-01-01
This paper describes the NMR observation of 15N—15N and 1H—15N scalar couplings across the hydrogen bonds in Watson–Crick base pairs in a DNA duplex, hJNN and hJHN. These couplings represent new parameters of interest for both structural studies of DNA and theoretical investigations into the nature of the hydrogen bonds. Two dimensional [15N,1H]-transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) with a 15N-labeled 14-mer DNA duplex was used to measure hJNN, which is in the range 6–7 Hz, and the two-dimensional hJNN-correlation-[15N,1H]-TROSY experiment was used to correlate the chemical shifts of pairs of hydrogen bond-related 15N spins and to observe, for the first time, hJHN scalar couplings, with values in the range 2–3.6 Hz. TROSY-based studies of scalar couplings across hydrogen bonds should be applicable for large molecular sizes, including protein-bound nucleic acids. PMID:9826668
Tursina, Syamsidik, Kato, Shigeru
2017-10-01
In a long term, sea level rise is anticipated to give devastating effects on Banda Aceh, as one of the coastal cities in the northern tip of Sumatra. The growth of the population and buildings in the city has come to the stage where the coastal area is vulnerable to any coastal hazard. Some public facilities and settlements have been constructed and keep expanding in the future. According to TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite images, 7 mm/year the sea level has been risen between 1992 and 2015 in this area. It is estimated that in the next 100 years, there will be 700 mm additional sea level rise which will give a setback more over to a rather flat area around the coast. This research is aim at investigating the influence of sea level rise toward the tsunami inundation on the land area particularly the impacts on Banda Aceh city. Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) simulation numerically generated tsunami propagation. Topography and bathymetry data were collected from GEBCO and updated with the available nautical chart (DISHIDROS, JICA, and field measurements). Geological movement of the underwater fault was generated using Piatanesi and Lorito of 9.15 Mw 2004 multi-fault scenario. The inundation area produced by COMCOT revealed that the inundation area was expanded to several hundred meters from the shoreline. To investigate the impacts of tsunami wave on Banda Aceh, the inundation area were digitized and analyzed with Quantum GIS spatial tools. The Quantum GIS analyzed inundations area affected by the projected tsunami. It will give a new tsunami-prone coastal area map induced by sea level rise in 100 years.
Development of an inexact optimization model for coupled coal and power management in North China
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.; Huang, G.H.; Cai, Y.P.; Cheng, G.H.; Niu, Y.T.; An, K.
2009-01-01
In this study, an inexact coupled coal and power management (ICCPM) model was developed for planning coupled coal and power management systems through integrating chance-constrained programming (CCP), interval linear programming (ILP) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques. The ICCPM model can effectively handle uncertainties presented in terms of probability density functions and intervals. It can also facilitate dynamic analysis of capacity expansions, facility installation and coal inventory planning within a multi-period and multi-option context. Complexities in coupled coal and power management systems can be systematically reflected in this model, thus applicability of the modeling process would be highly enhanced. The developed ICCPM model was applied to a case of long-term coupled coal and power management systems planning in north China. Interval solutions associated with different risk levels of constraint violations have been obtained, which can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping identify desired policies. The generated results can also provide desired solutions for coal and power generation, capacity initiation and expansion, and coal blending with a minimized system cost, a maximized system reliability and a maximized coal transportation security. Tradeoffs between system costs and constraint-violation risks can also be tackled.
Optimization of spring exchange coupled ferrites, studied by in situ neutron diffraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia
have a spin it will also be possible to measure a magnetic signal and investigate the exchange-coupling. After the reduction the samples was furthermore investigated using powder x-ray diffraction and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). To understand the reaction mechanism, a series of experiments...
Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.
2011-01-01
Purpose - In order to provide highly effective yet relatively inexpensive strategies for the remediation of recalcitrant organic contaminants, research has focused on in situ treatment technologies. Recent investigation has shown that coupling two common treatments-in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)
Shorikov, A. F.; Butsenko, E. V.
2017-10-01
This paper discusses the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. On the basis of network modeling proposed a new economic and mathematical model and a method for solving the problem of multicriterial adaptive optimization the control of investment projects in the presence of several technologies. Network economic and mathematical modeling allows you to determine the optimal time and calendar schedule for the implementation of the investment project and serves as an instrument to increase the economic potential and competitiveness of the enterprise. On a meaningful practical example, the processes of forming network models are shown, including the definition of the sequence of actions of a particular investment projecting process, the network-based work schedules are constructed. The calculation of the parameters of network models is carried out. Optimal (critical) paths have been formed and the optimal time for implementing the chosen technologies of the investment project has been calculated. It also shows the selection of the optimal technology from a set of possible technologies for project implementation, taking into account the time and cost of the work. The proposed model and method for solving the problem of managing investment projects can serve as a basis for the development, creation and application of appropriate computer information systems to support the adoption of managerial decisions by business people.
Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.
2007-11-01
Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.
Development and optimization of a high temperature coupling system thermoanalyzer/mass spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jagdfeld, H.J.
1983-11-01
The development of a high temperature coupling system was accomplished to carry out thermodynamic investigations during glass melting to solidify highly radioactive fission products into glass at a temperature up to 1200 0 C. The actual problem consisted of the fact that the gas species evaporating from the melter have to pass without condensation or without change of their composition a multistage pressure reducing system to enter the analysator unit of the mass spectrometer in the high vacuum. With the systems, offered at present, this is only possible up to approximately 450 0 C. The development of a new high temperature coupling included investigations of the gas dynamics, raw materials and thermic behaviour. (orig./EF) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuang Lin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Kernel Locality Preserving Projection (KLPP algorithm can effectively preserve the neighborhood structure of the database using the kernel trick. We have known that supervised KLPP (SKLPP can preserve within-class geometric structures by using label information. However, the conventional SKLPP algorithm endures the kernel selection which has significant impact on the performances of SKLPP. In order to overcome this limitation, a method named supervised kernel optimized LPP (SKOLPP is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the class separability in kernel learning. The proposed method maps the data from the original space to a higher dimensional kernel space using a data-dependent kernel. The adaptive parameters of the data-dependent kernel are automatically calculated through optimizing an objective function. Consequently, the nonlinear features extracted by SKOLPP have larger discriminative ability compared with SKLPP and are more adaptive to the input data. Experimental results on ORL, Yale, AR, and Palmprint databases showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A survey of research projects in maintenance optimization for Electricite de France power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquot, J.P.
1996-01-01
Six years ago, Electricite de France launched a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot project to optimize preventive maintenance for its nuclear power plants. After a feasibility study, a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) method was standardized. It is now applied on a large scale to the 50 EDF nuclear units. A RCM workstation based on this standardized method has been developed and is now used in each plant. In the next step, the author will consider whether a risk based approach can be included in this RCM process in order to analyze critical passive components such as pipes and supports. Considering the potential advantages of these optimization techniques, a dedicated process has been also developed for maintenance of future plants, gas turbines, or nuclear units. For these future plants, a Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) will be added to the RCM process to globally evaluate availability, safety and maintenance costs. This paper will present a survey of these different developments of methods and tools
Lamy, Julian V.
Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing
Optimization of manufacturing of emitter-coupled logic to decrease surface of chip
Pankratov, E. L.; Bulaeva, E. A.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we introduce an approach to increase integration rate of bipolar heterotransistors. The approach based on doping of required parts of heterostructure by diffusion or implantation and optimization of annealing of dopant and/or radiation defects. As simplification of the considered approach to increase integration rate we consider possibility to used common collector.
The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples as a Multi-Dimensional Screening Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel
problem. We prove that, under regularity and separability assumptions for utility functions and for a wide class of social welfare functions, optimal tax schemes display negative jointness such that the tax rate on one person decreases in the earnings of the spouse. We also show that the tax...
Coupled adjoint aerostructural wing optimization using quasi-three-dimensional aerodynamic analysis
Elham, A.; van Tooren, M.J.L.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a method for wing aerostructural analysis and optimization, which needs much lower computational costs, while computes the wing drag and structural deformation with a level of accuracy comparable to the higher fidelity CFD and FEM tools. A quasi-threedimensional aerodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kranti, Abhinav; Hao Ying; Armstrong, G Alastair
2008-01-01
In this paper, by investigating the influence of source/drain extension region engineering (also known as gate–source/drain underlap) in nanoscale planar double gate (DG) SOI MOSFETs, we offer new insights into the design of future nanoscale gate-underlap DG devices to achieve ITRS projections for high performance (HP), low standby power (LSTP) and low operating power (LOP) logic technologies. The impact of high-κ gate dielectric, silicon film thickness, together with parameters associated with the lateral source/drain doping profile, is investigated in detail. The results show that spacer width along with lateral straggle can not only effectively control short-channel effects, thus presenting low off-current in a gate underlap device, but can also be optimized to achieve lower intrinsic delay and higher on–off current ratio (I on /I off ). Based on the investigation of on-current (I on ), off-current (I off ), I on /I off , intrinsic delay (τ), energy delay product and static power dissipation, we present design guidelines to select key device parameters to achieve ITRS projections. Using nominal gate lengths for different technologies, as recommended from ITRS specification, optimally designed gate-underlap DG MOSFETs with a spacer-to-straggle (s/σ) ratio of 2.3 for HP/LOP and 3.2 for LSTP logic technologies will meet ITRS projection. However, a relatively narrow range of lateral straggle lying between 7 to 8 nm is recommended. A sensitivity analysis of intrinsic delay, on-current and off-current to important parameters allows a comparative analysis of the various design options and shows that gate workfunction appears to be the most crucial parameter in the design of DG devices for all three technologies. The impact of back gate misalignment on I on , I off and τ is also investigated for optimized underlap devices
Study on optimized decision-making model of offshore wind power projects investment
Zhao, Tian; Yang, Shangdong; Gao, Guowei; Ma, Li
2018-02-01
China’s offshore wind energy is of great potential and plays an important role in promoting China’s energy structure adjustment. However, the current development of offshore wind power in China is inadequate, and is much less developed than that of onshore wind power. On the basis of considering all kinds of risks faced by offshore wind power development, an optimized model of offshore wind power investment decision is established in this paper by proposing the risk-benefit assessment method. To prove the practicability of this method in improving the selection of wind power projects, python programming is used to simulate the investment analysis of a large number of projects. Therefore, the paper is dedicated to provide decision-making support for the sound development of offshore wind power industry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Hu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The strict operational condition of driving motors for vehicles propels the development of more complicated configurations in pure electric vehicles (PEVs. Multi-power-source powertrain configurations are one of the efficient technologies to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of driving motors. However, most of the existing studies are predominantly focused on optimal designs of powertrains and power distribution between the engine and motor of hybrid electric vehicles, which are not appropriate for PEVs. This paper proposes a novel dual-motor coupling-propulsion powertrain system that improves the dynamic and economic performance of the powertrain system in PEVs. The proposed powertrain system can realize both the single-motor driving mode and dual-motor coupling driving mode. The driving modes are divided and a power distribution strategy for the different driving modes based on an optimal system efficiency rule is employed, which enhances the performance of the proposed system. Further, a mode-switching strategy that ensures driving comfort by preventing jerk during mode switching is incorporated into the system. The results of comparative evaluations that were conducted using a dual-motor electric vehicle model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, indicate that the mileage and dynamic performance of the proposed powertrain system are significantly better than those of the traditional single-motor powertrain system.
Rossi, Stefano; Gazzola, Enrico; Capaldo, Pietro; Borile, Giulia; Romanato, Filippo
2018-05-18
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors have the advantage of being label-free, enzyme-free and real-time. However, their spreading in multidisciplinary research is still mostly limited to prism-coupled devices. Plasmonic gratings, combined with a simple and cost-effective instrumentation, have been poorly developed compared to prism-coupled system mainly due to their lower sensitivity. Here we describe the optimization and signal enhancement of a sensing platform based on phase-interrogation method, which entails the exploitation of a nanostructured sensor. This technique is particularly suitable for integration of the plasmonic sensor in a lab-on-a-chip platform and can be used in a microfluidic chamber to ease the sensing procedures and limit the injected volume. The careful optimization of most suitable experimental parameters by numerical simulations leads to a 30⁻50% enhancement of SPR response, opening new possibilities for applications in the biomedical research field while maintaining the ease and versatility of the configuration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubcova, Lenka; Solin, Pavel; Hansen, Glen; Park, HyeongKae
2011-01-01
Multiphysics solution challenges are legion within the field of nuclear reactor design and analysis. One major issue concerns the coupling between heat and neutron flow (neutronics) within the reactor assembly. These phenomena are usually very tightly interdependent, as large amounts of heat are quickly produced with an increase in fission events within the fuel, which raises the temperature that affects the neutron cross section of the fuel. Furthermore, there typically is a large diversity of time and spatial scales between mathematical models of heat and neutronics. Indeed, the different spatial resolution requirements often lead to the use of very different meshes for the two phenomena. As the equations are coupled, one must take care in exchanging solution data between them, or significant error can be introduced into the coupled problem. We propose a novel approach to the discretization of the coupled problem on different meshes based on an adaptive multimesh higher-order finite element method (hp-FEM), and compare it to popular interpolation and projection methods. We show that the multimesh hp-FEM method is significantly more accurate than the interpolation and projection approaches considered in this study.
Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Bhat, R. B.
1979-01-01
A finite element program is linked with a general purpose optimization program in a 'programing system' which includes user supplied codes that contain problem dependent formulations of the design variables, objective function and constraints. The result is a system adaptable to a wide spectrum of structural optimization problems. In a sample of numerical examples, the design variables are the cross-sectional dimensions and the parameters of overall shape geometry, constraints are applied to stresses, displacements, buckling and vibration characteristics, and structural mass is the objective function. Thin-walled, built-up structures and frameworks are included in the sample. Details of the system organization and characteristics of the component programs are given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei
2014-01-01
The high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system can make full use of heat released from the condenser of heat pump for DW regeneration without additional heat. In this study, DW operation in the HTHP&DW system was investigated experimentally, and the optimization analysis...... of HTHP&DW system was carried out. The performance of DW had influence on the dehumidification (evaluated by dehumidification and regeneration effectiveness) and cooling load (evaluated by thermal and adiabatic effectiveness). The results show that the enthalpy increase occurred in all the experiments...... of the system. When the regeneration temperature is 63°C, the maximal dehumidification effectiveness is 35.4% and the satisfied adiabatic effectiveness is 88%, which contributes to the optimal balance between dehumidification and cooling. © 2014 Tianjin University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg....
Optimization of a quarter-car suspension model coupled with the driver biomechanical effects
Kuznetsov, Alexey; Mammadov, Musa; Sultan, Ibrahim; Hajilarov, Eldar
2011-06-01
In this paper a Human-Vehicle-Road (HVR) model, comprising a quarter-car and a biomechanical representation of the driver, is employed for the analysis. Differential equations are provided to describe the motions of various masses under the influence of a harmonic road excitation. These equations are, subsequently, solved to obtain a closed form mathematical expression for the steady-state vertical acceleration measurable at the vehicle-human interface. The solution makes it possible to find optimal parameters for the vehicle suspension system with respect to a specified ride comfort level. The quantitative definition given in the ISO 2631 standard for the ride comfort level is adopted in this paper for the optimization procedure. Numerical examples, based on actually measured road profiles, are presented to prove the validity of the proposed approach and its suitability for the problem at hand.
Bilal, Bisma; Ahmed, Suhaib; Kakkar, Vipan
2018-02-01
The challenges which the CMOS technology is facing toward the end of the technology roadmap calls for an investigation of various logical and technological solutions to CMOS at the nano scale. Two such paradigms which are considered in this paper are the reversible logic and the quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) nanotechnology. Firstly, a new 3 × 3 reversible and universal gate, RG-QCA, is proposed and implemented in QCA technology using conventional 3-input majority voter based logic. Further the gate is optimized by using explicit interaction of cells and this optimized gate is then used to design an optimized modular full adder in QCA. Another configuration of RG-QCA gate, CRG-QCA, is then proposed which is a 4 × 4 gate and includes the fault tolerant characteristics and parity preserving nature. The proposed CRG-QCA gate is then tested to design a fault tolerant full adder circuit. Extensive comparisons of gate and adder circuits are drawn with the existing literature and it is envisaged that our proposed designs perform better and are cost efficient in QCA technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degroote, M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Henderson, T. M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Zhao, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Dukelsky, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Scuseria, G. E. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
2018-01-03
We present a similarity transformation theory based on a polynomial form of a particle-hole pair excitation operator. In the weakly correlated limit, this polynomial becomes an exponential, leading to coupled cluster doubles. In the opposite strongly correlated limit, the polynomial becomes an extended Bessel expansion and yields the projected BCS wavefunction. In between, we interpolate using a single parameter. The e ective Hamiltonian is non-hermitian and this Polynomial Similarity Transformation Theory follows the philosophy of traditional coupled cluster, left projecting the transformed Hamiltonian onto subspaces of the Hilbert space in which the wave function variance is forced to be zero. Similarly, the interpolation parameter is obtained through minimizing the next residual in the projective hierarchy. We rationalize and demonstrate how and why coupled cluster doubles is ill suited to the strongly correlated limit whereas the Bessel expansion remains well behaved. The model provides accurate wave functions with energy errors that in its best variant are smaller than 1% across all interaction stengths. The numerical cost is polynomial in system size and the theory can be straightforwardly applied to any realistic Hamiltonian.
A Gas–Solid–Liquid Coupling Model of Coal Seams and the Optimization of Gas Drainage Boreholes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuexia Chen
2018-03-01
Full Text Available For a gas–solid–liquid coupling model of coal seams, previous permeability models basically supposed uniaxial strains as the boundary condition for coal reservoirs without considering the deformation caused by changes in humidity. The permeability model varies under different boundary conditions. According to the true triaxial stress state of coal reservoirs, a permeability model considering the effective stress, sorption and desorption, and wet strain was established. Based on the permeability model, the continuity equation of gas and water and the stress field equation were coupled. Then, the model was incorporated in the COMSOL suite to simulate gas drainage from boreholes in floor roadways passing through seams in a coal mine. By comparing with the measured gas flow on site, the model was verified as being reliable. Moreover, the spacing and layout shape of boreholes in floor roadways were simulated. To achieve the aim of eliminating regional outburst within 180 days and decreasing the number of boreholes so as to reduce the cost, the spacing and shape of boreholes were optimized. When the superimposed effect of the boreholes was not considered, the optimal spacing of boreholes was 3 r; if the superimposed effect was taken into account, the spacing could be set to within 3 r ≤ L ≤ R, where r and R represent the effective gas drainage radius and the influence radius of gas drainage, respectively. The borehole spacing could be appropriately increased when the boreholes were arranged in rhomboidal form. To achieve the same range of outburst elimination, the rhomboidal layout can decrease the number of boreholes to reduce cost, thus realizing the objective of this optimization process.
Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Saint-Eve, Frédéric; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel
2017-02-01
This paper presents results of experiments aimed to verify a formula able to compute duty cycle in the case of pulse width modulation control for a DC-DC converter designed and realized in laboratory. This converter, called Magnetically Coupled Boost (MCB) is sized to step up only one photovoltaic module voltage to supply directly grid inverters. Duty cycle formula will be checked in a first time by identifying internal parameter, auto-transformer ratio, and in a second time by checking stability of operating point on the side of photovoltaic module. Thinking on nature of generator source and load connected to converter leads to imagine additional experiments to decide if auto-transformer ratio parameter could be used with fixed value or on the contrary with adaptive value. Effects of load variations on converter behavior or impact of possible shading on photovoltaic module are also mentioned, with aim to design robust control laws, in the case of parallel association, designed to compensate unwanted effects due to output voltage coupling.
Kumar, S.; Santanello, J. A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Harrison, K.
2011-12-01
Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface temperature and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the impact of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry (2006) and wet (2007) conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through the use of a new optimization and uncertainty module in NASA's Land Information System (LIS-OPT), whereby parameter sets are calibrated in the Noah land surface model and classified according to the land cover and soil type mapping of the observations and the full domain. The impact of the calibrated parameters on the a) spinup of land surface states used as initial conditions, and b) heat and moisture fluxes of the coupled (LIS-WRF) simulations are then assessed in terms of ambient weather, PBL budgets, and precipitation along with L-A coupling diagnostics. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of calibration (dry, wet, normal) is investigated. Finally, tradeoffs of computational tractability and scientific validity (e.g.,. relating to the representation of the spatial dependence of parameters) and the feasibility of calibrating to multiple observational datasets are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Wang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Multiple-factor analysis and optimization play a critical role in the the ability to maximizethe stimulated reservoir volume (SRV and the success of economic shale gas production. In this paper, taking the typical continental naturally fractured silty laminae shale in China as anexample, response surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize multiple hydraulic fracturing parameters to maximize the stimulated area in combination with numerical modeling based on the coupled flow-stress-damage (FSD approach. This paper demonstrates hydraulic fracturing effectiveness by defining two indicesnamelythe stimulated reservoir area (SRA and stimulated silty laminae area (SLA. Seven uncertain parameters, such as laminae thickness, spacing, dip angle, cohesion, internal friction angle (IFA, in situ stress difference (SD, and an operational parameter-injection rate (IR with a reasonable range based on silty Laminae Shale, Southeastern Ordos Basin, are used to fit a response of SRA and SLA as the objective function, and finally identity the optimum design under the parameters based on simultaneously maximizingSRA and SLA. In addition, asensitivity analysis of the influential factors is conducted for SRA and SLA. The aim of the study is to improve the artificial ability to control the fracturing network by means of multi-parameteroptimization. This work promises to provide insights into the effective exploitation of unconventional shale gas reservoirs via optimization of the fracturing design for continental shale, Southeastern Ordos Basin, China.
Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Sullivan, Stephen P; Riley, Erin; Johnson, Brent A; Mitchell, Jason; McFarland, Deborah; Sullivan, Patrick S
2017-05-30
HIV prevalence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, yet the majority of research has focused on MSM as individuals, not as dyads, and has discussed HIV risks primarily in the context of casual sex. Nexus is an online prevention program that combines home-based HIV testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). It allows partners in dyadic MSM relationships to receive HIV testing and care in the comfort of their designated residence, via video-based chat. By using video-based technologies (eg, VSee video chat), male couples receive counseling and support from a remote online counselor, while testing for HIV at home. This randomized control trial (RCT) aims to examine the effects of video-based counseling combined with home-based HIV testing on couples' management of HIV risk, formation and adherence to explicit sexual agreements, and sexual risk-taking. The research implements a prospective RCT of 400 online-recruited male couples: 200 self-reported concordant-negative couples and 200 self-reported discordant couples. Couples in the control arm will receive one or two home-based HIV self-testing kits and will be asked to report their results via the study's website. Couples in the experimental arm will receive one or two home-based HIV self-testing kits and will conduct these tests together under the facilitation of a remotely located counselor during a prescheduled VSee-based video CHTC session. Study assessments are taken at baseline, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up sessions. Project Nexus was launched in April 2016 and is ongoing. To date, 219 eligible couples have been enrolled and randomized. Combining home-based HIV testing with video-based counseling creates an opportunity to expand CHTC to male couples who (1) live outside metro areas, (2) live in rural areas without access to testing services or LGBTQ resources, or (3) feel that current clinic-based testing is not for them (eg, due to fears of
Optimal coupling of heat and electricity systems: A stochastic hierarchical approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitridati, Lesia Marie-Jeanne Mariane; Pinson, Pierre
2016-01-01
modelled using a finite set of scenarios. This model takes advantage of existing market structures and provides a decision-making tool for heat system operators. The proposed model is implemented in a case study and results are discussed to show the benefits and applicability of this approach....... penetration of CHPs and wind. The objective of this optimization problem is to minimize the heat production cost, subject to constraints describing day-ahead electricity market clearing scenarios. Uncertainties concerning wind power production, electricity demand and rival participants offers are efficiently...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.
1999-01-01
when the nebulizer gas flow rate was optimized for each solute. The influences of sample uptake rate, nebulizer flow rate and rf power were examined in multivariate experiments. The nebulizer gas flow rate and rf power were found to be interdependent, but the sample pump flow rate was independent......, ethanol, propanol, butanol, glycerol, acetonitrile and acetic acid) were examined for their sensitivity enhancement effect. Enhancement factors up to six were obtained and were dependent on the nebulizer gas flow and rf power. There was no important difference in the enhancement effects of these solutes...
Optimal sampling plan for clean development mechanism lighting projects with lamp population decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Xianming; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A metering cost minimisation model is built with the lamp population decay to optimise CDM lighting projects sampling plan. • The model minimises the total metering cost and optimise the annual sample size during the crediting period. • The required 90/10 criterion sampling accuracy is satisfied for each CDM monitoring report. - Abstract: This paper proposes a metering cost minimisation model that minimises metering cost under the constraints of sampling accuracy requirement for clean development mechanism (CDM) energy efficiency (EE) lighting project. Usually small scale (SSC) CDM EE lighting projects expect a crediting period of 10 years given that the lighting population will decay as time goes by. The SSC CDM sampling guideline requires that the monitored key parameters for the carbon emission reduction quantification must satisfy the sampling accuracy of 90% confidence and 10% precision, known as the 90/10 criterion. For the existing registered CDM lighting projects, sample sizes are either decided by professional judgment or by rule-of-thumb without considering any optimisation. Lighting samples are randomly selected and their energy consumptions are monitored continuously by power meters. In this study, the sampling size determination problem is formulated as a metering cost minimisation model by incorporating a linear lighting decay model as given by the CDM guideline AMS-II.J. The 90/10 criterion is formulated as constraints to the metering cost minimisation problem. Optimal solutions to the problem minimise the metering cost whilst satisfying the 90/10 criterion for each reporting period. The proposed metering cost minimisation model is applicable to other CDM lighting projects with different population decay characteristics as well
Manzini, E.; Karpechko, A.Yu.; Anstey, J.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Baldwin, M.P.; Black, R.X.; Cagnazzo, C.; Calvo, N.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Christiansen, B.;
2014-01-01
Future changes in the stratospheric circulation could have an important impact on northern winter tropospheric climate change, given that sea level pressure (SLP) responds not only to tropospheric circulation variations but also to vertically coherent variations in troposphere-stratosphere circulation. Here we assess northern winter stratospheric change and its potential to influence surface climate change in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-Phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble. In the stratosphere at high latitudes, an easterly change in zonally averaged zonal wind is found for the majority of the CMIP5 models, under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario. Comparable results are also found in the 1% CO2 increase per year projections, indicating that the stratospheric easterly change is common feature in future climate projections. This stratospheric wind change, however, shows a significant spread among the models. By using linear regression, we quantify the impact of tropical upper troposphere warming, polar amplification, and the stratospheric wind change on SLP. We find that the intermodel spread in stratospheric wind change contributes substantially to the intermodel spread in Arctic SLP change. The role of the stratosphere in determining part of the spread in SLP change is supported by the fact that the SLP change lags the stratospheric zonally averaged wind change. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the importance of simulating the coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere, to narrow the uncertainty in the future projection of tropospheric circulation changes.
An improved hybrid topology optimization approach coupling simulated annealing and SIMP (SA-SIMP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Lopez, N P; Sanchez-Silva, M; Medaglia, A L; Chateauneuf, A
2010-01-01
The Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) methodology has been used extensively due to its versatility and ease of implementation. However, one of its main drawbacks is that resulting topologies exhibit areas of intermediate densities which lack any physical meaning. This paper presents a hybrid methodology which couples simulated annealing and SIMP (SA-SIMP) in order to achieve solutions which are stiffer and predominantly black and white. Under a look-ahead strategy, the algorithm gradually fixes or removes those elements whose density resulting from SIMP is intermediate. Different strategies for selecting and fixing the fractional elements are examined using benchmark examples, which show that topologies resulting from SA-SIMP are more rigid than SIMP and predominantly black and white.
A planning support system to optimize approval of private housing development projects
Hussnain, M. Q.; Wakil, K.; Waheed, A.; Tahir, A.
2016-06-01
Out of 182 million population of Pakistan, 38% reside in urban areas having an average growth rate of 1.6%, raising the urban housing demand significantly. Poor state response to fulfil the housing needs has resulted in a mushroom growth of private housing schemes (PHS) over the years. Consequently, only in five major cities of Punjab, there are 383 legal and 150 illegal private housing development projects against 120 public sector housing schemes. A major factor behind the cancerous growth of unapproved PHS is the prolonged and delayed approval process in concerned approval authorities requiring 13 months on average. Currently, manual and paper-based approaches are used for vetting and for granting the permission which is highly subjective and non-transparent. This study aims to design a flexible planning support system (PSS) to optimize the vetting process of PHS projects under any development authority in Pakistan by reducing time and cost required for site and documents investigations. Relying on the review of regulatory documents and interviews with professional planners and land developers, this study describes the structure of a PSS developed using open- source geo-spatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, PHP, and PostgreSQL. It highlights the development of a Knowledge Module (based on regulatory documents) containing equations related to scheme type, size (area), location, access road, components of layout plan, planning standards and other related approval checks. Furthermore, it presents the architecture of the database module and system data requirements categorized as base datasets (built-in part of PSS) and input datasets (related to the housing project under approval). It is practically demonstrated that developing a customized PSS to optimize PHS approval process in Pakistan is achievable with geospatial technology. With the provision of such a system, the approval process for private housing schemes not only becomes quicker and user-friendly but also
Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Franchini, Sebastián
2012-10-01
In recent years, there has been continuing interest in the participation of university research groups in space technology studies by means of their own microsatellites. The involvement in such projects has some inherent challenges, such as limited budget and facilities. Also, due to the fact that the main objective of these projects is for educational purposes, usually there are uncertainties regarding their in orbit mission and scientific payloads at the early phases of the project. On the other hand, there are predetermined limitations for their mass and volume budgets owing to the fact that most of them are launched as an auxiliary payload in which the launch cost is reduced considerably. The satellite structure subsystem is the one which is most affected by the launcher constraints. This can affect different aspects, including dimensions, strength and frequency requirements. In this paper, the main focus is on developing a structural design sizing tool containing not only the primary structures properties as variables but also the system level variables such as payload mass budget and satellite total mass and dimensions. This approach enables the design team to obtain better insight into the design in an extended design envelope. The structural design sizing tool is based on analytical structural design formulas and appropriate assumptions including both static and dynamic models of the satellite. Finally, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) multiobjective optimization is applied to the design space. The result is a Pareto-optimal based on two objectives, minimum satellite total mass and maximum payload mass budget, which gives a useful insight to the design team at the early phases of the design.
Zhao, Chao; Cao, Zhibo; Fraser, John; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2017-01-01
Enriching nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is commonly practiced for various applications. Despite recent advances in microfluidic technologies, a general method to concentrate nanoparticles in a microfluidic channel in a label free and continuous flow fashion is not yet available, due to strong Brownian motion on the nanoscale. Recent research of thermophoresis indicates that thermophoretic force can overcome the Brownian force to direct nanoparticle movement. Coupling thermophoresis with natural convection on the microscale has been shown to induce significant enrichment of biomolecules in a thermal diffusion column. However, the column operates in a batch process, and the concentrated samples are inconvenient to retrieve. We have recently designed a microfluidic device that combines a helical fluid motion and simple one-dimensional temperature gradient to achieve effective nanoparticle focusing in a continuous flow. The helical convection is introduced by microgrooves patterned on the channel floor, which directly controls the focusing speed and power. Here, COMSOL simulations are conducted to study how the device geometry and flow rate influence transport and subsequent nanoparticle focusing, with a constant temperature gradient. The results demonstrate a complex dependence of nanoparticle accumulation on the microgroove tilting angle, depth, and spacing, as well as channel width and flow rate. Further dimensional analyses reveal that the ratio between particle velocities induced by thermophoretic and fluid inertial forces governs the particle concentration factor, with a maximum concentration at a ratio of approximately one. This simple relationship provides fundamental insights about nanoparticle transport in coupled flow and thermal fields. The study also offers a useful guideline to the design and operation of nanoparticle concentrators based on combining engineered helical fluid motion subject to phoretic fields.
Sensitivity Analyses for Cross-Coupled Parameters in Automotive Powertrain Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pongpun Othaganont
2014-06-01
Full Text Available When vehicle manufacturers are developing new hybrid and electric vehicles, modeling and simulation are frequently used to predict the performance of the new vehicles from an early stage in the product lifecycle. Typically, models are used to predict the range, performance and energy consumption of their future planned production vehicle; they also allow the designer to optimize a vehicle’s configuration. Another use for the models is in performing sensitivity analysis, which helps us understand which parameters have the most influence on model predictions and real-world behaviors. There are various techniques for sensitivity analysis, some are numerical, but the greatest insights are obtained analytically with sensitivity defined in terms of partial derivatives. Existing methods in the literature give us a useful, quantified measure of parameter sensitivity, a first-order effect, but they do not consider second-order effects. Second-order effects could give us additional insights: for example, a first order analysis might tell us that a limiting factor is the efficiency of the vehicle’s prime-mover; our new second order analysis will tell us how quickly the efficiency of the powertrain will become of greater significance. In this paper, we develop a method based on formal optimization mathematics for rapid second-order sensitivity analyses and illustrate these through a case study on a C-segment electric vehicle.
The use of surrogates for an optimal management of coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystems
Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Brettschneider, M.; Schmitz, G. H.; Lennartz, F.
2012-04-01
For ensuring an optimal sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments, we develop a new simulation based integrated water management system. It aims at achieving best possible solutions for groundwater withdrawals for agricultural and municipal water use including saline water management together with a substantial increase of the water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture. To achieve a robust and fast operation of the management system regarding water quality and water quantity we develop appropriate surrogate models by combining physically based process modelling with methods of artificial intelligence. Thereby we use an artificial neural network for modelling the aquifer response, inclusive the seawater interface, which was trained on a scenario database generated by a numerical density depended groundwater flow model. For simulating the behaviour of high productive agricultural farms crop water production functions are generated by means of soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transport (SVAT)-models, adapted to the regional climate conditions, and a novel evolutionary optimisation algorithm for optimal irrigation scheduling and control. We apply both surrogates exemplarily within a simulation based optimisation environment using the characteristics of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of different irrigation practices, cropping pattern and resulting abstraction scenarios. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability a multi-criterial optimisation is performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nijhuis, A; Van Lanen, E P A; Rolando, G
2012-01-01
by the distinct difference in mechanical response of the cable during axial contraction for short and long pitches. For short pitches periodic bending in different directions with relatively short wavelength is imposed because of a lack of sufficient lateral restraint of radial pressure. This can lead to high bending strain and eventually buckling. Whereas for cables with long twist pitches, the strands are only able to react as coherent bundles, being tightly supported by the surrounding strands, providing sufficient lateral restraint of radial pressure in combination with enough slippage to avoid single strand bending along detrimental short wavelengths. Experimental evidence of good performance was already provided with the test of the long pitch TFPRO2-OST2, which is still until today, the best ITER-type cable to strand performance ever without any cyclic load (electromagnetic and thermal contraction) degradation. For reduction of the coupling loss, specific choices of the cabling twist sequence are needed to minimize the area of linked strands and bundles that are coupled and form loops with the applied changing magnetic field, instead of simply avoiding longer pitches. In addition we recommend increasing the wrap coverage of the CS conductor from 50% to at least 70%. A larger wrap coverage fraction enhances the overall strand bundle lateral restraint. The long pitch design seems the best solution to optimize the ITER CS conductor within the given restrictions of the present coil design envelope, only allowing marginal changes. The models predict significant improvement against strain sensitivity and substantial decrease of the AC coupling loss in Nb 3 Sn CICCs, but also for NbTi CICCs minimization of the coupling loss can obviously be achieved. Although the success of long pitches to transverse load degradation was already demonstrated, the prediction of the elegant innovative combination with low coupling loss needs to be validated by a short sample test.
Camera-pose estimation via projective Newton optimization on the manifold.
Sarkis, Michel; Diepold, Klaus
2012-04-01
Determining the pose of a moving camera is an important task in computer vision. In this paper, we derive a projective Newton algorithm on the manifold to refine the pose estimate of a camera. The main idea is to benefit from the fact that the 3-D rigid motion is described by the special Euclidean group, which is a Riemannian manifold. The latter is equipped with a tangent space defined by the corresponding Lie algebra. This enables us to compute the optimization direction, i.e., the gradient and the Hessian, at each iteration of the projective Newton scheme on the tangent space of the manifold. Then, the motion is updated by projecting back the variables on the manifold itself. We also derive another version of the algorithm that employs homeomorphic parameterization to the special Euclidean group. We test the algorithm on several simulated and real image data sets. Compared with the standard Newton minimization scheme, we are now able to obtain the full numerical formula of the Hessian with a 60% decrease in computational complexity. Compared with Levenberg-Marquardt, the results obtained are more accurate while having a rather similar complexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingfeng Ju
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin’s discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations.
Yan, Tianhong; Xu, Xinsheng; Han, Jianqiang; Lin, Rongming; Ju, Bingfeng; Li, Qing
2011-01-01
In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT) actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin's discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations.
An Optimal Enhanced Kalman Filter for a ZUPT-Aided Pedestrian Positioning Coupling Model.
Fan, Qigao; Zhang, Hai; Sun, Yan; Zhu, Yixin; Zhuang, Xiangpeng; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Pengsong
2018-05-02
Aimed at overcoming the problems of cumulative errors and low positioning accuracy in single Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), an Optimal Enhanced Kalman Filter (OEKF) is proposed in this paper to achieve accurate positioning of pedestrians within an enclosed environment. Firstly, the errors of the inertial sensors are analyzed, modeled, and reconstructed. Secondly, the cumulative errors in attitude and velocity are corrected using the attitude fusion filtering algorithm and Zero Velocity Update algorithm (ZUPT), respectively. Then, the OEKF algorithm is described in detail. Finally, a pedestrian indoor positioning experimental platform is established to verify the performance of the proposed positioning system. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the pedestrian indoor positioning system can reach 0.243 m, giving it a high practical value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Tsang, C.F. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Div.; Mayor, J.C. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain); Kautzky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)
2005-02-15
DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing, L.; Stephansson, O.; Kautzky, F.
2005-02-01
DECOVALEX is an international consortium of governmental agencies associated with the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a number of countries. The consortium's mission is the DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against EXperiments. Hence the acronym/name DECOVALEX. Currently, agencies from Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States are in DECOVALEX. Emplacement of nuclear waste in a repository in geologic media causes a number of physical processes to be intensified in the surrounding rock mass due to the decay heat from the waste. The four main processes of concern are thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical. Interactions or coupling between these heat-driven processes must be taken into account in modeling the performance of the repository for such modeling to be meaningful and reliable. DECOVALEX III is organized around four tasks. The FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers EXperiment) in situ experiment being conducted at the Grimsel site in Switzerland is to be simulated and analyzed in Task 1. Task 2, centered around the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, has several sub-tasks (Task 2A, Task 2B, Task 2C and Task 2D) to investigate a number of the coupled processes in the DST. Task 3 studies three benchmark problems: a) the effects of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) coupling on the performance of the near-field of a nuclear waste repository (BMT1); b) the effect of upscaling THM processes on the results of performance assessment (BMT2); and c) the effect of glaciation on rock mass behavior (BMT3). Task 4 is on the direct application of THM coupled process modeling in the performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. This executive summary presents the motivation, structure, objectives, approaches, and the highlights of the main achievements and outstanding issues of the tasks studied in the DECOVALEX III project. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golden, Kenneth I.
2002-01-01
The main research accomplishments/findings of the project were the following: (1) Publication of an in-depth review article in Physics of Plasmas on the quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) in strongly coupled plasma physics and its application to a variety of Coulomb systems: the model one-component plasma in three and two dimensions, binary ionic mixtures, charged particle bilayers, and laboratory dusty plasmas. (2) In the strongly coupled Coulomb liquid phase, the physical basis of the QLCA, namely, the caging of particles trapped in slowly fluctuating local potential minima, is supported by molecular dynamics simulation of the classical three-dimensional one-component plasma. (3) The QLCA theory, when applied to the analysis of the collective modes in strongly coupled charged particle bilayers, predicts the existence of a remarkable long-wavelength energy gap in the out-of-phase excitation spectrum. More recent theoretical calculations based on the three principal frequency-moment sum rules reveal that the gap persists for arbitrary coupling strengths and over the entire classical to quantum domain all the way down to zero temperature. The existence of the energy gap has now been confirmed in a molecular dynamics simulation of the charged particle bilayer. (4) New compressibility and third-frequency-moment sum rules for multilayer plasmas were formulated and applied to the analysis of the dynamical structure function of charged particle bilayers and superlattices. (5) An equivalent of the Debye-Huckel weak coupling equilibrium theory for classical charged particle bilayer and superlattice plasmas was formulated. (6) The quadratic fluctuation-dissipation theorem (QFDT) for layered classical plasmas was formulated. (7) The QFDT was applied to a powerful kinetic theory-based description of the density-density response function and long-wavelength plasma mode behavior in strongly coupled two-dimensional Coulomb fluids in the weakly degenerate quantum domain
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Ma, Guoyuan; Li, Xianguo
2007-01-01
The heat pump system with economizer coupled with scroll compressor can extend effectively its operating ranges and provide a technological method to enable the heat pump to run steadily and efficiently in severe weather conditions. The intermediate pressure, namely the working pressure of the refrigerant in the economizer, is an essential design parameter and affects crucially the performances of the heat pump system. According to the exergetic model setup for the heat pump system based on the second law of thermodynamics, the influences of the intermediate pressure on the performances are comprehensively analyzed using experimental data of the heat pump prototype. It is found that the optimal relative intermediate pressure (RIP) is between 1.1 and 1.3
Optimization of parameters in the simulation of the interdiffusion layer growth in Al-U couples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kniznik, Laura; Alonso, Paula R.; Gargano, Pablo H.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.
2009-01-01
U-Mo alloy dispersed in aluminum is considered as a high U density fuel for research reactors. In and out of pile experiments showed a reaction layer in U-Mo/Al interphase with formation of intermetallics compounds: Al 2 U, Al 3 U and Al 4 U. Under irradiation, porosities originate an unacceptable swelling of the fuel plate. The kinetics of growth of the intermetallic compounds in the U-Mo/Al interphase is treated in the Al 3 U/Al couple as a planar moving boundary problem due to diffusion of Al and U atoms in the direction perpendicular to the interphase surface. Using data from literature, we built a thermodynamic database to be read by the Thermocalc code to calculate phase equilibria. The diffusion problem was carried out by the DICTRA simulation package which articulates data evaluated by Thermocalc with a mobility database. In a previous work we built preliminary databases, for both free energy and mobilities. In the present work, we adjust the parameters from experimental thermodynamic equilibria and concentration profiles existing in literature, and we simulate satisfactorily the growth of the Al 4 U phase. (author)
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Chao, Ming; Yuan, Yading; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Wei, Jie; Li, Tianfang
2016-01-01
We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Stable breathing signals can be reliably extracted using the proposed algorithm. Reference waveforms obtained using an air bellows belt (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH) were exported and compared to those with the AS based signals. The average errors for the enrolled patients between the estimated breath per minute (bpm) and the reference waveform bpm can be as low as −0.07 with the standard deviation 1.58. The new algorithm outperformed the original AS technique for all patients by 8.5% to 30%. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal was assessed with data acquired with a Quasar phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc., London, Canada) and found to be minimal on the signal frequency. The new technique developed in this work will provide a practical solution to rendering markerless breathing signal using the CBCT projections for thoracic and abdominal patients. (paper)
Coates, Colin G; Denvir, Donal J; McHale, Noel G; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A
2004-01-01
The back-illuminated electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera is having a profound influence on the field of low-light dynamic cellular microscopy, combining highest possible photon collection efficiency with the ability to virtually eliminate the readout noise detection limit. We report here the use of this camera, in 512 x 512 frame-transfer chip format at 10-MHz pixel readout speed, in optimizing a demanding ultra-low-light intracellular calcium flux microscopy setup. The arrangement employed includes a spinning confocal Nipkow disk, which, while facilitating the need to both generate images at very rapid frame rates and minimize background photons, yields very weak signals. The challenge for the camera lies not just in detecting as many of these scarce photons as possible, but also in operating at a frame rate that meets the temporal resolution requirements of many low-light microscopy approaches, a particular demand of smooth muscle calcium flux microscopy. Results presented illustrate both the significant sensitivity improvement offered by this technology over the previous standard in ultra-low-light CCD detection, the GenIII+intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and also portray the advanced temporal and spatial resolution capabilities of the EMCCD. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
Ajayi, Folusho Francis; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Chang, In Seop; Kim, In S
2010-03-01
Bio-hydrogen production in light-assisted microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was optimized by connecting multiple MECs to a single dye (N719) sensitized solar cell (V(OC) approx. 0.7 V). Hydrogen production occurred simultaneously in all the connected MECs when the solar cell was irradiated with light. The amount of hydrogen produced in each MEC depends on the activity of the microbial catalyst on their anode. Substrate (acetate) to hydrogen conversion efficiencies ranging from 42% to 65% were obtained from the reactors during the experiment. A moderate light intensity of 430 W m(-2) was sufficient for hydrogen production in the coupled MEC-DSSC. A higher light intensity of 915 W m(-2), as well as an increase in substrate concentration, did not show any improvement in the current density due to limitation caused by the rate of microbial oxidation on the anode. A significant reduction in the surface area of the connected DSSC only showed a slight effect on current density in the coupled MEC-DSSC system when irradiated with light.
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Werby, M.F.; Broadhead, M.K.; Strayer, M.R.; Bottcher, C.
1992-01-01
The Helmholtz-Poincarf Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWECs. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can be obtained in matrix form by expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a bi-orthogonal expansion of the Green's function. However some freedom in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways so long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermitian operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented
Optimized assembly and covalent coupling of single-molecule DNA origami nanoarrays.
Gopinath, Ashwin; Rothemund, Paul W K
2014-12-23
Artificial DNA nanostructures, such as DNA origami, have great potential as templates for the bottom-up fabrication of both biological and nonbiological nanodevices at a resolution unachievable by conventional top-down approaches. However, because origami are synthesized in solution, origami-templated devices cannot easily be studied or integrated into larger on-chip architectures. Electrostatic self-assembly of origami onto lithographically defined binding sites on Si/SiO2 substrates has been achieved, but conditions for optimal assembly have not been characterized, and the method requires high Mg2+ concentrations at which most devices aggregate. We present a quantitative study of parameters affecting origami placement, reproducibly achieving single-origami binding at 94±4% of sites, with 90% of these origami having an orientation within ±10° of their target orientation. Further, we introduce two techniques for converting electrostatic DNA-surface bonds to covalent bonds, allowing origami arrays to be used under a wide variety of Mg2+-free solution conditions.
Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi
2014-03-15
This study describes a decision support system, alerts for contamination events in water distribution systems. The developed model comprises a weighted support vector machine (SVM) for the detection of outliers, and a following sequence analysis for the classification of contamination events. The contribution of this study is an improvement of contamination events detection ability and a multi-dimensional analysis of the data, differing from the parallel one-dimensional analysis conducted so far. The multivariate analysis examines the relationships between water quality parameters and detects changes in their mutual patterns. The weights of the SVM model accomplish two goals: blurring the difference between sizes of the two classes' data sets (as there are much more normal/regular than event time measurements), and adhering the time factor attribute by a time decay coefficient, ascribing higher importance to recent observations when classifying a time step measurement. All model parameters were determined by data driven optimization so the calibration of the model was completely autonomic. The model was trained and tested on a real water distribution system (WDS) data set with randomly simulated events superimposed on the original measurements. The model is prominent in its ability to detect events that were only partly expressed in the data (i.e., affecting only some of the measured parameters). The model showed high accuracy and better detection ability as compared to previous modeling attempts of contamination event detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Random projections and the optimization of an algorithm for phase retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elser, Veit
2003-01-01
Iterative phase retrieval algorithms typically employ projections onto constraint subspaces to recover the unknown phases in the Fourier transform of an image, or, in the case of x-ray crystallography, the electron density of a molecule. For a general class of algorithms, where the basic iteration is specified by the difference map, solutions are associated with fixed points of the map, the attractive character of which determines the effectiveness of the algorithm. The behaviour of the difference map near fixed points is controlled by the relative orientation of the tangent spaces of the two constraint subspaces employed by the map. Since the dimensionalities involved are always large in practical applications, it is appropriate to use random matrix theory ideas to analyse the average-case convergence at fixed points. Optimal values of the γ parameters of the difference map are found which differ somewhat from the values previously obtained on the assumption of orthogonal tangent spaces
Optimization of dual-energy CT acquisitions for proton therapy using projection-based decomposition.
Vilches-Freixas, Gloria; Létang, Jean Michel; Ducros, Nicolas; Rit, Simon
2017-09-01
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been presented as a valid alternative to single-energy CT to reduce the uncertainty of the conversion of patient CT numbers to proton stopping power ratio (SPR) of tissues relative to water. The aim of this work was to optimize DECT acquisition protocols from simulations of X-ray images for the treatment planning of proton therapy using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition algorithm. We have investigated the effect of various voltages and tin filtration combinations on the SPR map accuracy and precision, and the influence of the dose allocation between the low-energy (LE) and the high-energy (HE) acquisitions. For all spectra combinations, virtual CT projections of the Gammex phantom were simulated with a realistic energy-integrating detector response model. Two situations were simulated: an ideal case without noise (infinite dose) and a realistic situation with Poisson noise corresponding to a 20 mGy total central dose. To determine the optimal dose balance, the proportion of LE-dose with respect to the total dose was varied from 10% to 90% while keeping the central dose constant, for four dual-energy spectra. SPR images were derived using a two-step projection-based decomposition approach. The ranges of 70 MeV, 90 MeV, and 100 MeV proton beams onto the adult female (AF) reference computational phantom of the ICRP were analytically determined from the reconstructed SPR maps. The energy separation between the incident spectra had a strong impact on the SPR precision. Maximizing the incident energy gap reduced image noise. However, the energy gap was not a good metric to evaluate the accuracy of the SPR. In terms of SPR accuracy, a large variability of the optimal spectra was observed when studying each phantom material separately. The SPR accuracy was almost flat in the 30-70% LE-dose range, while the precision showed a minimum slightly shifted in favor of lower LE-dose. Photon noise in the SPR images (20 mGy dose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Boudet
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Muscle artifacts constitute one of the major problems in electroencephalogram (EEG examinations, particularly for the diagnosis of epilepsy, where pathological rhythms occur within the same frequency bands as those of artifacts. This paper proposes to use the method dual adaptive filtering by optimal projection (DAFOP to automatically remove artifacts while preserving true cerebral signals. DAFOP is a two-step method. The first step consists in applying the common spatial pattern (CSP method to two frequency windows to identify the slowest components which will be considered as cerebral sources. The two frequency windows are defined by optimizing convolutional filters. The second step consists in using a regression method to reconstruct the signal independently within various frequency windows. This method was evaluated by two neurologists on a selection of 114 pages with muscle artifacts, from 20 clinical recordings of awake and sleeping adults, subject to pathological signals and epileptic seizures. A blind comparison was then conducted with the canonical correlation analysis (CCA method and conventional low-pass filtering at 30 Hz. The filtering rate was 84.3% for muscle artifacts with a 6.4% reduction of cerebral signals even for the fastest waves. DAFOP was found to be significantly more efficient than CCA and 30 Hz filters. The DAFOP method is fast and automatic and can be easily used in clinical EEG recordings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P
2014-01-01
Purpose: Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging image guidance strategy but it can suffer from poor image quality. To avoid repeating scans it is beneficial to make the best use of the imaging data obtained. For conventional 4DCBCT the location and size of respiratory bins is fixed and projections are allocated to the respiratory bin within which it falls. Strictly adhering to this rule is unnecessary and can compromise image quality. In this study we optimize the size and location of respiratory bins and allow projections to be sourced from adjacent phases of the respiratory cycle. Methods: A mathematical optimization framework using mixed integer quadratic programming has been developed that determines when to source projections from adjacent respiratory bins and optimizes the size and location of the bins. The method, which we will call projection sharing, runs in under 2 seconds of CPU time. Five 4DCBCT datasets of stage III-IV lung cancer patients were used to test the algorithm. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections (SD-A) and the standard deviation in the volume of the reconstructed fiducial gold coil (SD-V) were used as proxies to measure streaking artefacts and motion blur respectively. Results: The SD-A using displacement binning and projection sharing was 30%–50% smaller than conventional phase based binning and 59%–76% smaller than conventional displacement binning indicating more uniformly spaced projections and fewer streaking artefacts. The SD-V was 20–90% smaller when using projection sharing than using conventional phase based binning suggesting more uniform marker segmentation and less motion blur. Conclusion: Image quality was visibly and significantly improved with projection sharing. Projection sharing does not require any modifications to existing hardware and offers a more robust replacement to phase based binning, or, an option if phase based reconstruction is not of a
Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne
2014-09-01
Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
S, Kyriacou; E, Kontoleontos; S, Weissenberger; L, Mangani; E, Casartelli; I, Skouteropoulou; M, Gattringer; A, Gehrer; M, Buchmayr
2014-03-01
An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyriacou S; Kontoleontos E; Weissenberger S; Mangani L; Casartelli E; Skouteropoulou I; Gattringer M; Gehrer A; Buchmayr M
2014-01-01
An efficient hydraulic optimization procedure, suitable for industrial use, requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software), a fast solver (block coupled CFD) and a flexible geometry generation tool. EASY optimization software is a PCA-driven metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA (PCA)) that can be used in both single- (SOO) and multiobjective optimization (MOO) problems. In MAEAs, low cost surrogate evaluation models are used to screen out non-promising individuals during the evolution and exclude them from the expensive, problem specific evaluation, here the solution of Navier-Stokes equations. For additional reduction of the optimization CPU cost, the PCA technique is used to identify dependences among the design variables and to exploit them in order to efficiently drive the application of the evolution operators. To further enhance the hydraulic optimization procedure, a very robust and fast Navier-Stokes solver has been developed. This incompressible CFD solver employs a pressure-based block-coupled approach, solving the governing equations simultaneously. This method, apart from being robust and fast, also provides a big gain in terms of computational cost. In order to optimize the geometry of hydraulic machines, an automatic geometry and mesh generation tool is necessary. The geometry generation tool used in this work is entirely based on b-spline curves and surfaces. In what follows, the components of the tool chain are outlined in some detail and the optimization results of hydraulic machine components are shown in order to demonstrate the performance of the presented optimization procedure
A study on projection angles for an optimal image of PNS water's view on children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Sang Hyuk; Song, Young Geun; Kim, Sung Kyu; Hong, Sang Woo; Kim, Je Bong
2007-01-01
This study is to calculate the proper angle for the optimal image of PNS Water's view on children, comparing and analyzing the PNS Water's projection angles between children and adults at every age. This study randomly selected 50 patients who visited the Medical Center from January to May in 2005, and examined the incidence path of central ray, taking a PNS Water's and skull trans-Lat. view in Water's filming position while attaching a lead ball mark on the Orbit, EAM, and acanthion of the patient's skull. And then, we calculated the incidence angles (angle A) of the line connected from OML and the petrous ridge to the inferior margin of maxilla on general (random) patient's skull image, following the incidence path of central ray. Finally, we analyzed two pieces of the graphs at ages, developing out the patient's ideal images at PNS Water's filming position taken by a digital camera, and calculating the angle (angle B) between OML and IP(Image Plate). The angle between OML and IP is about 43 .deg. in 4-years-old children, which is higher than 37 .deg. as age increases the angle decreases, it goes to 37 .deg. around 30 years of age. That is similar result to maxillary growth period. We can get better quality of Water's image for children when taking the PNS Water's view if we change the projection angles, considering maxillary growth for patients in every age stage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delahaye, P., E-mail: delahaye@ganil.fr; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galatà, A.; Patti, G. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC–Université Grenoble Alpes–CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 Blvd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, PB 35 (YFL), 40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wenander, F. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2016-02-15
The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.
The Utrecht Health Project: Optimization of routine healthcare data for research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hoes, Arno W.; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; Ameijden, Erik J. C. van; Numans, Mattijs E.
2005-01-01
Background. Research on the impact of changes in healthcare policy, developments in community and public health and determinants of health and disease during lifetime may effectively make use of routine healthcare data. These data, however, need to meet minimal criteria for quality and completeness. Research opportunities are further improved when routine data are supplemented with a standardized 'baseline' assessment of the full population. This formed the basis for a new study initiated in a newly developed large residential area in Leidsche Rijn, part of the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands.Methods. All new inhabitants are invited by their general practitioner to participate in the Utrecht Health Project (UHP). Informed consent is obtained and an individual health profile (IHP) is made by dedicated research nurses. The IHP is the starting point for the UHP research database as well as for the primary care electronic medical records. Follow-up data are collected through continuous linkage with the computerized medical files recorded by the general practitioners. UHP staff in each practice takes care of quality management of registration as well as data handling.Results. Currently, over 60 of invited new residents in the area have given informed consent with participation steadily increasing. Discussion. The Utrecht Health Project combines key elements of traditional epidemiologic cohort studies with the current power of routine electronic medical record keeping in primary care. The research approach optimizes routine health care data for use in scientific research
MacLean, Paul S; Rothman, Alexander J; Nicastro, Holly L; Czajkowski, Susan M; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Rice, Elise L; Courcoulas, Anita P; Ryan, Donna H; Bessesen, Daniel H; Loria, Catherine M
2018-04-01
Individual variability in response to multiple modalities of obesity treatment is well documented, yet our understanding of why some individuals respond while others do not is limited. The etiology of this variability is multifactorial; however, at present, we lack a comprehensive evidence base to identify which factors or combination of factors influence treatment response. This paper provides an overview and rationale of the Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures Project, which aims to advance the understanding of individual variability in response to adult obesity treatment. This project provides an integrated model for how factors in the behavioral, biological, environmental, and psychosocial domains may influence obesity treatment responses and identify a core set of measures to be used consistently across adult weight-loss trials. This paper provides the foundation for four companion papers that describe the core measures in detail. The accumulation of data on factors across the four ADOPT domains can inform the design and delivery of effective, tailored obesity treatments. ADOPT provides a framework for how obesity researchers can collectively generate this evidence base and is a first step in an ongoing process that can be refined as the science advances. © 2018 The Obesity Society.
Liu, Chao; Gu, Jinwei
2014-01-01
Classifying raw, unpainted materials--metal, plastic, ceramic, fabric, and so on--is an important yet challenging task for computer vision. Previous works measure subsets of surface spectral reflectance as features for classification. However, acquiring the full spectral reflectance is time consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we propose to use coded illumination to directly measure discriminative features for material classification. Optimal illumination patterns--which we call "discriminative illumination"--are learned from training samples, after projecting to which the spectral reflectance of different materials are maximally separated. This projection is automatically realized by the integration of incident light for surface reflection. While a single discriminative illumination is capable of linear, two-class classification, we show that multiple discriminative illuminations can be used for nonlinear and multiclass classification. We also show theoretically that the proposed method has higher signal-to-noise ratio than previous methods due to light multiplexing. Finally, we construct an LED-based multispectral dome and use the discriminative illumination method for classifying a variety of raw materials, including metal (aluminum, alloy, steel, stainless steel, brass, and copper), plastic, ceramic, fabric, and wood. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.
Suppachoknirun, Theerapat; Tutuncu, Azra N.
2017-12-01
With increasing production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing processes have become a routine procedure in unconventional field development efforts. Natural fractures play a critical role in hydraulic fracture growth, subsequently affecting stimulated reservoir volume and the production efficiency. Moreover, the existing fractures can also contribute to the pressure-dependent fluid leak-off during the operations. Hence, a reliable identification of the discrete fracture network covering the zone of interest prior to the hydraulic fracturing design needs to be incorporated into the hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations for realistic representation of the in situ reservoir conditions. In this research study, an integrated 3-D fracture and fluid flow model have been developed using a new approach to simulate the fluid flow and deliver reliable production forecasting in naturally fractured and hydraulically stimulated tight reservoirs. The model was created with three key modules. A complex 3-D discrete fracture network model introduces realistic natural fracture geometry with the associated fractured reservoir characteristics. A hydraulic fracturing model is created utilizing the discrete fracture network for simulation of the hydraulic fracture and flow in the complex discrete fracture network. Finally, a reservoir model with the production grid system is used allowing the user to efficiently perform the fluid flow simulation in tight formations with complex fracture networks. The complex discrete natural fracture model, the integrated discrete fracture model for the hydraulic fracturing, the fluid flow model, and the input dataset have been validated against microseismic fracture mapping and commingled production data obtained from a well pad with three horizontal production wells located in the Eagle Ford oil window in south Texas. Two other fracturing geometries were also evaluated to optimize
Validation of a for anaerobic bacteria optimized MALDI-TOF MS biotyper database: The ENRIA project.
Veloo, A C M; Jean-Pierre, H; Justesen, U S; Morris, T; Urban, E; Wybo, I; Kostrzewa, M; Friedrich, A W
2018-03-12
Within the ENRIA project, several 'expertise laboratories' collaborated in order to optimize the identification of clinical anaerobic isolates by using a widely available platform, the Biotyper Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Main Spectral Profiles (MSPs) of well characterized anaerobic strains were added to one of the latest updates of the Biotyper database db6903; (V6 database) for common use. MSPs of anaerobic strains nominated for addition to the Biotyper database are included in this validation. In this study, we validated the optimized database (db5989 [V5 database] + ENRIA MSPs) using 6309 anaerobic isolates. Using the V5 database 71.1% of the isolates could be identified with high confidence, 16.9% with low confidence and 12.0% could not be identified. Including the MSPs added to the V6 database and all MSPs created within the ENRIA project, the amount of strains identified with high confidence increased to 74.8% and 79.2%, respectively. Strains that could not be identified using MALDI-TOF MS decreased to 10.4% and 7.3%, respectively. The observed increase in high confidence identifications differed per genus. For Bilophila wadsworthia, Prevotella spp., gram-positive anaerobic cocci and other less commonly encountered species more strains were identified with higher confidence. A subset of the non-identified strains (42.1%) were identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The obtained identities demonstrated that strains could not be identified either due to the generation of spectra of insufficient quality or due to the fact that no MSP of the encountered species was present in the database. Undoubtedly, the ENRIA project has successfully increased the number of anaerobic isolates that can be identified with high confidence. We therefore recommend further expansion of the database to include less frequently isolated species as this would also allow us to gain valuable insight into the clinical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Feng; Pan Rong; Zhu Xiuyun; Zhang Dingli
2011-01-01
Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall project is a barrier engineering in defending the design basis flooding, which is of importance to the safety of NPP. The geological condition has the feature of high compressibility and low penetration, such as the soft ground of 1 + 450 section of Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall. Based on parameters acquired from the site experiment, 3-D finite difference analysis is put forward to study the feature of consolidation settlement laws, which can embody the fluid-solid coupling interaction. The conclusions of numerical analysis agree well with the in-site measured data, and it, can contribute to the design and construction of raising sea wall project. (authors)
Bozkaya, Uǧur; Turney, Justin M.; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F.; Sherrill, C. David
2011-09-01
Using a Lagrangian-based approach, we present a more elegant derivation of the equations necessary for the variational optimization of the molecular orbitals (MOs) for the coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) method and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). These orbital-optimized theories are referred to as OO-CCD and OO-MP2 (or simply "OD" and "OMP2" for short), respectively. We also present an improved algorithm for orbital optimization in these methods. Explicit equations for response density matrices, the MO gradient, and the MO Hessian are reported both in spin-orbital and closed-shell spin-adapted forms. The Newton-Raphson algorithm is used for the optimization procedure using the MO gradient and Hessian. Further, orbital stability analyses are also carried out at correlated levels. The OD and OMP2 approaches are compared with the standard MP2, CCD, CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods. All these methods are applied to H2O, three diatomics, and the O_4^+ molecule. Results demonstrate that the CCSD and OD methods give nearly identical results for H2O and diatomics; however, in symmetry-breaking problems as exemplified by O_4^+, the OD method provides better results for vibrational frequencies. The OD method has further advantages over CCSD: its analytic gradients are easier to compute since there is no need to solve the coupled-perturbed equations for the orbital response, the computation of one-electron properties are easier because there is no response contribution to the particle density matrices, the variational optimized orbitals can be readily extended to allow inactive orbitals, it avoids spurious second-order poles in its response function, and its transition dipole moments are gauge invariant. The OMP2 has these same advantages over canonical MP2, making it promising for excited state properties via linear response theory. The quadratically convergent orbital-optimization procedure converges quickly for OMP2, and provides molecular properties that
Leulliot, Nicolas; Trésaugues, Lionel; Bremang, Michael; Sorel, Isabelle; Ulryck, Nathalie; Graille, Marc; Aboulfath, Ilham; Poupon, Anne; Liger, Dominique; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Janin, Joël; van Tilbeurgh, Herman
2005-06-01
Crystallization has long been regarded as one of the major bottlenecks in high-throughput structural determination by X-ray crystallography. Structural genomics projects have addressed this issue by using robots to set up automated crystal screens using nanodrop technology. This has moved the bottleneck from obtaining the first crystal hit to obtaining diffraction-quality crystals, as crystal optimization is a notoriously slow process that is difficult to automatize. This article describes the high-throughput optimization strategies used in the Yeast Structural Genomics project, with selected successful examples.
Kawamoto, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yuichi; Fukui, Chihiro; Tateshita, Fumihiko
Private finance initiative is a business scheme that materializes social infrastructure and public services by utilizing private-sector resources. In this paper we propose a new method to optimize capital structure, which is the ratio of capital to debt, and senior-sub structure, which is the ratio of senior loan to subordinated loan, for private finance initiative. We make the quantitative analysis of a private finance initiative's project using the proposed method. We analyze trade-off structure between risk and return in the project, and optimize capital structure and senior-sub structure. The method we propose helps to improve financial stability of the project, and to make a fund raising plan that is expected to be reasonable for project sponsor and moneylender.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fieschi Marius
2004-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs available today are not extensively used due to lack of proper integration into clinical settings, knowledge-related information resources, and lack of decision support at the point of care in a particular clinical context. Objective The PRESGUID project (PREScription and GUIDelines aims to improve the assistance provided by guidelines. The project proposes an online service enabling physicians to consult computerized CPGs linked to drug databases for easier integration into the healthcare process. Methods Computable CPGs are structured as decision trees and coded in XML format. Recommendations related to drug classes are tagged with ATC codes. We use a mapping module to enhance computerized guidelines coupling with a drug database, which contains detailed information about each usable specific medication. In this way, therapeutic recommendations are backed up with current and up-to-date information from the database. Results Two authoritative CPGs, originally diffused as static textual documents, have been implemented to validate the computerization process and to illustrate the usefulness of the resulting automated CPGs and their coupling with a drug database. We discuss the advantages of this approach for practitioners and the implications for both guideline developers and drug database providers. Other CPGs will be implemented and evaluated in real conditions by clinicians working in different health institutions.
Project Luna Succendo: The Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor
Bess, John Darrell
A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched within lunar shipments from the Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides 5 kWe using a free-piston Stirling space converter. The overall envelope for a single unit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. The subunits can be placed with centerline distances of approximately 0.6 m in a hexagonal-lattice pattern to provide sufficient neutronic coupling while allowing room for heat rejection and interstitial control. A lattice of six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network Future improvements include advances in reactor control
A 5-μm pitch charge-coupled device optimized for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering
Andresen, N. C.; Denes, P.; Goldschmidt, A.; Joseph, J.; Karcher, A.; Tindall, C. S.
2017-08-01
We have developed a charge-coupled device (CCD) with 5 μm × 45 μm pixels on high-resistivity silicon. The fully depleted 200 μm-thick silicon detector is back-illuminated through a 10 nm-thick in situ doped polysilicon window and is thus highly efficient for soft through >8 keV hard X-rays. The device described here is a 1.5 megapixel CCD with 2496 × 620 pixels. The pixel and camera geometry was optimized for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and is particularly advantageous for spectrometers with limited arm lengths. In this article, we describe the device architecture, construction and operation, and its performance during tests at the Advance Light Source (ALS) 8.0.1 RIXS beamline. The improved spectroscopic performance, when compared with a current standard commercial camera, is demonstrated with a ˜280 eV (CK) X-ray beam on a graphite sample. Readout noise is typically 3-6 electrons and the point spread function for soft CK X-rays in the 5 μm direction is 4.0 μm ± 0.2 μm. The measured quantum efficiency of the CCD is greater than 75% in the range from 200 eV to 1 keV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saad Mutashar
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The use of wireless communication using inductive links to transfer data and power to implantable microsystems to stimulate and monitor nerves and muscles is increasing. This paper deals with the development of the theoretical analysis and optimization of an inductive link based on coupling and on spiral circular coil geometry. The coil dimensions offer 22 mm of mutual distance in air. However, at 6 mm of distance, the coils offer a power transmission efficiency of 80% in the optimum case and 73% in the worst case via low input impedance, whereas, transmission efficiency is 45% and 32%, respectively, via high input impedance. The simulations were performed in air and with two types of simulated human biological tissues such as dry and wet-skin using a depth of 6 mm. The performance results expound that the combined magnitude of the electric field components surrounding the external coil is approximately 98% of that in air, and for an internal coil, it is approximately 50%, respectively. It can be seen that the gain surrounding coils is almost constant and confirms the omnidirectional pattern associated with such loop antennas which reduces the effect of non-alignment between the two coils. The results also show that the specific absorption rate (SAR and power loss within the tissue are lower than that of the standard level. Thus, the tissue will not be damaged anymore.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Li, Z.; Ruth, R.D.; Srinivas, V.; Wang, J.W.; Higo, T.
1998-09-01
A redesign of the basic cell configuration of the Damped Detuned Structure has been briefly reported where the cells are referred to as ellipsoidal cavities, and accelerator structures incorporating them are designated DDS5 and DDS6. This new structure type has been renamed RDDS 1, and the first of this series, RDDS 1, is presently under design and fabrication. The carefully sculpted cell profile (fabricated on computer controlled lathes at KEK incorporating diamond point machining) provides a 20% increase in shunt impedance which, when combined with other parameters, allows for a dramatic reduction in the RF power required for the NLC (Next Linear Collider). The detuning profile, damping manifold taper, and the cell to manifold coupling constant profile have all been carefully optimized so as to permit decoupling the cells at the ends of the structure from the manifolds while still adequately minimizing the transverse wake. The decoupling is required in order to fit adequately matched terminations into the structure. The single structure analysis has been supplemented with studies of wake degradation arising from systematic fabrication errors and wake improvement obtained by combining manifold damping with structure interleaving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zou Haiming
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Phosphorus removal and recovery from domestic wastewater is urgent nowadays. A novel process of nutrients removal coupled with phosphorus recovery from domestic sewage was proposed and optimization of induced crystallization reaction was performed in this study. The results showed that 92.3% of phosphorus recovery via induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was achieved at the optimum process parameters: reaction time of 80 min, seed crystal loads of 60 g/L, pH of 8.5, Ca/P mole ratio of 2.0 and 4.0 L/min aeration rate when the PO43--P concentration was 10 mg/L in the influent, displaying an excellent phosphorus recovery performance. Importantly, it was found that the effect of reaction temperature on induced Hydroxyapatite crystallization was slight, thus favoring practical application of phosphorus recovery method described in this study. From these results, the proposed method of induced HAP crystallization to recover phosphorus combined with nutrients removal can be an economical and effective technology, probably favoring the water pollution control and phosphate rock recycle.
A 5-μm pitch charge-coupled device optimized for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering.
Andresen, N C; Denes, P; Goldschmidt, A; Joseph, J; Karcher, A; Tindall, C S
2017-08-01
We have developed a charge-coupled device (CCD) with 5 μm × 45 μm pixels on high-resistivity silicon. The fully depleted 200 μm-thick silicon detector is back-illuminated through a 10 nm-thick in situ doped polysilicon window and is thus highly efficient for soft through >8 keV hard X-rays. The device described here is a 1.5 megapixel CCD with 2496 × 620 pixels. The pixel and camera geometry was optimized for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) and is particularly advantageous for spectrometers with limited arm lengths. In this article, we describe the device architecture, construction and operation, and its performance during tests at the Advance Light Source (ALS) 8.0.1 RIXS beamline. The improved spectroscopic performance, when compared with a current standard commercial camera, is demonstrated with a ∼280 eV (C K ) X-ray beam on a graphite sample. Readout noise is typically 3-6 electrons and the point spread function for soft C K X-rays in the 5 μm direction is 4.0 μm ± 0.2 μm. The measured quantum efficiency of the CCD is greater than 75% in the range from 200 eV to 1 keV.
Alam, Raquibul; Shang, Julie Q; Cheng, Xiangrong
2012-05-01
The oxidation of sulphidic mine tailings and consequent acid generation poses challenges for the environment. Accurate and precise analysis of sulphur content is necessary for impact assessment and management of mine tailings. Here, the authors aim at developing a rapid and easy digestion procedure, which may analyse and measure the total amount of sulphur in mine tailings by using inductively coupled plasma. For evaluating effects of several variables, the researchers used a univariate (analysis of variance (ANOVA)) strategy and considered factors such as composition of the acid mixture, heating time, and refluxing device to optimize the performance. To do the experiment, the researchers have used two certified reference materials (KZK-1 and RTS-2) and samples of tailings from Musselwhite mine. ANOVA result shows that heating time is the most influencing factor on acid digestion of the reference materials whereas in case of a digestion of tailings sample, hydrochloric acid proved to be the most significant parameter. Satisfactory results between the measured and referenced values are found for all experiments. It is found that the aqua regia (1 ml HNO(3) + 3 ml HCl) digestion of 0.1 g of samples after only 40 min of heating at 95°C produced fast, safe, and accurate analytical results with a recovery of 97% for the selected reference materials.
1978-05-01
The purpose of this study is to provide an independent identification, classification, and analysis of significant freight car coupling system concepts offering potential for improved safety and operating costs over the present system. The basic meth...
Optimizing the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Denmark by simulation – the project outline
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enøe, Claes
2012-01-01
. These control options included different options for emergency vaccination, zoning and culling. Optimal control/eradication strategies was evaluated based on costs, number of culled animals, epidemic duration and time to lift of restrictions on animal movements and trade. An important part of the project...
360-degrees profilometry using strip-light projection coupled to Fourier phase-demodulation.
Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo
2016-01-11
360 degrees (360°) digitalization of three dimensional (3D) solids using a projected light-strip is a well-established technique in academic and commercial profilometers. These profilometers project a light-strip over the digitizing solid while the solid is rotated a full revolution or 360-degrees. Then, a computer program typically extracts the centroid of this light-strip, and by triangulation one obtains the shape of the solid. Here instead of using intensity-based light-strip centroid estimation, we propose to use Fourier phase-demodulation for 360° solid digitalization. The advantage of Fourier demodulation over strip-centroid estimation is that the accuracy of phase-demodulation linearly-increases with the fringe density, while in strip-light the centroid-estimation errors are independent. Here we proposed first to construct a carrier-frequency fringe-pattern by closely adding the individual light-strip images recorded while the solid is being rotated. Next, this high-density fringe-pattern is phase-demodulated using the standard Fourier technique. To test the feasibility of this Fourier demodulation approach, we have digitized two solids with increasing topographic complexity: a Rubik's cube and a plastic model of a human-skull. According to our results, phase demodulation based on the Fourier technique is less noisy than triangulation based on centroid light-strip estimation. Moreover, Fourier demodulation also provides the amplitude of the analytic signal which is a valuable information for the visualization of surface details.
Advancing coupled human-earth system models: The integrated Earth System Model Project
Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J. A.; Collins, W.; Thornton, P. E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Mao, J.; Chini, L. P.; Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Shi, X.
2012-12-01
As human and biogeophysical models develop, opportunities for connections between them evolve and can be used to advance our understanding of human-earth systems interaction in the context of a changing climate. One such integration is taking place with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). A multi-disciplinary, multi-institution team has succeeded in integrating the GCAM integrated assessment model of human activity into CESM to dynamically represent the feedbacks between changing climate and human decision making, in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation policies. The first applications of this capability have focused on the feedbacks between climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and human decisions affecting future land use change, which are in turn connected to human decisions about energy systems and bioenergy production. These experiments have been conducted in the context of the RCP4.5 scenario, one of four pathways of future radiative forcing being used in CMIP5, which constrains future human-induced greenhouse gas emissions from energy and land activities to stabilize radiative forcing at 4.5 W/m2 (~650 ppm CO2 -eq) by 2100. When this pathway is run in GCAM with the climate feedback on terrestrial productivity from CESM, there are implications for both the land use and energy system changes required for stabilization. Early findings indicate that traditional definitions of radiative forcing used in scenario development are missing a critical component of the biogeophysical consequences of land use change and their contribution to effective radiative forcing. Initial full coupling of the two global models has important implications for how climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems changes the dynamics of future land use change for agriculture and forestry, particularly in the context of a climate mitigation policy designed to reduce emissions from land use as well as energy systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.
1999-01-01
The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ''cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and
Presenting a Model Based on Fuzzy Application to Optimize the Time of IBS Projects in Gas Refineries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naderpour Abbas
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, the construction industry has started to embrace IBS as a method of attaining better construction quality and productivity and reducing risks related to occupational safety and health. The built of pre-fabricated component in factories reduces many problems related to lack of purposing uncertainty in scheduling calculation and time management of projects. In the case of using IBS method for managing time in projects, former studies such as Allan Tay’s research, indicates that this method can save up at least 29% of overall completion period versus the conventional method. But beside mentioned advantages of this technical method, the projects could be optimized more and more in scheduling calculations. This issue is critical in gas refineries, since special parameters such as risk of spreading poison H2S gas and mandatory of performing projects in short time period events such as maintenance overhauls demands to perform projects in optimum time. Custom scheduling calculation of project planning uses the Critical Path Method (CPM as a tool for Planning Project’s activities. The researches of this paper’s authors indicated that Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM is the best technique to manage the uncertainty in project scheduling and can save up the construction project’s time versus the custom methods. This paper aims to present a model based on fuzzy application in CPM calculations to optimize the time of Industrial Building System.
Coupled geomechanical/hydrological modeling: an overview of basalt waste isolation project studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baca, R.G.; Case, J.B.; Patricio, J.G.
1980-07-01
Basalt Waste Isolation Project investigations of the Columbia River basalts are multi-disciplinary in nature with a broad scope spanning such areas as geology, seismology, geochemistry, hydrology, rock mechanics, and many other disciplines as well. In this paper, an overview is presented which surveys recent work on numerical modeling of geomechanical and hydrological processes in a basalt rock environment. A major objective of the ongoing numerical modeling work is to establish a predictive technology base with which to: interpret the interrelationships between geomechanical behavior of rock media, the natural hydrologic phenomena, and repository conditions; evaluate the effectiveness of preconceptual repository designs and assist in the design of in situ field testing; and assess the waste isolation capability of candidate host rocks within the Columbia River basalts. To accomplish this objective, a systems approach has been adopted which is based on the use of digital simulation models
Optimal reliability allocation for large software projects through soft computing techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin
2012-01-01
or maximizing the system reliability subject to budget constraints. These kinds of optimization problems were considered both in deterministic and stochastic frameworks in literature. Recently, the intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization approach was considered as a soft computing successful modelling approach....... Firstly, a review on existing soft computing approaches to optimization is given. The main section extends the results considering self-organizing migrating algorithms for solving intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization problems attached to complex fault-tolerant software architectures which proved...
Farrara, John D.; Drummond, Leroy A.; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Spahr, Joseph A.
1998-01-01
The design, implementation and performance optimization on the CRAY T3E of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) which includes the transport of, and chemical reactions among, an arbitrary number of constituents is reviewed. The parallel implementation is based on a two-dimensional (longitude and latitude) data domain decomposition. Initial optimization efforts centered on minimizing the impact of substantial static and weakly-dynamic load imbalances among processors through load redistribution schemes. Recent optimization efforts have centered on single-node optimization. Strategies employed include loop unrolling, both manually and through the compiler, the use of an optimized assembler-code library for special function calls, and restructuring of parts of the code to improve data locality. Data exchanges and synchronizations involved in coupling different data-distributed models can account for a significant fraction of the running time. Therefore, the required scattering and gathering of data must be optimized. In systems such as the T3E, there is much more aggregate bandwidth in the total system than in any particular processor. This suggests a distributed design. The design and implementation of a such distributed 'Data Broker' as a means to efficiently couple the components of our climate system model is described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auclair, K. D.
2002-01-01
This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, J.G.; Castillo, C.; Huntsman, J.; Killoy, S.; Lucek, H.; Marks, T.C.
2011-01-01
Faced with the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex Transformation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming and inherently introduces bias of the scheduler or organization into the process. Clearly a well-defined process, quantitative risk-based tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). Faced with limited available data, innovation was needed to extrapolate intelligent relative data for key risk parameters based on known data elements. The IFDP Supermodel was customized and expanded to provide this capability for conceptual planning of diverse project portfolios and multiple sites. (author)
Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura
2015-07-13
We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Chao, M [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. Methods: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections. The innovative algebraic constraints stipulating the kinetic range of the motion and the spatial constraint preventing any unphysical deviations was able to obtain the optimal contour of the diaphragm with minimal initialization. The algorithm was assessed by a fluoroscopic movie acquired at anteriorposterior fixed direction and kilovoltage CBCT projection image sets from four lung and two liver patients. The automatic tracing by the proposed algorithm and manual tracking by a human operator were compared in both space and frequency domains. Results: The error between the estimated and manual detections for the fluoroscopic movie was 0.54mm with standard deviation (SD) of 0.45mm, while the average error for the CBCT projections was 0.79mm with SD of 0.64mm for all enrolled patients. The submillimeter accuracy outcome exhibits the promise of the proposed constrained linear regression approach to track the diaphragm motion on rotational projection images. Conclusion: The new algorithm will provide a potential solution to rendering diaphragm motion and ultimately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, J; Chao, M
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. Methods: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections. The innovative algebraic constraints stipulating the kinetic range of the motion and the spatial constraint preventing any unphysical deviations was able to obtain the optimal contour of the diaphragm with minimal initialization. The algorithm was assessed by a fluoroscopic movie acquired at anteriorposterior fixed direction and kilovoltage CBCT projection image sets from four lung and two liver patients. The automatic tracing by the proposed algorithm and manual tracking by a human operator were compared in both space and frequency domains. Results: The error between the estimated and manual detections for the fluoroscopic movie was 0.54mm with standard deviation (SD) of 0.45mm, while the average error for the CBCT projections was 0.79mm with SD of 0.64mm for all enrolled patients. The submillimeter accuracy outcome exhibits the promise of the proposed constrained linear regression approach to track the diaphragm motion on rotational projection images. Conclusion: The new algorithm will provide a potential solution to rendering diaphragm motion and ultimately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2010-01-01
In recent years, many surgical procedures have increasingly been replaced by interventional procedures that guide catheters into the arteries under X ray fluoroscopic guidance to perform a variety of operations such as ballooning, embolization, implantation of stents etc. The radiation exposure to patients and staff in such procedures is much higher than in simple radiographic examinations like X ray of chest or abdomen such that radiation induced skin injuries to patients and eye lens opacities among workers have been reported in the 1990's and after. Interventional procedures have grown both in frequency and importance during the last decade. This Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and TECDOC were developed within the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) framework of statutory responsibility to provide for the worldwide application of the standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRP took place between 2003 and 2005 in six countries, with a view of optimizing the radiation protection of patients undergoing interventional procedures. The Fundamental Safety Principles and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS) issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), among others, require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and through optimization. In keeping with its responsibility on the application of standards, the IAEA programme on Radiological Protection of Patients encourages the reduction of patient doses. To facilitate this, it has issued specific advice on the application of the BSS in the field of radiology in Safety Reports Series No. 39 and the three volumes on Radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui, Shijie; Zhang, Dalin; Cheng, Jie; Tian, Wenxi; Su, G.H.
2017-01-01
As one of the candidate tritium breeding blankets for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a conceptual structure of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket has recently been proposed. The neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical characteristics of the blanket directly affect its tritium breeding and safety performance. Therefore, neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/mechanical coupling analyses are of vital importance for a reliable blanket design. In this work, first, three-dimensional neutronics analysis and optimization of the typical outboard equatorial blanket module (No. 12) were performed for the comprehensive optimal scheme. Then, thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the scheme under both normal and critical conditions were performed and coupled with the previous neutronic calculation results. With thermal-hydraulic boundaries, thermo-mechanical analyses of the structure materials under normal, critical and blanket over-pressurization conditions were carried out. In addition, several parametric sensitivity studies were also conducted to investigate the influences of the main parameters on the blanket temperature distributions. In this paper, the coupled analyses verify the reasonability of the optimized conceptual design preliminarily and can provide an important reference for the further analysis and optimization design of the CFETR helium cooled solid breeder blanket.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Shijie; Zhang, Dalin, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Cheng, Jie; Tian, Wenxi; Su, G.H.
2017-01-15
As one of the candidate tritium breeding blankets for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), a conceptual structure of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket has recently been proposed. The neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical characteristics of the blanket directly affect its tritium breeding and safety performance. Therefore, neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/mechanical coupling analyses are of vital importance for a reliable blanket design. In this work, first, three-dimensional neutronics analysis and optimization of the typical outboard equatorial blanket module (No. 12) were performed for the comprehensive optimal scheme. Then, thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the scheme under both normal and critical conditions were performed and coupled with the previous neutronic calculation results. With thermal-hydraulic boundaries, thermo-mechanical analyses of the structure materials under normal, critical and blanket over-pressurization conditions were carried out. In addition, several parametric sensitivity studies were also conducted to investigate the influences of the main parameters on the blanket temperature distributions. In this paper, the coupled analyses verify the reasonability of the optimized conceptual design preliminarily and can provide an important reference for the further analysis and optimization design of the CFETR helium cooled solid breeder blanket.
Keefer, Laurie; Doerfler, Bethany; Artz, Caroline
2012-02-01
Psychotherapy for Crohn's disease (CD) has focused on patients with psychological distress. Another approach to optimize management of CD is to target patients who do not exhibit psychological distress but engage in behaviors that undermine treatment efficacy / increase risk for flare. We sought to determine the feasibility/acceptability and estimate the effects of a program framed around Project Management (PM) principles on CD outcomes. Twenty-eight adults with quiescent CD without a history of psychiatric disorder were randomized to PM (n = 16) or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 12). Baseline and follow-up measures were Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ), Medication Adherence Scale (MAS), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), and IBD Self-Efficacy Scale (IBD-SES). There were significant group × time effects favoring PM on IBDQ-Total Score (F(1) = 15.2, P = 0.001), IBDQ-Bowel (F(1) = 6.5, P = 0.02), and IBDQ-Systemic (F(1) = 9.3, P = 0.007) but not IBDQ-Emotional (F(1) = 1.9, P = ns) or IBDQ-Social (F(1) = 2.4, P = ns). There was a significant interaction effect favoring PM with respect to PSQ (F(1) = 8.4, P = 0.01) and IBD-SES (F(1) = 12.2, P = 0.003). There was no immediate change in MAS (F(1) = 4.3, P = ns). Moderate effect sizes (d > 0.30) were observed for IBDQ total score (d = 0.45), IBDQ bowel health (d = 0.45), and systemic health (d = 0.37). Effect sizes for PSQ (d = 0.13) and IBDSES (d = 0.17) were smaller. Behavioral programs that appeal to patients who may not seek psychotherapy for negative health behaviors may improve quality of life and potentially disease course and outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerdraon, D.
2001-10-01
Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), based on a proton accelerator and a sub-critical core coupled with a spallation target, offer advantages in order to reduce the nuclear waste radiotoxicity before repository closure. Many studies carried out on the ADS should lead to the definition of an experimental plan which would federate the different works in progress. This thesis deals with the neutronic Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code to optimize such a system in view of a pilot reactor building. First, we have recalled the main neutronic properties of an hybrid reactor. The concept of gas-cooled eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (XADS) chosen for our investigations comes from the preliminary studies done by the Framatome company. In order to transmute minor actinides, we have considered the time evolution of the main fuels which could be reasonably used for the demonstration phases. The neutronic parameters of the reactor, concerning minor actinide transmutation, are reported. Also, we have calculated the characteristic times and the transmutation rates in the case of 99 Tc and 129 I isotopes. We have identified some neutronic differences between an experimental and a power ADS according to the infinite multiplication coefficient, the shape factor and the level of flux to extend the demonstrator concept. We have proposed geometric solutions to keep the radial shape factor of a power ADS acceptable. In the last part, beyond the experimental XADS scope, we have examined the possible transition towards an uranium/thorium cycle based on Molten Salt Reactors using a power ADS in order to generate the required 233 U proportion. (author)
Ma, Denglong; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Hu, Jun
2017-03-05
In order to identify the parameters of hazardous gas emission source in atmosphere with less previous information and reliable probability estimation, a hybrid algorithm coupling Tikhonov regularization with particle swarm optimization (PSO) was proposed. When the source location is known, the source strength can be estimated successfully by common Tikhonov regularization method, but it is invalid when the information about both source strength and location is absent. Therefore, a hybrid method combining linear Tikhonov regularization and PSO algorithm was designed. With this method, the nonlinear inverse dispersion model was transformed to a linear form under some assumptions, and the source parameters including source strength and location were identified simultaneously by linear Tikhonov-PSO regularization method. The regularization parameters were selected by L-curve method. The estimation results with different regularization matrixes showed that the confidence interval with high-order regularization matrix is narrower than that with zero-order regularization matrix. But the estimation results of different source parameters are close to each other with different regularization matrixes. A nonlinear Tikhonov-PSO hybrid regularization was also designed with primary nonlinear dispersion model to estimate the source parameters. The comparison results of simulation and experiment case showed that the linear Tikhonov-PSO method with transformed linear inverse model has higher computation efficiency than nonlinear Tikhonov-PSO method. The confidence intervals from linear Tikhonov-PSO are more reasonable than that from nonlinear method. The estimation results from linear Tikhonov-PSO method are similar to that from single PSO algorithm, and a reasonable confidence interval with some probability levels can be additionally given by Tikhonov-PSO method. Therefore, the presented linear Tikhonov-PSO regularization method is a good potential method for hazardous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, Jerel; Castillo, Carlos; Huntsman, Julie; Lucek, Heather; Marks, Tim
2012-01-01
Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Faced with the DOE Complex Transformation, NNSA was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming, labor intensive, and inherently introduces bias and unaccounted for aspects of the scheduler or organization in the process. Clearly a tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline optimized project sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). In generating an integrated disposition schedule, each project (including facilities, environmental sites, and remedial action units) was identified, characterized, then ranked relative to other projects. Risk matrices allowed for core project data to be extrapolated into probable contamination levels, relative risks to the public, and other technical and risk parameters to be used in the development of an overall ranking. These matrices ultimately generated a complete data set that were used in the Ranking and Sequencing Model (RSM), commonly referred to as the SUPER model, for its numerous abilities to support D and D planning, prioritization, and sequencing
Alfonso, Victor I.; Bejarano, Cecilia; Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Orazi, Emanuele
2017-12-01
We study a large family of metric-affine theories with a projective symmetry, including non-minimally coupled matter fields which respect this invariance. The symmetry is straightforwardly realised by imposing that the connection only enters through the symmetric part of the Ricci tensor, even in the matter sector. We leave the connection completely free (including torsion), and obtain its general solution as the Levi-Civita connection of an auxiliary metric, showing that the torsion only appears as a projective mode. This result justifies the widely used condition of setting vanishing torsion in these theories as a simple gauge choice. We apply our results to some particular cases considered in the literature, including the so-called Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld theories among others. We finally discuss the possibility of imposing a gauge fixing where the connection is metric compatible, and comment on the genuine character of the non-metricity in theories where the two metrics are not conformally related.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckhause, Jeremy; Herold, Johannes
2014-01-01
Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dulcema6715@hotmail.com
2006-07-01
In this work a system coupled for the optimization of fuel recharges and control bars patterns in boiling water reactors (BWR by its initials in English) is presented. It was used a multi state recurrent neural net like optimization technique. This type of neural net has been used in the solution of diverse problems, in particular the design of patterns of control bars and the design of the fuel recharge. However, these problems have been resolved in an independent way with different optimization techniques. The system was developed in FORTRAN 77 language, it calls OCORN (Optimization of Cycles of Operation using Neural Nets) and it solves both problems of combinatory optimization in a coupled way. OCORN begins creating a seed recharge by means of an optimization through the Haling principle. Later on a pattern of control bars for this recharge seed is proposed. Then a new fuel recharge is designed using the control bars patterns previously found. By this way an iterative process begins among the optimization of control bars patterns and the fuel recharge until a stop criteria it is completed. The stop criteria is completed when the fuel recharges and the control bars patterns don't vary in several successive iterations. The final result is an optimal fuel recharge and its respective control bars pattern. In this work the obtained results by this system for a cycle of balance of 18 months divided in 12 steps of burnt are presented. The obtained results are very encouraging, since the fuel recharge and the control bars pattern, its fulfill with the restrictions imposed in each one of the problems. (Author)
Economic CO2 network optimization model COCATE European project (2010-2013)
Coussy, P.; Roussanaly, S.; Bureau-Cauchois, G.; Wildenborg, T.
2013-01-01
The COCATE project is a three-year collaboration project under the EU 7th framework program for research. One of the objective of COCATE project is to tackle the problems of rolling out a shared transportation infrastructure capable of connecting geological storage sites with various CO2 emitting
Technology trajectories and the selection of optimal R and D project sequences
van Bommel, Ties; Mahieu, R.J.; Nijssen, E.J.
2014-01-01
Given a set of R&D projects drawing on the same underlying technology, a technology trajectory refers to the order in which projects are executed. Due to their technological interdependence, the successful execution of one project can increase a firm's technological capability, and help to
Nguyen, Dorothy; Vedamurthy, Indu; Schor, Clifton
2008-01-01
Accommodation and convergence systems are cross-coupled so that stimulation of one system produces responses by both systems. Ideally, the cross-coupled responses of accommodation and convergence match their respective stimuli. When expressed in diopters and meter angles respectively, stimuli for accommodation and convergence are equal in the mid-sagittal plane when viewed with symmetrical convergence, where historically, the gains of the cross coupling (AC/A and CA/C ratios) have been quanti...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiu, K.; Gibson, J. M.
2000-01-01
We investigate the design for a scattering with angular limitation in projection electron-beam lithography (SCALPEL) based electron projection system with a demagnification of -4. By a ''field-flip'' process we can construct a doublet in which the magnetic field has a flat feature in most of the optic column but opposite sign at two sides connected by a sharp transition region. Such a theoretical model can give a near zero chromatic aberration of rotation and much smaller field curvature and astigmatism. Compared with the conventional doublet, the total image blur caused by aberrations at 1/√(2) mm off-axis distance and 1.5 mrad semiangle aperture at the mask side is about only 24 nm for a column length of 400 mm. A shorter column, less than the current 400 mm, is also favored for further reducing the total aberration. These guarantee that we can choose a much larger aperture angle (compared with present 0.5 mrad) and beam current density in such a SCALPEL projection system to achieve higher throughput while still maintaining current resolution. A practical issue for possible magnetic lens design is also discussed. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt
1998-01-01
Achievement of optimum selectivity, sensitivity and robustness in speciation analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection requires that each instrumental component is selected and optimized with a view to the ideal....... The optimized anion and cation exchange HPLC-ICP-MS systems were used for arsenic speciation in contaminated ground water and in an in-house shrimp reference sample. For the purpose of verification, HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization was additionally used for arsenic...... a mass balance of the analytes in each fraction of the extraction procedure, by recovery of spikes and by employing and comparing independent techniques. The urgent need for reference materials certified for elemental species is stressed....
Binder Ronald K; Leipsic Jonathon; Wood David; Moore Teri; Toggweiler Stefan; Willson Alex; Gurvitch Ronen; Freeman Melanie; Webb John G
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND Identifying the optimal fluoroscopic projection of the aortic valve is important for successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Various imaging modalities including multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have been proposed for prediction of the optimal deployment projection. We evaluated a method that provides 3 dimensional angiographic reconstructions (3DA) of the aortic root for prediction of the optimal deployment angle and compared it with MDCT. METHODS AND RES...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Bo; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)
2012-07-01
An endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton combined heat and power (CHP) plant model coupled to variable-temperature heat reservoirs is established. The exergoeconomic performance of the CHP plant is investigated using finite time thermodynamics. The analytical formulae about dimensionless profit rate and exergy efficiency of the CHP plant with the heat resistance losses in the hot-, cold- and consumer-side heat exchangers, the intercooler and the regenerator are deduced. By taking the maximum profit rate as the objective, the heat conductance allocation among the five heat exchangers and the choice of intercooling pressure ratio are optimized by numerical examples, the characteristic of the optimal dimensionless profit rate versus corresponding exergy efficiency is investigated. When the optimization is performed further with respect to the total pressure ratio, a double-maximum profit rate is obtained. The effects of the design parameters on the double-maximum dimensionless profit rate and corresponding exergy efficiency, optimal total pressure ratio and optimal intercooling pressure ratio are analyzed in detail, and it is found that there exist an optimal consumer-side temperature and an optimal thermal capacitance rate matching between the working fluid and the heat reservoir, respectively, corresponding to a thrice-maximum dimensionless profit rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олег Владимирович ЛОГИНОВ
2015-05-01
The main types of marketing activities and the main categories of the target audience are determined. Model's optimality criterion is the forecast of enrollment of students. Optimality criterion is based on the effectiveness of marketing activities, taking into account the specificity of the reaction of various categories of the target audience.
Yu, Sen; Lu, Hongwei
2018-04-01
Under the effects of global change, water crisis ranks as the top global risk in the future decade, and water conflict in transboundary river basins as well as the geostrategic competition led by it is most concerned. This study presents an innovative integrated PPMGWO model of water resources optimization allocation in a transboundary river basin, which is integrated through the projection pursuit model (PPM) and Grey wolf optimization (GWO) method. This study uses the Songhua River basin and 25 control units as examples, adopting the PPMGWO model proposed in this study to allocate the water quantity. Using water consumption in all control units in the Songhua River basin in 2015 as reference to compare with optimization allocation results of firefly algorithm (FA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms as well as the PPMGWO model, results indicate that the average difference between corresponding allocation results and reference values are 0.195 bil m3, 0.151 bil m3, and 0.085 bil m3, respectively. Obviously, the average difference of the PPMGWO model is the lowest and its optimization allocation result is closer to reality, which further confirms the reasonability, feasibility, and accuracy of the PPMGWO model. And then the PPMGWO model is adopted to simulate allocation of available water quantity in Songhua River basin in 2018, 2020, and 2030. The simulation results show water quantity which could be allocated in all controls demonstrates an overall increasing trend with reasonable and equal exploitation and utilization of water resources in the Songhua River basin in future. In addition, this study has a certain reference value and application meaning to comprehensive management and water resources allocation in other transboundary river basins.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simonetto, Andrea [IBM Research Center Ireland
2017-11-27
This paper develops an online optimization method to maximize the operational objectives of distribution-level distributed energy resources (DERs) while adjusting the aggregate power generated (or consumed) in response to services requested by grid operators. The design of the online algorithm is based on a projected-gradient method, suitably modified to accommodate appropriate measurements from the distribution network and the DERs. By virtue of this approach, the resultant algorithm can cope with inaccuracies in the representation of the AC power, it avoids pervasive metering to gather the state of noncontrollable resources, and it naturally lends itself to a distributed implementation. Optimality claims are established in terms of tracking of the solution of a well-posed time-varying optimization problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthold, W.P.; Orechwa, Y.; Su, S.F.; Hutter, E.; Batch, R.V.; Beitel, J.C.; Turski, R.B.; Lam, P.S.K.
1979-11-01
A parameter study was conducted to determine the interrelated effects of: loosely or tightly coupled fuel regions separated by internal blanket assemblies, number of fuel regions, core height, number and arrangement of internal blanket subassemblies, number and size of fuel pins in a subassembly, etc. the effects of these parameters on sodium void reactivity, Doppler, incoherence, breeding gain, and thermohydraulics were of prime interest. Trends were established and ground work laid for optimization of a large, radially-heterogeneous, LMFBR core that will have low energetics in an HCDA and will have good thermal and breeding performance
Asay-Davis, Xylar; Cornford, Stephen; Martin, Daniel; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Holland, David; Holland, Denise
2015-04-01
The MISMIP and MISMIP3D marine ice sheet model intercomparison exercises have become popular benchmarks, and several modeling groups have used them to show how their models compare to both analytical results and other models. Similarly, the ISOMIP (Ice Shelf-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project) experiments have acted as a proving ground for ocean models with sub-ice-shelf cavities.As coupled ice sheet-ocean models become available, an updated set of benchmark experiments is needed. To this end, we propose sequel experiments, MISMIP+ and ISOMIP+, with an end goal of coupling the two in a third intercomparison exercise, MISOMIP (the Marine Ice Sheet-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project). Like MISMIP3D, the MISMIP+ experiments take place in an idealized, three-dimensional setting and compare full 3D (Stokes) and reduced, hydrostatic models. Unlike the earlier exercises, the primary focus will be the response of models to sub-shelf melting. The chosen configuration features an ice shelf that experiences substantial lateral shear and buttresses the upstream ice, and so is well suited to melting experiments. Differences between the steady states of each model are minor compared to the response to melt-rate perturbations, reflecting typical real-world applications where parameters are chosen so that the initial states of all models tend to match observations. The three ISOMIP+ experiments have been designed to to make use of the same bedrock topography as MISMIP+ and using ice-shelf geometries from MISMIP+ results produced by the BISICLES ice-sheet model. The first two experiments use static ice-shelf geometries to simulate the evolution of ocean dynamics and resulting melt rates to a quasi-steady state when far-field forcing changes in either from cold to warm or from warm to cold states. The third experiment prescribes 200 years of dynamic ice-shelf geometry (with both retreating and advancing ice) based on a BISICLES simulation along with similar flips between warm and
Optimization of the steam generator project of a gas cooled nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Massao
1978-01-01
The present work is concerned with the modeling of the primary and secondary circuits of a gas cooled nuclear reactor in order to obtain the relation between the parameters of the two cycles and the steam generator performance. The procedure allows the optimization of the steam generator, through the maximization of the plant net power, and the application of the optimal control theory of dynamic systems. The heat balances for the primary and secondary circuits are carried out simultaneously with the optimized - design parameters of the steam generator, obtained using an iterative technique. (author)
Uvarova, Svetlana; Kutsygina, Olga; Smorodina, Elena; Gumba, Khuta
2018-03-01
The effectiveness and sustainability of an enterprise are based on the effectiveness and sustainability of its portfolio of projects. When creating a production program for a construction company based on a portfolio of projects and related to the planning and implementation of initiated organizational and economic changes, the problem of finding the optimal "risk-return" ratio of the program (portfolio of projects) is solved. The article proposes and approves the methodology of forming a portfolio of enterprise projects on the basis of the correspondence principle. Optimization of the portfolio of projects on the criterion of "risk-return" also contributes to the company's sustainability.
Optimization of CZT Detectors with Sub-mm Pixel Pitches Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and optimize 0.5 cm thick Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors with very small pixel pitches, i.e. 350 micron and 600 micron. The proposed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, M.G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I.S.; Kraimer, M.R.; Westbrook, E.M.
1986-01-01
The intense x radiation from a synchrotron source could, with a suitable detector, provide a complete set of diffraction images from a protein crystal before the crystal is damaged by radiation (2 to 3 min). An area detector consisting of a 40 mm dia. x-ray fluorescing phosphor, coupled with an image intensifier and lens to a CCD image sensor, was developed to determine the effectiveness of such a detector in protein crystallography. The detector was used in an experiment with a rotating anode x-ray generator. Diffraction patterns from a lysozyme crystal obtained with this detector are compared to those obtained with film. The two images appear to be virtually identical. The flux of 10 4 x-ray photons/s was observed on the detector at the rotating anode generator. At the 6-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, the flux on an 80 x 80 mm 2 detector is expected to be >10 9 photons/s. The projected design of such a synchrotron detector shows that a diffraction-peak count >10 6 could be obtained in ∼0.5 s. With an additional ∼0.5 s readout time of a 512 x 512 pixel CCD, the data acquisition time per frame would be ∼1 s so that ninety 1 0 diffraction images could be obtained, with approximately 1% precision, in less than 3 min
Koops, L.S.W.
2017-01-01
Infrastructure projects - such as the construction of tunnels and bridges or the (re)construction of roads and highways – are always performed to add quality to society. In The Netherlands, these projects are most often financed by the government, from local to national level, and constructed by
Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagner Jonas
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel’s calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.
Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas Wagner
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.
Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions
Wagner, Jonas; Binkowski, Eva; Bronsart, Robert
2014-06-01
In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC) the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.
Nuclear reactors project optimization based on neural network and genetic algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino S.
1997-01-01
This work presents a prototype of a system for nuclear reactor core design optimization based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks. A neural network is modeled and trained in order to predict the flux and the neutron multiplication factor values based in the enrichment, network pitch and cladding thickness, with average error less than 2%. The values predicted by the neural network are used by a genetic algorithm in this heuristic search, guided by an objective function that rewards the high flux values and penalizes multiplication factors far from the required value. Associating the quick prediction - that may substitute the reactor physics calculation code - with the global optimization capacity of the genetic algorithm, it was obtained a quick and effective system for nuclear reactor core design optimization. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs
2017-06-01
This project developed a methodology to simulate and analyze roadway traffic patterns : and expected penetration and timing of electric vehicles (EVs) with application directed : toward the requirements for electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) si...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Homaifar, Abdollah; Esterline, Albert; Kimiaghalam, Bahram
2005-01-01
The Hybrid Projected Gradient-Evolutionary Search Algorithm (HPGES) algorithm uses a specially designed evolutionary-based global search strategy to efficiently create candidate solutions in the solution space...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.
2013-01-01
This report details the results of the modeling and simulation work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project during the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project is to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but are outside the scope of this study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Zhihong; Yang Kun; Sun Yaowei; Yuan Jiahai; Zhang Hongwei; Zhang Zhizheng
2006-01-01
In 2002, China began to inspire restructuring of the electric power sector to improve its performance. Especially, with the rapid increase of electricity demand in China, there is a need for non-utility generation investment that cannot be met by government finance alone. However, a first prerequisite is that regulators and decision-makers (DMs) should carefully consider how to balance the need to attract private investment against the policy objectives of minimizing monopoly power and fostering competitive markets. So in the interim term of electricity market, a decentralized decision-making process should eventually replace the centralized generation capacity expansion planning. In this paper, firstly, on the basis of the current situation, a model for evaluating generation projects by comprehensive utilization of fuzzy appraisal and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is developed. Secondly, a case study of generation project evaluation in China is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in selecting optimal generation projects and attracting private investors. In the case study, with considerations of attracting adequate private investment and promoting energy conservation in China, five most promising policy instruments selected as evaluation factors include project duration, project costs, predicted on-grid price level, environmental protection, enterprise credit grading and performance. Finally, a comprehensive framework that enables the DM to have better concentration and to make more sound decisions by combining the model proposed with modern computer science is designed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Jin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Steel-spring floating slab tracks are one of the most effective methods to reduce vibrations from underground railways, which has drawn more and more attention in scientific communities. In this paper, the steel-spring floating slab track located in Track Vibration Abatement and Control Laboratory was modeled with four-pole parameter method. The influences of the fastener damping ratio, the fastener stiffness, the steel-spring damping ratio, and the steel-spring stiffness were researched for the rail displacement and the foundation acceleration. Results show that the rail displacement and the foundation acceleration will decrease with the increase of the fastener stiffness or the steel-spring damping ratio. However, the rail displacement and the foundation acceleration have the opposite variation tendency for the fastener damping ratio and the steel-spring stiffness. In order to optimize the rail displacement and the foundation acceleration affected by the fastener damping ratio and the steel-spring stiffness at the same time, a multiobjective ant colony optimization (ACO was employed. Eventually, Pareto optimal frontier of the rail displacement and the foundation acceleration was derived. Furthermore, the desirable values of the fastener damping ratio and the steel-spring stiffness can be obtained according to the corresponding Pareto optimal solution set.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dardour, S
2007-04-15
This work deals with modelling, simulation and optimization of the coupling between nuclear reactors (PWR, modular high temperature reactors) and desalination processes (multiple effect distillation, reverse osmosis). The reactors considered in this study are PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and GTMHR (Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor). The desalination processes retained are MED (Multi Effect Distillation) and SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis). A software tool: EXCELEES of thermodynamic modelling of coupled systems, based on the Engineering Algebraic Equation Solver has been developed. Models of energy conversion systems and of membrane desalination processes and distillation have been developed. Based on the first and second principles of thermodynamics, these models have allowed to determine the optimal running point of the coupled systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been completed by a first economic evaluation. Based on the use of the DEEP software of the IAEA, this evaluation has confirmed the interest to use these types of reactors for desalination. A modelling tool of thermal processes of desalination in dynamic condition has been developed too. This tool has been applied to the study of the dynamics of an existing plant and has given satisfying results. A first safety checking has been at last carried out. The transients able to jeopardize the integrated system have been identified. Several measures aiming at consolidate the safety have been proposed. (O.M.)
Li, Ji; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Yonghong; Zou, Chong; Peng, Wei; Alam Sm, Jahangir
2017-04-19
As a high performance-cost ratio solution for differential pressure measurement, piezo-resistive differential pressure sensors are widely used in engineering processes. However, their performance is severely affected by the environmental temperature and the static pressure applied to them. In order to modify the non-linear measuring characteristics of the piezo-resistive differential pressure sensor, compensation actions should synthetically consider these two aspects. Advantages such as nonlinear approximation capability, highly desirable generalization ability and computational efficiency make the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) a practical approach for this critical task. Since the KELM model is intrinsically sensitive to the regularization parameter and the kernel parameter, a searching scheme combining the coupled simulated annealing (CSA) algorithm and the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm is adopted to find an optimal KLEM parameter set. A calibration experiment at different working pressure levels was conducted within the temperature range to assess the proposed method. In comparison with other compensation models such as the back-propagation neural network (BP), radius basis neural network (RBF), particle swarm optimization optimized support vector machine (PSO-SVM), particle swarm optimization optimized least squares support vector machine (PSO-LSSVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM), the compensation results show that the presented compensation algorithm exhibits a more satisfactory performance with respect to temperature compensation and synthetic compensation problems.
The design and implementation about the project of optimizing proxy servers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Ling; Liu Baoxu
2006-01-01
Proxy server is an important facility in the network of an organization, which play an important role in security and access control and accelerating access of Internet. This article introduces the action of proxy servers, and expounds the resolutions to optimize proxy servers at IHEP: integration, dynamic domain name resolves and data synchronization. (authors)
Agrawal, Piyush; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Kronik, Leeor
2013-08-13
We propose a nonempirical, pair-wise or many-body dispersion-corrected, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional. This functional retains the advantages of the optimal-tuning approach in the prediction of the electronic structure. At the same time, it gains accuracy in the prediction of binding energies for dispersively bound systems, as demonstrated on the S22 and S66 benchmark sets of weakly bound dimers.
A Probabilistic Alternative Approach to Optimal Project Profitability Based on the Value-at-Risk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonggu Kim
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an investment decision-making process for sustainable development based on the profitability impact factors for overseas projects. Investors prefer to use the discounted cash-flow method. Although this method is simple and straightforward, its critical weakness is its inability to reflect the factor volatility associated with the project evaluation. To overcome this weakness, the Value-at-Risk method is used to apply the volatility of the profitability impact factors, thereby reflecting the risks and establishing decision-making criteria for risk-averse investors. Risk-averse investors can lose relatively acceptable investment opportunities to risk-neutral or risk-amenable investors due to strict investment decision-making criteria. To overcome this problem, critical factors are selected through a Monte Carlo simulation and a sensitivity analysis, and solutions to the critical-factor problems are then found by using the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving and a business version of the Project Definition Rating Index. This study examines the process of recovering investment opportunities with projects that are investment feasible and that have been rejected when applying the criterion of the Value-at-Risk method. To do this, a probabilistic alternative approach is taken. To validate this methodology, the proposed framework for an improved decision-making process is demonstrated using two actual overseas projects of a Korean steel-making company.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard; Brown, Tom [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)
2012-07-01
Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems such as the European power system. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be stable and convergent. It is then scaled to the European level in order to find the optimal power system infrastructure development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe until 2050 with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) power. (orig.)
Determination of the optimal proportions of public and private funds in project budget management
Pykhtin, Kirill; Simankina, Tatyana; Karmokova, Kristina; Zonova, Alevtina
2017-10-01
Although the historical period of public-private partnership in the Russian federation is rather short, yet this type of cooperation of private entrepreneurs and authorities became the major driver of growth in such areas as construction, utilities, infrastructure and energetics. However, even though the experience of foreign countries is much larger than of Russia, great number of human resources are still consumed within disputes and disquisitions in order to assess the ratio of private and public funds. The present paper is based on the idea that this ratio can be determined for each of the industries with the use of statistical data. The authors offered the change in project cost range within the project classification regarding to the “project scale” characteristic.
Skorupka, Dariusz; Duchaczek, Artur; Waniewska, Agnieszka; Kowacka, Magdalena
2017-07-01
Due to their properties unmanned aerial vehicles have huge number of possibilities for application in construction engineering. The nature and extent of construction works performedmakes the decision to purchase the right equipment significant for the possibility for its further use while monitoring the implementation of these works. Technical factors, such as the accuracy and quality of the applied measurement instruments are especially important when monitoring the realization of construction projects. The paper presents the optimization of the choice of unmanned aerial vehicles using the Bellinger method. The decision-making analysis takes into account criteria that are particularly crucial by virtue of the range of monitoring of ongoing construction works.
Delahaye, P; Angot, J; Cam, J F; Traykov, E; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jardin, P; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Maunoury, L; Patti, G; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Vondrasek, R; Wenander, F
2016-01-01
The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam c...
Design optimization of 600 A-13 kA current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN
Spiller, D M; Al-Mosawl, M K; Friend, C M; Thacker, P; Ballarino, A
2001-01-01
The requirements of the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been widely publicized. CERN require hybrid current leads of resistive and HTS materials with current ratings of 600 A, 6 kA and 13 kA. BICC General Superconductors, in collaboration with the University of Southampton, have developed and manufactured prototype current leads for the Large Hadron Collider project. The resistive section consists of a phosphorus de-oxidized copper conductor and heat exchanger and the HTS section is constructed from BICC General's (Pb, Bi)2223 tapes with a reduced thermal conductivity Ag alloy sheath. We present the results of the materials optimization studies for the resistive and the HTS sections. Some results of the acceptance tests at CERN are discussed. (9 refs).
Optimization of Italian CMS computing centers via MIUR funded research projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boccali, T; Mazzoni, E; Donvito, G; Pompili, A; Ricca, G Della; Talamo, I; Argiro, S; Grandi, C; Bonacorsi, D; Lista, L; Fabozzi, F; Barone, L M; Santocchia, A; Riahi, H; Tricomi, A; Sgaravatto, M; Maron, G
2014-01-01
In 2012, 14 Italian Institutions participating LHC Experiments (10 in CMS) have won a grant from the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR), to optimize Analysis activities and in general the Tier2/Tier3 infrastructure. A large range of activities is actively carried on: they cover data distribution over WAN, dynamic provisioning for both scheduled and interactive processing, design and development of tools for distributed data analysis, and tests on the porting of CMS software stack to new highly performing / low power architectures.
Krimer, Dmitry O.; Hartl, Benedikt; Mintert, Florian; Rotter, Stefan
2017-10-01
Ensembles of quantum-mechanical spins offer a promising platform for quantum memories, but proper functionality requires accurate control of unavoidable system imperfections. We present an efficient control scheme for a spin ensemble strongly coupled to a single-mode cavity based on a set of Volterra equations relying solely on weak classical control pulses. The viability of our approach is demonstrated in terms of explicit storage and readout sequences that will serve as a starting point towards the realization of more demanding full quantum-mechanical optimal control schemes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette
This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, Melissa R. [Ohlone College, Fremont, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Bryan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bekker, Logan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dudukovic, Nikola [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-08-12
Large Area Projection Microstereolithography (LAPμSL) is a new technology that allows the additive manufacture of parts that have feature sizes spanning from centimeters to tens of microns. Knowing the accuracy of builds from a system like this is a crucial step in development. This project explored the capabilities of the second and newest LAPμSL system that was built by comparing the features of actual builds to the desired structures. The system was then characterized in order to achieve the best results. The photo polymeric resins that were used were Autodesk PR48 and HDDA. Build parameters for Autodesk PR48 were found that allowed the prints to progress while using the full capacity of the system to print quality parts in a relatively short amount of time. One of the larger prints in particular had a print time that was nearly eighteen times faster than it would have been had printed in the first LAPμSL system. The characterization of HDDA resin helped the understanding that the flux of the light projected into the resin also affected the quality of the builds, rather than just the dose of light given. Future work for this project includes exploring the use of other resins in the LAPμSL systems, exploring the use of Raman Spectroscopy to analyze builds, and completing the characterization of the LAPμSL system.
Prediction and optimization methods for electric vehicle charging schedules in the EDISON project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aabrandt, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bach; Pedersen, Anders Bro
2012-01-01
project has been launched to investigate various areas relevant to electric vehicle integration. As part of EDISON an electric vehicle aggregator has been developed to demonstrate smart charging of electric vehicles. The emphasis of this paper is the mathematical methods on which the EDISON aggregator...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O’Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J
2013-01-01
Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient’s breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient’s respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient’s anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makowitz, H.; Barber, D.G.; Dean, E.M.
1989-01-01
A ''Tightly Coupled'' transient analysis system for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (FBR-II) is presently under development. The system consists of a faster-than-real-time high fidelity reactor simulation, advanced graphics displays, expert system coupling, and real-time data coupling via the EBR-II data acquisition system to and from the plant and the control system. The first generation software has been developed and tested. Various subsystem couplings and the total system integration have been checked out. A ''Lightly Coupled'' EBR-II reactor startup was conducted in August of 1988 as a demonstration of the system. This system should enhance the diagnostic and prognostic capability of EBR-II in the near term and provide automatic control during startup and power maneuvering in the future, as well as serve as a testbed for new control system development for advanced reactors. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this report we demonstrate a practical multivariate design of experiment (DoE approach for asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 method optimization using separation of lipoprotein subclasses as an example. First, with the aid of commercially available software, we built a full factorial screening design where the theoretical outcomes were calculated by applying established formulas that govern AF4 channel performance for a 5–35 nm particle size range of interest for lipid particles. Second, using the desirable ranges of instrumental parameters established from theoretical optimization, we performed fractional factorial DoE for AF4 separation of pure albumin and ferritin with UV detection to narrow the range of instrumental parameters and allow optimum size resolution while minimizing losses from membrane immobilization. Third, the optimal range of conditions were tested using response surface DoE for sub-fractionation of high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL in human serum, where the recovery of the analytes were monitored by fraction collection and isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS analysis of each individual fraction for cholesterol and apolipoproteins (ApoA-1 and ApoB-100. Our results show that DoE is an effective tool in combining AF4 theoretical knowledge and experimental data in finding the most optimal set of AF4 instrumental parameters for quantitative coupling with LC-MS/MS measurements.
Optimization of auxiliary basis sets for the LEDO expansion and a projection technique for LEDO-DFT.
Götz, Andreas W; Kollmar, Christian; Hess, Bernd A
2005-09-01
We present a systematic procedure for the optimization of the expansion basis for the limited expansion of diatomic overlap density functional theory (LEDO-DFT) and report on optimized auxiliary orbitals for the Ahlrichs split valence plus polarization basis set (SVP) for the elements H, Li--F, and Na--Cl. A new method to deal with near-linear dependences in the LEDO expansion basis is introduced, which greatly reduces the computational effort of LEDO-DFT calculations. Numerical results for a test set of small molecules demonstrate the accuracy of electronic energies, structural parameters, dipole moments, and harmonic frequencies. For larger molecular systems the numerical errors introduced by the LEDO approximation can lead to an uncontrollable behavior of the self-consistent field (SCF) process. A projection technique suggested by Löwdin is presented in the framework of LEDO-DFT, which guarantees for SCF convergence. Numerical results on some critical test molecules suggest the general applicability of the auxiliary orbitals presented in combination with this projection technique. Timing results indicate that LEDO-DFT is competitive with conventional density fitting methods. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Multiple R&D projects scheduling optimization with improved particle swarm algorithm.
Liu, Mengqi; Shan, Miyuan; Wu, Juan
2014-01-01
For most enterprises, in order to win the initiative in the fierce competition of market, a key step is to improve their R&D ability to meet the various demands of customers more timely and less costly. This paper discusses the features of multiple R&D environments in large make-to-order enterprises under constrained human resource and budget, and puts forward a multi-project scheduling model during a certain period. Furthermore, we make some improvements to existed particle swarm algorithm and apply the one developed here to the resource-constrained multi-project scheduling model for a simulation experiment. Simultaneously, the feasibility of model and the validity of algorithm are proved in the experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assareh, Ehsanolah; Poultangari, Iman [Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tandis, Emad [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jundi Shapor, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedael, Mojtaba [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-10-15
Enhancing the energy production from wind power in low-wind areas has always been a fundamental subject of research in the field of wind energy industry. In the first phase of this research, an initial investigation was performed to evaluate the potential of wind in south west of Iran. The initial results indicate that the wind potential in the studied location is not sufficient enough and therefore the investigated region is identified as a low wind speed area. In the second part of this study, an advanced optimization model was presented to regulate the torque in the wind generators. For this primary purpose, the torque of wind turbine is adjusted using a Proportional and integral (PI) control system so that at lower speeds of the wind, the power generated by generator is enhanced significantly. The proposed model uses the RBF neural network to adjust the net obtained gains of the PI controller for the purpose of acquiring the utmost electricity which is produced through the generator. Furthermore, in order to edify and instruct the neural network, the optimal data set is obtained by a Hybrid genetic algorithm along with a gravitational search algorithm (HGA-GSA). The proposed method is evaluated by using a 5MW wind turbine manufactured by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Final results of this study are indicative of the satisfactory and successful performance of the proposed investigated model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Jun-Wei; Shen Yi; Zhang Guo-Dong; Wang Yan-Feng; Cui Guang-Zhao
2013-01-01
According to the Lyapunov stability theorem, a new general hybrid projective complete dislocated synchronization scheme with non-derivative and derivative coupling based on parameter identification is proposed under the framework of drive-response systems. Every state variable of the response system equals the summation of the hybrid drive systems in the previous hybrid synchronization. However, every state variable of the drive system equals the summation of the hybrid response systems while evolving with time in our method. Complete synchronization, hybrid dislocated synchronization, projective synchronization, non-derivative and derivative coupling, and parameter identification are included as its special item. The Lorenz chaotic system, Rössler chaotic system, memristor chaotic oscillator system, and hyperchaotic Lü system are discussed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (general)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Rui; Roberti, Roberto
2017-01-01
satisfying different operational constraints and minimizing the total construction cost. To find an optimal solution of the RTPSP, this paper proposes an approach that, first, transfers the nominal market prices into track-possession-based real prices, and then generates a schedule of the construction works...... by solving a mixed-integer linear-programming model for the given track blocking proposal. The proposed approach is tested on a real-life case study from the Danish railway infrastructure manager. The results show that, in 2 h of computing time, the approach is able to provide solutions that are within 0...
Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.
1995-01-01
The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western's net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western's purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western's net revenue is computed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin
2013-01-01
This paper investigates generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between fractional-order and integer-order complex networks with delayed coupling, non-identical topological structures and different dimensions. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization criteria are derived by using the adaptive control method. In addition, the three-dimensional fractional-order chaotic system and the four-dimensional integer-order hyperchaotic system as the nodes of the drive and the response networks, respectively, are analyzed in detail, and numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)
2005-06-01
In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-Ho Nam
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Ever since the Arctic region has opened its mysterious passage to mankind, continuous attempts to take advantage of its fastest route across the region has been made. The Arctic region is still covered by thick ice and thus finding a feasible navigating route is essential for an economical voyage. To find the optimal route, it is necessary to establish an efficient transit model that enables us to simulate every possible route in advance. In this work, an enhanced algorithm to determine the optimal route in the Arctic region is introduced. A transit model based on the simulated sea ice and environmental data numerically modeled in the Arctic is developed. By integrating the simulated data into a transit model, further applications such as route simulation, cost estimation or hindcast can be easily performed. An interactive simulation system that determines the optimal Arctic route using the transit model is developed. The simulation of optimal routes is carried out and the validity of the results is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Mikhajlovich Tarasyev
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an economic growth model taking into account two factors of production: fixed capital and labor force, to study the dynamics of GDP growth. The dependence of the output of these factors is described by a production function of the exponential type. Within the framework of the optimal control theory, the optimization problem for investment levels is being solved to maximize the integral index of consumption. We study the qualitative properties of optimal trajectories as solutions of the Hamiltonian systems arising in Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The sensitivity analysis of the equilibrium solutions of the economic system is implemented with respect to the elasticity coefficients of the production function, the depreciation rate of the capital, and the discount factor, and growth trends are indicated. The econometric analysis of the model parameters is provided basing on real data for the Russian economy. In accordance with the results of the regression analysis, the projection of economic development is constructed in conditions of the applicability of the economic growth model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betcke, Marta M; Lionheart, William R B
2013-01-01
The mechanical motion of the gantry in conventional cone beam CT scanners restricts the speed of data acquisition in applications with near real time requirements. A possible resolution of this problem is to replace the moving source detector assembly with static parts that are electronically activated. An example of such a system is the Rapiscan Systems RTT80 real time tomography scanner, with a static ring of sources and axially offset static cylinder of detectors. A consequence of such a design is asymmetrical axial truncation of the cone beam projections resulting, in the sense of integral geometry, in severely incomplete data. In particular we collect data only in a fraction of the Tam–Danielsson window, hence the standard cone beam reconstruction techniques do not apply. In this work we propose a family of multi-sheet surface rebinning methods for reconstruction from such truncated projections. The proposed methods combine analytical and numerical ideas utilizing linearity of the ray transform to reconstruct data on multi-sheet surfaces, from which the volumetric image is obtained through deconvolution. In this first paper in the series, we discuss the rebinning to multi-sheet surfaces. In particular we concentrate on the underlying transforms on multi-sheet surfaces and their approximation with data collected by offset multi-source scanning geometries like the RTT. The optimal multi-sheet surface and the corresponding rebinning function are found as a solution of a variational problem. In the case of the quadratic objective, the variational problem for the optimal rebinning pair can be solved by a globally convergent iteration. Examples of optimal rebinning pairs are computed for different trajectories. We formulate the axial deconvolution problem for the recovery of the volumetric image from the reconstructions on multi-sheet surfaces. Efficient and stable solution of the deconvolution problem is the subject of the second paper in this series (Betcke and
Optimal image alignment with random projections of manifolds: algorithm and geometric analysis.
Kokiopoulou, Effrosyni; Kressner, Daniel; Frossard, Pascal
2011-06-01
This paper addresses the problem of image alignment based on random measurements. Image alignment consists of estimating the relative transformation between a query image and a reference image. We consider the specific problem where the query image is provided in compressed form in terms of linear measurements captured by a vision sensor. We cast the alignment problem as a manifold distance minimization problem in the linear subspace defined by the measurements. The transformation manifold that represents synthesis of shift, rotation, and isotropic scaling of the reference image can be given in closed form when the reference pattern is sparsely represented over a parametric dictionary. We show that the objective function can then be decomposed as the difference of two convex functions (DC) in the particular case where the dictionary is built on Gaussian functions. Thus, the optimization problem becomes a DC program, which in turn can be solved globally by a cutting plane method. The quality of the solution is typically affected by the number of random measurements and the condition number of the manifold that describes the transformations of the reference image. We show that the curvature, which is closely related to the condition number, remains bounded in our image alignment problem, which means that the relative transformation between two images can be determined optimally in a reduced subspace.
Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing
2011-04-01
The work proposed an optimization approach for structural sensor placement to improve the performance of vibro-acoustic virtual sensor for active noise control applications. The vibro-acoustic virtual sensor was designed to estimate the interior sound pressure of an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure using structural sensors. A spectral-spatial performance metric was proposed, which was used to quantify the averaged structural sensor output energy of a vibro-acoustic system excited by a spatially varying point source. It was shown that (i) the overall virtual sensing error energy was contributed additively by the modal virtual sensing error and the measurement noise energy; (ii) each of the modal virtual sensing error system was contributed by both the modal observability levels for the structural sensing and the target acoustic virtual sensing; and further (iii) the strength of each modal observability level was influenced by the modal coupling and resonance frequencies of the associated uncoupled structural/cavity modes. An optimal design of structural sensor placement was proposed to achieve sufficiently high modal observability levels for certain important panel- and cavity-controlled modes. Numerical analysis on a panel-cavity system demonstrated the importance of structural sensor placement on virtual sensing and active noise control performance, particularly for cavity-controlled modes.
Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design
Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter
2012-01-01
Hi-Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctiveuse strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater-management problem seeks to minimize water delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater-level constraints, water-supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid-optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive-linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater-management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid-optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid-optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater-management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources.
Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design
Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter
2012-01-01
Hi‐Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water‐management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic‐tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive‐use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least‐cost conjunctive‐use strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed‐integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater‐management problem seeks to minimize water‐delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater‐level constraints, water‐supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid‐optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive‐linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater‐management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid‐optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid‐optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater‐management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources.
Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design.
Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter
2012-01-01
Hi-Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater-management problem seeks to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater-level constraints, water-supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid-optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive-linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater-management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid-optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid-optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater-management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cech, Heinz; Fuchs, Erich; Heher, Anton; Ilo, Albana; Sezi, Tevfik; Trimmel, Johann; Werner, Thomas; Marti-Rodriguez, Juan
2010-09-15
Decentralized Energy Resources (DERs) will play a significant role in future energy scenarios. Today, the 'plug and forget' connection principle for renewable energy resources has the goal to maximize the active power transfer, without using their real capabilities. Other DERs based on fossil fuels are only activated in emergency situations. This paper describes the results of a demonstration project, where DERs installed in a large distribution area are utilized for participating in the day ahead energy market, frequency and voltage support for the transmission system, voltage support at specific distribution locations and feeders, and stability support in emergency situations.
Uvarova Svetlana; Kutsygina Olga; Smorodina Elena; Gumba Khuta
2018-01-01
The effectiveness and sustainability of an enterprise are based on the effectiveness and sustainability of its portfolio of projects. When creating a production program for a construction company based on a portfolio of projects and related to the planning and implementation of initiated organizational and economic changes, the problem of finding the optimal "risk-return" ratio of the program (portfolio of projects) is solved. The article proposes and approves the methodology of forming a por...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieder, U.; Fynbo, P.; Jokiniemi, J.; Paller, A.; Schatz, A.
1993-12-01
The status of the experimental work (LACE, KAEUER, FALCON test facilities, DEMONA and VANAM experiments) and the new generation of computer codes (eg. CONTAIN, FIPLOC-M, ITHACA, GOTHIC-M) for a coupled calculation of thermohydraulic and aerosol processes is reviewed and the lack of the present state of knowledge is summarized. The role of the coupled calculations with respect to advanced reactor design and to operating LWRs is also considered. (HP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, John C.
2009-01-01
This final report summarizes the research activities during the entire performance period of the NERI grant, including the extra 9 months granted under a no-cost time extension. Building up on the 14 quarterly reports submitted through October 2008, we present here an overview of the research accomplishments under the five tasks originally proposed in July 2004, together with citations for publications resulting from the project. The AFCI-NERI project provided excellent support for two undergraduate and 10 graduates students at the University of Michigan during a period of three years and nine months. Significant developments were achieved in three areas: (1) Efficient deterministic fuel cycle optimization algorithms both for PWR and SFR configurations, (2) Efficient search algorithm for PWR equilibrium cycles, and (3) Simplified Excel-based script for dynamic fuel cycle analysis of diverse cycles. The project resulted in a total of 8 conference papers and three journal papers, including two that will be submitted shortly. Three pending publications are attached to the report
Heat Treatment Optimization Studies on PIT Nb$_3$Sn Strand for the NED Project
Boutboul, T; den Ouden, A; Pedrini, D; Seeber, B; Volpini, G
2009-01-01
For the Next European Dipole (NED) program, a Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strand was successfully developed by SMI. This high-performance Nb$_{3}$Sn strand presents a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2 at 12 T applied field and 4.2 K and a filament diameter around 50 µm. Extensive heat treatment optimization studies were performed in order to maximize both critical current and RRR, with a plateau temperature down to 625 oC and duration up to 400 hours. It appears that a critical current enhancement of ~ 10 % can be achieved for a reaction schedule of 320 hours at 625 oC with non-copper critical current density respectively exceeding 2700 and 1500 A/mm2 at 12 and 15 T (4.2 K). Thanks to this modified heat treatment, this strand completely fulfils the NED stringent specification.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, Huiqiao; Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang; Niu, Tianye; Ren, Yi
2015-01-01
Purpose: Optimization-based reconstruction has been proposed and investigated for reconstructing CT images from sparse views, as such the radiation dose can be substantially reduced while maintaining acceptable image quality. The investigation has so far focused on reconstruction from evenly distributed sparse views. Recognizing the clinical situations wherein only unevenly sparse views are available, e.g., image guided radiation therapy, CT perfusion and multi-cycle cardiovascular imaging, we investigate the performance of optimization-based image reconstruction from unevenly sparse projection views in this work. Methods: The investigation is carried out using the FORBILD and an anthropomorphic head phantoms. In the study, 82 views, which are evenly sorted out from a full (360°) axial CT scan consisting of 984 views, form sub-scan I. Another 82 views are sorted out in a similar manner to form sub-scan II. As such, a CT scan with sparse (164) views at 1:6 ratio are formed. By shifting the two sub-scans relatively in view angulation, a CT scan with unevenly distributed sparse (164) views at 1:6 ratio are formed. An optimization-based method is implemented to reconstruct images from the unevenly distributed views. By taking the FBP reconstruction from the full scan (984 views) as the reference, the root mean square (RMS) between the reference and the optimization-based reconstruction is used to evaluate the performance quantitatively. Results: In visual inspection, the optimization-based method outperforms the FBP substantially in the reconstruction from unevenly distributed, which are quantitatively verified by the RMS gauged globally and in ROIs in both the FORBILD and anthropomorphic head phantoms. The RMS increases with increasing severity in the uneven angular distribution, especially in the case of anthropomorphic head phantom. Conclusion: The optimization-based image reconstruction can save radiation dose up to 12-fold while providing acceptable image quality
Jong-Ho Nam; Inha Park; Ho Jin Lee; Mi Ok Kwon; Kyungsik Choi; Young-Kyo Seo
2013-01-01
Ever since the Arctic region has opened its mysterious passage to mankind, continuous attempts to take advantage of its fastest route across the region has been made. The Arctic region is still covered by thick ice and thus finding a feasible navigating route is essential for an economical voyage. To find the optimal route, it is necessary to establish an efficient transit model that enables us to simulate every possible route in advance. In this work, an enhanced algorithm to determine the o...
Applying rigorous decision analysis methodology to optimization of a tertiary recovery project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wackowski, R.K.; Stevens, C.E.; Masoner, L.O.; Attanucci, V.; Larson, J.L.; Aslesen, K.S.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that the intent of this study was to rigorously look at all of the possible expansion, investment, operational, and CO 2 purchase/recompression scenarios (over 2500) to yield a strategy that would maximize net present value of the CO 2 project at the Rangely Weber Sand Unit. Traditional methods of project management, which involve analyzing large numbers of single case economic evaluations, was found to be too cumbersome and inaccurate for an analysis of this scope. The decision analysis methodology utilized a statistical approach which resulted in a range of economic outcomes. Advantages of the decision analysis methodology included: a more organized approach to classification of decisions and uncertainties; a clear sensitivity method to identify the key uncertainties; an application of probabilistic analysis through the decision tree; and a comprehensive display of the range of possible outcomes for communication to decision makers. This range made it possible to consider the upside and downside potential of the options and to weight these against the Unit's strategies. Savings in time and manpower required to complete the study were also realized
OPTiM: Optical projection tomography integrated microscope using open-source hardware and software.
Watson, Thomas; Andrews, Natalie; Davis, Samuel; Bugeon, Laurence; Dallman, Margaret D; McGinty, James
2017-01-01
We describe the implementation of an OPT plate to perform optical projection tomography (OPT) on a commercial wide-field inverted microscope, using our open-source hardware and software. The OPT plate includes a tilt adjustment for alignment and a stepper motor for sample rotation as required by standard projection tomography. Depending on magnification requirements, three methods of performing OPT are detailed using this adaptor plate: a conventional direct OPT method requiring only the addition of a limiting aperture behind the objective lens; an external optical-relay method allowing conventional OPT to be performed at magnifications >4x; a remote focal scanning and region-of-interest method for improved spatial resolution OPT (up to ~1.6 μm). All three methods use the microscope's existing incoherent light source (i.e. arc-lamp) and all of its inherent functionality is maintained for day-to-day use. OPT acquisitions are performed on in vivo zebrafish embryos to demonstrate the implementations' viability.
Nguyen, Dorothy; Vedamurthy, Indu; Schor, Clifton
2008-03-01
Accommodation and convergence systems are cross-coupled so that stimulation of one system produces responses by both systems. Ideally, the cross-coupled responses of accommodation and convergence match their respective stimuli. When expressed in diopters and meter angles, respectively, stimuli for accommodation and convergence are equal in the mid-sagittal plane when viewed with symmetrical convergence, where historically, the gains of the cross coupling (AC/A and CA/C ratios) have been quantified. However, targets at non-zero azimuth angles, when viewed with asymmetric convergence, present unequal stimuli for accommodation and convergence. Are the cross-links between the two systems calibrated to compensate for stimulus mismatches that increase with gaze-azimuth? We measured the response AC/A and stimulus CA/C ratios at zero azimuth, 17.5 and 30 deg of rightward gaze eccentricities with a Badal Optometer and Wheatstone-mirror haploscope. AC/A ratios were measured under open-loop convergence conditions along the iso-accommodation circle (locus of points that stimulate approximately equal amounts of accommodation to the two eyes at all azimuth angles). CA/C ratios were measured under open-loop accommodation conditions along the iso-vergence circle (locus of points that stimulate constant convergence at all azimuth angles). Our results show that the gain of accommodative-convergence (AC/A ratio) decreased and the bias of convergence-accommodation increased at the 30 deg gaze eccentricity. These changes are in directions that compensate for stimulus mismatches caused by spatial-viewing geometry during asymmetric convergence.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yeap, W. S.; Bevk, D.; Liu, X.; Krýsová, Hana; Pasquarelli, A.; Vanderzande, D.; Lutsen, L.; Kavan, Ladislav; Fahlman, M.; Maes, W.; Haenen, K.
2014-01-01
Roč. 4, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 42044-42053 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Functionalizations * Light-harvesting * Molecular wires Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Seifouri
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the laterally coupled distributed feedback semiconductor laser is studied. In the simulations performed, variations of structural parameters such as the grating amplitude a, the ridge width W, the thickness of the active region d, and other structural properties are considered. It is concluded that for certain values of structural parameters, the laser maintains the highest output power, the lowest distortion Bragg frequency δL and the smallest changes in the wavelength λ. Above threshold, output power more than 40mW and SMSR values greater than 50 dB were achieved.
Fu, Mingkun; Xu, Wei; Lu, Qing; Pan, Guoyu; Varga, Csanad
2014-04-15
High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS) provides an attractive alternative to the traditional triple quadrupole mass spectrometry selected reaction monitoring (SRM) methodology in the field of quantitation. An LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer coupled with a Shimadzu UHPLC system was used. A mass extraction window (MEW) was defined to mathematically correlate with mass resolving power (MRP). Five MRP measurement conditions at 7500, 15,000, 30,000, 60,000, and 100,000, and five MEW widths at 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100% of ±1000000/MRP, and were utilized as the experimental conditions. Comparison of profile and centroid algorithms was evaluated as well. Selection of pH 8.5 buffer, C4 column, 20% IPA, and 10 ppm H3 PO4 , minimized hydrophobic and silanol interactions to enhance separation. Narrowing the MEW minimized background noise, while over-narrowing the MEW gave signal loss due to mass accuracy deviation. The mass accuracy deviation was larger for lower MRP measurements especially with centriod data, and hence a profile algorithm was recommended. The post-ionization signal suppression was observed with low MRP and was further confirmed with the analysis of multi-level linearity. It was found that the HPLC/HRMS method with conditions of 20% ±1000000/MRP as MEW, 30,000 or 60,000 MRP, and profile algorithm, provide optimum results for quantitation of seven model phospholipids. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Final report on LDRD project: Simulation/optimization tools for system variability analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R. L. Bierbaum; R. F. Billau; J. E. Campbell; K. D. Marx; R. J. Sikorski; B. M. Thompson; S. D. Wix
1999-10-01
>This work was conducted during FY98 (Proposal Number 98-0036) and FY99 (Proposal Number 99-0818) under the auspices of the Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. Electrical simulation typically treats a single data point in the very large input space of component properties. For electrical simulation to reach its full potential as a design tool, it must be able to address the unavoidable variability and uncertainty in component properties. Component viability is strongly related to the design margin (and reliability) of the end product. During the course of this project, both tools and methodologies were developed to enable analysis of variability in the context of electrical simulation tools. Two avenues to link relevant tools were also developed, and the resultant toolset was applied to a major component.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosinski, S.T.; Nakos, J.T.
1993-01-01
Light water reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material properties reduced by long-term exposure to neutron irradiation can be recovered through a thermal annealing treatment. This technique to extend RPV life, discussed in this report, provides a complementary approach to analytical methodologies to evaluate RPV integrity. RPV annealing has been successfully demonstrated in the former Soviet Union and on a limited basis by the US (military applications only). The process of demonstrating the technical feasibility of annealing commercial US RPVs is being pursued through a cooperative effort between the nuclear industry and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program. Presently, two projects are under way through the USDOE PLIM Program to demonstrate the technical feasibility of annealing commercial US RPVS, (1) annealing re-embrittlement data base development and (2) heat transfer boundary condition experiments
Virtual Reality: a way to prepare and optimize operations in decommissioning projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabal, Caroline; Soulabaille, Yves
2016-01-01
The CEA has operated numerous nuclear facilities to carry out R and D and define nuclear fuel life cycle processes since the 1950's. It must now manage the clean-up and dismantling of those which have reached the end of their lifetime. These high priority actions have led to the creation of a dismantling R and D division which provides innovative tools, including in-situ radiological characterization, remote handling and cutting, and intervention scenario simulation. The latter involves running defined scenarios and verifying their suitability for the environment. Simulation is an ideal means of visualizing and therefore better knowing highly radioactive environments where humans cannot enter, of testing different technical alternatives, and of training workers prior to interventions. This paper describes Virtual Reality (VR) uses on dismantling projects. A VR simulation can be defined as an interactive and immersive simulation that enables the user to interact with a computer-simulated environment. VR environments, mostly based on visual immersion displayed through stereoscopic devices, can also include additional sensory information, such as sound or touch. Our application, based on audio, tactile and visual immersion, provides a useful support to verify pre-defined scenarios and to design alternative solutions if necessary. Thanks to a stereoscopic visualization, users are immersed in a virtual world, where they can hear virtual sounds when there is a collision, and can manipulate virtual objects and touch them via a haptic interface. This article first describes the PRESAGE immersive room in Marcoule. Then, the data preparation is explained, especially the 3D model reconstruction and the simulation configuration (remote handling and radiological). Next, different VR uses on decommissioning projects are shown and illustrated by examples. The advantages of such technologies include their speed in testing, user-friendliness, reactivity and usefulness in the
An optimized prototype of electromagnetic calorimeter for the SoLID project at Jefferson Lab
Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, D.; Han, D.; Zou, Z.; Li, Y.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.
2018-02-01
A shashlik-type electromagnetic calorimeter will be produced in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory for the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID). Wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers and clear fibers will be used as the light guide part of the calorimeter. The blue light from scintillators is converted into green light by WLS fibers and is carried out to the back of the calorimeters for readout. Since the magnetic field of SoLID reaches about 1.5 T behind the calorimeters, the design is to use clear fibers to further guide the light out of the solenoid for readout by PMTs. Therefore, it is important to study the perfomance of WLS and clear fibers. This paper describes a comparative test of two different WLS fibers and a light attenuation test for a clear fiber. The results show that the performance of the two WLS fibers is the same under large curvature bending, and that the bending has no effect on the light transmission through the clear fiber. In addition, a comparison test for two fiber end-face reflective materials is also reported. It reveals that the use of silver ink as a reflective material can increase the light yield by 30%. Thereby, an optimized prototype based on the above experimental results was built and the basic performance was tested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidoto, Edson Luiz Gea
1995-01-01
The aim of the present work was to optimize the signal to noise ratio in our NMR imaging system (TORM 005) by improving transducer's reception quality through better designed coils, balanced tuning circuit for this coils and power decoupling circuits and by reducing interference from the electromagnetic environment. For this purpose, we had to modify the internal electromagnetic shielding and incorporate line filters in the more critical signals paths. Also, new types of coils were developed, improving the signal to noise ratio, and allowing us to make clinical exams with superior quality for several anatomies. Balanced circuits for tuning and matching of the coil were studied and built, allowing a reduction of the coil losses because patient's load. This produced a more reliable coil tuning after positioning each new patient. Circuits to avoid the receiver input overload and decoupling circuits for the isolation of receiver coils from excitation coil were designed and incorporated to the TORM 005. All these alterations of our imaging system (TORM 005) contributed to a significant improvement in the signal to noise ratio, reliability and reproducibility of the system. This permitted to operate the system routinely for clinical applications, research and development in the area of ultra low magnetic field tomography. (author)
Nie, Lei; Hu, Mingming; Yan, Xu; Guo, Tingting; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Sheng; Qu, Haibin
2018-05-03
This case study described a successful application of the quality by design (QbD) principles to a coupling process development of insulin degludec. Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) risk analysis was first used to recognize critical process parameters (CPPs). Five CPPs, including coupling temperature (Temp), pH of desB30 solution (pH), reaction time (Time), desB30 concentration (Conc), and molar equivalent of ester per mole of desB30 insulin (MolE), were then investigated using a fractional factorial design. The curvature effect was found significant, indicating the requirement of second-order models. Afterwards, a central composite design was built with an augmented star and center points study. Regression models were developed for the CPPs to predict the purity and yield of predegludec using above experimental data. The R 2 and adjusted R 2 were higher than 96 and 93% for the two models respectively. The Q 2 values were more than 80% indicating a good predictive ability of models. MolE was found to be the most significant factor affecting both yield and purity of predegludec. Temp, pH, and Conc were also significant for predegludec purity, while Time appeared to remarkably influence the yield model. The multi-dimensional design space and normal operating region (NOR) with a robust setpoint were determined using a probability-based Monte-Carlo simulation method. The verified experimental results showed that the design space was reliable and effective. This study enriches the understanding of acetylation process and is instructional to other complicated operations in biopharmaceutical engineering.
Kar, Siddhartha; Chakraborty, Sujoy; Dey, Vidyut; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar
2017-10-01
This paper investigates the application of Taguchi method with fuzzy logic for multi objective optimization of roughness parameters in electro discharge coating process of Al-6351 alloy with powder metallurgical compacted SiC/Cu tool. A Taguchi L16 orthogonal array was employed to investigate the roughness parameters by varying tool parameters like composition and compaction load and electro discharge machining parameters like pulse-on time and peak current. Crucial roughness parameters like Centre line average roughness, Average maximum height of the profile and Mean spacing of local peaks of the profile were measured on the coated specimen. The signal to noise ratios were fuzzified to optimize the roughness parameters through a single comprehensive output measure (COM). Best COM obtained with lower values of compaction load, pulse-on time and current and 30:70 (SiC:Cu) composition of tool. Analysis of variance is carried out and a significant COM model is observed with peak current yielding highest contribution followed by pulse-on time, compaction load and composition. The deposited layer is characterised by X-Ray Diffraction analysis which confirmed the presence of tool materials on the work piece surface.
Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao
2017-07-01
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in 3D measurement techniques, contributing to the realization of faster and more accurate 3D measurement. As a representative of these techniques, fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has become a commonly used method for real-time 3D measurement, such as real-time quality control and online inspection. To date, most related research has been concerned with macroscopic 3D measurement, but microscopic 3D measurement, especially real-time microscopic 3D measurement, is rarely reported. However, microscopic 3D measurement plays an important role in 3D metrology and is indispensable in some applications in measuring micro scale objects like the accurate metrology of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. In this paper, we proposed a method which effectively combines optimized binary structured patterns with a number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time microscopic 3D measurement. A slight defocusing of our optimized binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on four-step phase-shifting FPP, providing the binary patterns with a comparable performance to ideal sinusoidal patterns. The static measurement accuracy can reach 8 μm, and the experimental results of a vibrating earphone diaphragm reveal that our system can successfully realize real-time 3D measurement of 120 frames per second (FPS) with a measurement range of 8~\\text{mm}× 6~\\text{mm} in lateral and 8 mm in depth.
De Smedt, Delphine; Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk; Wood, David; De Backer, Guy; Dallongeville, Jean; Seppo, Lehto; Pajak, Andrzej; Reiner, Zeljko; Vanuzzo, Diego; Georgiev, Borislav; Gotcheva, Nina; Annemans, Lieven
2012-11-01
The EUROASPIRE III survey indicated that the guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention are poorly implemented in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this health economic project was to assess the potential clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of optimizing cardiovascular prevention in eight EUROASPIRE III countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, and the U.K.). METHODS AND RESULTS The individual risk for subsequent cardiovascular events was estimated, based on published Framingham equations. Based on the EUROASPIRE III data, the type of suboptimal prevention, if any, was identified for each individual, and the effects of optimized tailored prevention (smoking cessation, diet and exercise, better management of elevated blood pressure and/or LDL-cholesterol) were estimated. Costs of prevention and savings of avoided events were based on country-specific data. A willingness to pay threshold of €30,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was used. The robustness of the results was validated by sensitivity analyses. Overall, the cost-effectiveness analyses for the eight countries showed mainly favourable results with an average incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €12,484 per QALY. Only in the minority of patients at the lowest risk for recurrent events, intensifying preventive therapy seems not cost-effective. Also, the single impact of intensified cholesterol control seems less cost-effective, possibly because their initial 2-year risk was already fairly low, hence the room for improvement is rather limited. These results underscore the societal value of optimizing prevention in most patients with established CHD, but also highlight the need for setting priorities towards patients more at risk and the need for more studies comparing intensified prevention with usual care in these patients.
Saito, Masatoshi
2010-08-01
This article describes the spectral optimization of dual-energy computed tomography using balanced filters (bf-DECT) to reduce the tube loadings and dose by dedicating to the acquisition of electron density information, which is essential for treatment planning in radiotherapy. For the spectral optimization of bf-DECT, the author calculated the beam-hardening error and air kerma required to achieve a desired noise level in an electron density image of a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom. The calculation enables the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage, balanced filter material, and its thickness. The optimal combination of tube voltages was 80 kV/140 kV in conjunction with Tb/Hf and Bi/Mo filter pairs; this combination agrees with that obtained in a previous study [M. Saito, "Spectral optimization for measuring electron density by the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method," Med. Phys. 36, 3631-3642 (2009)], although the thicknesses of the filters that yielded a minimum tube output were slightly different from those obtained in the previous study. The resultant tube loading of a low-energy scan of the present bf-DECT significantly decreased from 57.5 to 4.5 times that of a high-energy scan for conventional DECT. Furthermore, the air kerma of bf-DECT could be reduced to less than that of conventional DECT, while obtaining the same figure of merit for the measurement of electron density and effective atomic number. The tube-loading and dose efficiencies of bf-DECT were considerably improved by sacrificing the quality of the noise level in the images of effective atomic number.
Belpex and trilateral market coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This document describes the operation of Belpex, the Belgian power transmission spot market, and its linking with the French (Powernext) and Dutch (APX) auction-style day-ahead spot markets. A last part deals with the extension of this trilateral market to other European countries. Content: Belpex day-ahead market (DAM) (Goals of the DAM: Provide consumers with a wider choice of electrical energy sources, Enable the ARP's to optimize their portfolio in terms of imbalance costs, Reduce trade and credit risks for market players compared with the risks involved in concluding bilateral contracts, Provide economic players with a transparent price benchmark, Stimulate the opening of the electricity market); Market model Product (description, Contracts, Collateral calculation, From 12 January to launch date Corporate and Legal Aspects, Next developments); Trilateral Market Coupling (What is market coupling and what are the benefits?, Implementation of trilateral market coupling ('TLC') in France/Belgium/Netherlands, From Trilateral to Multilateral, Implementation of Trilateral Market Coupling (TLC) in France/Belgium/Netherlands, Decentralized market coupling mechanism, influence of import and export on area prices); Decentralized market coupling (2 countries Situations: unconstrained/constrained, Decentralized market coupling: 3 countries, High Level Properties of Market Coupling, Maximize flow until prices across link converge (or ATC limit reached), Power flows from low price area to high price area, Implementing a decentralized technical approach, Market Coupling Daily Process, Impact on Existing Exchange Arrangements, Implementing a decentralized contractual approach, TLC Project Process); From Trilateral to Multilateral (Geographic extensions, Towards an Open and Multilateral Market Coupling, Management of Interconnection Capacities, Interconnection Capacities: current situation, TSO Roles and Responsibilities in the TLC, Other Import/Export products on the
[Knowing the patient's representations in order to optimize the educational project].
Robin-Quach, Patricia
2009-09-01
To determine if this educational care meets the needs of the patients. To show that to know the representations made by the patient on his disease, his health and on his educational needs allows to define with him a programme of adapted accompaniment and to reduce the risk of ineffective care of his therapeutic programme. 7 interviews of patients were carried out before their integration in an educational process, in three different medico-surgical specialities, with the condition that the latter offer to the patients a formalized educational process. An interview of each of the 3 people in charge or referent of the educational unit was also carried out to understand the educational care proposed to the patients. The grid of interview of the patient used original techniques of expression, and aimed at investigating the representations of the patient on his disease, his health and his educational needs. The 3 services in which the interviews of the patients took place present 3 different educational structures of care: the first one has a profile of "psycho-pedagogical" educational care, the second, a profile of "psychological" type and the third, a profile of "educational" type. They thus propose different tools of educational care. The exploration of the representations of the patients shows that the latter have a groundless vision of the disease and of health within our hospitals which are "health promoters" today. Their educational needs are finally very far from their pathology, and thus from the medical field. They both take root in their personality and in society. Consequently, the 3 aforesaid educational structures are only very partially adapted to the needs of the patients. The educational optimal care of the patient can only be realized "tailor-made" to every patient, in a relation of collaboration between the health professionals and the patients. Finally, it must come largely outside the hospital. The educational care of the patient turns out much
Luo, Xi
2013-07-01
Waste heat can be captured as electrical energy to drive hydrogen evolution in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) by using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate. To determine the optimal membrane stack configuration for efficient hydrogen production in MRECs using ammonium bicarbonate solutions, different numbers of cell pairs and stack arrangements were tested. The optimum number of cell pairs was determined to be five based on MREC performance and a desire to minimize capital costs. The stack arrangement was altered by placing an extra low concentration chamber adjacent to anode chamber to reduce ammonia crossover. This additional chamber decreased ammonia nitrogen losses into anolyte by 60%, increased the coulombic efficiency to 83%, and improved the hydrogen yield to a maximum of 3.5mol H2/mol acetate, with an overall energy efficiency of 27%. These results improve the MREC process, making it a more efficient method for renewable hydrogen gas production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veneziani, Carmela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-07-25
Two sets of simulations were performed within this allocation: 1) a 12-year fully-coupled experiment in pre-industrial conditions, using the CICE4 version of the sea-ice model; 2) a set of multi-decadal ocean-ice-only experiments, forced with CORE-I atmospheric fields and using the CICE5 version of the sea-ice model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2000-07-01
This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Optimizing Fertilizer Application under Irrigated Wheat to Increase the Efficient Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Consequently Reduce Environmental Pollution. The project was carried out between 1994 and 1998 through the technical co-ordination of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water and fertilizer-N uptake efficiencies through integrated management of the complex Interactions involving inputs, soils, climate, and wheat cultivars. Its goals were: to investigate various aspects of fertilizer N uptake efficiency of wheat crops under irrigation through an interregional research network involving countries growing large areas of irrigated wheat; to use 15 N and the soil-moisture neutron probe to determine the fate of applied N, to follow water and nitrate movement in the soil, and to determine water balance and water-use efficiency in irrigated wheat cropping systems; to use the data generated to further develop and refine various relationships in the Ceres-Wheat computer simulation model; to use the knowledge generated to produce a N-rate-recommendation package to refine specific management strategies with respect to fertilizer applications and expected yields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogge, J.P.
1993-12-01
The output scheme of a quasi-optical gyrotron has been optimized in order to produce a gaussian output microwave beam suitable for transmission over long distances. The technique which has been applied consists of substituting one of the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot resonator in which the particle-wave interaction takes place by a diffraction grating placed in the -1 order Littrow mount and designed such that only orders -1 and 0 can propagate. In such a configuration, the diffraction angle of the order -1 coincides exactly with the incidence direction, thus providing a feedback in the cavity, whereas the order 0 constitutes the output of the resonator. A theoretical study of the power content in each diffracted order of a planar grating of infinite extent with equally spaced linear grooves as a function of the grating parameters has been performed. It has been shown that parameter domains can be found, which provide appropriate efficiencies in both orders for an application on a quasi-optical gyrotron. The Littrow condition was then adapted in order to match the spherical wavefronts of a gaussian beam incident on a possibly non-planar surface. The grooves become thus curvilinear and are no longer equally spaced. Measurements made on a cold test stand have confirmed the validity of the Littrow condition extension and allowed to determine its limits. It has also been shown that this type of cavity provides a mode having an optimal gaussian content and giving a minimal cavity transmission. The angular dispersion of the grating leads to a higher cavity transmission and to a slightly lower gaussian content for the adjacent resonator modes. The fundamental eigenmode electric field profile has been measured inside the cavity and is similar to that of an equivalent resonator made with two spherical mirrors. (author) figs., tabs., 141 refs
Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.
2014-12-01
Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.
2017-01-01
CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...
de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Zhao, Meixia; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Lili; Liu, Xingjuan
2016-01-01
In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) model was applied for optimization of Basic Red 2 (BR2) removal using electrocoagulation/eggshell (ES) coupling process in a batch system. Central composite design was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of process parameters including current density, reaction time, initial pH and ES dosage on the BR2 removal efficiency and energy consumption. The analysis of variance revealed high R(2) values (≥85%) indicating that the predictions of RSM models are adequately applicable for both responses. The optimum conditions when the dye removal efficiency of 93.18% and energy consumption of 0.840 kWh/kg were observed were 11.40 mA/cm(2) current density, 5 min and 3 s reaction time, 6.5 initial pH and 10.91 g/L ES dosage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
2016-11-29
Soils in natural and managed ecosystems and wetlands are well known sources of methane, nitrous oxides, and reactive nitrogen gases, but the magnitudes of gas flux to the atmosphere are still poorly constrained. Thus, the reasons for the large increases in atmospheric concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide since the preindustrial time period are not well understood. The low atmospheric concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide, despite being more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide, complicate empirical studies to provide explanations. In addition to climate concerns, the emissions of reactive nitrogen gases from soils are important to the changing nitrogen balance in the earth system, subject to human management, and may change substantially in the future. Thus improved modeling of the emission fluxes of these species from the land surface is important. Currently, there are emission modules for methane and some nitrogen species in the Community Earth System Model’s Community Land Model (CLM-ME/N); however, there are large uncertainties and problems in the simulations, resulting in coarse estimates. In this proposal, we seek to improve these emission modules by combining state-of-the-art process modules for emissions, available data, and new optimization methods. In earth science problems, we often have substantial data and knowledge of processes in disparate systems, and thus we need to combine data and a general process level understanding into a model for projections of future climate that are as accurate as possible. The best methodologies for optimization of parameters in earth system models are still being developed. In this proposal we will develop and apply surrogate algorithms that a) were especially developed for computationally expensive simulations like CLM-ME/N models; b) were (in the earlier surrogate optimization Stochastic RBF) demonstrated to perform very well on computationally expensive complex partial differential equations in
Ersek, Mary; Hickman, Susan E; Thomas, Anne C; Bernard, Brittany; Unroe, Kathleen T
2017-10-17
The need to reduce burdensome and costly hospitalizations of frail nursing home residents is well documented. The Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, and Improving Symptoms: Transforming Institutional Care (OPTIMISTIC) project achieved this reduction through a multicomponent collaborative care model. We conducted an implementation-focused project evaluation to describe stakeholders' perspectives on (a) the most and least effective components of the intervention; (b) barriers to implementation; and (c) program features that promoted its adoption. Nineteen nursing homes participated in OPTIMISTIC. We conducted semistructured, qualitative interviews with 63 stakeholders: 23 nursing home staff and leaders, 4 primary care providers, 10 family members, and 26 OPTIMISTIC clinical staff. We used directed content analysis to analyze the data. We found universal endorsement of the value of in-depth advance care planning (ACP) discussions in reducing hospitalizations and improving care. Similarly, all stakeholder groups emphasized that nursing home access to specially trained, project registered nurses (RNs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) with time to focus on ACP, comprehensive resident assessment, and staff education was particularly valuable in identifying residents' goals for care. Challenges to implementation included inadequately trained facility staff and resistance to changing practice. In addition, the program sometimes failed to communicate its goals and activities clearly, leaving facilities uncertain about the OPTIMISTIC clinical staff's roles in the facilities. These findings are important for dissemination efforts related to the OPTIMISTIC care model and may be applicable to other innovations in nursing homes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Xu, Su Yun; Lam, Hoi Pui; Karthikeyan, O Parthiba; Wong, Jonathan W C
2011-02-01
The effects of pH and bulking agents on hydrolysis/acidogenesis of food waste were studied using leach bed reactor (LBR) coupled with methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The hydrolysis rate under regulated pH (6.0) was studied and compared with unregulated one during initial experiment. Then, the efficacies of five different bulking agents, i.e. plastic full particles, plastic hollow sphere, bottom ash, wood chip and saw dust were experimented under the regulated pH condition. Leachate recirculation with 50% water replacement was practiced throughout the experiment. Results proved that the daily leachate recirculation with pH control (6.0) accelerated the hydrolysis rate (59% higher volatile fatty acids) and methane production (up to 88%) compared to that of control without pH control. Furthermore, bottom ash improved the reactor alkalinity, which internally buffered the system that improved the methane production rate (0.182 l CH(4)/g VS(added)) than other bulking agents. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bussandri, S; Prina, I; Acosta, R H; Buljubasich, L
2018-04-01
We demonstrate that the relative phases in the refocusing pulses of multipulse sequences can compensate for pulse errors and off-resonant effects, which are commonly encountered in J-spectroscopy when CPMG is used for acquisition. The use of supercycles has been considered many times in the past, but always from the view point of time-domain NMR, that is, in an effort to lengthen the decay of the magnetization. Here we use simple spin-coupled systems, in which the quantum evolution of the system can be simulated and contrasted to experimental results. In order to explore fine details, we resort to partial J-spectroscopy, that is, to the acquisition of J-spectra of a defined multiplet, which is acquired with a suitable digital filter. We unambiguously show that when finite radiofrequency pulses are considered, the off-resonance effects on nearby multiplets affects the dynamics of the spins within the spectral window under acquisition. Moreover, the most robust phase cycling scheme for our setup consists of a 4-pulse cycle, with phases yyyy‾ or xxxx‾ for an excitation pulse with phase x. We show simulated and experimental results in both thermally polarized and PHIP hyperpolarized systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Topology Optimization of Thermal Heat Sinks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klaas Haertel, Jan Hendrik; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2015-01-01
In this paper, topology optimization is applied to optimize the cooling performance of thermal heat sinks. The coupled two-dimensional thermofluid model of a heat sink cooled with forced convection and a density-based topology optimization including density filtering and projection are implemented...... in COMSOL Multiphysics. The optimization objective is to minimize the heat sink’s temperature for a prescribed pressure drop and fixed heat generation. To conduct the optimization, COMSOL’s Optimization Module with GCMMA as the optimization method is used. The implementation of this topology optimization...... approach in COMSOL Multiphysics is described in this paper and results for optimized two-dimensional heat sinks are presented. Furthermore, parameter studies regarding the effect of the prescribed pressure drop of the system on Reynolds number and realized heat sink temperature are presented and discussed....
Topology Optimization for Convection Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alexandersen, Joe
2011-01-01
This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration.......This is done by the use of a self-programmed FORTRAN-code, which builds on an existing 2D-plane thermomechanical nite element code implementing during the course `41525 FEM-Heavy'. The topology optimizationfeatures have been implemented from scratch, and allows the program to optimize elastostatic mechanical...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harold, Michael [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Crocker, Mark [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Balakotaiah, Vemuri [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Luss, Dan [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Choi, Jae-Soon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dearth, Mark [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); McCabe, Bob [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Theis, Joe [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)
2013-09-30
Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO_{2}) commonly referred to as NO_{x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO_{x}} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO_{x} in the presence of excess O_{2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O_{2}-laden exhaust containing NO_{x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO_{x} abatement are NO_{x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO_{x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hao; Si, Gangquan; Jia, Lixin; Zhang, Yanbin
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the problem of finite-time generalized function matrix projective lag synchronization between two different coupled dynamical networks with different dimensions of network nodes. The double power function nonlinear feedback control method is proposed in this paper to guarantee that the state trajectories of the response network converge to the state trajectories of the drive network according to a function matrix in a given finite time. Furthermore, in comparison with the traditional nonlinear feedback control method, the new method improves the synchronization efficiency, and shortens the finite synchronization time. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. (papers)
Chen, Yunjie; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Jianwei; Zheng, Yuhui
2014-09-01
Accurate segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images remains challenging mainly due to the intensity inhomogeneity, which is also commonly known as bias field. Recently active contour models with geometric information constraint have been applied, however, most of them deal with the bias field by using a necessary pre-processing step before segmentation of MR data. This paper presents a novel automatic variational method, which can segment brain MR images meanwhile correcting the bias field when segmenting images with high intensity inhomogeneities. We first define a function for clustering the image pixels in a smaller neighborhood. The cluster centers in this objective function have a multiplicative factor that estimates the bias within the neighborhood. In order to reduce the effect of the noise, the local intensity variations are described by the Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. Then, the objective functions are integrated over the entire domain. In order to obtain the global optimal and make the results independent of the initialization of the algorithm, we reconstructed the energy function to be convex and calculated it by using the Split Bregman theory. A salient advantage of our method is that its result is independent of initialization, which allows robust and fully automated application. Our method is able to estimate the bias of quite general profiles, even in 7T MR images. Moreover, our model can also distinguish regions with similar intensity distribution with different variances. The proposed method has been rigorously validated with images acquired on variety of imaging modalities with promising results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Kaidong; Huang, Ke; Jiang, Guoqiang
2018-03-01
Acetaminophen is one kind of pharmaceutical contaminant that has been detected in municipal water and is hard to digest. A laccase-catalyzed oxidative coupling reaction is a potential method of removing acetaminophen from water. In the present study, the kinetics of radical polymerization combined with precipitation was studied, and the dual-pH optimization strategy (the enzyme solution at pH7.4 being added to the substrate solution at pH4.2) was proposed to enhance the removal efficiency of acetaminophen. The reaction kinetics that consisted of the laccase-catalyzed oxidation, radical polymerization and precipitation were studied by UV in situ, LC-MS and DLS (dynamic light scattering) in situ. The results showed that the laccase-catalyzed oxidation is the rate-limiting step in the whole process. The higher rate of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation under a dual-pH optimization strategy led to much faster formation of the dimer, trimer and tetramer. Similarly, the formation of polymerized products that could precipitate naturally from water was faster. Under the dual-pH optimization strategy, the initial laccase activity was increased approximately 2.9-fold, and the activity remained higher for >250s, during which approximately 63.7% of the total acetaminophen was transformed into biologically inactive polymerized products, and part of these polymerized products precipitated from the water. Laccase belongs to the family of multi-copper oxidases, and the present study provides a universal method to improve the activity of multi-copper oxidases for the high-performance removal of phenol and its derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Oda, Y.; Wang, Wenqing; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan
2006-01-01
As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was also achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pialla, David, E-mail: david.pialla@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tenchine, Denis [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Li, Simon [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gauthe, Paul; Vasile, Alfredo [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DER/SESI, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baviere, Roland; Tauveron, Nicolas; Perdu, Fabien [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Maas, Ludovic; Cocheme, François [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN/SEMIA/BAST, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Huber, Klaus; Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technology (IFRT), Kaiserstraße 12, Building 07.08, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • The PHENIX natural convection test performed during the end of life tests program. • The calculation with system codes and theirs limits. • The calculation with coupling CFD and system code, which allows better prediction. • The tasks of code validation have been done in the frame of the THINS project. - Abstract: The PHENIX sodium cooled fast reactor started operation in 1973 and was shut down in 2009. Before decommissioning, an ultimate test program was designed and performed to provide valuable data for the development of future sodium cooled fast reactors, as the so-called Astrid prototype in France. Among these ultimate tests, a thermal-hydraulic Natural Convection Test (NCT) was set-up in June 2009. Starting from a reduced power state of 120 MWt, the NCT consists of a loss of the heat sink combined with a reactor scram and a primary pumps trip leading to stabilized natural circulation in the primary sodium system. The thermal-hydraulics innovative system project (THINS project), sponsored by the European Community in the frame of the 7th FP has selected this transient for validation of both stand-alone system code simulations and coupled simulations using system and CFD codes. Participants from three organizations (CEA, IRSN and KIT) have addressed this transient using different system codes (CATHARE, DYN2B and ATHLET) and CFD codes (TRIO-U and OPEN FOAM). The present paper depicts the different modeling approaches, methodologies and compares the numerical results with the available experimental data. Finally, the main lessons learned from the work performed within the THINS project on the PHENIX NCT with respect to code development and validation are summarized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Yung Kwon; Choi, Chul Jin; Kim, Eun Kee; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)
2006-07-01
This paper presents the results of the coupled 3-D neutronics/thermal-hydraulic analysis of hypothetical main steam line break (MSLB) accident for Optimized Power Reactor 1000. One of the major concerns of this accident is a return-to-power occurrence accompanied with extremely large radial peaking near the stuck Control Element Assembly (CEA). The conventional point kinetics application does not properly account for this kind of asymmetric and local core behavior. Therefore, the current licensing method of point kinetics application introduces some uncertainties and conservatisms in the physics parameters generation, e.g., the static net scram rod worth, moderator cooldown reactivity, Doppler reactivity, and a 3-D peaking factor. The recently developed UNICORN-TM code system is applied for the 3-D coupled calculation, where neutronics code MASTER is coupled with the best-estimate system transient code RETRAN. The 3-D coupled results were assessed in comparison with those by point kinetics application using stand-alone RETRAN application. To quantify the 3-D reactivity benefits over point kinetics, both calculations assumed the accidents to be initiated from the same core state, e.g., end of cycle burnup, fuel and CEA configuration with the same initial moderator and Doppler temperature coefficient, and with initial system thermal-hydraulic condition. The core physics parameters required for point kinetics application were produced using MASTER with the method and procedure consistent with the current licensing application. The occurrence of return-to-power was simulated by intentionally reducing the net CEA worth in order to assess the spatial power distribution and local T-H effect on the dynamic reactivity feedback. The results have demonstrated that the 3-D analysis removes some of the conservatisms inherent in point kinetics analysis mainly caused by the inability to properly account for local reactivity feedback effects during return-to-power transient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Yung Kwon; Choi, Chul Jin; Kim, Eun Kee; Lee, Sang Yong
2006-01-01
This paper presents the results of the coupled 3-D neutronics/thermal-hydraulic analysis of hypothetical main steam line break (MSLB) accident for Optimized Power Reactor 1000. One of the major concerns of this accident is a return-to-power occurrence accompanied with extremely large radial peaking near the stuck Control Element Assembly (CEA). The conventional point kinetics application does not properly account for this kind of asymmetric and local core behavior. Therefore, the current licensing method of point kinetics application introduces some uncertainties and conservatisms in the physics parameters generation, e.g., the static net scram rod worth, moderator cooldown reactivity, Doppler reactivity, and a 3-D peaking factor. The recently developed UNICORN-TM code system is applied for the 3-D coupled calculation, where neutronics code MASTER is coupled with the best-estimate system transient code RETRAN. The 3-D coupled results were assessed in comparison with those by point kinetics application using stand-alone RETRAN application. To quantify the 3-D reactivity benefits over point kinetics, both calculations assumed the accidents to be initiated from the same core state, e.g., end of cycle burnup, fuel and CEA configuration with the same initial moderator and Doppler temperature coefficient, and with initial system thermal-hydraulic condition. The core physics parameters required for point kinetics application were produced using MASTER with the method and procedure consistent with the current licensing application. The occurrence of return-to-power was simulated by intentionally reducing the net CEA worth in order to assess the spatial power distribution and local T-H effect on the dynamic reactivity feedback. The results have demonstrated that the 3-D analysis removes some of the conservatisms inherent in point kinetics analysis mainly caused by the inability to properly account for local reactivity feedback effects during return-to-power transient
Laender, de F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Janssen, C.R.; Guardo, Di A.
2014-01-01
Current techniques for the ecological risk assessment of chemical substances are often criticised for their lack of environmental realism, ecological relevance and methodological accuracy. ChimERA is a 3-year project (2013-2016), funded by Cefic's Long Range Initiative (LRI) that aims to address
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veneziani, Carmela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-02-06
Two sets of simulations were performed within this allocation: 1) a 12-year fully-coupled experiment in preindustrial conditions, using the CICE4 version of the sea-ice model; 2) a set of multi-decadal ocean-ice-only experiments, forced with CORE-I atmospheric fields and using the CICE5 version of the sea-ice model. Results from simulation 1) are presented in Figures 1-3, and specific results from a simulation in 2) with tracer releases are presented in Figure 4.
Binder, Ronald K; Leipsic, Jonathon; Wood, David; Moore, Teri; Toggweiler, Stefan; Willson, Alex; Gurvitch, Ronen; Freeman, Melanie; Webb, John G
2012-04-01
Identifying the optimal fluoroscopic projection of the aortic valve is important for successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Various imaging modalities, including multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), have been proposed for prediction of the optimal deployment projection. We evaluated a method that provides 3-dimensional angiographic reconstructions (3DA) of the aortic root for prediction of the optimal deployment angle and compared it with MDCT. Forty patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR at St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada, were evaluated. All underwent preimplant 3DA and 68% underwent preimplant MDCT. Three-dimensional angiographic reconstructions were generated from images of a C-arm rotational aortic root angiogram during breath-hold, rapid ventricular pacing, and injection of 32 mL contrast medium at 8 mL/s. Two independent operators prospectively predicted perpendicular valve projections. The implant angle was chosen at the discretion of the physician performing TAVR. The angles from 3DA, from MDCT, the implant angle, and the postdeployment perpendicular prosthesis view were compared. The shortest distance from the postdeployment perpendicular prosthesis projection to the regression line of predicted perpendicular projections was calculated. All but 1 patient had adequate image quality for reproducible angle predictions. There was a significant correlation between 3DA and MDCT for prediction of perpendicular valve projections (r=0.682, Pregression line of predicted angles to the postdeployment prosthesis view was 5.1±4.6° for 3DA and 7.9±4.9° for MDCT (P=0.01). Three-dimensional angiographic reconstructions and MDCT are safe, practical, and accurate imaging modalities for identifying the optimal perpendicular valve deployment projection during TAVR.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. K. Sharbatdar
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract The appropriate planning and scheduling for reaching the project goals in the most economical way is the very basic issue of the project management. As in each project, the project manager must determine the required activities for the implementation of the project and select the best option in the implementation of each of the activities, in a way that the least final cost and time of the project is achieved. Considering the number of activities and selecting options for each of the activities, usually the selection has not one unique solution, but it consists of a set of solutions that are not preferred to each other and are known as Pareto solutions. On the other hand, in some actual projects, there are activities that their implementation options depend on the implementation of the prerequisite activity and are not applicable using all the implementation options, and even in some cases the implementation or the non-implementation of some activities are also dependent on the prerequisite activity implementation. These projects can be introduced as conditional projects. Much researchs have been conducted for acquiring Pareto solution set, using different methods and algorithms, but in all the done tasks the time-cost optimization of conditional projects is not considered. Thus, in the present study the concept of conditional network is defined along with some practical examples, then an appropriate way to illustrate these networks and suitable time-cost formulation of these are presented. Finally, for some instances of conditional activity networks, conditional project time-cost optimization conducted multi-objectively using known meta-heuristic algorithms such as multi-objective genetic algorithm, multi-objective particle swarm algorithm and multi-objective charged system search algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardin, Emmanuelle
1999-01-01
The study of cation interactions with solid materials is useful in order to define the chemistry interaction component of the MIMICC project (Multidimensional Instrumented Module for Investigations on chemistry-transport Coupled Codes). This project will validate the chemistry-transport coupled codes. Database have to be supplied on the cesium or ytterbium interactions with solid materials in suspension. The solid materials are: a strong cation exchange resin, a natural sand which presents small impurities, and a zirconium phosphate. The cation exchange resin is useful to check that the surface complexation theory can be applied on a pure cation exchanger. The sand is a natural material, and its isotherms will be interpreted using pure oxide-cation system data, such as pure silica-cation data. Then the study on the zirconium phosphate salt is interesting because of the increasing complexity in the processes (dissolution, sorption and co-precipitation). These data will enable to approach natural systems, constituted by several complex solids which can interfere on each other. These data can also be used for chemistry-transport coupled codes. Potentiometric titration, sorption isotherms, sorption kinetics, cation surface saturation curves are made, in order to obtain the different parameters relevant to the cation sorption at the solid surface, for each solid-electrolyte-cation system. The influence of different parameters such as ionic strength, pH, and electrolyte is estimated. All the experimental curves are fitted with FITEQL code based on the surface complexation theory using the constant capacitance model, in order to give a mechanistic interpretation of the ion retention phenomenon at the solid surface. The speciation curves of all systems are plotted, using the FITEQL code too. Systems with an increasing complexity are studied: dissolution, sorption and coprecipitation coexist in the cation-salt systems. Then the data obtained on each single solid, considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-03-01
For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)
Balendonck, J.
2008-01-01
FLOW-AID is a 6th Framework European project which started in autumn 2006. Its objective is to contribute to sustainability of irrigated agriculture by developing, testing in relevant conditions, and then optimizing an irrigation management system that can be used at farm level. The system will be
Voronin, Alexander; Vasilchenko, Ann; Khoperskov, Alexander
2018-03-01
The project of small watercourses restoration in the northern part of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain is considered together with the aim of increasing the watering of the territory during small and medium floods. The topography irregularity, the complex structure of the floodplain valley consisting of large number of small watercourses, the presence of urbanized and agricultural areas require careful preliminary analysis of the hydrological safety and efficiency of geographically distributed project activities. Using the digital terrain and watercourses structure models of the floodplain, the hydrodynamic flood model, the analysis of the hydrological safety and efficiency of several project implementation strategies has been conducted. The objective function values have been obtained from the hydrodynamic calculations of the floodplain territory flooding for virtual digital terrain models simulating alternatives for the geographically distributed project activities. The comparative efficiency of several empirical strategies for the geographically distributed project activities, as well as a two-stage exact solution method for the optimization problem has been studied.
Babigumira, Joseph B; Sharara, Fady I; Garrison, Louis P
2018-01-01
The Cap-Score™ was developed to assess the capacitation status of men, thereby enabling personalized management of unexplained infertility by choosing timed intrauterine insemination (IUI), versus immediate in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in individuals with a low Cap-Score™. The objective of this study was to estimate the differences in outcomes and costs comparing the use of the Cap-Score™ with timed IUI (CS-TI) and the standard of care (SOC), which was assumed to be three IUI cycles followed by three IVF-ICSI cycles. We developed and parameterized a decision-analytic model of management of unexplained infertility for women based on data from the published literature. We calculated the clinical pregnancy rates, live birth rates, and medical costs comparing CS-TI and SOC. We used Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty in projected estimates and performed univariate sensitivity analysis. Compared to SOC, CS-TI was projected to increase the pregnancy rate by 1-26%, marginally reduce live birth rates by 1-3% in couples with women below 40 years, increase live birth rates by 3-7% in couples with women over 40 years, reduce mean medical costs by $4000-$19,200, reduce IUI costs by $600-$1370, and reduce IVF costs by $3400-$17,800, depending on the woman's age. The Cap-Score™ is a potentially valuable clinical tool for management of unexplained infertility because it is projected to improve clinical pregnancy rates, save money, and, depending on the price of the test, increase access to treatment for infertility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeten, P.
2007-01-01
The GUINEVERE project is an European project in the framework of FP6 IP-EUROTRANS. The IP-EUROTRANS project aims at addressing the main issues for ADS development in the framework of partitioning and transmutation for nuclear waste volume and radio toxicity reduction. The GUINEVERE-project is carried out in the context of domain 2 of IP-EUROTRANS, ECATS, devoted to specific experiments for the coupling of an accelerator, a target and a subcritical core. These experiments should provide an answer to the questions of on-line reactivity monitoring, sub-criticality determination and operational procedures (loading, start-up, shut-down) in an ADS by 2009-2010. During the definition of the experimental programme ECATS, it was judged that there was a strong need for a European managed experiment in the line of the FP5 MUSE-project. Reanalyzing the outcome of MUSE, two points were left open for significant improvement. To validate the methodology for reactivity monitoring, a continuous beam is needed, which was not present in the MUSE-project. In the definition of the MUSE-project, from the beginning a strong request was made for a lead core in order to have representative conditions of a lead-cooled ADS which was only partially answered by the MUSE-programme. Therefore, there is a need for a lead fast critical facility connected to a continuous beam accelerator. Since such a programme/installation is not present at the European nor at the international level, SCK-CEN has proposed to use a modified VENUS critical facility located at its Mol-site and to couple it to a modified GENEPI deuteron accelerator (used in MUSE) working in current mode delivering 14 MeV neutrons by bombardment of deuterons on a tritium-target: the GUINEVERE-project (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutrons at the lead VEnus REactor). This proposal was formally accepted by the Governing Council of IP-Eurotrans in December 2006. This project represents a close collaboration between SCK-CEN, CEA and
Sioud, Salim
2012-05-04
RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
大型风力机叶片的耦合优化方法%Coupling optimization method for MultiMW wind turbine blades
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘伟江; 潘柏松; 陈栋栋
2012-01-01
In order to reduce the cost of manufacturing the wind turbine blade,multidisciplinary design optimization method for MultiMW wind turbine blades with the design objective of minimum of blade efficiency cost was presented, based on the blade element momentum theory(BEM)and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory of composites material. Then,the coupling optimization method was applied in the design of a new wind turbine blade with a length of 50 meters. The results show that the balance between energy efficiency and the cost of manufacture can be easily found through the proposed methodology, and the blade efficiency cost is reduced by 8.84%.%为了降低兆瓦级风力机叶片的制造成本,通过耦合叶素动量理论与复合材料欧拉伯努利梁强度设计理论,综合考虑风能效率和成本,以叶片的风能效率成本最小化为优化目标,提出了大型风力发电机叶片的多学科优化设计方法.并基于该方法,对某50 m风力机叶片进行了优化设计.研究结果表明,该方法能够找到风能效率与成本的平衡设计点,叶片风能效率成本比传统设计方法设计的叶片减少了8.84％.
Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; van der Linden, Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.-L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena
2016-01-01
This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iris Lewandowski
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing fifteen diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: 1 demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; 2 characterisation of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; 3 quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; 4 abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; 5 selections suitable for production on marginal land; 6 field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; 7 evaluation of harvesting methods; and 8 quantification of energy used in densification (pellet technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas and
Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M; van der Linden, Gerard C; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C-L; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; van der Weijde, Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena
2016-01-01
This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: (1) demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; (2) characterization of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; (3) quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; (4) abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; (5) selections suitable for production on marginal land; (6) field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; (7) evaluation of harvesting methods; and (8) quantification of energy used in densification (pellet) technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas, and insulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
2016-03-15
Irradiations and post characterization experiments were performed first on Zr samples. This step will help understand the effect of the 2.5% alloying elements on the behavior of Zircaloy-4 (PWR cladding material) when compared to pure Zr. Irradiation flux measurements and sample temperature calibrations were performed at different energies prior to the irradiation experiments. Irradiations were performed with two different energy regimes1: non-displacment energies and displacement energies. Time was also dedicated to optimize transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation conditions via electropolishing technique. This step is crucial to prepare TEM samples for the in-situ TEM/irradiation experiments (Year 2). In addition, Zircaloy-4 samples are being prepared for irradiation, and a setup is built by one of our collaborators (Dr. Mert Efe) to prepare ultrafine (UF) and nanocrystalline (NC) Zircaloy-4 samples for comparison with the commercial Zircaloy-4 samples.
Bozkaya, Uǧur; Sherrill, C. David
2013-08-01
Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N6) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm-1) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm-1), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm-1) and CCSD (84 cm-1) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol-1, which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol-1), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol-1) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is only 0.1 kcal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuan Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposed an exhaust air heat recovery and solar energy combined thermal compensation system (ESTC for ground-coupled heat pumps. Based on the prediction of the next day’s exhaust air temperature and solar irradiance, an optimized thermal compensation (OTC method was developed in this study as well, in which the exhaust air heat recovery compensator and solar energy compensator in the ESTC system run at high efficiency throughout various times of day. Moreover, a modified solar term similar days group (STSDG method was proposed to improve the accuracy of solar irradiance prediction in hazy weather. This modified STSDG method was based on air quality forecast and AQI (air quality index correction factors. Through analyzing the operating parameters and the simulation results of a case study, the ESTC system proved to have good performance and high efficiency in eliminating the heat imbalance by using the OTC method. The thermal compensation quantity per unit energy consumption (TEC of ESTC under the proposed method was 1.25 times as high as that under the traditional operation method. The modified STSDG method also exhibited high accuracy. For the accumulated solar irradiance of the four highest daily radiation hours, the monthly mean absolute percentage error (MAPE between the predicted values and the measured values was 6.35%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa Junior, Nelson Vicente da
2010-01-01
This work shows an analytical methodology developed and optimized to determine trihalomethanes level THMs, in drinking water samples, using purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography (GC-PT). THMs are byproducts water chlorination, these compounds must have a maximum of 100 μg.L -1 under Brazilian law, due these compounds be suspected human carcinogens base on studies in laboratory animals. The technique of purge and trap efficiently extracts these compounds from water, and the gas chromatograph separates the THMs. The GC uses a light polarity column and electron capture detector. This detector is selective and more sensitive in the detection of these compounds. The methodology was validated in terms of: linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, quantification limit, detection limit and robustness. The detection limit was less than 0,5 μg.L -1 . The accuracy and precision were adequate for testing the trace compounds. The drinking water samples were collected in the city of Suzano-SP, which belongs to 'Alto do Tiete', in this region lay 'Tiete' river with predominant vegetation. The THMs compound found in drinking water at higher concentrations was chloroform where the spread of values found between 15,9 to 111,0 μg.L -1 in drinking water. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gil, Sandra; Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de; Bendicho, Carlos
2009-01-01
A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method has been developed in combination with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg in aqueous solutions. Vapor generation is carried out in a 40 mL volume closed-vial containing a solution with the target analytes in hydrochloric acid and potassium ferricyanide medium. Hydrides (As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn) and Hg vapor are trapped onto an aqueous single drop (3 μL volume) containing Pd(II), followed by the subsequent injection in the ETV. Experimental variables such as medium composition, sodium tetrahydroborate (III) volume and concentration, stirring rate, extraction time, sample volume, ascorbic acid concentration and palladium amount in the drop were fully optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) (3σ criterion) of the proposed method for As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg were 0.2, 0.04, 0.01, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.8 μg/L, respectively. Enrichment factors of 9, 85, 138, 130, 37 and 72 for As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg, respectively, were achieved in 210 s. The relative standard deviations (N = 5) ranged from 4 to 8%. The proposed HS-SDME-ETV-ICP-MS method has been applied for the determination of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg in NWRI TM-28.3 certified reference material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horigome, Atsushi; Yamada, Hiroya; Hirose, Shigeo; Sen, Shin; Endo, Gen
2017-01-01
Long-reach robotic manipulators are expected to be used in the space where humans cannot work such as nuclear power plant disaster areas. We suggested a coupled tendon-driven articulated manipulator '3D CT-Arm' and developed a preliminary prototype 'Mini 3D CT-Arm' whose arm had 2.4 m length and 0.3 m width. In order to consider developing '3D CT-Arm' deeply, we discussed tension transfer efficiency of a tendon through pulleys, the arrangement of the maximum number of reels in a limited space and the tip positioning accuracy. Through many transfer efficiency experiments, we conclude that tension transfer efficiency of '3D CT-Arm' can reach over 88% in the worst case. We investigated non-interfering reels' arrangement in the base by full search in cases of up to 10 reels. In all simulations, V-shaped or W-shaped arrangement can support the most reels in a limited space. Therefore, we conclude this is the most optimal reels' arrangement. Finally, we carried out the positioning accuracy experiment with 'Mini 3D CT-Arm' via motion capture system. Although the tip position had a 2 to 41 mm error between the desired value and the measured value by potentiometer, a 29 to 95 mm error between the desired value and the measured value was measured by motion capture system. (author)
Seikkula, Jaakko; Karvonen, Anu; Kykyri, Virpi-Liisa; Kaartinen, Jukka; Penttonen, Markku
2015-12-01
In dialogical practice, therapists seek to respond to the utterances of clients by including in their own response what the client said. No research so far exists on how, in dialogs, therapists and clients attune themselves to each other with their entire bodies. The research program The Relational Mind is the first to look at dialog in terms of both the outer and the inner dialogs of participants (clients and therapists), observed in parallel with autonomic nervous system (ANS) measurements. In the ANS, the response occurs immediately, even before conscious thought, making it possible to follow how participants in a multiactor dialog synchronize their reactions and attune themselves to each other. The couple therapy case presented in this article demonstrates how attunement is often not a simple "all at the same time" phenomenon, but rather a complex, dyadic or triadic phenomenon which changes over time. In the case presented, there was strong synchrony between one therapist and one client in terms of their arousal level throughout the therapy session. It was also observed that high stress could occur when someone else was talking about something related to the participant, or if that person mirrored the participant's words. Overall, it seems that in evaluating the rhythmic attunement between therapists and clients it is not enough to look at single variables; instead, integrated information from several channels is needed when one is seeking to make sense of the embodiment. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amy A. Gorin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT, greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one’s spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Methods Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other’s eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL. Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. Discussion This
Gorin, Amy A; Powers, Theodore A; Gettens, Katelyn; Cornelius, Talea; Koestner, Richard; Mobley, Amy R; Pescatello, Linda; Medina, Tania Huedo
2017-09-29
Obesity risk is shared between spouses, yet existing weight loss programs focus on individuals and not the marital dyad. Given the interdependence of weight in couples, weight management outcomes might be improved by targeting joint weight loss and the creation of an interpersonal milieu that supports long-term behavior change. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), greater autonomous self-regulation of behaviors, and subsequently better treatment outcomes, are observed in needs supportive environments in which personally meaningful choice is supported and criticism and control are minimized. Correlational analyses confirm these pathways in weight management, with needs support from one's spouse or partner emerging as a distinct predictor of weight loss success. Research is now needed to establish causal links and to develop and test weight loss interventions designed to facilitate the needs supportive behavior of spouses. Project TEAMS (Talking about Eating, Activity, and Mutual Support) is a randomized controlled trial testing a couples-based intervention, grounded in SDT, designed to change the social context of weight loss by training spouses to provide needs support for each other's eating and physical activity behavior. Sixty-four couples will be randomized to either 6 months of behavioral weight loss treatment informed by SDT (SDT-WL) or to 6 months of standard behavioral weight loss treatment (BWL). Couples will attend weekly sessions for 6 months and will be assessed at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. By bolstering needs support, SDT-WL is predicted to increase autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence and produce greater weight loss and maintenance than standard behavioral treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine the SDT process model prediction that the influence of needs support on treatment outcomes will be mediated by autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence. This study addresses the fundamental importance of interpersonal