WorldWideScience

Sample records for project native vegetation

  1. Soil organic carbon stocks under native vegetation - revised estimates for use with the simple assessment option of the Carbon Benefits Project system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    The Carbon Benefits Project (CBP) is developing a standardized system for sustainable land management projects to measure, model and report changes in carbon stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for use at varying scales. A global framework of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks under native

  2. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  3. Native vegetation establishment for IDOT erosion control best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this report was to develop native roadside vegetation best management practices for : the Illinois Department of Transportation. A review of current practices was undertaken, along with a : review of those of other state departments ...

  4. Effects of Lantana camara (L.) invasion on the native vegetation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... camara (L.) invasion on the native vegetation of Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. ... A total of 41 native woody species and 2 native herbaceous species were ... Keywords : Alien plants, Biodiversity, Invasive plants, Lantana camara, ...

  5. Potential for water salvage by removal of non-native woody vegetation from dryland river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.M.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Moore, G.W.; Morino, K.; Hultine, K.R.; Benyon, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, expansion of non-native woody vegetation across floodplains has raised concern of increased evapotranspiration (ET) water loss with consequent reduced river flows and groundwater supplies. Water salvage programs, established to meet water supply demands by removing introduced species, show little documented evidence of program effectiveness. We use two case studies in the USA and Australia to illustrate factors that contribute to water salvage feasibility for a given ecological setting. In the USA, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has become widespread on western rivers, with water salvage programs attempted over a 50-year period. Some studies document riparian transpiration or ET reduction after saltcedar removal, but detectable increases in river base flow are not conclusively shown. Furthermore, measurements of riparian vegetation ET in natural settings show saltcedar ET overlaps the range measured for native riparian species, thereby constraining the possibility of water salvage by replacing saltcedar with native vegetation. In Australia, introduced willows (Salix spp.) have become widespread in riparian systems in the Murray-Darling Basin. Although large-scale removal projects have been undertaken, no attempts have been made to quantify increases in base flows. Recent studies of ET indicate that willows growing in permanently inundated stream beds have high transpiration rates, indicating water savings could be achieved from removal. In contrast, native Eucalyptus trees and willows growing on stream banks show similar ET rates with no net water salvage from replacing willows with native trees. We conclude that water salvage feasibility is highly dependent on the ecohydrological setting in which the non-native trees occur. We provide an overview of conditions favorable to water salvage. Copyright ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Native Comic Book Project: native youth making comics and healthy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Michelle; Manuelito, Brenda; Nass, Carrie; Chock, Tami; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-04-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives have traditionally used stories and drawings to positively influence the well-being of their communities. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a curriculum that trains Native youth leaders to plan, write, and design original comic books to enhance healthy decision making. Project staff developed the Native Comic Book Project by adapting Dr. Michael Bitz's Comic Book Project to incorporate Native comic book art, Native storytelling, and decision-making skills. After conducting five train-the-trainer sessions for Native youth, staff were invited by youth participants to implement the full curriculum as a pilot test at one tribal community site in the Pacific Northwest. Implementation was accompanied by surveys and weekly participant observations and was followed by an interactive meeting to assess youth engagement, determine project acceptability, and solicit suggestions for curriculum changes. Six youths aged 12 to 15 (average age = 14) participated in the Native Comic Book Project. Youth participants stated that they liked the project and gained knowledge of the harmful effects of commercial tobacco use but wanted better integration of comic book creation, decision making, and Native storytelling themes. Previous health-related comic book projects did not recruit youth as active producers of content. This curriculum shows promise as a culturally appropriate intervention to help Native youth adopt healthy decision-making skills and healthy behaviors by creating their own comic books.

  7. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli, Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  8. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  9. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. A preliminary study of effects of feral pig density on native Hawaiian montane rainforest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pamela Y.; Pratt, Linda; Foote, David; Magnacca, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of different levels of pig density on native Hawaiian forest vegetation. Pig sign was measured across four pig management units in the 'Öla'a Forest from 1998 through 2004 and pig density estimated based upon pig activity. Six paired vegetation monitoring plots were established in the units, each pair straddling a pig fence. Percent cover and species richness of understory vegetation, ground cover, alien species, and preferred pig forage plants were measured in 1997 and 2003 and compared with pig density estimates. Rainfall and hunting effort and success by management personnel were also tracked over the study period. Vegetation monitoring found a higher percentage of native plants in pig-free or low-pig areas compared to those with medium or high pig densities, with no significant change in the percent native plant species between the first and second monitoring periods. Differences between plots were strongly affected by location, with a higher percentage of native plants in western plots, where pig damage has historically been lower. Expansion of this survey with more plots would help improve the statistical power to detect differences in vegetation caused by pigs. Because of the limited vegetation sampling in this study, the results must be viewed as descriptive. We compare the vegetation within 30 x 30 m plots across three thresholds of historical pig density and show how pig densities can change in unanticipated directions within management units. While these results cannot be extrapolated to area-wide effects of pig activity, these data do contribute to a growing body of information on the impacts of feral pigs on Hawaiian plant communities.

  11. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  12. Native herbivore exerts contrasting effects on fire regime and vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Kenneth L. Clark; Lyn C. Branch; Diego Villarreal

    2011-01-01

    Although native herbivores can alter fire regimes by consuming herbaceous vegetation that serves as fine fuel and, less commonly, accumulating fuel as nest material and other structures, simultaneous considerations of contrasting effects of herbivores on fire have scarcely been addressed. We proposed that a colonial rodent, vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus...

  13. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  14. Microbial Communities in Cerrado Soils under Native Vegetation Subjected to Prescribed Fires and Under Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerra...

  15. Kalispel Non-Native Fish Suppression Project 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingert, Michele; Andersen, Todd [Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    2008-11-18

    Non-native salmonids are impacting native salmonid populations throughout the Pend Oreille Subbasin. Competition, hybridization, and predation by non-native fish have been identified as primary factors in the decline of some native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) populations. In 2007, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Kalispel Nonnative Fish Suppression Project. The goal of this project is to implement actions to suppress or eradicate non-native fish in areas where native populations are declining or have been extirpated. These projects have previously been identified as critical to recovering native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout (WCT). Lower Graham Creek was invaded by non-native rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) after a small dam failed in 1991. By 2003, no genetically pure WCT remained in the lower 700 m of Graham Creek. Further invasion upstream is currently precluded by a relatively short section of steep, cascade-pool stepped channel section that will likely be breached in the near future. In 2008, a fish management structure (barrier) was constructed at the mouth of Graham Creek to preclude further invasion of non-native fish into Graham Creek. The construction of the barrier was preceded by intensive electrofishing in the lower 700 m to remove and relocate all captured fish. Westslope cutthroat trout have recently been extirpated in Cee Cee Ah Creek due to displacement by brook trout. We propose treating Cee Cee Ah Creek with a piscicide to eradicate brook trout. Once eradication is complete, cutthroat trout will be translocated from nearby watersheds. In 2004, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) proposed an antimycin treatment within the subbasin; the project encountered significant public opposition and was eventually abandoned. However, over the course of planning this 2004 project, little public

  16. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Native Advertising: Trickery or Technique? An Ethics Project and Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzosa, Jennifer; Fischbach, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sponsored content, in-feed ads, and advertorials are innovative ways to promote brands. However, there are limited resources on how to use these advertising techniques. The Native Advertising project and debate helps students (a) gain knowledge and experience with current advertising practices and (b) engage in deliberation regarding a promotional…

  18. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Native Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    lotyabe MOunts’ns Area, evada, Wasmnn Journal of biology . Vol. 10. 02. 26 t 6 Table 3. Area in national forests in Utah - 1978. FOREST NUMBER OF ACRES...sulohee to reduce olnd a4d waner o.non . Chines tn downslop. atar spply. Plant suitable vegetation for wildlife habitat, erosion C0to.t o of .011...intrinsic value or intrinsic value or intrinsic value Native vegetation forms the basis of the food chain--all animal life, including human , is ultimately

  19. Vegetation development and native species establishment in reclaimed coal mine lands in Alberta : directions for reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a study undertaken to evaluate reclamation vegetation at Coal Valley Mine in Alberta with respect to expected vegetation changes over time, establishing a successional model of vegetation development, and factors contributing to the observed patterns. Most of the expected vegetation trends were evident, including lower grass cover and height, lower legume cover, a higher degree of native plant species richness, and the establishment of woody species. Four vegetation communities (2 graminoid-dominated and 2 conifer-dominated) were identified in the study, for which a possible successional model was constructed. Vegetation dynamics for agronomic grasses, legumes, and tree cover were discussed. Areas with Lodgepole Pine were found to have higher species richness and cover. Concerns were raised that the identified trends may not in fact supply the expected opportunities for native species establishment. In order to facilitate the establishment of native species and better manage reclamation vegetation development, the author recommended that a conifer overstory be established to increase native richness and native cover, and that more appropriate seeding mixes be developed as certain agronomic species are detrimental to long-term goals. The author also recommended that site-specific seed mixes be developed according to end land-use goals, that a planting program for native plants and shrubs be developed, and that a monitoring program be established to better inform future reclamation efforts. The recommendations were designed to bring reclamation efforts into line with reclamation goals. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Baseline data of naturally occurring radionuclides in some native vegetables and fruits in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Sriploy, P.; Pornnumpa, C.; Kritsananuwat, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the baseline data information on natural radioactivities in vegetables and fruits produced and consumed locally in the areas of potential nuclear power plant sites in Thailand. Four provinces (Prajuab-Kirikhan, Chumphon, Surat-Thani and Nakhon-Si-thammarat) were selected for collection of native vegetables and fruits samples, together with their corresponding soils. The activities of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K and 210 Po were determined in all these samples. The obtained results for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K and 210 Po for all vegetable and fruit samples were in the range of 1-34, 1-108, 32-4392 and 0.2-47 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which were much lower than those obtained for their corresponding soils. (authors)

  1. Butterfly Assemblages Associated with Invasive Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Sites: Comparisons with Tamarisk Control and Native Vegetation Reference Sites

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mark Nelson; Rick Wydoski

    2013-01-01

    We studied butterfly assemblages at six types of riparian landscapes in five different watersheds in the southwestern United States (n=34 sites). Sites included exotic-invasive Tamarix ramosissima (tamarisk) dominated sites; sites where tamarisk was controlled, but not actively revegetated; sites revegetated with upland plants; sites where control was followed with riparian plant revegetation; native riparian vegetation sites; and sites that were a mixture of native and tamarisk vegetations. ...

  2. Vegetation Changes in a Native Forest Produced by Atta vollenweideri Forel 1893 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabattini, J A; Sabattini, R A; Cian, J C; Sabattini, I A

    2018-02-01

    Herbivory is an important factor to generate spatial mosaics with variations in a plant community composition and organization. The objective of this work was to determine the impact of Atta vollenweideri Forel 1893 nests on herbaceous and shrub vegetation in a degraded native forest of the Espinal ecoregion. The study was carried out in the Protected Area and Multiple Use Nature Reserve called Estancia "El Carayá" (Entre Ríos, Argentina). Ten A. vollenweideri nests were selected by simple random sampling through internal roads, and two transects were drawn from the center of the nest (0 m) up to 60 m away in opposite directions. The line intercept method was used to quantify the percentage of vegetation cover of herbaceous and shrub species, while the floristic composition was estimated by the Canfield method. Afterwards, a nonparametric test between positions and a conglomerate analysis to evaluated distance were applied. Grass species, legumes, and sedges fell in the adjacent areas to nests, highlighting the bare soil at the crest and base of the nests. Fifteen plant species were identified, and two families correspond to monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. In conclusion, the nests of A. vollenweideri affect the community of herbaceous and shrub vegetation of the studied degraded native forest of the Espinal ecoregion since these ants perform a high selection of herbaceous species considered as pioneers of plant successions.

  3. Native Roadside Vegetation that Enhances Soil Erosion Control in Boreal Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.

  4. Native Fish Sanctuary Project - Sanctuary Development Phase, 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.

    2007-01-01

    Notable progress was made in 2007 toward the development of native fish facilities in the Lower Colorado River Basin. More than a dozen facilities are, or soon will be, online to benefit native fish. When this study began in 2005 no self-supporting communities of either bonytail or razorback sucker existed. Razorback suckers were removed from Rock Tank in 1997 and the communities at High Levee Pond had been compromised by largemouth bass in 2004. This project reversed that trend with the establishment of the Davis Cove native fish community in 2005. Bonytail and razorback sucker successfully produced young in Davis Cove in 2006. Bonytail successfully produced young in Parker Dam Pond in 2007, representing the first successful sanctuary established solely for bonytail. This past year, Three Fingers Lake received 135 large razorback suckers, and Federal and State agencies have agreed to develop a cooperative management approach dedicating a portion of that lake toward grow-out and (or) the establishment of another sanctuary. Two ponds at River's Edge Golf Course in Needles, California, were renovated in June and soon will be stocked with bonytail. Similar activities are taking place at Mohave Community College, Cerbat Cliffs Golf Course, Cibola High Levee Pond, Office Cove, Emerald Canyon Golf Course, and Bulkhead Cove. Recruitment can be expected as fish become sexually mature at these facilities. Flood-plain facilities have the potential to support 6,000 adult razorback suckers and nearly 20,000 bonytail if native fish management is aggressively pursued. This sanctuary project has assisted agencies in developing 15 native fish communities by identifying specific resource objectives for those sites, listing and prioritizing research opportunities and needs, and strategizing on management approaches through the use of resource-management plans. Such documents have been developed for Davis Cove, Cibola High Levee Pond, Parker Dam Pond, and Three Fingers Lake. We

  5. Land use and vegetation cover on native symbionts and interactions with cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. F. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia are important components of agroecosystems and they respond to human interference. The objective of this study was to investigate native communities of those microorganisms in soil collected under the native forest, four pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, Arachis pintoi and Stylosanthes guianensis and a fallow soil after maize cultivation, in interaction with cowpea (Vigna unguculata. The cowpea grew in a greenhouse until flowering. They were randomly distributed depending on soil, in five replications. The lowest mycorrhizal fungi sporulation and mycorrhizal root colonization occurred under the Panicum and forest soil. In the soils under forest and Stylosanthes, the cowpea did not exhibit nodules and grew less. Among the anthropized areas, the effect was variable, with stimulus to the multiplication and symbiosis of these microorganisms, except in areas of Panicum and Stylosanthes. When the native vegetation is substituted by pasture or farming, the mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia proliferation predominate. However, the effect and its magnitude depends on the grown plant species, with reflects on the plant species in succession, such as the cowpea.

  6. Role of native and exotic woody vegetation in soil restoration in active gully systems (southern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja Ramon, Pablo; Alvarado Moncayo, Dario; Vanacker, Veerle; Cisneros, Pedro; Molina, Armando; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Revegetation projects in degraded lands have the potential to recover essential soil functions. If vegetation restoration is combined with bioengineering techniques, such as the construction of retention dams in active gully systems, soil restoration could be enhanced. One important aspect of this process is the role of vegetation on restoration of soil chemical and physical properties. There is currently a lack of knowledge on the potential of soil restoration in active badland systems, as most studies have concentrated on the direct and visible effect of revegetation on erosion control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of revegetation and bioengineering works on the restoration of soil physical and chemical properties. The analyses are realized in a highly degraded area of 3 km2, located in the lower part of the Loreto catchment (Southern Ecuadorian Andes). First, the soil physical and/or chemical parameters that are most sensitive to track environmental change were evaluated. Second, the role of vegetation on soil restoration was quantified. . Soil samples were taken in sites with different vegetation cover, land use and physiographic position. The following physical and chemical parameters were measured: volumetric water content (θsat, θact), bulk density, pH, texture, organic matter, C and N content. Our first results do not show a clear relationship between volumetric water content at saturation (θsat), bulk density, or C content. The saturation water content does not vary significantly between different sites, or land use types. However, significant differences are found between sites at different stages of restoration; and this for most chemical and physical soil properties. Vegetation cover (%) appears to exert a strong control on the C content in the mineral soils. The highest C values are found in soils of forest plantations with Eucalyptus and Pinus species. These plantations are located in areas that were previously affected by active

  7. Effects of native perennial vegetation buffer strips on dissolved organic carbon in surface runoff from an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomorra E. Smith; Randall K. Kolka; Xiaobo Zhou; Matthew J. Helmers; Richard M. Cruse; Mark D. Tomer

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed's carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially...

  8. Vegetational response to native seed treatment and biosolids application in the rehabilitation of a spoilpile at Cooranbong Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M.; Whitehead, J. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Science

    1998-08-01

    This study addresses two challenges which the minerals industry faces in the rehabilitation of minespoils. The first is to re-establish a soil ecosystem that will sustainably support native vegetation. The second is to overcome seed dormancy mechanisms that often lead to the failure of native plant establishment on sites affected by mining. This paper outlines the results of the ongoing study on the rehabilitation of a coal stockpile at Cooranbong Colliery, Dora Creek, New South Wales. The trial was established to determine the benefits of utilising dewatered biosolids as a soil conditioner for the growth of native trees by direct seeding techniques, and also to investigate the effectiveness of seed treatments on seed germination rates. Two seed treatment techniques, new to attempts to re-establish native species on minespoils, were trialed using, in turn, hot water and smoke. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing. Copyright © 2015

  10. Golden Gate National Recreation Area Vegetation Inventory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The vegetation units of this map were determined through stereoscopic interpretation of...

  11. Evaluation of salvage and replanted native plants on ADOT projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ADOT has transplanted thousands of saguaros during the construction of roadway projects, and although : the projects are typically tracked for two years, the long-term survivability of saguaros has never been : documented. The purpose of this study i...

  12. Differentiation in native as well as introduced ranges: germination reflects mean and variance in cover of surrounding vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Tina; Nikles, Gabriele; Jacobs, Brooke S

    2018-02-01

    Germination, a crucial phase in the life cycle of a plant, can be significantly influenced by competition and facilitation. The aim of this study was to test whether differences in cover of surrounding vegetation can lead to population differentiation in germination behaviour of an annual grassland species, and if so, whether such a differentiation can be found in the native as well as in the introduced range. We used maternal progeny of Erodium cicutarium previously propagated under uniform conditions that had been collected in multiple populations in the native and two introduced ranges, in populations representing extremes in terms of mean and variability of the cover of surrounding vegetation. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of germination temperature and mean cover at the source site on germination, and found interlinked effects of these factors. In seeds from one of the introduced ranges (California), we found indication for a 2-fold dormancy, hindering germination at high temperatures even if physical dormancy was broken and water was available. This behaviour was less strong in high cover populations, indicating cross-generational facilitating effects of dense vegetation. In the second experiment, we tested whether spatial variation in cover of surrounding vegetation has an effect on the proportion of dormant seeds. Contrary to our expectations, we found that across source regions, high variance in cover was associated with higher proportions of seeds germinating directly after storage. In all three regions, germination seemed to match the local environment in terms of climate and vegetation cover. We suggest that this is due to a combined effect of introduction of preadapted genotypes and local evolutionary processes.

  13. Rescuing and Sharing Historical Vegetation Data for Ecological Analysis: The California Vegetation Type Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts that synthesize historical and contemporary ecological data with modeling approaches improve our understanding of the complex response of species, communities, and landscapes to changing biophysical conditions through time and in space. Historical ecological data are particularly important in this respect. There are remaining barriers that limit such data synthesis, and technological improvements that make multiple diverse datasets more readily available for integration and synthesis are needed. This paper presents one case study of the Wieslander Vegetation Type Mapping project in California and highlights the importance of rescuing, digitizing and sharing historical datasets. We review the varied ecological uses of the historical collection: the vegetation maps have been used to understand legacies of land use change and plan for the future; the plot data have been used to examine changes to chaparral and forest communities around the state and to predict community structure and shifts under a changing climate; the photographs have been used to understand changing vegetation structure; and the voucher specimens in combination with other specimen collections have been used for large scale distribution modeling efforts. The digitization and sharing of the data via the web has broadened the scope and scale of the types of analysis performed. Yet, additional research avenues can be pursued using multiple types of VTM data, and by linking VTM data with contemporary data. The digital VTM collection is an example of a data infrastructure that expands the potential of large scale research through the integration and synthesis of data drawn from numerous data sources; its journey from analog to digital is a cautionary tale of the importance of finding historical data, digitizing it with best practices, linking it with other datasets, and sharing it with the research community.

  14. 76 FR 22075 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest... Web site http://www.fs.usda.gov/riogrande under ``Land & Resource Management'', then ``Projects'' on... need for the Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project is move toward achieving long-term desired...

  15. Salish Kootenai College Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Jacque

    The purpose of the Salish Koontenai College (SKC) Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing was to increase the numbers of Native American registered nurses providing health care to the Native American population of Montana and the northwest mountain states. Recruitment and retention efforts targeted…

  16. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  17. Uranium-series radionuclides in native fruits and vegetables of northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, B.; Martin, P.; Iles, M.

    2005-01-01

    Wild fruits and vegetables play an important part in a traditional Aboriginal diet in northern Australia. Radionuclide uptake by these foods is important for radiological impact assessment of uranium mining operations in the region, particularly after minesite rehabilitation. Data are presented for concentrations in several fruits and root vegetables, and associated soils. In terms of radiological dose, 210 Po, 226 Ra and, to a lesser extent, 210 Pb were found to be of greater importance than the uranium and thorium isotopes. Other important factors that have emerged include food preparation and consumption habits of Aboriginal people which could potentially affect radionuclide intake estimates. (author)

  18. Propagation and Establishment of Native Plants for Vegetative Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    ERDC/EL TR-13-9 ii Abstract Aquatic plants are a vital, but often missing, component of shallow, freshwater systems. Manmade systems, such as... water quality problems; development of noxious algal blooms; and, often, susceptibility to invasion by harmful, non-native, aquatic weeds. If...emergent aquatic plants that we have successfully used in founder colony establishment in US water bodies. ............................................. 7

  19. Selection and Vegetative Propagation of Native Woody Plants for Water-Wise Landscaping

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Larry A; Varga, William A; Anderson, David

    2011-01-01

    Native woody plants with ornamental characteristics such as brilliant fall color, dwarf form, or glossy leaves have potential for use in water conserving urban landscapes. Individual accessions with one or more of these unique characteristics were identified based on the recommendations of a wide range of plant enthusiasts (both professional and amateur). Documentation of these accessions has been done through locating plants on-site where possible and then developing a record based on digita...

  20. ALIEN SPECIES IMPORTANTANCE IN NATIVE VEGETATION ALONG WADEABLE STREAMS, JOHN DAY RIVER BASIN, OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 × 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

  1. Invasive Impatiens parviflora has negative impact on native vegetation in oak-hornbeam forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Florianová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 226, Jan 2017 (2017), s. 10-16 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : small balsam * impact of invasive plant on vegetation * removal experiment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  2. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project`s primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  3. 75 FR 9388 - Prescott National Forest, Bradshaw Ranger District; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...; Arizona; Bradshaw Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project is a proposal to improve the health of.... The project area encompasses about 55,554 acres. Within the project area, the proposal is to...

  4. Concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial vegetation on the Hanford site of potential interest to Native Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana) and Gray's desert parsley (Lomatium grayi) were similar to concentrations observed in other plants collected on the Hanford Site and from offsite locations surrounding the Site as part of annual Hanford Site surveillance. Observed concentrations may be attributed to historic fallout more than to Hanford Site emissions, although the observation that 200 Area plants had slightly higher concentrations of 137 Cs than 100 Area plants is consistent with other monitoring data of radioactivity in soil and vegetation collected onsite. The present concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in balsamroot and parsley fluctuate around background levels with some of the higher observed concentrations of 90 Sr found on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Analytical results and summary statistics by species and location are presented in the appendixes

  5. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... submit to [email protected] . Please put ``Popper Vegetation... work to the local and regional economy; and reintroduce fire in fire dependent ecosystems in the Popper...

  6. Projecting invasion risk of non-native watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon in the western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Rose

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used to project the potential distribution of introduced species outside their native range. Such studies rarely explicitly evaluate potential conflicts with native species should the range of introduced species expand. Two snake species native to eastern North America, Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon, have been introduced to California where they represent a new stressor to declining native amphibians, fish, and reptiles. To project the potential distributions of these non-native watersnakes in western North America, we built ensemble SDMs using MaxEnt, Boosted Regression Trees, and Random Forests and habitat and climatic variables. We then compared the overlap between the projected distribution of invasive watersnakes and the distributions of imperiled native amphibians, fish, and reptiles that can serve as prey or competitors for the invaders, to estimate the risk to native species posed by non-native watersnakes. Large areas of western North America were projected to be climatically suitable for both species of Nerodia according to our ensemble SDMs, including much of central California. The potential distributions of both N. fasciata and N. sipedon overlap extensively with the federally threatened Giant Gartersnake, Thamnophis gigas, which inhabits a similar ecological niche. N. fasciata also poses risk to the federally threatened California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, whereas N. sipedon poses risk to some amphibians of conservation concern, including the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We conclude that non-native watersnakes in California can likely inhabit ranges of several native species of conservation concern that are expected to suffer as prey or competing species for these invaders. Action should be taken now to eradicate or control these invasions before detrimental impacts on native species are widespread. Our methods can be applied broadly to quantify

  7. 76 FR 69700 - Klamath National Forest; California; Pumice Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact.... Grantham, Forest Supervisor, Attn: Ben Haupt, Pumice Vegetation Management Project Team Leader, Goosenest... Management Project will recommend implementation of one of the following: (1) The proposed action; (2) an...

  8. Liability settlement after breach of Permanent Preservation Area laws for protection of native vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de Castro Schenkel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest management policy is not a new concept in Brazil; such laws have been in place since the beginning of the imperial period, including the Forest and Water Code of 1934 and the New Forest Code of 1965. Forest codes prohibit the clearing of vegetation in specific areas, such as steep slopes and river margins. This study evaluated implementation of the Environmental Adjustment Program in the Florianópolis region. We used as references standards from the program itself, as well as information derived from government agency and NGO databases. Three years after the effective date of Law 12.651, many of the stated requirements have not yet been implemented and the proposed deadlines are being ignored by the Union. Under the provisions of the law, farmers that have cleared land in excess will have to replant, which can potentially result in reforestation of about 30 million ha. However, difficulties enforcing the new law continue, creating an expectation of impunity for those planning involvement in future deforestation activities. This analysis concludes that without pressure from civil society, Federal Law 12.651/2012 may be revoked due to lack of compliance. The public should be better informed of the law, and of the extent to which environmental preservation can affect daily life.

  9. BITES RATE ON NATIVE VEGETATION BY TRASHUMANCE GOATS GRAZING IN MOUNTAIN RANGELAND IN NUDO MIXTECO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Franco-Guerra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the habits of grazing-browsing by the rate of bites and rate of consumption in the dry matter (MS of the diet of goats under transhumance grazing in mountain rangelands of Nudo Mixteco, being the natural vegetation in the different strata. Six animals of different age and sex were randomly chosen. Direct observation of grazing method was used to determine the rate of bites/min and the rate of consumption by layers. Analyzes of variance was performed and the Tukey test was used for mean comparison test was used (HSD Tukey (α, 0.05. The values of both variables were small, which may be due to the great diversity of plants and their varied morphology which induces the goat won on the one hand to spend more time in the choice of food becoming more selective and on the other, to carry out bites smaller in those plants whose leaf surface is of the type megafilia or in those woody whose leaves are very small (microphilia 2.25 cm2 to 20.25 cm2.

  10. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  11. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  12. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  13. Final Project Report, Bristol Bay Native Corporation Wind and Hydroelectric Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaught, Douglas J.

    2007-03-31

    The Bristol Bay Native Corporation (BBNC) grant project focused on conducting nine wind resource studies in eight communities in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska and was administered as a collaborative effort between BBNC, the Alaska Energy Authority, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Nushagak Electric Cooperative (NEC), Naknek Electric Association (NEA), and several individual village utilities in the region. BBNC’s technical contact and the project manager for this study was Douglas Vaught, P.E., of V3 Energy, LLC, in Eagle River, Alaska. The Bristol Bay region of Alaska is comprised of 29 communities ranging in size from the hub community of Dillingham with a population of approximately 3,000 people, to a few Native Alaska villages that have a few tens of residents. Communities chosen for inclusion in this project were Dillingham, Naknek, Togiak, New Stuyahok, Kokhanok, Perryville, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek. Selection criteria for conduction of wind resource assessments in these communities included population and commercial activity, utility interest, predicted Class 3 or better wind resource, absence of other sources of renewable energy, and geographical coverage of the region. Beginning with the first meteorological tower installation in October 2003, wind resource studies were completed at all sites with at least one year, and as much as two and a half years, of data. In general, the study results are very promising for wind power development in the region with Class 6 winds measured in Kokhanok; Class 4 winds in New Stuyahok, Clark’s Point, and Koliganek; Class 3 winds in Dillingham, Naknek, and Togiak; and Class 2 winds in Perryville. Measured annual average wind speeds and wind power densities at the 30 meter level varied from a high of 7.87 meters per second and 702 watts per square meter in Kokhanok (Class 6 winds), to a low of 4.60 meters per second and 185 watts per square meter in Perryville (Class 2 winds).

  14. Projected future vegetation changes for the northwest United States and southwest Canada at a fine spatial resolution using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  15. Landscape changes in a neotropical forest-savanna ecotone zone in central Brazil: The role of protected areas in the maintenance of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea S; Sawakuchi, Henrique O; Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo; Ballester, Maria Victoria R

    2017-02-01

    In the Amazon-savanna ecotone in northwest Brazil, the understudied Araguaia River Basin contains high biodiversity and seasonal wetlands. The region is representative of tropical humid-dry ecotone zones, which have experienced intense land use and land cover (LULC) conversions. Here we assessed the LULC changes for the last four decades in the central portion of the Araguaia River Basin to understand the temporal changes in the landscape composition and configuration outside and inside protected areas. We conducted these analyzes by LULC mapping and landscape metrics based on patch classes. During this period, native vegetation was reduced by 26%. Forests were the most threatened physiognomy, with significant areal reduction and fragmentation. Native vegetation cover was mainly replaced by croplands and pastures. Such replacement followed spatial and temporal trends related to the implementation of protected areas and increases in population cattle herds. The creation of most protected areas took place between 1996 and 2007, the same period during which the conversion of the landscape matrix from natural vegetation to agriculture occurred. We observed that protected areas mitigate fragmentation, but their roles differ according to their location and level of protection. Still, we argue that landscape characteristics, such as suitability for agriculture, also influence landscape conversions and should be considered when establishing protected areas. The information provided in this study can guide new research on species conservation and landscape planning, as well as improve the understanding of the impacts of landscape composition and configuration changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential impacts of projected climate change on vegetation management in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Loh, Rhonda; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Brinck, Kevin W.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan; McDaniel, Sierra; Fortini, Lucas B.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change will likely alter the seasonal and annual patterns of rainfall and temperature in Hawai`i. This is a major concern for resource managers at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park where intensely managed Special Ecological Areas (SEAs), focal sites for managing rare and endangered plants, may no longer provide suitable habitat under future climate. Expanding invasive species’ distributions also may pose a threat to areas where native plants currently predominate. We combine recent climate modeling efforts for the state of Hawai`i with plant species distribution models to forecast changes in biodiversity in SEAs under future climate conditions. Based on this bioclimatic envelope model, we generated projected species range maps for four snapshots in time (2000, 2040, 2070, and 2090) to assess whether the range of 39 native and invasive species of management interest are expected to contract, expand, or remain the same under a moderately warmer and more variable precipitation scenario. Approximately two-thirds of the modeled native species were projected to contract in range, while one-third were shown to increase. Most of the park’s SEAs were projected to lose a majority of the native species modeled. Nine of the 10 modeled invasive species were projected to contract within the park; this trend occurred in most SEAs, including those at low, middle, and high elevations. There was good congruence in the current (2000) distribution of species richness and SEA configuration; however, the congruence between species richness hotspots and SEAs diminished by the end of this century. Over time the projected species-rich hotspots increasingly occurred outside of current SEA boundaries. Our research brought together managers and scientists to increase understanding of potential climate change impacts, and provide needed information to address how plants may respond under future conditions relative to current managed areas.

  17. Effects of projected climate change on vegetation in the Blue Mountains ecoregion, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky K. Kerns

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We used autecological, paleoecological, and modeling information to explore the potential effects of climate change on vegetation in the Blue Mountains ecoregion, Oregon (USA. Although uncertainty exists about the exact nature of future vegetation change, we infer that the following are likely to occur by the end of the century: (1 dominance of ponderosa pine and sagebrush will increase in many locations, (2 the forest-steppe ecotone will move upward in latitude and elevation, (3 ponderosa pine will be distributed at higher elevations, (4 subalpine and alpine systems will be replaced by grass species, pine, and Douglas-fir, (5 moist forest types may increase under wetter scenarios, (6 the distribution and abundance of juniper woodlands may decrease if the frequency and extent of wildfire increase, and (7 grasslands and shrublands will increase at lower elevations. Tree growth in energy-limited landscapes (high elevations, north aspects will increase as the climate warms and snowpack decreases, whereas tree growth in water-limited landscapes (low elevations, south aspects will decrease. Ecological disturbances, including wildfire, insect outbreaks, and non-native species, which are expected to increase in a warmer climate, will affect species distribution, tree age, and vegetation structure, facilitating transitions to new combinations of species and vegetation patterns. In dry forests where fire has not occurred for several decades, crown fires may result in high tree mortality, and the interaction of multiple disturbances and stressors will probably exacerbate stress complexes. Increased disturbance will favor species with physiological and phenological traits that allow them to tolerate frequent disturbance. Keywords: Climate change, Disturbance, Vegetation, Wildfire

  18. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L; Schacht, Walter H; Soper, Jonathan M; Wienhold, Carol E

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  19. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L.; Schacht, Walter H.; Soper, Jonathan M.; Wienhold, Carol E.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  20. Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

    2011-07-01

    Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given

  1. Use of vegetation sampling and analysis to detect a problem within a portion of a prairie restoration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, Raymond; Scholes, Chad; Krabbe, Stephen

    2017-01-02

    In June 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) began establishing the 60-ha Howell Prairie around the disposal cell at the DOE Weldon Spring Site (WSS). Prairies were historically present in the area of the site. Quantitative Cover sampling was used to quantify Total Cover, Native Grass Cover, Non-Native Grass Cover, Native Forb Cover, Non-Native Forb Cover, Warm Season (C 4 Grass), Cool Season (C 3 Grass), Perennial Cover and Annual Cover, Litter, and Bare Ground. Four permanent vegetation sampling plots were established. The first 4 years of vegetation measurements at Howell Prairie were made during above-average rainfall years on burned and unburned plots. The fifth-year (2012) vegetation measurements were made after below-average rainfall. Five years of results not only document the consistency of the restoration effort in three areas, but also demonstrate deficiencies in Grass Cover in a fourth area. The results are not only useful for Howell Prairie, but will be useful for restoration work throughout the region. Restoration work suffers from a lack of success monitoring and in this case from a lack of available reference areas. Floristic Quality Indices are used to make qualitative comparisons of the site to Konza Prairie sites.

  2. Alaskan Native High School Dropouts: A Report Prepared for Project ANNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Desa

    Presented is a summary of the Alaskan Native high school dropouts. The data collected on 180 Native Alaskan high school dropouts was taken from the regional dormitories at Nome, Kodiak, Bethel and Boarding Home programs in Anchorage, Tok, Fairbanks, Dillingham, and Ketchikan. Students who terminated for academic reasons, failed to attend school,…

  3. Projected future changes in vegetation in western North America in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Jiang; Rauscher, Sara A.; Ringler, Todd D.; Lawrence, David M.; Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Steiner, Allison L.; Cai, D. Michael; McDowell, Nate G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and broad-scale forest mortality associated with recent droughts, rising temperature, and insect outbreaks has been observed over western North America (NA). Climate models project additional future warming and increasing drought and water stress for this region. To assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in western NA, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with its Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) was used under the future A2 emissions scenario. To better span uncertainties in future climate, eight sea surface temperature (SST) projections provided by phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) were employed as boundary conditions. There is a broad consensus among the simulations, despite differences in the simulated climate trajectories across the ensemble, that about half of the needleleaf evergreen tree coverage (from 24% to 11%) will disappear, coincident with a 14% (from 11% to 25%) increase in shrubs and grasses by the end of the twenty-first century in western NA, with most of the change occurring over the latter half of the twenty-first century. The net impact is a ~6 GtC or about 50% decrease in projected ecosystem carbon storage in this region. The findings suggest a potential for a widespread shift from tree-dominated landscapes to shrub and grass-dominated landscapes in western NA because of future warming and consequent increases in water deficits. These results highlight the need for improved process-based understanding of vegetation dynamics, particularly including mortality and the subsequent incorporation of these mechanisms into earth system models to better quantify the vulnerability of western NA forests under climate change.

  4. Projected global ground-level ozone impacts on vegetation under different emission and climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sicard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ground-level ozone (O3 on vegetation is largely under-investigated at the global scale despite large areas worldwide that are exposed to high surface O3 levels. To explore future potential impacts of O3 on vegetation, we compared historical and projected surface O3 concentrations simulated by six global atmospheric chemistry transport models on the basis of three representative concentration pathways emission scenarios (i.e. RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5. To assess changes in the potential surface O3 threat to vegetation at the global scale, we used the AOT40 metric. Results point out a significant exceedance of AOT40 in comparison with the recommendations of UNECE for the protection of vegetation. In fact, many areas of the Northern Hemisphere show that AOT40-based critical levels will be exceeded by a factor of at least 10 under RCP8.5. Changes in surface O3 by 2100 worldwide range from about +4–5 ppb in the RCP8.5 scenario to reductions of about 2–10 ppb in the most optimistic scenario, RCP2.6. The risk of O3 injury for vegetation, through the potential O3 impact on photosynthetic assimilation, decreased by 61 and 47 % under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, respectively, and increased by 70 % under RCP8.5. Key biodiversity areas in southern and northern Asia, central Africa and North America were identified as being at risk from high O3 concentrations.

  5. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  6. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation--A technology transfer project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Chen, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A common environmental problem associated with the pumping and refining of crude oil is the disposal of petroleum sludge. Unfortunately, the biodegradation fate of more recalcitrant and potentially toxic contaminants, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), is rapid at first but declines quickly. Biodegradation of these compounds is limited by their strong adsorption potential and low solubility. Recent research has suggested that vegetation may play an important role in the biodegradation of toxic organic chemicals, such as PNAs, in soil. The establishment of vegetation on hazardous waste sites may be an economic, effective, low maintenance approach to waste remediation and stabilization. Completed greenhouse studies have indicated that vegetative remediation is a feasible method for clean-up of surface soil contaminated with petroleum products. However, a field demonstration is needed to exhibit this new technology to the industrial community. In this project, several petroleum contaminated field sites will be chosen in collaboration with three industrial partners. These sites will be thoroughly characterized for chemical properties, physical properties, and initial PNA concentrations. A variety of plant species will be established on the sites, including warm and cool season grasses and alfalfa. Soil analyses for the target compounds over time will allow them to assess the efficiency and applicability of this remediation method

  7. Vegetation growth patterns on six rock-covered UMTRA Project disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This study assessed vegetation growth patterns, the potential impacts of vegetation growth on disposal cell cover integrity, and possible measures that could be taken to monitor and/or control plant growth, where necessary, on six Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project rock-covered disposal cells. A large-scale invasion of volunteer plants was observed on the Shiprock and Burrell disposal cells. Plant growth at the South Clive, Green River, and Tuba City disposal cells was sparse except for the south rock apron and south slope of the Tuba City disposal cell, where windblown sand had filled up part of the rock cover and plant growth was observed. The rock-covered topslope of the Collins Ranch disposal cell was intentionally covered with topsoil and vegetated. Plant roots growing on the disposal cells are changing the characteristics of the cover by drying out the radon barrier, encouraging the establishment of soil-building processes in the bedding and radon barrier layers, creating channels in the radon barrier, and facilitating ecological succession, which could lead to the establishment of additional deep-rooted plants on the disposal cells. If left unchecked, plant roots would reach the tailings at the Burrell and Collins Ranch disposal cells within a few years, likely resulting in the transport of contaminants out of the cells

  8. Downscaled Climate Change Projections for the Southern Colorado Plateau: Variability and Implications for Vegetation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Eischeid, J. K.; Cole, K. L.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Recent and rapid forest mortality in western North America and associated changes in fire frequency and area burned are among the chief concerns of ecosystem managers. These examples of climate change surprises demonstrate nonlinear and threshold ecosystem responses to increased temperatures and severe drought. A consistent management request from climate change adaptation workshops held during the last four years in the southwest U.S. is for region-specific estimates of climate and vegetation change, in order to provide guidance for management of federal and state forest, range, and riparian preserves and land holdings. Partly in response to these concerns, and partly in the interest of improving knowledge of potential ecosystem changes and their relationships with observed changes and changes demonstrated in the paleoecological record, we developed a set of integrated climate and ecosystem analyses. We selected five of twenty-two GCMs from the PCMDI archive of IPCC AR4 model runs, based on their approximations of observed critical seasonality for vegetation in the Southern Colorado Plateau (domain: 35°- 38°N, 114°-107°W), centered on the Four Corners states. We used three key seasons in our analysis, winter (November-March), pre-monsoon (May-June), and monsoon (July- September). Projections of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation from our five-model ensemble indicate steadily increasing temperatures in our region of interest during the twenty-first century. By 2050, the ensemble projects increases of 3.0°C during May and June, months critical for drought stress and tree mortality, and 4.5-5.0°C by 2090. Projected temperature changes for months during the heart of winter (December and January) are on the order of 2.5°C by 2050 and 3.0°C by 2090; such changes are likely to affect snow hydrology in middle to low elevations in the Southern Colorado Plateau. Summer temperature increases are on the order of 2.5°C (2050) and 4.0°C (2090). The

  9. Kā-HOLO Project: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a native cultural dance program for cardiovascular disease prevention in Native Hawaiians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD, hypertension affects 33% of U.S. adults. Relative to other US races and ethnicities, Native Hawaiians have a high prevalence of hypertension and are 3 to 4 times more likely to have CVD. Effective, culturally-relevant interventions are needed to address CVD risk in this population. Investigators of the Kā-HOLO Project developed a study design to test the efficacy of an intervention that uses hula, a traditional Hawaiian dance, to increase physical activity and reduce CVD risk. Methods A 2-arm randomized controlled trial with a wait-list control design will be implemented to test a 6-month intervention based on hula to manage blood pressure and reduce CVD risk in 250 adult Native Hawaiians with diagnosed hypertension. Half of the sample will be randomized to each arm, stratified across multiple study sites. Primary outcomes are reduction in systolic blood pressure and improvement in CVD risk as measured by the Framingham Risk Score. Other psychosocial and sociocultural measures will be included to determine mediators of intervention effects on primary outcomes. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months for all participants, and at 12 months for intervention participants only. Discussion This trial will elucidate the efficacy of a novel hypertension management program designed to reduce CVD risk in an indigenous population by using a cultural dance form as its physical activity component. The results of this culturally-based intervention will have implications for other indigenous populations globally and will offer a sustainable, culturally-relevant means of addressing CVD disparities. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02620709 , registration date November 23, 2015.

  10. 77 FR 30512 - Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and Extension of Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and... American Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary waives 34 CFR 75.250 and 75.261(c)(2) in order...

  11. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  12. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Porous Vegetation Concrete Made with By-Product Materials for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of porous vegetation concrete block made from blast furnace slag cement containing industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag aggregate and powder. The blocks were tested for void ratio, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance to determine the optimal mixing ratio for the porous vegetation block. An economic analysis of the mixing ratio showed that the economic efficiency increased when blast furnace slag aggregate and cement were used. Porous vegetation concrete blocks for river applications were designed and produced. Hydraulic safety, heavy metal elution and vegetation tests were completed after the blocks were applied in the field. The measured tractive force ranged between 7.0 kg/m2 for fascine revetment (vegetation revetment and 16.0 kg/m2 for stone pitching (hard revetment, which ensured sufficient hydraulic stability in the field. Plant growth was measured after the porous vegetation concrete block was placed in the field. Seeds began to sprout one week after seeding; after six weeks, the plant length exceeded 300 mm. The average coverage ratio reached as high as 90% after six weeks of vegetation. These results clearly indicated that the porous vegetation concrete block was suitable for environmental restoration projects.

  13. Native Speakers as Teachers in Turkey: Non-Native Pre-Service English Teachers' Reactions to a Nation-Wide Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Although English is now a recognized international language and the concept of native speaker is becoming more doubtful every day, the empowerment of the native speakers of English as language teaching professionals is still continuing (McKay, 2002), especially in Asian countries like China and Japan. One of the latest examples showing the…

  14. Understory plant diversity in mixed and pure plantations of jatropha curcas vs. native vegetation in the lower-middle reaches of the lancang-meikong river watershed, china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, G.L.; Ma, H.C.; Tang, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    22 plots at the Xiaoheijiang base, located in the lower-middle reaches of the Lancang-Meikong River in China, were investigated to analyze the understory biodiversity of Jatropha curcas plantations. Two kinds of mixed modes of J. curcas (mixed plantation with Macadamia integrifolia and mixed plantation with shrub species) and a pure plantation of J. curcas were planted, while the native vegetation served as a control. The plots were distributed along the gradients of forest management, succession and elevation by CCA analysis. Species richness was not significantly different for the different types of plantation, but the evenness of species could be affected, especially for the total community and the understory by planting J. curcas. The diversity and evenness indices of species were affected for the mixed plantation with different proportions of M. integrifolia, especially for the shrub layer, the Shannon diversity index and Pilou evenness index showed significant differences. And for the different mixed shrub species, only the Shannon diversity index and Pilou evenness index were significantly different. Finally, from the perspective of biological diversity, J.curcas plantation with shrub species would be a recommended planting model for ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley area, while J. curcas plantation with M. integrifolia would be an effective planting model to balance crop yield and food security. (author)

  15. Monitoring post-fire vegetation rehabilitation projects: A common approach for non-forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using

  16. Solos e vegetação nativa remanescente no Município de Campinas Soil and native vegetation remnant in Campinas, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos de Moraes Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar atributos e classes de solos associados à ocorrência de remanescentes de cerrado e de floresta nativa em Campinas, SP, e identificar espécies indicadoras desses ambientes. Vinte e sete fragmentos de vegetação nativa foram estudados. Foi realizada a caracterização morfológica, classificação e coleta do solo para análises, bem como o levantamento florístico-fitossociológico do estrato arbóreo. A análise de correspondência canônica identificou as variáveis mais bem correlacionadas com a distribuição das espécies e identificou 15 variáveis que explicaram 31% da variância nos dois primeiros eixos. A classificação dos solos discriminou as fitofisionomias estudadas, Argissolos associados às matas e Latossolos aos cerrados, indício de que baixa fertilidade, baixa retenção de água e drenagem acentuada do solo favorecem o estabelecimento de cerrado. Parâmetro "n" da curva de retenção de água, densidade, H+Al, Ca, Al, K e Mg trocáveis, macroporos e matéria orgânica do solo foram os atributos dos solos mais efetivos nessa diferenciação fitofisionômica. A barreira química imposta pelo excesso de Al e deficiência de Ca no horizonte B e a baixa retenção de água nos solos sob cerrado favorecem as espécies Luehea grandiflora, Persea willdenovii, Xylopia aromatica e Erythroxylum daphnites, abundantes e exclusivamente encontradas nos fragmentos de cerrado.The objective of this work was to identify soil attributes and classes associated to the occurrence of forest and tropical savannah remnants in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Twenty seven native vegetation fragments were studied. Soil morphological, chemical, and physical characterization were carried out, along with floristic-phytosociological survey of the tree stratum. Canonic correspondence analysis identified variables better correlated with plant species distribution. Fifteen environment variables explained 31% of the variance of

  17. Vegetation - McKenzie Preserve [ds703

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Vegetation Program produced a vegetation map and classification for approximately 11,600 acres primarily within Millerton...

  18. Potential impacts of projected climate change on vegetation-management strategies in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Brink, Kevin W.; Jacobi, James D.; Loh, Rhonda; Price, Jonathan; Fortini, Lucas B.

    2018-06-05

    Climate change is expected to alter the seasonal and annual patterns of rainfall and temperature in the Hawaiian Islands. Land managers and other responsible agencies will need to know how plant-species habitats will change over the next century in order to manage these resources effectively. This issue is a major concern for resource managers at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), where currently managed Special Ecological Areas (SEAs) for important plant species and communities may no longer provide suitable habitats in the future as the climate changes. Expanding invasive-species distributions also may pose a threat to areas where native plants currently predominate.The objective of this project was to combine recent climate-modeling efforts for the state of Hawai‘i with existing models of plant-species distribution in order to forecast suitable habitat ranges under future climate conditions derived from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 3 (CMIP3) global circulation model that was dynamically downscaled for the Hawaiian Islands by using the Hawai‘i Regional Climate Model (HRCM). The HRCM uses the A1B emission scenario (a median future climate projection) from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). On the basis of this model, maps showing projected plant-species ranges were generated for four years as snapshots in time (2000, 2040, 2070, 2090) and for three different trajectories of climate change (gradual, linear, rapid) between the present and future.We mapped probabilistic surfaces of suitable habitat for 39 plant species (both native and alien [nonnative]) identified as being of interest to HAVO resource managers. We displayed these surfaces in terms of change relative to present conditions, whether the range of a given plant species was expected to contract, expand, or remain the same in the future. Within HAVO, approximately two-thirds (18 of 29) of the modeled native plant species were projected to contract in range

  19. Combined effects of climate change and forest clearing on the Amazon vegetation: Projections for 2080-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2007-05-01

    A regional climate model with resolution of 60 km coupled with a potential vegetation model is used to simulate future vegetation distributions over South America. The coupled model, which produces an accurate representation of today's climate and vegetation, is forced with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, sea surface temperature from a global model, and scenarios of future land use practices to predict climate and vegetation distributions for the last 2 decades of the 21st century. When only climate change is considered, under a business-as-usual scenario for global emissions, the extent of the Amazon rainforest is reduced by about 70 per cent by the end of this century, and the shrubland (caatinga) vegetation of Brazil's Nordeste region spreads westward and southward. Reductions in annual mean precipitation are widespread and rainfall becomes insufficient to support the rainforest in these regions, but some areas receive more precipitation. The length of the dry season increases in the central and southern Amazon in association with changes in the large-scale tropical circulation. Without this change in seasonality, local refugia of Amazon vegetation would be preserved and the retreat of the rainforest would be somewhat less extensive. Including various projections of future land use practices in addition to climate change may accelerate the unrecoverable demise of the rainforest and feedback to modify climate on regional space scales. The portions of the rainforest that are most vulnerable to climate change are the same as those that are under the most pressure from human activity, presenting a remarkable competition.

  20. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention - Project Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-06-16

    The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297.

  1. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Meaghan S; Ransley, Joan K; Greenwood, Darren C; Clarke, Graham P; Conner, Mark T; Jupp, Jennifer; Cade, Janet E

    2009-01-01

    Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS) is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3) their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group), consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET), and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2) and 18 month follow-up (Year 4). The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato) to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297 PMID:19531246

  2. Study protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school based fruit and vegetable intervention – Project Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS is an important public health intervention. The aim of this scheme is to provide a free piece of fruit and/or vegetable every day for children in Reception to Year 2. When children are no longer eligible for the scheme (from Year 3 their overall fruit and vegetable consumption decreases back to baseline levels. This proposed study aims to design a flexible multi-component intervention for schools to support the maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption for Year 3 children who are no longer eligible for the scheme. Method This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial of Year 2 classes from 54 primary schools across England. The schools will be randomly allocated into two groups to receive either an active intervention called Project Tomato, to support maintenance of fruit intake in Year 3 children, or a less active intervention (control group, consisting of a 5 A DAY booklet. Children's diets will be analysed using the Child And Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET, and height and weight measurements collected, at baseline (Year 2 and 18 month follow-up (Year 4. The primary outcome will be the ability of the intervention (Project Tomato to maintain consumption of fruit and vegetable portions compared to the control group. Discussion A positive result will identify how fruit and vegetable consumption can be maintained in young children, and will be useful for policies supporting the SFVS. A negative result would be used to inform the research agenda and contribute to redefining future strategies for increasing children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Trial registration Medical Research Council Registry code G0501297

  3. THE BENEFITS OF THE E-LEARNING AGRICULTURAL PROJECT KISSANKERALA TO DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS AND DIGITAL NATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj ROY. V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent times Information and Communication Technology (ICT has been able to make inroads into the ways information is disseminated among those involved in direct farming and farming related enterprises. This paper arose from a two-year study of the KissanKerala, the e-learning project underway in Kerala, a small state in India. It is more conspicuous when we learn that the KissanKerala project is able to disseminate agricultural information also among digital immigrants. Since 2003, the KissanKerala has been providing advisory services to the farming community in Kerala using a combination of technologies. Salient features of the project are discussed. Noteworthy are its interactive web portal and the online agri-video channel that uses the video sharing platform of YouTube. In this paper, we look at the e-learning strategies adopted; virtual learning environments created and also discuss participative tools used for communication. We have also made an impact-study of the project with a large number of beneficiaries. We learn that the Kissan Kerala is one of the most successful learning projects undertaken in distance mode in India.

  4. Projected risk of population declines for native fish species in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, S.M.; Boma, P.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservationists are in need of objective metrics for prioritizing the management of habitats. For individual species, the threat of extinction is often used to prioritize what species are in need of conservation action. Using long-term monitoring data, we applied a Bayesian diffusion approximation to estimate quasi-extinction risk for 54 native fish species within six commercial navigation reaches along a 1350-km gradient of the upper Mississippi River system. We found a strong negative linear relationship between quasi-extinction risk and distance upstream. For some species, quasi-extinction estimates ranged from nearly zero in some reaches to one in others, suggesting substantial variability in threats facing individual river reaches. We found no evidence that species traits affected quasi-extinction risk across the entire system. Our results indicate that fishes within the upper Mississippi River system face localized threats that vary across river impact gradients. This suggests that conservation actions should be focused on local habitat scales but should also consider the additive effects on downstream conditions. We also emphasize the need for identification of proximate mechanisms behind observed and predicted population declines, as conservation actions will require mitigation of such mechanisms. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Native Hawaiian Ethnographic Study for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Proposed for Puna and Southeast Maui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, J.K; Minerbi, L. [Cultural Advocacy Network for Developing Options (CANDO) (United States); Kanahele, P.; Kelly, M.; Barney-Campbell, N.; Saulsbury [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Trettin, L.D. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report makes available and archives the background scientific data and related information collected for an ethnographic study of selected areas on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The task was undertaken during preparation of an environmental impact statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. Information is included on the ethnohistory of Puna and southeast Maui; ethnographic fieldwork comparing Puna and southeast Maui; and Pele beliefs, customs, and practices.

  6. The Benefits of the E-Learning Agricultural Project Kissankerala to Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy V., Manoj; Ghosh, Chimoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In recent times Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been able to make inroads into the ways information is disseminated among those involved in direct farming and farming related enterprises. This paper arose from a two-year study of the KissanKerala, the e-learning project underway in Kerala, a small state in India. It is more…

  7. 75 FR 60405 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, Integrated Non-Native Invasive Plant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Lincoln National Forest (LNF) proposes to implement an integrated... by November 29, 2010. The draft environmental impact statement is expected January 2011 and the final environmental impact statement is expected April 2011. ADDRESSES: Send written comments to NNIP Project, Lincoln...

  8. Climate change-induced vegetation shifts lead to more ecological droughts despite projected rainfall increases in many global temperate drylands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Britta; Schlaepfer, Daniel R; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K; Hall, Sonia A; Duniway, Michael C; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Jia, Gensuo; Munson, Seth M; Pyke, David A; Wilson, Scott D

    2017-07-01

    Drylands occur worldwide and are particularly vulnerable to climate change because dryland ecosystems depend directly on soil water availability that may become increasingly limited as temperatures rise. Climate change will both directly impact soil water availability and change plant biomass, with resulting indirect feedbacks on soil moisture. Thus, the net impact of direct and indirect climate change effects on soil moisture requires better understanding. We used the ecohydrological simulation model SOILWAT at sites from temperate dryland ecosystems around the globe to disentangle the contributions of direct climate change effects and of additional indirect, climate change-induced changes in vegetation on soil water availability. We simulated current and future climate conditions projected by 16 GCMs under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for the end of the century. We determined shifts in water availability due to climate change alone and due to combined changes of climate and the growth form and biomass of vegetation. Vegetation change will mostly exacerbate low soil water availability in regions already expected to suffer from negative direct impacts of climate change (with the two RCP scenarios giving us qualitatively similar effects). By contrast, in regions that will likely experience increased water availability due to climate change alone, vegetation changes will counteract these increases due to increased water losses by interception. In only a small minority of locations, climate change-induced vegetation changes may lead to a net increase in water availability. These results suggest that changes in vegetation in response to climate change may exacerbate drought conditions and may dampen the effects of increased precipitation, that is, leading to more ecological droughts despite higher precipitation in some regions. Our results underscore the value of considering indirect effects of climate change on vegetation when assessing future soil moisture conditions in water

  9. Climate change-induced vegetation shifts lead to more ecological droughts despite projected rainfall increases in many global temperate drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Britta; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Laurenroth, William K.; Hall, Sonia A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Jia, Gensuo; Munson, Seth M.; Pyke, David A.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Drylands occur world-wide and are particularly vulnerable to climate change since dryland ecosystems depend directly on soil water availability that may become increasingly limited as temperatures rise. Climate change will both directly impact soil water availability, and also change plant biomass, with resulting indirect feedbacks on soil moisture. Thus, the net impact of direct and indirect climate change effects on soil moisture requires better understanding.We used the ecohydrological simulation model SOILWAT at sites from temperate dryland ecosystems around the globe to disentangle the contributions of direct climate change effects and of additional indirect, climate change-induced changes in vegetation on soil water availability. We simulated current and future climate conditions projected by 16 GCMs under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for the end of the century. We determined shifts in water availability due to climate change alone and due to combined changes of climate and the growth form and biomass of vegetation.Vegetation change will mostly exacerbate low soil water availability in regions already expected to suffer from negative direct impacts of climate change (with the two RCP scenarios giving us qualitatively similar effects). By contrast, in regions that will likely experience increased water availability due to climate change alone, vegetation changes will counteract these increases due to increased water losses by interception. In only a small minority of locations, climate change induced vegetation changes may lead to a net increase in water availability. These results suggest that changes in vegetation in response to climate change may exacerbate drought conditions and may dampen the effects of increased precipitation, i.e. leading to more ecological droughts despite higher precipitation in some regions. Our results underscore the value of considering indirect effects of climate change on vegetation when assessing future soil moisture conditions in water

  10. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  11. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  12. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times...... for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote...... procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Emission Evaluation of Porous Vegetation Concrete Blocks for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the mix proportions that can minimize CO2 emissions while satisfying the target performance of porous vegetation concrete. The target performance of porous vegetation concrete was selected as compressive strength (>15 MPa and void ratio (>25%. This study considered the use of reinforcing fiber and styrene butadiene (SB latex to improve the strength of porous vegetation concrete, as well as the use of blast furnace slag aggregate to improve the CO2 emissions-reducing effect, and analyzed and evaluated the influence of fiber reinforcing, SB latex, and blast furnace slag aggregate on the compressive strength and CO2 emissions of porous vegetation concrete. The CO2 emissions of the raw materials were highest for cement, followed by aggregate, SB latex, and fiber. Blast furnace slag aggregate showed a 30% or more CO2 emissions-reducing effect versus crushed aggregate, and blast furnace slag cement showed a 78% CO2 emissions-reducing effect versus Portland cement. The CO2 emissions analyses for each raw material showed that the CO2 emissions during transportation were highest for the aggregate. Regarding CO2 emissions in each production stage, the materials stage produced the highest CO2 emissions, while the proportion of CO2 emissions in the transportation stage for each raw material, excluding fiber, were below 3% of total emissions. Use of blast furnace slag aggregate in porous vegetation concrete produced CO2 emissions-reducing effects, but decreased its compressive strength. Use of latex in porous vegetation concrete improved its compressive strength, but also increased CO2 emissions. Thus, it is appropriate to use latex in porous vegetation concrete to improve its strength and void ratio, and to use a blast furnace slag aggregate replacement ratio of 40% or less.

  14. Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam - Report from a structured decision-making project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a structured decision-making project by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide substantive input to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for use in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment concerning control of non-native fish below Glen Canyon Dam. A forum was created to allow the diverse cooperating agencies and Tribes to discuss, expand, and articulate their respective values; to develop and evaluate a broad set of potential control alternatives using the best available science; and to define individual preferences of each group on how to manage the inherent trade-offs in this non-native fish control problem. This project consisted of two face-to-face workshops, held in Mesa, Arizona, October 18-20 and November 8-10, 2010. At the first workshop, a diverse set of objectives was discussed, which represented the range of concerns of those agencies and Tribes present. A set of non-native fish control alternatives ('hybrid portfolios') was also developed. Over the 2-week period between the two workshops, four assessment teams worked to evaluate the control alternatives against the array of objectives. At the second workshop, the results of the assessment teams were presented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods were used to examine the trade-offs inherent in the problem, and allowed the participating agencies and Tribes to express their individual judgments about how those trade-offs should best be managed in Reclamation`s selection of a preferred alternative. A broad array of objectives was identified and defined, and an effort was made to understand how these objectives are likely to be achieved by a variety of strategies. In general, the objectives reflected desired future conditions over 30 years. A rich set of alternative approaches was developed, and the complex structure of those alternatives was documented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods allowed the evaluation of those alternatives against the array

  15. Acceleration and Counteraction of Changes in Vegetation Seasonality and Patterns using CMIP5 Projections from Different ESMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Y.; Joussaume, S.; De Noblet-Decoudre, N.

    2017-12-01

    Most climatological studies characterize future climate change as the evolution between a fixed current baseline and the future. Considering the pace of future climate change is however of major importance, since it may strongly influence how we experience climate hazards. To complement previous work related to the pace of temperature and precipitation changes, we propose here to study how fast vegetation seasonality and patterns of climate change evolve in different future configurations according to CMIP5 simulations of several Earth system models. The pace is defined as the difference in relevant metrics between two successive 20-year periods, i.e. with a continually moving baseline. Shifts of vegetation groups and changes in the characteristics of the seasonal cycle are considered. Both accelerate in close relationship with the warming rate regardless of the selected scenario, but they balance each other out, especially for trees in northern mid- and high-latitudes. Efforts are nevertheless strongly needed to harmonize the representation of vegetation in new versions of model inter-comparison projects, in order to properly conduct multi-model analyses related to vegetation changes.

  16. SACRIFICING THE ECOLOGICAL RESOLUTION OF VEGETATION MAPS AT THE ALTAR OF THEMATIC ACCURACY: ASSESSED MAP ACCURACIES FOR HIERARCHICAL VEGETATION CLASSIFICATIONS IN THE EASTERN GREAT BASIN OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SW ReGAP) improves upon previous GAP projects conducted in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah to provide a consistent, seamless vegetation map for this large and ecologically diverse geographic region. Nevada's compone...

  17. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  18. Parental eating behaviours, home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods: longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; van den Berg, Patricia; Story, Mary; Larson, Nicole

    2007-11-01

    To examine longitudinal associations of parental report of household food availability and parent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods with adolescent intakes of the same foods. This study expands upon the limited research of longitudinal studies examining the role of parents and household food availability in adolescent dietary intakes. Longitudinal study. Project EAT-II followed an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of adolescents from 1999 (time 1) to 2004 (time 2). In addition to the Project EAT survey, adolescents completed the Youth Adolescent Food-Frequency Questionnaire in both time periods, and parents of adolescents completed a telephone survey at time 1. General linear modelling was used to examine the relationship between parent intake and home availability and adolescent intake, adjusting for time 1 adolescent intakes. Associations were examined separately for the high school and young adult cohorts and separately for males and females in combined cohorts. The sample included 509 pairs of parents/guardians and adolescents. Vegetables served at dinner significantly predicted adolescent intakes of vegetables for males (P = 0.037), females (P = 0.009), high school (P = 0.033) and young adults (P = 0.05) at 5-year follow-up. Among young adults, serving milk at dinner predicted dairy intake (P = 0.002). Time 1 parental intakes significantly predicted intakes of young adults for fruit (P = 0.044), vegetables (P = 0.041) and dairy foods (P = 0.008). Parental intake predicted intake of dairy for females (P = 0.02). The findings suggest the importance of providing parents of adolescents with knowledge and skills to enhance the home food environment and improve their own eating behaviours.

  19. Decomposing the uncertainty in climate impact projections of Dynamic Vegetation Models: a test with the forest models LANDCLIM and FORCLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleret, Maxime; Snell, Rebecca; von Waldow, Harald; Kotlarski, Sven; Bugmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Different levels of uncertainty should be considered in climate impact projections by Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs), particularly when it comes to managing climate risks. Such information is useful to detect the key processes and uncertainties in the climate model - impact model chain and may be used to support recommendations for future improvements in the simulation of both climate and biological systems. In addition, determining which uncertainty source is dominant is an important aspect to recognize the limitations of climate impact projections by a multi-model ensemble mean approach. However, to date, few studies have clarified how each uncertainty source (baseline climate data, greenhouse gas emission scenario, climate model, and DVM) affects the projection of ecosystem properties. Focusing on one greenhouse gas emission scenario, we assessed the uncertainty in the projections of a forest landscape model (LANDCLIM) and a stand-scale forest gap model (FORCLIM) that is caused by linking climate data with an impact model. LANDCLIM was used to assess the uncertainty in future landscape properties of the Visp valley in Switzerland that is due to (i) the use of different 'baseline' climate data (gridded data vs. data from weather stations), and (ii) differences in climate projections among 10 GCM-RCM chains. This latter point was also considered for the projections of future forest properties by FORCLIM at several sites along an environmental gradient in Switzerland (14 GCM-RCM chains), for which we also quantified the uncertainty caused by (iii) the model chain specific statistical properties of the climate time-series, and (iv) the stochasticity of the demographic processes included in the model, e.g., the annual number of saplings that establish, or tree mortality. Using methods of variance decomposition analysis, we found that (i) The use of different baseline climate data strongly impacts the prediction of forest properties at the lowest and highest, but

  20. 77 FR 30514 - Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waiver and Extension of Project Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waiver and... Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.259A... Technical Education Program (NHCTEP), the Secretary hereby waives 34 CFR 75.261(c)(2) in order to extend the...

  1. The Rural Special Education Project: A School-Based Program That Prepares Special Educators to Teach Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…

  2. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  3. Using a dynamic vegetation model for future projections of crop yields: application to Belgium in the framework of the VOTES and MASC projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Ingrid; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Beckers, Veronique; Debusscher, Bos; Tychon, Bernard; Hambuckers, Alain; François, Louis

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models (DVM) were initially designed to describe the dynamics of natural ecosystems as a function of climate and soil, to study the role of the vegetation in the carbon cycle. These models are now directly coupled with climate models in order to evaluate feedbacks between vegetation and climate. But DVM characteristics allow numerous other applications, leading to amelioration of some of their modules (e.g., evaluating sensitivity of the hydrological module to land surface changes) and developments (e.g., coupling with other models like agent-based models), to be used in ecosystem management and land use planning studies. It is in this dynamic context about DVMs that we have adapted the CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) model. One of the main improvements is the implementation of a crop module, allowing the assessment of climate change impacts on crop yields. We try to validate this module at different scales: - from the plot level, with the use of eddy-covariance data from agricultural sites in the FLUXNET network, such as Lonzée (Belgium) or other Western European sites (Grignon, Dijkgraaf,…), - to the country level, for which we compare the crop yield calculated by CARAIB to the crop yield statistics for Belgium and for different agricultural regions of the country. Another challenge for the CARAIB DVM was to deal with the landscape dynamics, which is not directly possible due to the lack of consideration of anthropogenic factors in the system. In the framework of the VOTES and the MASC projects, CARAIB is coupled with an agent-based model (ABM), representing the societal component of the system. This coupled module allows the use of climate and socio-economic scenarios, particularly interesting for studies which aim at ensuring a sustainable approach. This module has particularly been exploited in the VOTES project, where the objective was to provide a social, biophysical and economic assessment of the ecosystem services in

  4. Parents'/Carers' Perceptions and Experiences of Growing, Preparing and Eating Their Own Fruit and Vegetables as Part of the "Field to Fork" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Diana M.; May, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports research into a project to encourage KS1 and KS2 pupils to eat more healthily by supporting their families to grow their own fruit and vegetables at home. Participants were recruited through a Primary School Trust comprising four primary schools in the North West of England. They were given practical support to enable them to…

  5. Climate change effects on vegetation in the Pacific Northwest: a review and synthesis of the scientific literature and simulation model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Peterson; Becky K. Kerns; Erich Kyle Dodson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review scientifi c knowledge and model projections on vegetation vulnerability to climatic and other environmental changes in the Pacifi c Northwest, with emphasis on fi ve major biome types: subalpine forests and alpine meadows, maritime coniferous forests, dry coniferous forests, savannas and woodlands (oak and juniper), and interior...

  6. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  7. THE USE OF DOCUMENTARY ÍNDIO CIDADÃO? IN A CULTURE PROJECT FOR THE REFLECTION ON THE RIGHTS OF BRAZILIAN NATIVE PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Siqueira da Silva Schneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the use of film source, which one has been worked in a culture project, that was approved and it has going on in the law school of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande  FURG. In this study, the methodology used is descriptive during the case study of culture project named I Ciclo de Estudos   Discutindo Direitos Históricos a partir do Documentário Índio Cidadão?, in that the film narrative, the documental research, and the bibliographic review are analyzed. It is discussed about the Brazilian native people rights which were declared by the Brazilian State since the Brasilian Constituent of 1987. It is reflected on the use of the film supply in the research and how it can be used in a specific way for the law study relating to the cultural projects. In relation to cultural project referred, it is questioned about the possible contributions that those actions can have in order to develop an awareness of academic society, including the acceptance and coexistence with cultural diversity at the University. It is concluded that the film source can contribute through cultural projects during the academic activities to promote the debate about the historical construction of rights and their effectiveness.

  8. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  9. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  10. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  11. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  12. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  13. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  14. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  15. Study of Bilingual-Bicultural Projects Involving Native American, Indo-European, Asian and Pacific Language Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Marie A.; And Others

    This is the final report of one of three studies in an overall project entitled "Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs." This study was sponsored in response to a need for more information regarding bilingual-bicultural education for other than Spanish language groups. The study's objectives were to: (1) identify the major issues…

  16. Projected effects of vegetation feedbacks on drought characteristics with SPEI over West Africa using the RegCM-CLM-CN-DV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehyeong, L.; Kim, Y.; Erfanian, A.; Wang, G.; Um, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study utilizes the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to investigate the projected effect of vegetation feedbacks on drought in West Africa using the Regional Climate Model coupled to the NCAR Community Land Model with both the Carbon and Nitrogen module (CN) and Dynamic Vegetation module (DV) activated (RegCM-CLM-CN-DV). The role of vegetation feedbacks is examined based on simulations with and without dynamic vegetation. The four different future climate scenarios from CCSM, GFDL, MIROC and MPI are used as the boundary conditions of RegCM for two historical and future periods, i.e., for 1981 to 2000 and for 2081 to 2100, respectively. Using SPEI, the duration, frequency, severity and spatial extents are quantified over West Africa and analyzed for two regions of the Sahel and the Gulf of Guinea. In this study, we find that the estimated annual SPEIs clearly indicate that the projected future droughts over the Sahel are enhanced and prolonged when DV is activated. The opposite is shown over the Gulf of Guinea in general. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015R1C1A2A01054800), by the Korea Meteorological Administration R&D Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-6180 and by the Yonsei University Future-leading Research Initiative of 2015(2016-22-0061).

  17. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, T.

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors

  18. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Porous Vegetation Concrete Made with By-Product Materials for Ecological Restoration Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang-Hee Kim; Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of porous vegetation concrete block made from blast furnace slag cement containing industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag aggregate and powder. The blocks were tested for void ratio, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance to determine the optimal mixing ratio for the porous vegetation block. An economic analysis of the mixing ratio showed that the economic efficiency increased when blast furnace slag aggregate and c...

  19. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  20. Case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes: results from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William; Pratte, Katherine; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with diabetes in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart (SDPI-HH) Demonstration Project. Multidisciplinary teams implemented an intensive case management intervention among 30 health care programs serving 138 tribes. The project recruited 3373 participants, with and without current CVD, between 2006 and 2009. We examined data collected at baseline and 1 year later to determine whether improvements occurred in CVD risk factors and in Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores, aspirin use, and smoking status. A1c levels decreased an average of 0.2% (P risk scores also decreased significantly. Aspirin therapy increased significantly, and smoking decreased. Participants with more case management visits had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and A1c values. SDPI-HH successfully translated an intensive case management intervention. Creative retention strategies and an improved understanding of organizational challenges are needed for future Indian health translational efforts.

  1. Native prairie revegetation on wellsites in southeastern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulodre, E.; Naeth, A.; Hammermeister, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Native Prairie Revegetation Research Project (NPRRP) was initiated to address concerns about wellsite revegetation of native grassland. The objective was to determine the impact of alternative seeding treatments on soil and vegetation and to produce a quantifiable description of what constitutes successful revegetation of native prairie sites. Four wellsites, each site comprising four revegetation treatment plots and an undisturbed control plot, have been chosen for field study. The revegetation treatments included natural recovery without seeding; current mix dominated by native wheatgrass cultivars; simple mix seeding containing wheatgrasses plus other native grasses, and diverse mix seeding with a mixture of wheatgrasses, other grasses and thirteen perennial forbs. The plant communities were monitored for biomass production, species richness, species composition and a combination of factors which include density, frequency, canopy cover and basal cover, these collectively representing importance value. Nitrogen availability in the soil was also monitored. Results showed high importance values for wheatgrasses for all seeded treatments. Perennial non-wheatgrasses had low importance values in the seeded treatment but higher importance in the control plot. The dominance of wheatgrasses in the seeded treatments resulted in communities that differed significantly from both the control and natural recovery communities, probably due to suppression of the growth of other grasses

  2. Relação solos/vegetação em area natural no Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira, São Paulo. Soil-native vegetation relationships at Porto Ferreira State Park, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio ROSSI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das inter-relações solovegetaçãonatural é essencial ao manejo de áreasde preservação. Para subsidiar o plano de manejo,estudou-se a relação entre atributos de solos ediferentes formações vegetais do Parque Estadualde Porto Ferreira (SP. No local, em climamesotérmico de inverno seco, desenvolvem-se,predominantemente, Floresta Estacional Semideciduale Cerrado, sobre Latossolos e Argissolos. Em duastoposseqüências cortando diferentes padrões desolo e vegetação, coletaram-se e analisaram-seatributos físicos, físico-hídricos, químicos emineralógicos dos solos. Caracterizaram-se avegetação desses locais por fotografias aéreas e emcampo, avaliando-se a distribuição das espéciesfrente aos tipos de solos encontrados. O tipo devegetação mostrou associação com teor e tipo deargila, retenção de água e disponibilidade denutrientes. Latossolos de textura média e altasaturação por alumínio estão associados à vegetaçãode cerrado. Maiores teores de matéria orgânica enutrientes em superfície, e de argila, argilomineraise umidade retida em baixos potenciais hídricos noperfil ocorrem associados à floresta e suacomposição florística. A ocorrência apenas defloresta em solos com maior retenção de umidade a-1500 kPa sugere que, em plantas nativas perenes,a água retida a baixos potenciais seja importante nadiferenciação dos tipos de vegetação.Understanding soil-native vegetationinteractions provides better support for managingconservation units. As an input for the managementplan of Porto Ferreira State Park, SP, Brazil,relationships between soil attributes and nativevegetation were studied. Regional climate istropical humid with mild dry winter. Locally, themost occurring Oxisols and Ultisols are covered bySemi-deciduous Seasonal Forest and Cerrado typesof vegetation. Soils were described and collected intwo toposequences, cutting different soil andvegetation patterns. Soil physical, chemical

  3. Effect of vegetation structure on breeding territory selection by red-winged blackbirds in a floodplain forest restoration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria A. Furey; Dirk E. Burhans; Hong He; Michael A. Gold; Bruce E. Cutter

    2003-01-01

    Our research investigates the role of vegetation structure in the selection of breeding territories by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) in two floodplain oak-restoration sites. Perches are used extensively by red-winged blackbirds in territorial display during the spring (Yasukawa and Searcy 1995). We hypothesized that breeding territory...

  4. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  5. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie–woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  6. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine-prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions and

  7. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  8. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  9. Native plants for roadside revegetation : field evaluations and best practices identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Establishing native vegetation communities on roadsides can be a proactive approach to sustainable roadways. Revegetation : with native species is the preferred management practice on Idaho roadways. : The environmental and economic benefits of : inc...

  10. Chapter 4: Overview of the vegetation management treatment economic analysis module in the integrated landscape assessment project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    Forest land provides various ecosystem services, including timber, biomass, and carbon sequestration. Estimating trends in these ecosystem services is essential for assessing potential outcomes of landscape management scenarios. However, the state-and transition models used in the Integrated Landscape Assessment Project for simulating landscape changes over time do not...

  11. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  12. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  13. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  14. Determination of the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine “Fryderyk” in Tarnowskie Góry, based on airborne laser scanning from the ISOK project and digital orthophotomaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szostak Marta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine “Fryderyk” in Tarnowskie Góry. Tested area was located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (a large industrial region in Poland. It was a unique refuge habitat – Natura2000; PLH240008. The main aspect of this elaboration was to investigate the possible use of geotechniques and generally available geodata for mapping LULC changes and determining the spatial structure of vegetation. The presented study focuses on the analysis of a spatial structure of vegetation in the research area. This exploration was based on aerial images and orthophotomaps from 1947, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2011 and airborne laser scanning data (2011, ISOK project. Forest succession changes which occurred between 1947 and 2011 were analysed. The selected features of vegetation overgrowing spoil heap “Fryderyk” was determined.

  15. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  16. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  17. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  18. Biota - 2009 Vegetation Inventory - Lake Ashtabula, ND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2009 Vegetation Classification for Lake Ashtabula, ND Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  19. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  20. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  1. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  2. Vegetational stabilization of uranium spoil areas, grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    Factors that could be detrimental to vegetative stabilization of uranium mine and mill waste material were examined. Physical and chemical analyses of materials from an open-pit uranium mine and material from three inactive mill tailing piles in New Mexico were performed. Analyses for selected trace elements in mill tailing material and associated vegetation from piles in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah were also performed. Field and laboratory experiments identified problems associated with establishing vegetation on spoil material. Problems of uptake and concentration of toxic elements by plants growing on specific spoil material were also identified. Ecological observations in conjunction with physical and chemical analyses of specific geologic units, which form the overburden and waste dumps at the open-pit mine, identified a specific geologic material that, if segregated and placed on the surface of the dumps, would pose the least set of problems for a revegetation program. A pilot revegetation project verified that segregation and use of specific geologic material in the overburden could be utilized successfully and economically for reestablishment of native vegetation on mine waste material

  3. Short-term vegetation response following mechanical control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on the Virgin River, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Dudley, Tom; Lee, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Tamarisk (a.k.a. saltcedar, Tamarix spp.) is an invasive plant species that occurs throughout western riparian and wetland ecosystems. It is implicated in alterations of ecosystem structure and function and is the subject of many local control projects, including removal using heavy equipment. We evaluated short-term vegetation responses to mechanical Tamarix spp. removal at sites ranging from 2 to 5 yr post-treatment along the Virgin River in Nevada, USA. Treatments resulted in lower density and cover (but not eradication) of Tamarix spp., increased cover of the native shrub Pluchea sericia (arrow weed), decreased density and cover of all woody species combined, increased density of both native annual forbs and the nonnative annual Salsola tragus (prickly Russian-thistle), and lower density of nonnative annual grasses. The treated plots had lower mean woody species richness, but greater herbaceous species richness and diversity. Among herbaceous species, native taxa increased in richness whereas nonnative species increased in both species richness and diversity. Thus, efforts to remove Tamarix,/i> spp. at the Virgin River reduced vegetative cover contributing to fuel loads and probability of fire, and resulted in positive effects for native plant diversity, with mixed effects on other nonnative species. However, absolute abundances of native species

  4. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  5. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  6. Impact of a community gardening project on vegetable intake, food security and family relationships: a community-based participatory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia A; Hamada, Janet L; Rdesinski, Rebecca; Sprager, Lorena; Nichols, Katelyn R; Liu, Betty Y; Pelayo, Joel; Sanchez, Maria Antonia; Shannon, Jacklien

    2012-08-01

    This community-based participatory research project used popular education techniques to support and educate Hispanic farmworker families in planting and maintaining organic gardens. Measures included a pre- post gardening survey, key informant interviews and observations made at community-based gardening meetings to assess food security, safety and family relationships. Thirty-eight families enrolled in the study during the pre-garden time period, and four more families enrolled in the study during the post-garden period, for a total of 42 families enrolled in the 2009 gardening season. Of the families enrolled during the pre-gardening time period there were 163 household members. The mean age of the interviewee was 44.0, ranging from 21 to 78 years of age. The median number of occupants in a household was 4.0 (range: 2-8), Frequency of adult vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 18.2 to 84.8%, (P gardening season, the sum of the frequencies of "Sometimes" and "Frequently" worrying in the past month that food would run out before money was available to buy more was 31.2% and the sum of these frequencies dropped to 3.1% during the post garden period, (P = 0.006). The frequency of skipping meals due to lack of money was not statistically significantly different before and after the gardening season for either adults or children. Analysis of text responses and key informant interviews revealed that physical and mental health benefits were reported as well as economic and family health benefits from the gardening study, primarily because the families often worked in their gardens together. A community gardening program can reduce food insecurity, improve dietary intake and strengthen family relationships.

  7. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  8. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  9. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  10. The Design of a Multi-component Intervention to Promote Screening Mammography in an American Indian Community: The Native Women's Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Engelman, Kimberly; Stoner, Julie A.; Thomas, Cara; Joseph, Stephanie; Li, Ji; Blackwater, Cecily; Henderson, J. Neil; Carson, L. D.; Neely, Norma; Edwards, Tewanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is an important public health issue among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in the US. This article describes the design and implementation of a culturally sensitive intervention to promote breast health among AI/AN women through a hybrid model that incorporates clinical and community-based approaches. This is one of the first studies using this model addressing breast cancer disparities among AI/AN populations in the US. Methods The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as the guiding framework of the intervention and Community Based Participatory Research was the primary vehicle for the intervention planning and implementation. Three preliminary studies took place that aimed to identify qualitatively and quantitatively what deterred or encouraged AI women to get past or future mammograms. The research results were shared with community members who, through a prioritization process, identified the theoretical focus of the intervention and its corresponding activities. The priority population consisted of AI women ages 40–74, with no recent mammogram, and no breast cancer history. Results The intervention centered on the promotion of social modeling and physician recommendation. The main corresponding activities included enhancing patient-physician communication about screening mammography through a structured dialogue, receipt of a breast cancer brochure, participation in an inter-generational discussion group, and a congratulatory bracelet upon receipt of a mammogram. Environmental and policy related changes also were developed. Conclusion Creating a theory-based, culturally-sensitive intervention through tribal participatory research is a challenging approach towards eliminating breast cancer disparities among hard-to-reach populations. PMID:29546205

  11. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  12. Modeled responses of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2: a comparison of simulations by the biogeochemistry models of the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yude; Melillo, Jerry M; McGuire, A David; Kicklighter, David W; Pitelka, Louis F; Hibbard, Kathy; Pierce, Lars L; Running, Steven W; Ojima, Dennis S; Parton, William J; Schimel, David S

    1998-04-01

    Although there is a great deal of information concerning responses to increases in atmospheric CO 2 at the tissue and plant levels, there are substantially fewer studies that have investigated ecosystem-level responses in the context of integrated carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Because our understanding of ecosystem responses to elevated CO 2 is incomplete, modeling is a tool that can be used to investigate the role of plant and soil interactions in the response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO 2 . In this study, we analyze the responses of net primary production (NPP) to doubled CO 2 from 355 to 710 ppmv among three biogeochemistry models in the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP): BIOME-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), Century, and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). For the conterminous United States, doubled atmospheric CO 2 causes NPP to increase by 5% in Century, 8% in TEM, and 11% in BIOME-BGC. Multiple regression analyses between the NPP response to doubled CO 2 and the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation of biomes or grid cells indicate that there are negative relationships between precipitation and the response of NPP to doubled CO 2 for all three models. In contrast, there are different relationships between temperature and the response of NPP to doubled CO 2 for the three models: there is a negative relationship in the responses of BIOME-BGC, no relationship in the responses of Century, and a positive relationship in the responses of TEM. In BIOME-BGC, the NPP response to doubled CO 2 is controlled by the change in transpiration associated with reduced leaf conductance to water vapor. This change affects soil water, then leaf area development and, finally, NPP. In Century, the response of NPP to doubled CO 2 is controlled by changes in decomposition rates associated with increased soil moisture that results from reduced evapotranspiration. This change affects nitrogen availability for plants, which

  13. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  14. Status of biological control in vegetation management in forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    George P. Markin; Donald E. Gardner

    1993-01-01

    Biological control traditionally depends upon importing the natural enemies of introduced weeds. Since vegetation management in forestry has primarily been aimed at protecting economic species of trees from competition from other native plants, biological control has been of little use in forestry. An alternative approach to controlling unwanted native plants,...

  15. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  16. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  17. Effect of environmental change on yield and quality of fruits and vegetables: two systematic reviews and projections of possible health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P.; Scheelbeek, P.; Bird, F.; Green, R.; Dangour, A.

    2017-12-01

    Background - Environmental changes—including climatic change, water scarcity, and biodiversity loss—threaten agricultural production and pose challenges to global food security. In this study, we review the evidence of the effects of environmental change on the yield and quality of fruits and vegetables - a food group that plays a highly important role in our diets - and assess possible implications for nutrition and health outcomes. Methods - We undertook two systematic reviews of the published literature on the effect of 8 different environmental stressors on yields and nutritional quality of (1) fruits and (2) vegetables, measured in greenhouse and field studies. We combined the review outcomes with Food Balance Sheet data to assess the potential consequences of changed availability and quality of fruits and vegetables for global nutrient deficiencies and related chronic diseases. Findings - Overall, fruits were affected more prominently by changing environmental patterns than vegetables. In tropical countries, there were largely adverse effects on yield of increased temperature and changing precipitation patterns, although in more temperate zones some beneficial effects were reported. In contrast, the effects on nutritional quality were mostly positive, especially in fruit crops, with higher vitamin and mineral content measured in most crops. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations had a predominantly positive effect on yield, especially in legumes, but a negative effect on nutritional quality of both fruits and vegetables. Adverse nutritional implications were estimated to be largest in areas characterised by high vulnerability to environmental change, high dependency on local markets, and high rates of food insecurity. Interpretation - Our study identified effects of environmental change on yields and quality of fruits and vegetables that might pose threats to population health, especially in areas vulnerable to climate-change and food insecurity. To

  18. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  19. Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buijsse, Brian; Feskens, Edith J M; Schulze, Matthias B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High fruit and vegetable intakes may limit weight gain, particularly in susceptible persons, such as those who stop smoking. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the association of fruit and vegetable intake with subsequent weight change in a large-scale prospective study. DESIGN...... regression was used to evaluate whether fruit and vegetable intake relates to weight gain, weight loss, or both. RESULTS: Per 100-g intake of fruit and vegetables, weight change was -14 g/y (95% CI: -19, -9 g/y). In those who stopped smoking during follow-up, this value was -37 g/y (95% CI: -58, -15 g/y; P...... > or =0.5 kg/y. In those who stopped smoking during follow-up, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.88, 0.99), 0.87 (0.81, 0.92), and 0.97 (0.88, 1.07), respectively (P for interaction

  20. Uso da vegetação nativa pela população local no município de Ingaí, MG, Brasil Use of native vegetation by the local population in Ingaí municipacity, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Tavares Botrel

    2006-03-01

    investigate the use of native vegetation resources by the local population. The survey was carried out, as a case study, in the urban and peripheral areas of Ingaí town. A sample of 17 inhabitants was interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. The interviews allowed the classification of the plant species into four categories of use: medicinal, firewood, wood (for buildings and furniture, and miscellaneous uses (handicraft, food, tools, et cetera. Data analyses were performed through qualitative and quantitative (indices the Shannon diversity - H'- and Pielou evenness - J' descriptions. The principal use concordance (PUC, the correction factor (CF, and the corrected principal use concordance (PUCc were used to analysis the relative importance of the species indicated for medicinal use. Modes of use were ascribed to 144 collected and identified species, which were distributed into the following habits: trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers. The trade of native species exists in Ingaí, mostly to meet the demand for wood and fence posts. The species with the highest relative importance, in terms of PUC and PUCc values, were Ilex cerasifolia Reisseck and Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil, suggesting a high potential for pharmacological studies. The local population holds a detailed knowledge of the native vegetation and uses this knowledge as a basis for a diversified utilisation of the flora, most of which intended only to subsistence purposes.

  1. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  2. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  3. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  4. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  5. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  6. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  7. The environment of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project at Roxby Downs, South Australia, has a harsh environment with high summer temperatures, low rainfall and poor quality soils. There are no natural water courses. The vegetation is dominated by annual grasses in summer and wildflowers in winter. Red kangaroos are the most commonly sighted native mammals. The Fat-tailed Dunnart a nocturnal carniverous marsupial, is found. Eighty three bird species have been recorded. Reptiles are numerous and one amphibian occurs. A vermin eradication program aimed at rabbit control is conducted. ills

  8. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  9. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattling Leaf, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the spirit of collaboration and reciprocity, James Rattling Leaf of Sinte Gleska University on the Rosebud Reservation of South Dakota will present recent developments, experiences, insights and a vision for education in Indian Country. As a thirty-year young institution, Sinte Gleska University is founded by a strong vision of ancestral leadership and the values of the Lakota Way of Life. Sinte Gleska University (SGU) has initiated the development of a Geospatial Education Curriculum project. NativeView: A Geospatial Curriculum for Native Nation Building is a two-year project that entails a disciplined approach towards the development of a relevant Geospatial academic curriculum. This project is designed to meet the educational and land management needs of the Rosebud Lakota Tribe through the utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). In conjunction with the strategy and progress of this academic project, a formal presentation and demonstration of the SGU based Geospatial software RezMapper software will exemplify an innovative example of state of the art information technology. RezMapper is an interactive CD software package focused toward the 21 Lakota communities on the Rosebud Reservation that utilizes an ingenious concept of multimedia mapping and state of the art data compression and presentation. This ongoing development utilizes geographic data, imagery from space, historical aerial photography and cultural features such as historic Lakota documents, language, song, video and historical photographs in a multimedia fashion. As a tangible product, RezMapper will be a project deliverable tool for use in the classroom and to a broad range of learners.

  10. Use of environmental series to study the sensitivity of vegetable contamination to chronic releases S.E.N.S.I.B. project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, B.; Mercat-Rommens, C.

    2007-01-01

    This study consists in the assessment of three radioecological parameters involved in the phenomenological modeling of the plant contamination (interception capacity of the vegetables, root transfer and effective period in soils). The aim is to obtain information about these parameters (If possible regionalized information): range and probability distribution. This study is based on various data sets available, in particular, from long records of radioactivity measurements carried out in France over the period 1960-1980 on leafy vegetables (related to the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons). The plant contamination equation is fitted from various data sets. As a whole, the different cases studied highlight a bad goodness of fit. Thus, even if the majority of the estimated values for modeling parameters are consistent with literature, they cannot be used to propose regionalized value for ecological parameters. (N.C.)

  11. The Pro-children Project- a cross-national approach to increasing fruits and vegetables in the next generation and onwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Annie S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial introduces the special series in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity on the Pro Children study (Promoting and Sustaining Health through Increased vegetable and Fruit Consumption among European Schoolchildren. The Pro Children study is a new and innovative study that takes a cross -national approach to identifying the factors associated with fruit and vegetables consumption in European children (from nine countries and evaluating a multi-centre intervention programme. A full set of papers on many aspects of the study will appear as a series in the IJBPNA allowing a more detailed view of design, behavioural theoretical constructs, action, methods for implementation, assessment tools, impacts and outcomes to be reported. Areas for future work will also be identified and discussed in the context of the 21st century developed world environment which is superb at encouraging the promotion of energy dense foods and drinks.

  12. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  13. Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Holzman; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report of a statewide project investigating vegetation change in blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands in California is presented. Vegetation plots taken in the 1930s, as part of a statewide vegetation mapping project, were relocated and surveyed. Species composition, cover and tree stand structure data from the earlier study were...

  14. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  15. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  16. Fuel dynamics and fire behaviour in Australian mallee and heath vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanita Myers; Jim Gould; Miguel Cruz; Meredith Henderson

    2007-01-01

    In southern Australia, shrubby heath vegetation together with woodlands dominated by multistemmed eucalypts (mallee) comprise areas of native vegetation with important biodiversity values. These vegetation types occur in semiarid and mediterranean climates and can experience large frequent fires. This study is investigating changes in the fuel complex with time, fuel...

  17. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  18. Factors influencing non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species are presumed to be pervasive across the urban landscape. Yet, we actually know very little about their actual distribution. For this study, vegetation plot data from Syracuse, NY and Baltimore, MD were used to examine non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes. Data were collected from remnant and emergent forest patches on upland sites...

  19. Biomassa microbiana e atividade enzimática em solos sob vegetação nativa e sistemas agrícolas anuais e perenes na região de Primavera do Leste (MT Microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soils under native vegetation and under annual and perennial cropping systems at the Primavera do Leste region - Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuoka

    2003-06-01

    microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soils under native vegetation (known as "Cerradão" and in soils under annual and perennial cropping systems. Soil samples were collected, at the beginning of the rainy season, at two depths (0-5 and 5-20 cm in areas under a vineyard (row and between rows, annual crops (soybean and native vegetation. The parameters evaluated were soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC, readily mineralizable carbon (microbial respiration and the soil enzymes beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase. In relation to the native area, at the two depths reductions of up to 70% in the MBC were observed in the annual and perennial cropping systems. The soil management conducted in the area between the rows of the vineyard along with the presence of the grass Eleusine indica, as a cover crop, favored an increase in the levels of readily mineralizable carbon, and the beta-glucosidase and arilsulfatase activities. The P content of the soil under Cerradão, at the two depths, reduced the levels of acid phosphatase activities as compared to other places of the Cerrados region. Nevertheless, at the 0-5 cm depth the phosphatase activity of the Cerradão area was greater than in the annual crops, showing the importance of this enzyme on organic P cycling in native ecosystems. The results confirmed the sensibility of microbiological and biochemical parameters to evaluate changes that occurred in soil as a consequence of different management systems.

  20. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Lortie, C. J.; Lambert, A. M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant ...

  1. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  2. Native and non-native plants provide similar refuge to invertebrate prey, but less than artificial plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart; Pollux, B.J.A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Bakker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native species introductions are widespread and can affect ecosystem functioning by altering the structure of food webs. Invading plants often modify habitat structure, which may affect the suitability of vegetation as refuge and could thus impact predator-prey dynamics. Yet little is known

  3. Ecological Effects of Exotic and Native Aquatic Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    related problem for fish. Normally, carbon dioxide released during respiration is utilized in photosynthesis or escapes into the atmo- sphere...with algae for nutrients and light (Boyd 1979). Phytoplankton populations are often suppressed in well-established stands of ERDC/EL TR-09-10 8...aquatic plants, and primary productivity is either dependent upon macrophytes and/or periphyton associated with them. Generally, the presence of

  4. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  5. Assessment of the Species Composition, Densities, and Distribution of Native Freshwater Mussels along the Benton County Shoreline of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Turner, Gerald; Welch, Ian D.

    2011-01-31

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River is the last unimpounded section of the river and contains substrate characteristics (cobble, gravel, sand/silt) suitable for many of the native freshwater mussels known to exist in the Pacific Northwest. Information concerning the native mussel species composition, densities, and distributions in the mainstem of the Columbia River is limited. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an assessment of the near-shore habitat on the Hanford Reach. Surveys conducted in 2004 as part of the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance project documented several species of native mussels inhabiting the near-shore habitat of the Hanford Reach. Findings reported here may be useful to resource biologists, ecologists, and DOE-RL to determine possible negative impacts to native mussels from ongoing near-shore remediation activities associated with Hanford Site cleanup. The objective of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the species composition, densities, and distribution of the freshwater mussels (Margaritiferidae and Unionidae families) that exist in the Hanford Reach. Researchers observed and measured 201 live native mussel specimens. Mussel density estimated from these surveys is summarized in this report with respect to near-shore habitat characteristics including substrate size, substrate embeddedness, relative abundance of aquatic vegetation, and large-scale geomorphic/hydrologic characteristics of the Hanford Reach.

  6. Strong effects of a plantation with Pinus patula on Andean Subparamo vegetation: a case study from Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesenbeeck, van B.K.; Mourik, van T.A.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a pine plantation on a native subparamo system in the Andes of Colombia (3 100 In above sea level) was studied. The vegetation of an 8 year-old plantation with Pinus patula was compared to that of the surrounding native subparamo. 59 plots made in the subparamo vegetation contained 121

  7. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hill, Graham [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  8. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos-Palacios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  9. Probing RNA native conformational ensembles with structural constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; van den Bedem, Henry; Bernauer, Julie

    2016-01-01

    substates, which are difficult to characterize experimentally and computationally. Here, we present an innovative, entirely kinematic computational procedure to efficiently explore the native ensemble of RNA molecules. Our procedure projects degrees of freedom onto a subspace of conformation space defined...

  10. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  11. Vegetation ecology of eastern white pine and red pine forests in Ontario. Forest fragmentation and biodiversity project technical report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleton, T.J.

    1993-12-31

    This study explored changes in understory species composition and floristic diversity in eastern white pine and red pine stands in Ontario in relation to differences in site condition and stand age. It surveyed 170 natural, fire-origin stands containing at least a 10% component of red pine and white pine basal area throughout the Canadian Shield in Ontario during 1991 and 1992. The stands had not been previously logged and ranged in age from 50-300 years. Sampling was conducted using plots of fixed area. Within these plots, subplots were sampled to capture the variety of vegetation that occurred at different scales. Stand-level data were also recorded outside the fixed area plots. Detailed site data were also collected, including information on soils, topography, coarse woody debris (both standing and fallen), and the nature of the forest floor substrates.

  12. The Landscape Ecological Impact of Afforestation on the British Uplands and Some Initiatives to Restore Native Woodland Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Robert G. H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of forest cover in the British Uplands had been lost by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, because of felling followed by overgrazing by sheep and deer. The situation remained unchanged until a government policy of afforestation, mainly by exotic conifers, after the First World War up to the present day. This paper analyses the distribution of these predominantly coniferous plantations, and shows how they occupy specific parts of upland landscapes in different zones throughout Britain Whilst some landscapes are dominated by these new forests, elsewhere the blocks of trees are more localised. Although these forests virtually eliminate native ground vegetation, except in rides and unplanted land, the major negative impacts are at the landscape level. For example, drainage systems are altered and ancient cultural landscape patterns are destroyed. These impacts are summarised and possible ways of amelioration are discussed. By contrast, in recent years, a series of projects have been set up to restore native forest cover, as opposed to the extensive plantations of exotic species. Accordingly, the paper then provides three examples of such initiatives designed to restore native forests to otherwise bare landscapes, as well as setting them into a policy context. Whilst such projects cover a limited proportion of the British Uplands they nevertheless restore forest to landscapes at a local level.

  13. Man-influenced vegetation of North Korea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 381-404 ISSN 0253-116X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * weed communities * man-depending vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; Jahn, M.; Kromphardt, C.; Krauthausen, H.J.; Roberts, S.J.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Forsberg, G.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Wikström, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with

  15. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  16. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Non-agricultural Introduced Managed Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percent of non-agriculatural, non-native vegetation based on LANDFIRE existing vegetation type (EVT) for a 30-m grid cell within...

  18. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 2000 [ds161

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  19. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 1999 [ds160

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  20. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 2003 [ds162

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  1. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  2. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  3. Competition, salinity, and clonal growth in native and introduced irises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopper, Susan; Wiens, Karen C; Goranova, Greta A

    2016-09-01

    Iris pseudacorus spread rapidly into North America after introduction from Europe in the 1800s and now co-occurs with native I. hexagona in freshwater Louisiana wetlands. Native irises support and interact with multiple trophic levels, whereas I. pseudacorus is classified an invasive pest because it grows aggressively, reduces biodiversity, and displaces native vegetation. Salinity levels are increasing in coastal wetlands worldwide. We examined how salt-stress affects competitive interactions between these conspecifics. We established a three-way full-factorial common-garden experiment that included species (I. pseudacorus, I. hexagona), competition (no competition, intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition), and salinity (0, 4, 8 parts per thousand NaCl), with six replicates per treatment. After 18 mo, Iris pseudacorus produced much more biomass than the native species did (F1, 92 = 71.5, P Interspecific competition did not affect the introduced iris, but biomass of the native was strongly reduced (competition × species interaction: F2, 95 = 76.7, P = 0.002). Salinity significantly reduced biomass of both species (F2, 92 = 21.8, P competitive advantage over the native, regardless of environmental salinity levels. Based on patterns in clonal reproduction, the introduced iris could potentially threaten native iris populations. We are currently investigating seed production and mortality during competition and stress because both clonal and sexual reproduction must be considered when predicting long-term population dynamics. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Annual theme report (October 2007 to September 2008) for the environmental impact (SWAT modeling) component of "Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asian Watersheds" project

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of the Environmental Impact (SWAT Modeling) component of this SANREM CRSP project in year 3 was highlighted by further work on SWAT model development in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam. In all three countries, additional input data have been collected over the past year for SWAT modeling purposes. Data Elevation Models (DEMs), land use maps and soil maps have also been prepared in all three countries. In the Philippines, SWAT model has been developed for assessing the hy...

  5. Vegetation response of a dry shrubland community to feral goat management on the island of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Stock, Jonathan

    2017-12-14

    ) research project conducted between 2008 and 2014 to better understand the magnitude of, and factors responsible for, increased erosion on Moloka‘i. The upslope erosion has resulted in heavy sedimentation of the near-shore coral reef ecosystem on the leeward side of the island. The project area and adjacent lands are managed by the East Moloka‘i Watershed Partnership (EMoWP) to restore the vegetation and reduce erosion on the leeward side of the island.Specific questions addressed in this vegetation change study include:How does the vegetation composition, structure, and cover respond to different population levels of feral goats in this area?Are there plant species that can be used as indicators of different population levels of goats?Can native plants recover and become dominant again with the reduction or elimination of goats from this area?Are there invasive plant species that respond favorably to reduction of goat populations and could result in additional management threats to this area over time?How does the succession of vegetation following goat control relate to the original composition and structure of the plant communities that were formerly found in this area?

  6. Uncovering effects of climate variables on global vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to understand the causal relationships of how ecosystem dynamics, mostly characterized by vegetation changes, in different...

  7. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDEX OF ALIEN SPECIES INVASIVENESS: AN AID TO ASSESSING RIPARIAN VEGETATION CONDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many riparian areas are invaded by alien plant species that negatively affect native species composition, community dynamics and ecosystem properties. We sampled vegetation along reaches of 31 low order streams in eastern Oregon, and characterized species assemblages at patch an...

  9. Integrating Vegetation Classification, Mapping, and Strategic Inventory for Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. K. Brewer; R. Bush; D. Berglund; J. A. Barber; S. R. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Many of the analyses needed to address multiple resource issues are focused on vegetation pattern and process relationships and most rely on the data models produced from vegetation classification, mapping, and/or inventory. The Northern Region Vegetation Mapping Project (R1-VMP) data models are based on these three integrally related, yet separate processes. This...

  10. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  11. Short-Term Response of Native Flora to the Removal of Non-Native Shrubs in Mixed-Hardwood Forests of Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While negative impacts of invasive species on native communities are well documented, less is known about how these communities respond to the removal of established populations of invasive species. With regard to invasive shrubs, studies examining native community response to removal at scales greater than experimental plots are lacking. We examined short-term effects of removing Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle and other non-native shrubs on native plant taxa in six mixed-hardwood forests. Each study site contained two 0.64 ha sample areas—an area where all non-native shrubs were removed and a reference area where no treatment was implemented. We sampled vegetation in the spring and summer before and after non-native shrubs were removed. Cover and diversity of native species, and densities of native woody seedlings, increased after shrub removal. However, we also observed significant increases in L. maackii seedling densities and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard cover in removal areas. Changes in reference areas were less pronounced and mostly non-significant. Our results suggest that removing non-native shrubs allows short-term recovery of native communities across a range of invasion intensities. However, successful restoration will likely depend on renewed competition with invasive species that re-colonize treatment areas, the influence of herbivores, and subsequent control efforts.

  12. Formalized classification of species-poor vegetation: a proposal of a consistent protocol for aquatic vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landucci, F.; Tichý, L.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Chytrý, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2015), s. 791-803 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation classification * vegetation database * Coctail method Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  13. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  14. Native plant community response to alien plant invasion and removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara ANDREU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the potential ecological impacts of invasive species, removal of alien plants has become an important management challenge and a high priority for environmental managers. To consider that a removal effort has been successful requires both, the effective elimination of alien plants and the restoration of the native plant community back to its historical composition and function. We present a conceptual framework based on observational and experimental data that compares invaded, non-invaded and removal sites to quantify invaders’ impacts and native plant recover after their removal. We also conduct a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of plant invaders and the consequences of their removal on the native plant community, across a variety of ecosystems around the world. Our results that invasion by alien plants is responsible for a local decline in native species richness and abundance. Our analysis also provides evidence that after removal, the native vegetation has the potential to recover to a pre-invasion target state. Our review reveal that observational and experimental approaches are rarely used in concert, and that reference sites are scarcely employed to assess native species recovery after removal. However, we believe that comparing invaded, non-invaded and removal sites offer the opportunity to obtain scientific information with relevance for management.

  15. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L; Dutra, Humberto P; Marquis, Robert J; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species. Although effects of direct competition and consumption were more pervasive, richness of native plants was also reduced through apparent competition, as small-mammal consumers reduced richness only when L. maackii fruits were present. Our experiment reveals the multiple, interactive pathways that affect the success and impact of an invasive exotic plant: exotic plants may directly benefit from reduced attack by native consumers, may directly exert strong competitive effects on native plants, and may also benefit from apparent competition.

  16. Comparison of the ability to flourish and the increment of native species of the cerrado region in different soils, aiming at recuperating the degraded soils in the Abadia de Goias State Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, Max Lima e; Antunes, Erides Campos; Benvenutti, Romeu Davi; Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Braga, Marcio

    1997-01-01

    The project of botanical recuperation was carried out in order to re vegetate the degraded soils of the areas which surround the radioactive deposit of Cesium 137, within the State Park of Abadia de Goias. An analysis of the park area reveals different stages of degradation, from an absolute stage of degradation, with the C horizon exposed, to other areas of well-preserved forest. On the occasion of the installation of the deposit of radioactive waste, the EIA-RIMA Report determined that the areas should be recuperated in order to re-establish the previous existing forests and cerrado vegetation. A plan for planting 199,366 native trees was then carried out. The present long term project, aims to monitoring the growth of the several species, in different substrates, with the general objective of determining which would better adapt to such substrates. The objective is to provide subsidies for developing appropriate methodology for recuperating degraded areas. (author)

  17. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  18. Monitoring temporal Vegetation changes in Lao tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Studies on changes in vegetation are essential for understanding the interaction between humans and the environment. These studies provide key information for land use assessment, terrestrial ecosystem monitoring, carbon flux modelling and impacts of global climate change. The primary purpose of this study was to detect temporal vegetation changes in tropical forests in the southern part of Lao PDR from 2001-2012. The study investigated the annual vegetation phenological response of dominant land cover types across the study area and relationships to seasonal precipitation and temperature. Improved understanding of intra-annual patterns of vegetation variation was useful to detect longer term changes in vegetation. The breaks for additive season and trend (BFAST) approach was implemented to detect changes in these land cover types throughout the 2001-2012 period. We used the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (MOD13Q1 products) and monthly rainfall and temperature data obtained from the Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Ministry of Agriculture-Forestry, published by Lao National Statistical Centre in this research. EVI well documented the annual seasonal growth of vegetation and clearly distinguished the characteristic phenology of four different land use types; native forest, plantation, agriculture and mixed wooded/cleared area. Native forests maintained high EVI throughout the year, while plantations, wooded/cleared areas and agriculture showed greater inter-annual variation, with minimum EVI at the end of the dry season in April and maximum EVI in September-October, around two months after the wet season peak in rainfall. The BFAST analysis detected abrupt temporal changes in vegetation in the tropical forests, especially in a large conversion of mixed wooded/cleared area into plantation. Within the study area from 2001-2012 there has been an overall decreasing trend of vegetation cover for

  19. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  20. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    communities and a return to traditional ways of supporting the development of our "story" or purpose for being. The opportunities include residential summer field experiences, interdisciplinary curriculums and development of Tribally-driven Native research experiences. The National Science Foundation, University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment, Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), and Tribes have provided funding to support the development of Native geosciences. The presentation will focus on current projects: NSF OEDG "He Sapa Bloketu Woecun; Geosciences at the Heart of Everything That Is", NSF S-STEM "Scientific Leadership Scholars" and the NSF BPC "Coalition of American Indians in Computing". The expressed goal of future initiatives is to connect Tribal communities across the Midwest and West in developing a Native Geosciences Pathway. This pathway supports the identification and support of Tribal students with an interest or "story" connected to geosciences ensuring a future Native geosciences workforce.

  1. Vegetation resurvey is robust to plot location uncertainty

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Martin; Macek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 322-330 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation change * vegetation resurvey * pseudoturnover Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.566, year: 2015

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  3. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  4. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  5. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments Riparian Buffer (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Non-agricultural Introduced Managed Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percent of non-agriculatural, non-native vegetation based on LANDFIRE existing vegetation type (EVT) for a 30-m grid cell within...

  6. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  9. Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

  10. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  11. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  12. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  13. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  14. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  15. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  16. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  17. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  18. Vegetation-Induced Roughness in Low-Reynold's Number Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, C. D.; Wynn, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems, providing habitat for wildlife and fish and shellfish production, water storage, erosion control, and water quality improvement and preservation. Models to estimate hydraulic resistance due to vegetation in emergent wetlands are crucial to good wetland design and analysis. The goal of this project is to improve modeling of emergent wetlands by linking properties of the vegetation to flow. Existing resistance equations such as Hoffmann (2004), Kadlec (1990), Moghadam and Kouwen (1997), Nepf (1999), and Stone and Shen (2002) were evaluated. A large outdoor vegetated flume was constructed at the Price's Fork Research Center near Blacksburg, Virginia to measure flow and water surface slope through woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), a common native emergent wetland plant. Measurements of clump and stem density, diameter, and volume, blockage factor, and stiffness were made after each set of flume runs. Flow rates through the flume were low (3-4 L/s) resulting in very low stem-Reynold's numbers (15-102). Since experimental flow conditions were in the laminar to transitional range, most of the models considered did not predict velocity or stage accurately except for conditions in which the stem-Reynold's number approached 100. At low stem-Reynold's numbers (drag coefficient is inversely proportional to the Reynold's number and can vary greatly with flow conditions. Most of the models considered assumed a stem-Reynold's number in the 100-105 range in which the drag coefficient is relatively constant and as a result did not predict velocity or stage accurately except for conditions in which the stem-Reynold's number approached 100. The only model that accurately predicted stem layer velocity was the Kadlec (1990) model since it does not make assumptions about flow regime; instead, the parameters are adjusted according to the site conditions. Future work includes relating the parameters used to fit the Kadlec (1990) model to measured vegetation

  19. Enhancing Pre- and Post-Wildfire Vegetation Recovery and Understanding Feedbacks of Cheatgrass invasion Using NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, N.; Counts, A.; Quistorff, C.; Ohr, C. A.; Toner, C.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing wildfire frequency and severity has emphasized the importance of post-wildfire recovery efforts in southern Idaho's sagebrush ecosystems. These changing fire regimes favor invasive grass species while hindering native sagebrush habitat regeneration, causing a positive feedback cycle of invasive growth - wildfires - invasive growth. Due to this undesirable process and anthropogenic influences, the sagebrush ecosystem is one of the most endangered in the US. In this project the NASA DEVELOP group of Pocatello, Idaho partnered with the Bureau of Land Management, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Department of Agriculture to characterize ecosystem recovery following the Crystal (2006), Henry Creek (2016), Jefferson (2010), and Soda (2015) wildfires. Determining vegetation cover heterogeneity and density can be time consuming and the factors affecting ecosystem recovery can be complex. In addition, restoration success is difficult to determine as vegetation composition is not often known prior to wildfire events and monitoring vegetation composition after restoration efforts can be resource intensive. These wildfires temporal monitoring consisted of 2001 to 2017 using NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thermal Mapper (TM), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to determine the most significant factors of wildfire recovery and the influence targeted grazing could have for recovery. In addition, this project will include monitoring of invasive species propagation and whether spatial patterns or extents of the wildfire contribute to propagation. Understanding the key variables that made reseeding and natural recovery work in some areas, assessing why they failed in others, and identifying factors that made non-native propagation ideal are important issues for land managers in this region.

  20. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  1. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  2. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  3. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant functional traits of dominant native and invasive species in mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Standish, Rachel J; Stock, William D; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The idea that dominant invasive plant species outperform neighboring native species through higher rates of carbon assimilation and growth is supported by several analyses of global data sets. However, theory suggests that native and invasive species occurring in low-resource environments will be functionally similar, as environmental factors restrict the range of observed physiological and morphological trait values. We measured resource-use traits in native and invasive plant species across eight diverse vegetation communities distributed throughout the five mediterranean-climate regions, which are drought prone and increasingly threatened by human activities, including the introduction of exotic species. Traits differed strongly across the five regions. In regions with functional differences between native and invasive species groups, invasive species displayed traits consistent with high resource acquisition; however, these patterns were largely attributable to differences in life form. We found that species invading mediterranean-climate regions were more likely to be annual than perennial: three of the five regions were dominated by native woody species and invasive annuals. These results suggest that trait differences between native and invasive species are context dependent and will vary across vegetation communities. Native and invasive species within annual and perennial groups had similar patterns of carbon assimilation and resource use, which contradicts the widespread idea that invasive species optimize resource acquisition rather than resource conservation. .

  5. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  7. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  8. Shakespeare, Our Digital Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamburg, Christopher; Craighead, Cari

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based activities and creative projects with technology that focus on Shakespeare's language are powerful developmental tools for students to express and extend thoughts and feelings from their lives. Shakespeare becomes a toy chest and a toolset that allows students to live in situations they never could and to express language they…

  9. Vegetation assessment of forests of Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Linda W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Marianas Expedition Wildlife Surveys-2010, the forest vegetation of the island of Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), was sampled with a series of systematic plots along 13 transects established for monitoring forest bird populations. Shrubland and grassland were also sampled in the northern half of the island. Data collected were woody plant density, tree diameter at breast height, woody plant density in height classes below 2 m, and ground cover measured with the point-intercept method. Coconut forests (Cocos nucifera) were generally found to have low native tree diversity, little regeneration of trees and shrubs in the forest understory, and little live ground cover. The sole exception was a coconut-dominated forest of the northeast side of the island that exhibited high native tree diversity and a large number of young native trees in the understory. Ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) forests on the northern half of the island were nearly monocultures with almost no trees other than ironwood in vegetation plots, few woody plants in the understory, and low ground cover dominated by native ferns. Mixed native forests of both northern and southern sections of the island had a diversity of native tree species in both the canopy and the sparse understory. Ground cover of native forests in the north had a mix of native and alien species, but that of the southern half of the island was dominated by native ferns and woody plants.

  10. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  11. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    vegetation- plot databases on a single software platform. Data storage in EVA does not affect on-going independent development of the contributing databases, which remain the property of the data contributors. EVA uses a prototype of the database management software TURBOVEG 3 developed for joint management......The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and regional...... data source for large-scale analyses of European vegetation diversity both for fundamental research and nature conservation applications. Updated information on EVA is available online at http://euroveg.org/eva-database....

  12. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  13. Conversion of native terrestrial ecosystems in Hawai‘i to novel grazing systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steven C.

    2017-01-01

    The remote oceanic islands of Hawai‘i exemplify the transformative effects that non-native herbivorous mammals can bring to isolated terrestrial ecosystems. We reviewed published literature containing systematically collected, analyzed, and peer-reviewed original data specifically addressing direct effects of non-native hoofed mammals (ungulates) on terrestrial ecosystems, and indirect effects and interactions on ecosystem processes in Hawai‘i. The effects of ungulates on native vegetation and ecosystems were addressed in 58 original studies and mostly showed strong short-term regeneration of dominant native trees and understory ferns after ungulate removal, but unassisted recovery was dependent on the extent of previous degradation. Ungulates were associated with herbivory, bark-stripping, disturbance by hoof action, soil erosion, enhanced nutrient cycling from the interaction of herbivory and grasses, and increased pyrogenicity and competition between native plants and pasture grasses. No studies demonstrated that ungulates benefitted native ecosystems except in short-term fire-risk reduction. However, non-native plants became problematic and continued to proliferate after release from herbivory, including at least 11 species of non-native pasture grasses that had become established prior to ungulate removal. Competition from non-native grasses inhibited native species regeneration where degradation was extensive. These processes have created novel grazing systems which, in some cases, have irreversibly altered Hawaii’s terrestrial ecology. Non-native plant control and outplanting of rarer native species will be necessary for recovery where degradation has been extensive. Lack of unassisted recovery in some locations should not be construed as a reason to not attempt restoration of other ecosystems.

  14. Facilitation of a native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), by the non-native Lolium multiflorum (Cyperales: Poaceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Mayura; Washitani, Izumi

    2011-10-01

    Source populations of polyphagous pests often occur on host plants other than the economically damaged crop. We evaluated the contribution of patches of a non-native meadow grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae), and other weeds growing in fallow fields or meadows as source hosts of an important native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in an agricultural landscape of northern Japan. Periodical censuses of this mirid bug by using the sweeping method, vegetation surveys, and statistical analysis revealed that L. multiflorum was the only plant species that was positively correlated with the density of adult S. rubrovittatus through two generations and thus may be the most stable and important host of the mirid bug early in the season before the colonization of rice paddies. The risk and cost of such an indirect negative effect on a crop plant through facilitation of a native pest by a non-native plant in the agricultural landscape should not be overlooked.

  15. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  16. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  17. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  18. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  19. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  20. Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)…

  1. Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family…

  2. Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiffert, P.; Sprunt Crawley, A.; Bartow, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The systems include solar heating, solar electric (photovoltaic or PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal energy systems. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, FEMP co-funded seven such projects, working with the Indian Health Service in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and their project partners. The new renewable energy systems are helping to save money that would otherwise be spent on conventional energy and reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  3. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  4. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  5. Assessment of native salmonids above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Kevin A.

    1999-01-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels

  6. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  7. The role of animal seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Wunderle Jr.

    1997-01-01

    this paper reviews the characteristicas of animal seed dispersal. relevant to tropical forest restoration efforts and discusses their managment implication. In many tropical regions seed dispersal by animals is the predominant form of dissemination of propagules and has a potential to facilitate recolonization of native vegetation on degraded sites.

  8. The influence of ungulates on non-native plant invasions in forests and rangelands: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Kie

    2005-01-01

    Herbivory by wild and domestic ungulates can strongly influence vegetation composition and productivity in forest and range ecosystems. However, the role of ungulates as contributors to the establishment and spread of non-native invasive plants is not well known. Ungulates spread seeds through endozoochory (passing through an animal's digestive tract) or...

  9. Loblolly pine seedling response to competition from exotic vs. native plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram Daneshgar; Shibu Jose; Craig Ramsey; Robin Collins

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted in Santa Rosa County, FL to test the hypothesis that an exotic understory would exert a higher degree of competition on tree seedling establishment and growth than native vegetation. The study site was a 60 ha cutover area infested with the invasive exotic cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.]. A completely...

  10. Herbicides: an unexpected ally for native plants in the war against invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Tim Harrington; Dave Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are primarily used for protecting agricultural crops from weeds and controlling vegetation competition in newly planted forest stands. Yet for over 40 years, they have also proven useful in controlling invasive plant species in natural areas. Nonnative invasive plant species, if not controlled, can displace native species and disrupt an ecosystem by changing...

  11. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  12. Nigerian women reap benefits from indigenous vegetables

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Working in four administrative states in south- western Nigeria, the Sustainable Production and Utilization of Underutilized Nigerian. Vegetables to Enhance Rural .... children's school fees and health care needs of the family. This will continue to sustain their use of improved production and cultivation once the project has ...

  13. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1...

  14. The market for vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, S.; Everaarts, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is first to develop the technical oppertunities for vegetable cultivation in the Hoa Binh highlands, and later to establish the ways and means for marketing of the product. To get some first insights in the marketing possibilities, a desk study was carried out of the

  15. Zur Flora und Vegetation des Jeschkenkammes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřík, Petr; Višňák, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2006), s. 127-140 ISSN 0941-0627 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phytogeography * potential natural vegetation * nature conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Past and future effects of climate change on spatially heterogeneous vegetation activity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiangbo; Jiao, Kewei; Wu, Shaohong; Ma, Danyang; Zhao, Dongsheng; Yin, Yunhe; Dai, Erfu

    2017-07-01

    Climate change is a major driver of vegetation activity but its complex ecological relationships impede research efforts. In this study, the spatial distribution and dynamic characteristics of climate change effects on vegetation activity in China from the 1980s to the 2010s and from 2021 to 2050 were investigated using a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The GWR model was based on combined datasets of satellite vegetation index, climate observation and projection, and future vegetation productivity simulation. Our results revealed that the significantly positive precipitation-vegetation relationship was and will be mostly distributed in North China. However, the regions with temperature-dominated distribution of vegetation activity were and will be mainly located in South China. Due to the varying climate features and vegetation cover, the spatial correlation between vegetation activity and climate change may be altered. There will be different dominant climatic factors for vegetation activity distribution in some regions such as Northwest China, and even opposite correlations in Northeast China. Additionally, the response of vegetation activity to precipitation will move southward in the next three decades. In contrast, although the high warming rate will restrain the vegetation activity, precipitation variability could modify hydrothermal conditions for vegetation activity. This observation is exemplified in the projected future enhancement of vegetation activity in the Tibetan Plateau and weakened vegetation activity in East and Middle China. Furthermore, the vegetation in most parts of North China may adapt to an arid environment, whereas in many southern areas, vegetation will be repressed by water shortage in the future.

  17. Classification of inland Bolboschoenus-dominated vegetation in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Hrivnák, R.; Chytrý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2009), s. 205-215 ISSN 0340-269X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905; GA ČR GA521/04/0997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * saline vegetation * freshwater inland communities Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.674, year: 2009

  18. Resurveying historical vegetation data – opportunities and challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapfer, J.; Hédl, Radim; Jurasinski, G.; Kopecký, Martin; Schei, F. H.; Grytnes, J.-A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2017), s. 164-171 ISSN 1402-2001 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : environmental change * long-term vegetation dynamics * vegetation resampling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  19. Temporary and space dynamics of the fragmentation of the native forest in the south of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Calderon, Leyla M

    2001-01-01

    The degree of fragmentation of the remainders of native vegetation is evaluated in the hydro graphical basin of the River Damas, through the time. The native forests are had among the ecosystems bigger degree of fragmentation in the world environment. The fragmentation has been defined as the transformation of an originally continuous forest, in smaller varieties, generally anthropics that are hostile for they; These fragments behave as islands virtual immerses in an anthropic ocean and frequently they are analyzed in the context of the theory of the isolation bio geographic. The result of the fragmentation is a landscape in which they mix managed areas and transformed by the man with fragments of native vegetation, that is to say patches of different sizes and forms

  20. Nativity, Chronic Health Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.

  1. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  2. Post-wildfire recovery of riparian vegetation during a period of water scarcity in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Christian Gunning; Roy Jemison; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires occur with increasing frequency in southwestern riparian forests, yet little is known about the effects of fire on populations of native and exotic vegetation. From 2003 to 2006, we monitored recovering woody vegetation in wildfire sites in the bosque (riparian forest) along the Middle Rio Grande of central New Mexico, USA. To examine recovery potential...

  3. Wind power project. Investigation of the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of wind power systems. Final report; Projekt Windkraftanlagen. Untersuchungen zur Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmeyer, K.; Menzel, C.

    2001-04-01

    Acting on behalf of the State Hunting Association of Lower Saxony the Game Research Institute (IWFo) of Hannover Veterinary University carried out a three-year study from April 1998 through March 2001 on the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of aerogenerators. This final report depicts the animals' preferred places, use of agricultural land, avoidance radius, if any, their activities and exposure to predator pressure. The target species were roe deer, hare, red fox, partridge and carrion crow. The study was carried out in Lower Saxony and Bremen on a total study area of 22.3 km{sup 2}, comprising four areas with running aerogenerators and five control areas without an aerogenerator. All parameters were studied in terms of a comparison between aerogenerator and control areas. The objective was to identify differences in population, use of space and habitat and in behaviour. [German] Am Institut fuer Wildtierforschung an der Tieraerztlichen Hochschule Hannover (IWFo) wurde im Auftrag der Landesjaegerschaft Niedersachsen (LJN) in einer dreijaehrigen Studie von April 1998 bis Maerz 2001 die Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen (WKA) untersucht. Im Weiteren wurden Aufenthaltspraeferenzen, Nutzung der landwirtschaftlichen Flaechen, moegliche Naeherungslimits und Aktivitaeten der Wildarten sowie der Beutegreiferdruck dargestellt. Zielarten der Studie waren Rehwild, Feldhase, Rotfuchs, Rebhuhn und Rabenkraehen. Die Untersuchungen wurden in vier Gebieten mit in Betrieb befindlichen WKA sowie in fuenf Referenzgebieten ohne WKA in Niedersachsen und Bremen auf einer Flaeche von insgesamt 22,3 km{sup 2} durchgefuehrt. Alle Parameter wurden vergleichend fuer die WKA- und Referenzgebiete betrachtet. Moegliche Unterschiede im Besatz bzw. Bestand, in Raum- und Habitatnutzung sowie im Verhalten wurden herausgearbeitet. (orig.)

  4. Can a native rodent species limit the invasive potential of a non-native rodent species in tropical agroforest habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alexander M; Prescott, Colin V; Singleton, Grant R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about native and non-native rodent species interactions in complex tropical agroecosystems. We hypothesised that the native non-pest rodent Rattus everetti may be competitively dominant over the invasive pest rodent Rattus tanezumi within agroforests. We tested this experimentally by using pulse removal for three consecutive months to reduce populations of R. everetti in agroforest habitat, and assessed over 6 months the response of R. tanezumi and other rodent species. Following removal, R. everetti individuals rapidly immigrated into removal sites. At the end of the study period, R. tanezumi were larger and there was a significant shift in their microhabitat use with respect to the use of ground vegetation cover following the perturbation of R. everetti. Irrespective of treatment, R. tanezumi selected microhabitat with less tree canopy cover, indicative of severely disturbed habitat, whereas R. everetti selected microhabitat with a dense canopy. Our results suggest that sustained habitat disturbance in agroforests favours R. tanezumi, while the regeneration of agroforests towards a more natural state would favour native species and may reduce pest pressure in adjacent crops. In addition, the rapid recolonisation of R. everetti suggests this species would be able to recover from non-target impacts of short-term rodent pest control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  6. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  7. 75 FR 8930 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Native Hawaiian Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Native Hawaiian Education Program--Competition for Novice Applicants Notice inviting applications for new awards... Hawaiian Education program is to support innovative projects that enhance the educational services provided...

  8. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  9. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  10. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  11. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  12. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh, Change 1999 to 2000 [ds163

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  13. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh, Change 1999 to 2003 [ds164

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  14. Recovery of native prairie after pipeline construction in the Sand Hills region of Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.; Kremer, L.; Marshall, W.

    1996-01-01

    Land reclamation measures taken after construction of a large diameter natural gas pipeline in the Great Sand Hills region of southwestern Saskatchewan were detailed. Mitigation measures included modified construction procedures to minimize the size of the disturbance, worker educational programs to sensitize them to the prevailing fragile environment, dormant season construction, efforts to salvage topsoil seedbank, fertilizer application, straw bale wind barriers, brush mulch wind barriers, surface manipulation with the Hodder Gouger, fencing-out cattle, and the application of a seed mixture of agronomic legumes and native grasses. Vegetation and soil erosion were monitored over a period of four years. After four years the canopy cover was 88 per cent native species. On low-lying, protected sites vegetation was stable enough to support cattle grazing. Exposed sites will not reach this level of vegetation stability for some years to come due soil erosion by wind

  15. Staphylococcus caprae native mitral valve infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, T'ng Choong; Poyner, Jennifer; Olson, Ewan; Henriksen, Peter; Koch, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case involving the native mitral valve in the absence of an implantable cardiac electronic device. A 76-year-old man presented with a 2 week history of confusion and pyrexia. His past medical history included an open reduction and internal fixation of a humeral fracture 17 years previously, which remained non-united despite further revision 4 years later. There was no history of immunocompromise or farm-animal contact. Two sets of blood culture bottles, more than 12 h apart, were positive for S. caprae . Trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed a 1×1.2 cm vegetation on the mitral valve, with moderate mitral regurgitation. Due to ongoing confusion, he had a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan, which showed a subacute small vessel infarct consistent with a thromboembolic source. A humeral SPECT-CT (single-photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography) scan showed no clear evidence of acute osteomyelitis. Surgical vegetectomy and mitral-valve repair were considered to reduce the risk of further systemic embolism and progressive valve infection. However, the potential risks of surgery to this patient led to a decision to pursue a cure with antibiotic therapy alone. He remained well 3 months after discharge, with repeat echocardiography demonstrating a reduction in the size of the vegetation (0.9 cm). Management of this infection was challenging due to its rarity and its unclear progression, complicated by the dilemma surrounding surgical intervention in a patient with a complex medical background.

  16. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  17. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  18. Non-native species impacts on pond occupancy by an anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie; McCreary, Brome

    2011-01-01

    Non-native fish and bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus; Rana catesbeiana) are frequently cited as factors contributing to the decline of ranid frogs in the western United States (Bradford 2005). This hypothesis is supported by studies showing competition with or predation by these introduced species (Kupferberg 1997, Kiesecker and Blaustein 1998, Lawler et al. 1999, Knapp et al. 2001) and studies suggesting a deficit of native frogs at sites occupied by bullfrogs or game fish (Hammerson 1982, Schwalbe and Rosen 1988, Fisher and Shaffer 1996, Adams 1999). Conversely, other studies failed to find a negative association between native ranids and bullfrogs and point out that presence of non-native species correlates with habitat alterations that could also contribute to declines of native species (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Adams 1999, 2000; Pearl et al. 2005). A criticism of these studies is that they may not detect an effect of non-native species if the process of displacement is at an early stage. We are not aware of any studies that have monitored a set of native frog populations to determine if non-native species predict population losses. Our objective was to study site occupancy trends in relation to non-native species for northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) on federal lands in the southern Willamette Valley, Oregon. We conducted a 5-yr monitoring study to answer the following questions about the status and trends of the northern red-legged frog: 1) What is the rate of local extinction (how often is a site that is occupied in year t unoccupied in year t+1) and what factors predict variation in local extinction? and 2) What is the rate of colonization (how often is a site that is unoccupied in year t occupied in year t+1) and what factors predict variation in colonization? The factors we hypothesized for local extinction were: 1) bullfrog presence, 2) bullfrogs mediated by wetland vegetation, 3) non-native fish (Centrarchidae), 4) non-native fish mediated by

  19. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  20. Native Seed Supply and the Restoration Species Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Emma; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Marin, Maria; De Vitis, Marcello; Abbandonato, Holly; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Bonomi, Costantino; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2018-01-01

    Globally, annual expenditure on ecological restoration of degraded areas for habitat improvement and biodiversity conservation is approximately $18bn. Seed farming of native plant species is crucial to meet restoration goals, but may be stymied by the disconnection of academic research in seed science and the lack of effective policies that regulate native seed production/supply. To illustrate this problem, we identified 1,122 plant species important for European grasslands of conservation concern and found that only 32% have both fundamental seed germination data available and can be purchased as seed. The " restoration species pool," or set of species available in practice, acts as a significant biodiversity selection filter for species use in restoration projects. For improvement, we propose: (1) substantial expansion of research and development on native seed quality, viability, and production; (2) open-source knowledge transfer between sectors; and (3) creation of supportive policy intended to stimulate demand for biodiverse seed.

  1. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems: Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G. W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-08-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding interactions of invasive and native species and their combined effects on river dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective management strategies. However, numerical models for simulating long-term effects of these processes are lacking. This paper investigates how an invasive alien plant species affects native riparian vegetation and hydro-morphodynamics. A morphodynamic model has been coupled to a dynamic vegetation model that predicts establishment, growth and mortality of riparian trees. We introduced an invasive alien species with life-history traits based on Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), and investigated effects of low- and high propagule pressure on invasion speed, native vegetation and hydro-morphodynamic processes. Results show that high propagule pressure leads to a decline in native species cover due to competition and the creation of unfavorable native colonization sites. With low propagule pressure the invader facilitates native seedling survival by creating favorable hydro-morphodynamic conditions at colonization sites. With high invader abundance, water levels are raised and sediment transport is reduced during the growing season. In winter, when the above-ground invader biomass is gone, results are reversed and the floodplain is more prone to erosion. Invasion effects thus depend on seasonal above- and below ground dynamic vegetation properties and persistence of the invader, on the characteristics of native species it replaces, and the combined interactions with hydro-morphodynamics.

  2. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  3. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely

  4. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  5. Arthropod assemblages on native and nonnative plant species of a coastal reserve in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Susanne K

    2010-06-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative plant species are a widespread phenomenon. Many studies have shown strong ecological impacts of plant invasions on native plant communities and ecosystem processes. Far fewer studies have examined effects on associated animal communities. From the perspective of a reserve's land management, I addressed the question of whether arthropod assemblages on two nonnative plant species of concern were impoverished compared with those assemblages associated with two predominant native plant species of that reserve. If the nonnative plant species, Conium maculatum L., and Phalaris aquatica L., supported highly depauperate arthropod assemblages compared with the native plant species, Baccharis pilularis De Candolle and Leymus triticoides (Buckley) Pilger, this finding would provide additional support for prioritizing removal of nonnatives and restoration of natives. I assessed invertebrate assemblages at the taxonomic levels of arthropod orders, Coleoptera families, and Formicidae species, using univariate analyses to examine community attributes (richness and abundance) and multivariate techniques to assess arthropod assemblage community composition differences among plant species. Arthropod richness estimates by taxonomic level between native and nonnative vegetation showed varying results. Overall, arthropod richness of the selected nonnative plants, examined at higher taxonomic resolution, was not necessarily less diverse than two of common native plants found on the reserve, although differences were found among plant species. Impacts of certain nonnative plant species on arthropod assemblages may be more difficult to elucidate than those impacts shown on native plants and ecosystem processes.

  6. Herbivory more limiting than competition on early and established native plants in an invaded meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Emily K; Arcese, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The dominance of nonnative plants coupled with declines of native plants suggests that competitive displacement drives extinctions, yet empirical examples are rare. Herbivores, however, can alter vegetation structure and reduce diversity when abundant. Herbivores may act on mature, reproductive life stages whereas some of the strongest competitive effects might occur at early life stages that are difficult to observe. For example, competition by perennial nonnative grasses can interfere with the establishment of native seeds. We contrasted the effects of ungulate herbivory and competition by neighboring plants on the performance of native plant species at early and established life stages in invaded oak meadows. We recorded growth, survival, and flowering in two native species transplanted as established plants, six native species grown from seed, and five extant lily species as part of two 2 x 2 factorial experiments that manipulated herbivory and competition. Herbivory reduced the performance of nearly all focal native species at early and established life stages, whereas competition had few measurable effects. Our results suggest that herbivory has a greater local influence on native plant species than competition and that reducing herbivore impacts will be required to successfully restore endangered oak meadows where ungulates are now abundant.

  7. Native American Training Program in Petroleum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Winifred M.; Kokesh, Judith H.

    1999-04-27

    This report outlines a comprehensive training program for members of Native American tribes whose lands have oil and gas resources. The program has two components: short courses and internships. Programs are proposed for: (1) adult tribes representatives who are responsible for managing tribal mineral holdings, setting policy, or who work in the oil and gas industry; (2) graduate and undergraduate college students who are tribal members and are studying in the appropriate fields; and (3) high school and middle school teachers, science teachers. Materials and program models already have been developed for some components of the projects. The plan is a coordinated, comprehensive effort to use existing resources to accomplish its goals. Partnerships will be established with the tribes, the BIA, tribal organizations, other government agencies, and the private sector to implement the program.

  8. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    in the relationship between creative artists and the Anglo-American popular music industry in the mid-1960s. Finally, and in retrospect, the figure of the vegetable cast into relief the counter-culture's utopian and dystopian dynamics as manifested in these song-writers' personal lives, now rendered as contemporary...... lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  9. Florar Project: a forest proposal to PETROBRAS-TRANSPETRO; Projeto Florar: uma proposta florestal para a PETROBRAS-TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents for discussion a proposal of a forest project idealized to be implemented, in form of a linear forest, in the long of TRANSPETRO pipeway, from north to south of the country. The initial goals, restricted to the State of Sao Paulo, presume the forest fomentation of 1,000 kilometers of path, covering an area of approximately 10,000 hectares, where can be possible to realize native and exotic species plantation, considering the legal restrictions. The proposal presumes also a fund to the special nature reserve creation in the cities crossed by TRANSPETRO pipeways. The pilot proposed in this work could take place at 'Plano Diretor de Dutos de Sao Paulo', which involves 27 cities, incorporating the environmental recuperation programs from native vegetation suppression and intervention in permanent preservation area in terms of forest law. (author)

  10. 中国现当代小说中的故乡构建初探 (Literary Nativism, the Native Place and Modern Chinese Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of the native place in Chinese life is beyond dispute and it has been a significant preoccupation of Chinese authors throughout history, literary representations of the native place still remain to be studied systematically. This paper attempts to examine the construction of the native place in modern Chinese fiction and its role in literary representations of China. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the native place in Chinese literature remained an abstract notion without specific geographical locations and the narrative focus was on the ‘native-place sentiment’ (Bryna Goodman 1995. It is a modern phenomenon that the native place appears as a local cultural space with ethnographic details and is closely related to the need for narrating China, although it can still be abstract and symbolic. The construction of the native place is crucial in the project of national narration for modern Chinese fiction, as it is often created as the nation’s cultural origin and authentication. However, the relationship between the native place and national representation in Chinese fiction is paradoxical, because, on the one hand the native place necessarily differs in origin, and on the other hand, many Chinese authors are devoted to China as a cultural totality. This paper will focus on the paradoxical relationship between the authors’ nativist aspirations to create distinctive local cultural identities and their commitment to the abstract idea of a single Chinese nation. Furthermore, both the native place and national narration are intricately associated with the tendency of literary nativism, i.e. the belief and the practice that literary writing should focus on constructing the native place and that the narrative style should continue and develop the indigenous narrative traditions. In other words, poetics is part of the politics in the configuration of the native place. The initial questions I shall try to

  11. A study to explore the use of orbital remote sensing to determine native arid plant distribution. [Arizona Regional Ecological Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcginnies, W. G. (Principal Investigator); Lepley, L. K.; Haase, E. F.; Conn, J. S.; Musick, H. B.; Foster, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It is possible to determine, from ERTS imagery, native arid plant distribution. Using techniques of multispectral masking and extensive fieldwork, three native vegetation communities were defined and mapped in the Avra Valley study area. A map was made of the Yuma area with the aid of ground truth correlations between areas of desert pavement visible on ERTS images and unique vegetation types. With the exception of the Yuma soil-vegetation correlation phenomena, only very gross differentiations of desert vegetation communities can be made from ERTS data. Vegetation communities with obvious vegetation density differences such as saguaro-paloverde, creosote bush, and riparian vegetation can be separated on the Avra Valley imagery while more similar communities such as creosote bush and saltbush could not be differentiated. It is suggested that large differences in vegetation density are needed before the signatures of two different vegetation types can be differentiated on ERTS imagery. This is due to the relatively insignificant contribution of vegetation to the total radiometric signature of a given desert scene. Where more detailed information concerning the vegetation of arid regions is required, large scale imagery is appropriate.

  12. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  13. [Ritual use of Anadenanthera seeds among South America natives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2007-01-01

    Several South-American native societies snuff psychoactive seeds in magic-religious rituals since ancient times. To describe archeological, historical and ethnographical evidences regarding the ritual use of vilca or yopo (Anadenanthera sp). Anadenanthera seeds were used in South America 3,000 years ago. Archeological studies found vilca seeds in funerary tombs from 1,000 BC in the north of Chile and Argentina; ceramics and snuff tubes were found in San Pedro de Atacama archeological sites from the same data, and in Tiwanaku ceremonial center in Bolivian Altiplano. Today, Anadenanthera sp is used by several native groups in Orinoco basin, where is known as yopo, and in the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon. Hallucinogenic effect is due to the presence of methyl-tryptamine derivatives. Most snuff is prepared from the roasted and powdered seeds, vegetable ash and/or lime obtained from shells. Archeological and ethnographical data suggest that vilca was used and is still used by native shamans as a sacred seed in South America, due to its hallucinogenic effects.

  14. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project's primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums

  15. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project's primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  16. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  17. Encountering Complexity: Native Musics in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American musics, focusing on issues such as music and the experience of time, metaphor and metaphorical aspects, and spirituality and sounds from nature. Discusses Native American metaphysics and its reflection in the musics. States that an effective curriculum would provide a new receptivity to Native American musics. (CMK)

  18. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  19. 34 CFR 300.29 - Native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The language...

  20. Recruiting Native Journalists: The New Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Candy

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of Native American journalists, summer programs at the University of North Dakota and the University of Wisconsin give Native American high school students hands-on, culturally relevant journalism experience. The Native American Journalists Association offers college scholarships in journalism for American…

  1. Surrounded by Beauty: Arts of Native America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Native American languages have no equivalent for the word "art." Yet the objects Native Americans have used and still use suggest that they are a highly spiritual people who create objects of extraordinary beauty. In Native American thought, there is no distinction between what is beautiful or functional, and what is sacred or secular.…

  2. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  3. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  4. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  5. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  6. Impact of hybrid iterative reconstruction on Agatston coronary artery calcium scores in comparison to filtered back projection in native cardiac CT; Einfluss der hybriden iterativen Rekonstruktion bei der nativen CT des Herzens auf die Agatston-Kalziumscores der Koronararterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obmann, V.C.; Heverhagen, J.T. [Inselspital - University Hospital Bern (Switzerland). University Inst. for Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology; Klink, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Stork, A.; Begemann, P.G.C. [Roentgeninstitut Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-05-15

    To investigate whether the effects of hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) on coronary artery calcium (CAC) measurements using the Agatston score lead to changes in assignment of patients to cardiovascular risk groups compared to filtered back projection (FBP). 68 patients (mean age 61.5 years; 48 male; 20 female) underwent prospectively ECG-gated, non-enhanced, cardiac 256-MSCT for coronary calcium scoring. Scanning parameters were as follows: Tube voltage, 120 kV; Mean tube current time-product 63.67 mAs (50 - 150 mAs); collimation, 2 x 128 x 0.625 mm. Images were reconstructed with FBP and with HIR at all levels (L1 to L7). Two independent readers measured Agatston scores of all reconstructions and assigned patients to cardiovascular risk groups. Scores of HIR and FBP reconstructions were correlated (Spearman). Interobserver agreement and variability was assessed with k-statistics and Bland-Altmann-Plots. Agatston scores of HIR reconstructions were closely correlated with FBP reconstructions (L1, R = 0.9996; L2, R = 0.9995; L3, R = 0.9991; L4, R = 0.986; L5, R = 0.9986; L6, R = 0.9987; and L7, R = 0.9986). In comparison to FBP, HIR led to reduced Agatston scores between 97% (L1) and 87.4% (L7) of the FBP values. Using HIR iterations L1-L3, all patients were assigned to identical risk groups as after FPB reconstruction. In 5.4% of patients the risk group after HIR with the maximum iteration level was different from the group after FBP reconstruction. There was an excellent correlation of Agatston scores after HIR and FBP with identical risk group assignment at levels 1 - 3 for all patients. Hence it appears that the application of HIR in routine calcium scoring does not entail any disadvantages. Thus, future studies are needed to demonstrate whether HIR is a reliable method for reducing radiation dose in coronary calcium scoring.

  7. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  8. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  9. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  10. Global vegetation change predicted by the modified Budyko model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monserud, R.A.; Tchebakova, N.M.; Leemans, R. (US Department of Agriculture, Moscow, ID (United States). Intermountain Research Station, Forest Service)

    1993-09-01

    A modified Budyko global vegetation model is used to predict changes in global vegetation patterns resulting from climate change (CO[sub 2] doubling). Vegetation patterns are predicted using a model based on a dryness index and potential evaporation determined by solving radiation balance equations. Climate change scenarios are derived from predictions from four General Circulation Models (GCM's) of the atmosphere (GFDL, GISS, OSU, and UKMO). All four GCM scenarios show similar trends in vegetation shifts and in areas that remain stable, although the UKMO scenario predicts greater warming than the others. Climate change maps produced by all four GCM scenarios show good agreement with the current climate vegetation map for the globe as a whole, although over half of the vegetation classes show only poor to fair agreement. The most stable areas are Desert and Ice/Polar Desert. Because most of the predicted warming is concentrated in the Boreal and Temperate zones, vegetation there is predicted to undergo the greatest change. Most vegetation classes in the Subtropics and Tropics are predicted to expand. Any shift in the Tropics favouring either Forest over Savanna, or vice versa, will be determined by the magnitude of the increased precipitation accompanying global warming. Although the model predicts equilibrium conditions to which many plant species cannot adjust (through migration or microevolution) in the 50-100 y needed for CO[sub 2] doubling, it is not clear if projected global warming will result in drastic or benign vegetation change. 72 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  12. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  13. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  14. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  15. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  16. Russian Language Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  17. Optimal control of native predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; O'Connell, Allan F.; Kendall, William L.; Runge, Michael C.; Simons, Theodore R.; Waldstein, Arielle H.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Smith, Graham W.; Pinion, Timothy; Rikard, Michael; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply decision theory in a structured decision-making framework to evaluate how control of raccoons (Procyon lotor), a native predator, can promote the conservation of a declining population of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Our management objective was to maintain Oystercatcher productivity above a level deemed necessary for population recovery while minimizing raccoon removal. We evaluated several scenarios including no raccoon removal, and applied an adaptive optimization algorithm to account for parameter uncertainty. We show how adaptive optimization can be used to account for uncertainties about how raccoon control may affect Oystercatcher productivity. Adaptive management can reduce this type of uncertainty and is particularly well suited for addressing controversial management issues such as native predator control. The case study also offers several insights that may be relevant to the optimal control of other native predators. First, we found that stage-specific removal policies (e.g., yearling versus adult raccoon removals) were most efficient if the reproductive values among stage classes were very different. Second, we found that the optimal control of raccoons would result in higher Oystercatcher productivity than the minimum levels recommended for this species. Third, we found that removing more raccoons initially minimized the total number of removals necessary to meet long term management objectives. Finally, if for logistical reasons managers cannot sustain a removal program by removing a minimum number of raccoons annually, managers may run the risk of creating an ecological trap for Oystercatchers.

  18. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the ‘intersection effect’). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  19. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the 'intersection effect'). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  20. Pastures to Prairies to Pools: An Update on Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 13198

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Schneider, Tom [Fernald Project Manager, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Dayton, Ohio (United States); Hertel, Bill [Project Manager, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management oversees implementation and monitoring of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve, Fernald, Ohio, that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Field implementation of these projects was completed in May 2012. Herbaceous cover and woody vegetation survival was determined in August and September 2012. Results show successful establishment of native vegetation. Additional monitoring will be needed to determine whether project goals have been met. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  1. Pastures to Prairies to Pools: An Update on Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 13198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2013-01-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management oversees implementation and monitoring of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve, Fernald, Ohio, that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Field implementation of these projects was completed in May 2012. Herbaceous cover and woody vegetation survival was determined in August and September 2012. Results show successful establishment of native vegetation. Additional monitoring will be needed to determine whether project goals have been met. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  2. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  3. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower ... Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per ...

  4. Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey M. Kane; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What influence does mechanical mastication and other fuel treatments have on: (1) canopy and forest floor response variables that influence understory plant development; (2) initial understory vegetation cover, diversity, and composition; and (3) shrub and non-native species density in a secondgrowth ponderosa pine forest....

  5. Woody vegetation of the Upper Verde River: 1996-2007 [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin L. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Streamside vegetation is an integral component of a stable riparian ecosystem, providing benefits to both terrestrial and aquatic fauna (Brown and others 1977; National Research Council 2002) as well as Native Americans (Betancourt and Van Devender 1981). On the UVR, stable streambanks are a desirable management goal to attain channel stability for a variety of...

  6. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Creighton M. Litton; Steven C. Hess; James R. Kellner; Susan Cordell; Lalit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the...

  7. Late Holocene fire and vegetation reconstruction from the western Klamath Mountains, California, USA: a multi-disciplinary approach for examining potential human land-use impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Crawford; S. A. Mensing; Frank Lake; S. R. Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Native American land-use practices on vegetation composition and structure has long been a subject of significant debate. This is particularly true in portions of the western United States where tribal hunter-gatherers did not use agriculture to meet subsistence and other cultural needs. Climate has been viewed as the dominant determinant of vegetation...

  8. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  9. An assessment of a proposal to eradicate non-native fish from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Aquatic Science ... A pilot project to evaluate the use of the piscicide rotenone to eradicate non-native fish from selected reaches in four rivers has been proposed by CapeNature, the conservation ... It is expected that the project will be successful while having minimal impact on other aquatic fauna.

  10. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, G S

    1939-11-11

    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  11. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, W.S.; Walton, A.; Yeung, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  12. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  13. Computer implemented land cover classification using LANDSAT MSS digital data: A cooperative research project between the National Park Service and NASA. 3: Vegetation and other land cover analysis of Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Four LANDSAT frames, each corresponding to one of the four seasons were spectrally classified and processed using NASA-developed computer programs. One data set was selected or two or more data sets were marged to improve surface cover classifications. Selected areas representing each spectral class were chosen and transferred to USGS 1:62,500 topographic maps for field use. Ground truth data were gathered to verify the accuracy of the classifications. Acreages were computed for each of the land cover types. The application of elevational data to seasonal LANDSAT frames resulted in the separation of high elevation meadows (both with and without recently emergent perennial vegetation) as well as areas in oak forests which have an evergreen understory as opposed to other areas which do not.

  14. Association between mapped vegetation and Quaternary geology on Santa Rosa Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkite-Ratcliff, C.; Corbett, S.; Schmidt, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation and surficial geology are closely connected through the interface generally referred to as the critical zone. Not only do they influence each other, but they also provide clues into the effects of climate, topography, and hydrology on the earth's surface. This presentation describes quantitative analyses of the association between the recently compiled, independently generated vegetation and geologic map units on Santa Rosa Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in Southern California. Santa Rosa Island was heavily grazed by sheep and cattle ranching for over one hundred years prior to its acquisition by the National Park Service. During this period, the island experienced significant erosion and spatial reduction and diversity of native plant species. Understanding the relationship between geology and vegetation is necessary for monitoring the recovery of native plant species, enhancing the viability of restoration sites, and understanding hydrologic conditions favorable for plant growth. Differences in grain size distribution and soil depth between geologic units support different plant communities through their influence on soil moisture, while differences in unit age reflect different degrees of pedogenic maturity. We find that unsupervised machine learning methods provide more informative insight into vegetation-geology associations than traditional measures such as Cramer's V and Goodman and Kruskal's lambda. Correspondence analysis shows that unique vegetation-geology patterns associated with beach/dune, grassland, hillslope/colluvial, and fluvial/wetland environments can be discerned from the data. By combining geology and vegetation with topographic variables, mixture models can be used to partition the landscape into multiple representative types, which then be compared with conceptual models of plant growth and succession over different landforms. Using this collection of methods, we show various ways that that Quaternary geology

  15. Simulations of Vegetation Impacts on Arctic Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Riley, W. J.; Post, W. M.; Torn, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Because global warming disproportionately influences high-latitude climate, changes in arctic vegetation are in progress. These land-cover changes include redistribution of local vegetation types as well as northward migration of lower-latitude species in response to the increasing warming. The resulting displacement of low-lying tundra vegetation by shrubs and trees darkens the surface, thus accelerating regional warming. As participants in the U.S. Department of Energy IMPACTS Project, we are investigating the potential for abrupt arctic climatic change resulting from such variations in vegetation, among other mechanisms. To estimate the relative magnitudes of effects to be expected from changes in high-latitude land cover, we are conducting several numerical experiments with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). These experiments include: 1) A “present-day-climate” control experiment with current atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations and climatological monthly sea surface temperatures and sea ice extents prescribed, and with “standard” CLM plant functional types (PFTs) specified; 2) A “changed-vegetation-type” experiment that is the same as 1), except that the “standard” PFTs are augmented by additional vegetation types (forbs, sedges, shrubs, mosses, and lichens) that are not presently represented in CLM. This experiment will require information on the location, fractional cover, and physiological parameterizations of these new PFTs. 3) A “changed-vegetation-extent experiment” that is the same as 2), except that the spatial extents of selected PFTs (e.g. shrubs or boreal forest PFTs) are shifted northward from their present locations in the CLM. We will report on the atmospheric climate and land-surface feedbacks associated with these vegetation changes, with emphasis on local and regional surface energy and moisture fluxes and near-surface temperature, humidity, and clouds. Acknowledgments This work was performed under the auspices

  16. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  17. Songs of a Medicine Woman. Native Language and Culture Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Alice; Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Traditional and contemporary Hupa songs as sung by a Hupa medicine woman in her 70's are collected in this booklet. Songs are presented in Hupa and English on facing pages that are illustrated with pen and ink drawings. The four songs are "Flower Dance Song" and "Kick Dance Song" (both for traditional religious ceremonial…

  18. Ecosystem response to removal of exotic riparian shrubs and a transition to upland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Cooper, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant community change over time is essential for managing important ecosystems such as riparian areas. This study analyzed historic vegetation using soil seed banks and the effects of riparian shrub removal treatments and channel incision on ecosystem and plant community dynamics in Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. We focused on how seeds, nutrients, and ground water influence the floristic composition of post-treatment vegetation and addressed three questions: (1) How does pre-treatment soil seed bank composition reflect post-treatment vegetation composition? (2) How does shrub removal affect post-treatment riparian vegetation composition, seed rain inputs, and ground water dynamics? and (3) Is available soil nitrogen increased near dead Russian olive plants following removal and does this influence post-treatment vegetation? We analyzed seed bank composition across the study area, analyzed differences in vegetation, ground water levels, and seed rain between control, cut-stump and whole-plant removal areas, and compared soil nitrogen and vegetation near removed Russian olive to areas lacking Russian olive. The soil seed bank contained more riparian plants, more native and fewer exotic plants than the extant vegetation. Both shrub removal methods decreased exotic plant cover, decreased tamarisk and Russian olive seed inputs, and increased native plant cover after 2 years. Neither method increased ground water levels. Soil near dead Russian olive trees indicated a short-term increase in soil nitrogen following plant removal but did not influence vegetation composition compared to areas without Russian olive. Following tamarisk and Russian olive removal, our study sites were colonized by upland plant species. Many western North American rivers have tamarisk and Russian olive on floodplains abandoned by channel incision, river regulation or both. Our results are widely applicable to sites where drying has occurred and vegetation

  19. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  20. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., dogwood, and sourwood. Stand density is high, typically ranging from 120 to 160 square feet of basal area... native forest vegetation. This change in condition would improve ecosystem [[Page 59164

  1. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  2. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  3. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  5. Feeding habits of the crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, in a mosaic area with native and exotic vegetation in Southern Brazil Hábito alimentar do cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae, em área de mosaico de vegetação nativa e exótica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 is the most widespread neotropical canid, most commonly inhabiting forested areas. This animal is a generalist omnivore that is able to use environments disturbed by human activities. The aim of this study was to describe its diet through the stomach content analysis of 30 samples obtained from specimens that were run over in a mosaic composed by Araucaria Pine Forest, Semidecidual Seasonal Forest, natural grasslands, and exotic vegetation. The items were quantified by frequency of occurrence (F.O. and percentage of occurrence (P.O.. A total of 64 food items were found among 171 occurrences. According to F.O. method, plant items corresponded to 93.3% of the occurrences, followed by animal items (86.7% and human rejects (16.6%. Among plants, fruits accounted for 92.9% of the occurrences, followed by leaves (53.6% and flowers (10.7%. Syagrus romanzoffianum (Cham. Glassman, 1968 and the exotic Hovenia dulcis Thunberg were the most consumed fruits (30% each, and the most consumed leaves were Poaceae. Among preyed animals, the F.O. was 73.3% for invertebrates (mostly Orthoptera and Coleoptera, 36.7% each and 63.3% for vertebrates (mostly mammals, 33.3%. Regarding the P.O. method, there was an overestimation of invertebrates (98.1% due to the presence of ants and termites in the stomach of a single individual. In general, C. thous presented its usual diet. Its generalistic feeding habits can positively influence its survival in altered environments. This study also compares different methods for dietary analysis and discusses some opportunistic behaviors of C. thous, such as the consumption of exotic species and the use of silviculture areas as hunting sites.Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 é o canídeo neotropical mais amplamente distribuído e habita principalmente ambientes florestados. Este animal possui hábito alimentar onívoro generalista e demonstra capacidade de utilizar ambientes perturbados pela ação do

  6. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  7. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  8. Determination of nutritional value of native prairie José Manuel Pando Province, Municipality of Santiago de Machaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Instituto de Investigación en Ciencia Animal y Tecnología (IICAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in the municipality of Santiago de Machaca which is the first section of the province, José Manuel Pando, it is located at the southeast of the Department of La Paz, at a distance of 205 km, from the city of La Paz. The objectives of this research were to: determine the biomass and floristic composition according to vegetative site, the stocking of native grasslands and the chemical composition of native prairie. The results were the following: the biomass composition and floristic composition is diverse, (35 native forrage species were identified in the vegetative site pampa, Marsh (11, hillside (18 and Hill (33. The capacity of stocking ability of (DC a stocking of native grasslands, Urtica flabellata (Itapallu (2.46; Bromus catharticus (bromus (1.26; Trifolium pratensis (Layulayu (1.38; Iberis sp. (tears of Virgin (1.55 and Hordium muticum (tail of mouse (1.64. Regarding chemical composition, the forage species with higher crude protein content of (% is Urtica flabellata (Itapallu, Bromus catharticus (bromus, 181,66 is 25.77%, forage species with higher energy content Kcal100/g Kcal100/g. and forage specie with higher content of iron mg / 100 g was Iberis sp. (Tears of Virgin, 20,97 mg / 100g. These identified species should be preserved and disseminated, since they showed greater amount of production and quality in content of nutrients required by animals. The conservation of these native species identified improve weight gain, consumption of native forage throughout the year, the chemical content, these native species studied, improve quality and cover the requirements from consumption of dry matter and nutrients required by animals. Finally this condition will positively affect the economy of the producers. It is recommended that these native species should be preserved and disseminated on the Prairies, since they showed greater amount of production and quality in content of nutrients required by animals.

  9. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  10. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  11. Differences in the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Native and Non-Native Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, R.; Mokhtari, K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the reported use of reading strategies of native and non-native English speakers when reading academic materials. Participants were native English speaking and English-as-a-Second-Language college students who completed a survey of reading strategies aimed at discerning the strategies readers report using when coping…

  12. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D

    2009-09-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (resilience to more severe disturbances. Modern deviations from historical conditions can alter ecosystem response to disturbances, thus restoring the historical disturbance regime may not be an appropriate strategy for all ecosystems.

  13. Effects of metals on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, N P

    1972-01-01

    Prospectors have long known that abnormal concentrations of metals in the soil overlying an ore deposit can affect the vegetation rooting in this soil; mineral deposits have even been discovered because of such vegetation changes. Recently, many people have become interested in the possibility of remote sensing such vegetation changes, and perhaps using the results in conjunction with airborne geophysics and photogeological interpretation in integrated prospecting programs.

  14. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  15. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  16. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  17. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  18. Encouraging children to eat vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Buh, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    It is important for children to maintain a healthy and balanced diet throughout their childhood and youth. Children tend to skip vegetables in their meals as they are not much liked; the tastes of vegetables are also highly specific and each individual has to get used to them by repeated tasting. The aim of this undergraduate thesis was to analyse how often children eat vegetables, which types of vegetables they like and which they do not, to determine if the executed method of pedagogica...

  19. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  20. Facilitation and interference of seedling establishment by a native legume before and after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Erin; Chambers, Jeanne C

    2012-01-01

    In semi-arid ecosystems, heterogeneous resources can lead to variable seedling recruitment. Existing vegetation can influence seedling establishment by modifying the resource and physical environment. We asked how a native legume, Lupinus argenteus, modifies microenvironments in unburned and burned sagebrush steppe, and if L. argenteus presence facilitates seedling establishment of native species and the non-native annual grass, Bromus tectorum. Field treatments examined mechanisms by which L. argenteus likely influences establishment: (1) live L. argenteus; (2) dead L. argenteus; (3) no L. argenteus; (4) no L. argenteus with L. argenteus litter; (5) no L. argenteus with inert litter; and (6) mock L. argenteus. Response variables included soil nitrogen, moisture, temperature, solar radiation, and seedling establishment of the natives Elymus multisetus and Eriogonum umbellatum, and non-native B. tectorum. In both unburned and burned communities, there was higher spring soil moisture, increased shade and reduced maximum temperatures under L. argenteus canopies. Adult L. argenteus resulted in greater amounts of soil nitrogen (N) only in burned sagebrush steppe, but L. argenteus litter increased soil N under both unburned and burned conditions. Although L. argenteus negatively affected emergence and survival of B. tectorum overall, its presence increased B. tectorum biomass and reproduction in unburned plots. However, L. argenteus had positive facilitative effects on size and survival of E. multisetus in both unburned and burned plots. Our study indicates that L. argenteus can facilitate seedling establishment in semi-arid systems, but net effects depend on the species examined, traits measured, and level of abiotic stress.

  1. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  2. Adaptive restoration of river terrace vegetation through iterative experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, Michelle P.; Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Decker, Cheryl E.; O’Neil, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Restoration projects can involve a high degree of uncertainty and risk, which can ultimately result in failure. An adaptive restoration approach can reduce uncertainty through controlled, replicated experiments designed to test specific hypotheses and alternative management approaches. Key components of adaptive restoration include willingness of project managers to accept the risk inherent in experimentation, interest of researchers, availability of funding for experimentation and monitoring, and ability to restore sites as iterative experiments where results from early efforts can inform the design of later phases. This paper highlights an ongoing adaptive restoration project at Zion National Park (ZNP), aimed at reducing the cover of exotic annual Bromus on riparian terraces, and revegetating these areas with native plant species. Rather than using a trial-and-error approach, ZNP staff partnered with academic, government, and private-sector collaborators to conduct small-scale experiments to explicitly address uncertainties concerning biomass removal of annual bromes, herbicide application rates and timing, and effective seeding methods for native species. Adaptive restoration has succeeded at ZNP because managers accept the risk inherent in experimentation and ZNP personnel are committed to continue these projects over a several-year period. Techniques that result in exotic annual Bromus removal and restoration of native plant species at ZNP can be used as a starting point for adaptive restoration projects elsewhere in the region.

  3. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  4. Stylistic Change in Classroom Native Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of native music in classes for Native Americans. Highlights the ways in which changes in musical style evolve and the disparities between the teaching process and the music itself. Suggests methods for successfully uniting process and product. (MK)

  5. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  6. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  7. The Native Language in Teaching Kindergarten Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the native language as a medium of instruction is believed to be the fastest and most natural route towards developing a strong foundation in mathematics literacy (Mimaropa, In D.O.No. 74, s.2009). This study examined the effect of using the native language in the teaching of kindergarten mathematics. A total of 34 five to six year old…

  8. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  9. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  10. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  11. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  12. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  13. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  14. Native plants fare better against an introduced competitor with native microbes and lower nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya Shivega, W; Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura

    2017-01-24

    While the soil environment is generally acknowledged as playing a role in plant competition, the relative importance of soil resources and soil microbes in determining outcomes of competition between native and exotic plants has rarely been tested. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic species may depend on the extent to which native and exotic plant performance are mediated by abiotic and biotic components of the soil. We used a greenhouse experiment to compare performance of two native prairie plant species and one exotic species, when grown in intraspecific competition and when each native was grown in interspecific competition with the exotic species, in the presence and absence of a native prairie soil community, and when nitrogen availability was elevated or was maintained at native prairie levels. We found that elevated nitrogen availability was beneficial to the exotic species and had no effect on or was detrimental to the native plant species, that the native microbial community was beneficial to the native plant species and either had no effect or was detrimental to the exotic species, and that intraspecific competition was stronger than interspecific competition for the exotic plant species and vice-versa for the natives. Our results demonstrate that soil nitrogen availability and the soil microbial community can mediate the strength of competition between native and exotic plant species. We found no evidence for native microbes enhancing the performance of the exotic plant species. Instead, loss of the native soil microbial community appears to reinforce the negative effects of elevated N on native plant communities and its benefits to exotic invasive species. Resilience of plant communities to invasion by exotic plant species is facilitated by the presence of an intact native soil microbial community and weakened by anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  15. A vegetal Geiger counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the Chernobyl accident impact on ecosystems, Ukrainian and Swiss scientists have used a plant: the Arabidopsis thaliana. They have introduced in its genome a gene coding an enzyme called β-glucuronidase. This substance, when it is expressed, colours vegetal cells blue. In fact the introduced gene is divided between 2 paired chromosomes. When the plant is placed on a nuclear contaminated soil, radiation damaged chromosomes exchange fragments and the 2 parts of the enzyme gene may recombine, the enzyme can then be expressed. For low and medium contamination ( 2 ) biologists have found a correlation between the number of blue spots on the plant and the irradiation rate. (A.C.)

  16. Genetic improvement of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Vasquez, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Some genetic bases of the improvement of vegetables are given. The objectives of the genetic improvement and the fundamental stages of this process are done. The sources of genetic variation are indicated and they are related the reproduction systems of the main horticultural species. It is analyzed the concept of genetic inheritance like base to determine the procedures more appropriate of improvement. The approaches are discussed, has more than enough phenotypic value, genetic action and genotypic variance; Equally the heredability concepts and value of improvement. The conventional methods of improvement are described, like they are: the introduction of species or varieties, the selection, the pure line, the pedigree method, the selection for families, the recurrent selection, the selection for unique seed, the haploids method, the selection for heterosis and the synthetic varieties

  17. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  18. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  19. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  20. The new digital natives cutting the chord

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up.  However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging.  This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.

  1. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  2. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  3. Vegetation description, rare plant inventory, and vegetation monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, M.; Moseley, R.

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals

  4. Vegetation of the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, South Africa Part 2: Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga van der Merwe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion lies within the Succulent Karoo Hotspot that stretches along the western side of the Republic of South Africa and Namibia. This project, carried out to document the botanical diversity in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion, was part of a project identified as a priority during the SKEP (Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme initiative in this Hotspot. Botanical surveys were conducted in an area covering over three million hectares. Satellite images of the area and topocadastral, land type and geology maps were used to stratify the area into relatively homogeneous units. An analysis of the floristic data of 390 sample plots identified two major floristic units, i.e. the Fynbos Biome related vegetation and the Succulent Karoo Biome related vegetation. A description of the vegetation related to the Succulent Karoo Biome is presented in this article. Seven associations, 16 subassociations and several mosaic vegetation units, consisting of more than one vegetation unit, were identified and mapped. Various threats to the vegetation in the region were identified during the survey and are briefly discussed.

  5. Application of a Coupled Vegetation Competition and Groundwater Simulation Model to Study Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surges on Coastal Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yean Teh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change poses challenges to areas such as low-lying coastal zones, where sea level rise (SLR and storm-surge overwash events can have long-term effects on vegetation and on soil and groundwater salinities, posing risks of habitat loss critical to native species. An early warning system is urgently needed to predict and prepare for the consequences of these climate-related impacts on both the short-term dynamics of salinity in the soil and groundwater and the long-term effects on vegetation. For this purpose, the U.S. Geological Survey’s spatially explicit model of vegetation community dynamics along coastal salinity gradients (MANHAM is integrated into the USGS groundwater model (SUTRA to create a coupled hydrology–salinity–vegetation model, MANTRA. In MANTRA, the uptake of water by plants is modeled as a fluid mass sink term. Groundwater salinity, water saturation and vegetation biomass determine the water available for plant transpiration. Formulations and assumptions used in the coupled model are presented. MANTRA is calibrated with salinity data and vegetation pattern for a coastal area of Florida Everglades vulnerable to storm surges. A possible regime shift at that site is investigated by simulating the vegetation responses to climate variability and disturbances, including SLR and storm surges based on empirical information.

  6. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  7. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system. PMID:26170316

  8. Vegetable Genetic Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping WANG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China is recognized as an important region for plant biodiversity based on its vast and historical collection of vegetable germplasm. The aim of this review is to describe the exploration status of vegetable genetic resources in China, including their collection, preservation, evaluation, and utilization. China has established a number of national-level vegetable genetic resources preservation units, including the National Mid-term Genebank for Vegetable Germplasm Resources, the National Germplasm Repository for Vegetatively-Propagated Vegetables, and the National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. In 2015, at least 36 000 accessions were collected and preserved in these units. In the past decade, 44 descriptors and data standards for different species have been published, and most accessions have been evaluated for screening the germplasms for specific important traits such as morphological characteristics, disease resistance, pest resistance, and stress tolerance. Moreover, the genetic diversity and evolution of some vegetable germplasms have been evaluated at the molecular level. Recently, more than 1 000 accessions were distributed to researchers and breeders each year by various means for vegetable research and production. However, additional wild-relative and abroad germplasms from other regions need to be collected and preserved in the units to expand genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is a need to utilize advanced techniques to better understand the background and genetic diversity of a wide range of vegetable genetic resources. This review will provide agricultural scientists’ insights into the genetic diversity in China and provide information on the distribution and potential utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Keywords: vegetable, genetic resource, preservation, evaluation, utilization

  9. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  10. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Litton, Creighton M.; Hess, Steve; Kellner, James; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world’s most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  11. Effects of introduced and indigenous viruses on native plants: exploring their disease causing potential at the agro-ecological interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J; Coutts, Brenda A; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (viruses readily. To establish their potential to cause severe or mild systemic symptoms in different native plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host-virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface.

  12. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  13. Diversity and biomass of native macrophytes are negatively related to dominance of an invasive Poaceae in Brazilian sub-tropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Gonçalves Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides exacerbated exploitation, pollution, flow alteration and habitats degradation, freshwater biodiversity is also threatened by biological invasions. This paper addresses how native aquatic macrophyte communities are affected by the non-native species Urochloa arrecta, a current successful invader in Brazilian freshwater systems. We compared the native macrophytes colonizing patches dominated and non-dominated by this invader species. We surveyed eight streams in Northwest Paraná State (Brazil. In each stream, we recorded native macrophytes' richness and biomass in sites where U. arrecta was dominant and in sites where it was not dominant or absent. No native species were found in seven, out of the eight investigated sites where U. arrecta was dominant. Thus, we found higher native species richness, Shannon index and native biomass values in sites without dominance of U. arrecta than in sites dominated by this invader. Although difficult to conclude about causes of such differences, we infer that the elevated biomass production by this grass might be the primary reason for alterations in invaded environments and for the consequent impacts on macrophytes' native communities. However, biotic resistance offered by native richer sites could be an alternative explanation for our results. To mitigate potential impacts and to prevent future environmental perturbations, we propose mechanical removal of the invasive species and maintenance or restoration of riparian vegetation, for freshwater ecosystems have vital importance for the maintenance of ecological services and biodiversity and should be preserved.

  14. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predators on stream-rearing salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Butcher, Don P.; Crown, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory non-native smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and non-native species on stream-rearing salmon, and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin; we compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing Chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of Chinook salmon rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing Chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (2-4-fold increase) and greater abundance of bass. We

  15. 77 FR 35366 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... materials, removing vegetation including danger trees, and revegetating areas disturbed by construction... implement the Proposed Action Alternative, based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE...

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  17. Transmission System Vegetation Management Program. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for Bonneville and the public, and interfere with their ability to maintain these facilities. They need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase their program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools they can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would favor a management

  18. Engaging Digital Natives through Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital natives account for a substantial portion of the total enrollment in higher education. This calls for significant educational reforms because traditional education systems do not cater to the needs and interests of digital natives. The most effective way that both students and instructors can benefit from this paradigm shift is to integrate technology that is appropriate to the cognitive learning patterns of the digital natives into the curriculum. This paper builds upon previous research in technology/personality theory and specifically attempts to provide examples of technology that will address the instructional needs of digital natives. Further this paper provides empirical evidence of the impact of technology integration on the learning outcomes of digital natives. In this study, the authors explored the impact of targeted technology on academic performance in three businesses courses. Three functional technologies were used by the authors to build engaging course content, efficiently manage course content, and to interact with digital native students. This study found that these technologies can assist digital natives in the learning process and lead to better academic performance.

  19. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs

  20. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  1. Morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth after stream restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Antonius J.F.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Uijttewaal, Wim S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of the morphological evolution of renaturalized streams is important for the success of restoration projects. Riparian vegetation is a key component of the riverine landscape and is therefore essential for the natural rehabilitation of rivers. This complicates the design of

  2. Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davis, M. A.; Pergl, Jan; Truscott, A.; Kollmann, J.; Bakker, J. P.; Domenech, R.; Prach, Karel; Prieur-Richard, A.; Veeneklaas, R. M.; Pyšek, Petr; del Moral, R.; Hobbs, R. J.; Collins, S. L.; Pickett, S. T. A.; Reich, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2005), s. 69-76 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation succession * climate change * plant invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.053, year: 2005

  3. Characterizing meadow vegetation with multitemporal Landsat thematic mapper remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Karen E. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Wet meadows are important biological components in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Many meadows in the Blue Mountains and elsewhere in the Western United States are in a state of change owing to grazing, mining, logging, road development, and other factors. This project evaluated the utility of remotely sensed data to characterize and monitor meadow vegetation...

  4. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, T.; Hájek, M.; Jiroušek, M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, B.; Aunina, L.; Bergamini, A.; Dítě, D.; Felbaba-Klushyna, L.; Graf, U.; Hájková, Petra; Hettenbergerová, E.; Ivchenko, T. G.; Jansen, F.; Koroleva, N. E.; Lapshina, E. D.; Lazarević, P. M.; Moen, A.; Napreenko, M. G.; Pawlikowski, P.; Plesková, Z.; Sekulová, L.; Smagin, V. A.; Tahvanainen, T.; Thiele, A.; Bita-Nicolae, C.; Biurrun, I.; Brisse, H.; Ćušterevska, R.; De Bie, E.; Ewald, J.; FitzPatrick, U.; Font, X.; Jandt, U.; Kazcki, Z.; Kuzemko, A.; Landucci, F.; Moeslund, J. E.; Perez-Haase, A.; Rašomavičius, V.; Rodwell, J. S.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Šilc, U.; Stančić, Z.; Chytrý, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 124-142 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Scheuchzerio-Caricetea * vegetation classification * mires Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  5. Nutrient management on vegetable farms; what will be the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, R.; Groenwold, J.; Rovers, J.A.J.M.; Clevering, O.A.; Pijnenberg, H.; Hekkert, M.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Production of field vegetables is known for its high nitrogen input and consequently high nitrogen losses towards the environment. All over the world research tries to find opportunities to reduce these losses. In 2000 the Dutch government initiated and funded a research project (Telen met toekomst)

  6. Vegetation diversity of salt-rich grasslands in Southeast Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliáš, P. Jr.; Sopotlieva, D.; Dítě, D.; Hájková, Petra; Apostolova, I.; Senko, D.; Melečková, Z.; Hájek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2013), s. 521-537 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : salt marshes * vegetation survey * grasslands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  7. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  8. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project [BWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs

  9. Non- chemical methods of seed treatment for control of seed- borne pathogens on vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, S.A.I.; Wickstrom, M.; Schmitt, A.; Koch, E.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.; Werner, S.; Jahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of EU-project "Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production" (STOVE) was to evaluate non-chemical methods for control of seed-borne pathogens in organic vegetable production. Physical (hot air, hot water and electron) and biologi-cal (microorganisms and different agents of natural

  10. Relationships between the normalised difference vegetation index and temperature fluctuations in post-mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujalský, L.; Jirka, V.; Zemek, František; Frouz, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2018), s. 254-263 ISSN 1748-0930 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : temperature * normalised difference * vegetation index (NDVI) * vegetation cover * remote sensing Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2016

  11. Predicting landscape vegetation dynamics using state-and-transition simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin J. Daniel; Leonardo. Frid

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines how state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to project changes in vegetation over time across a landscape. STSMs are stochastic, empirical simulation models that use an adapted Markov chain approach to predict how vegetation will transition between states over time, typically in response to interactions between succession,...

  12. Vegetation of Paektu Mt. alpine tundra and changes of species composition in its ecotone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2007), s. 707-725 ISSN 0253-116X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : High mountain vegetation * hypsometric vegetation transect * Korean-Chinese boundary Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  14. O PAPEL DA COBERTURA VEGETAL NOS AMBIENTES URBANOS E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA QUALIDADE DE VIDA NAS CIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíse Ernestina Prestes Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HE ROLE OF VEGETATION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN CITIES This study aimed to understand the benefits of the vegetation cover for the quality of urban life, setting as this quality is measured and, reflecting on the handling of the native vegetation in the process of formation and expansion of urban spaces. This study also sought, address aspects of urban vegetation in Rondonópolis – MT, while a medium-sized municipality, which experiences a process of accelerated growth from the 1970s to understand the influence of vegetation on the quality of life in cities and its function in urban environments, this study proposes a critical reflection on the role of vegetation in urban ecosystems, through a narrative review based on scientific articles, books, theses and dissertations on the subject. This narrative review addressed the urban ecosystems against the intense urban growth and its consequent deterioration of environmental quality provided the urban population. Thus, this narrative review has allowed a better understanding of the influence of vegetation on the quality of life in cities, establishing the vegetation exerts specific ecosystem functions, which in large part, are completely ignored by urban planning. Still, the analysis of local studies on the vegetation cover in Rondonópolis allowed understand how this city booming, organizes and maintains the vegetation in its urban space.

  15. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, V.; Jacobi, J.D.; Porembski, S.; Boehmer, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Does the invasive alien Hedychium gardnerianum (1) replace native understory species, (2) suppress natural regeneration of native plant species, (3) increase the invasiveness of other non-native plants and (4) are native forests are able to recover after removal of H. gardnerianum. Location: A mature rainforest in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on the island of Hawai'i (about 1200 m. a.s.l.; precipitation approximately 2770mm yr-1). Study sites included natural plots without effects of alien plants, ginger plots with a H. gardnerianum-domimted herb layer and cleared plots treated with herbicide to remove alien plants. Methods: Counting mature trees, saplings and seedlings of native and alien plant species. Using nonparametric H-tests to compare impact of H. gardnerianum on the structure of different sites. Results: Results confirmed the hypothesis that H. gardnerianum has negative effects on natural forest dynamics. Lower numbers of native tree seedlings and saplings were found on ginger-dominated plots. Furthermore, H. gardnerianum did not show negative effects on the invasive alien tree species Psidium cattleianum. Conclusions: This study reveals that where dominance of H. gardnerianum persists, regeneration of the forest by native species will be inhibited. Furthermore, these areas might experience invasion by P. cattleianum, resulting in displacement of native canopy species in the future, leading to a change in forest structure and loss of other species dependent on natural rainforest, such as endemic birds. However, if H. gardnerianum is removed the native Hawaiian forest is likely to regenerate and regain its natural structure. ?? 2009 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  16. Evaporative loss from soil, native vegetation, and snow as affected by hexadecanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry W. Anderson; Allan J. West; Robert R. Ziemer; Franklin R. Adams

    1963-01-01

    Abstract - Only in a bulldozed brush field and with heavy applications of hexadecanol under snow did significant reductions in evapotranspiration occur with application of hexadecanol to natural stands. Marked reductions in evaporation from snow occurred when hexadecanol emulsion was applied to the snow surface. More than two-thirds of the precipitation in the United...

  17. Success of seeding native compared with introduced perennial vegetation for revegetating medusahead-invaded sagebrush rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of hectares of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) rangeland have been invaded by medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski), an exotic annual grass that degrades wildlife habitat, reduces forage production, and decreases biodiversity....

  18. Radiation and the vegetable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible uses of irradiation in the vegetable industry are considered. Interest has been increasing because of possible bans on chemical fumigants and clearance of irradiation as an acceptable process, up to certain dose limits, by Codex Alimentarius and the US FDA. Inhibition of sprouting in potatoes and onions would be one possibility for exploitation. However, the main incentive for vegetable irradiation would be as a quarantine treatment for exported products. The shelf-life of a few vegetables could also be increased by combining radiation with heat treatments. Costs in New Zealand and consumer attitudes are briefly considered

  19. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  20. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  1. 10 Years of Native Seed Certification in Germany - a Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Ann Kareen; Wieden, Markus

    2018-06-21

    Many renaturation projects and compensation areas are based on the use of seeds from regional indigenous wild plants, in the following: native or regional seeds. Despite this, such seeds make up only a small proportion of the total number of seeds used for greening projects - in Germany, for example, it is only around 1% (= 200 t/yr). Although the market for regional seeds is small, it is highly competitive. High-priced native seeds compete with flower mixes of unspecified origin and can only be differentiated from them by reliable quality seals. A quality assurance system based on seed legislation (EU Directive 2010/60, preservation mixtures) has been developed in a few European countries. However, quality assurance ends with the sale of the seeds. Thus, seed use remains unmonitored and often unsuitable material, or material foreign to the region, is planted in restoration areas. Unfortunately, nature conservation has not made seed-based restoration one of its key issues, neither at the European, nor at the national level. Currently there are many different local and regional standards, methods and private certificates that are confusing for users and which provide little continuity and predictability for producers. We recommend the establishment of an EU directive or a broadly agreed recommendation to the EU member states, spearheaded by nature conservation, which would define the standards for producing and using native seeds (e.g. harmonized regions that cross national borders, quality regulations). At the same time, wild plant interest groups should combine existing structures in order to strengthen seed-based restoration through international cooperation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of different natural enemies on the performance of Cirsium arvense in its native range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abela-Hofbauerová, Inés; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2011), s. 394-403 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cirsium arvense * native range * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2011

  3. Native plant development and restoration program for the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. L. Shaw; M. Pellant; P. Olweli; S. L. Jensen; E. D. McArthur

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project, organized by the USDA Bureau of Land Management, Great Basin Restoration Initiative and the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station in 2000 as a multi-agency collaborative program (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/research/shrub/greatbasin.shtml), has the objective of improving the availability of...

  4. A strategy for maximizing native plant material diversity for ecological restoration, germplasm conservation and genecology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta Youtie; Nancy Shaw; Matt Fisk; Scott Jensen

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important steps in planning a restoration project is careful selection of ecologically adapted native plant material. As species-specific seed zone maps are not available for most species in the Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) ecoregion in the Great Basin, USA, we are employing a provisional seed zone map based on annual...

  5. Non-native gobies facilitate the transmission of Bucephalus polymorphus (Trematoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Hudcová, Iveta; Dávidová, Martina; Adámek, Zdeněk; Kašný, M.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2015), s. 382 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/12/2569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bucephalus polymorphus * Complex life cycle * Goby * Infectivity * Intermediate host * Non-native species * Trematode Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  6. Listening to the Community: Guidance from Native Community Members for Emerging Culturally Responsive Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christine A.; Jaime, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) emphasizes the importance of listening to the counter-narratives of people from marginalized groups. However, the applicability of CRT in practical settings often remains unclear for educators and scholars. This project offers not only a place for Native community members to share their experiences and ideas, it also…

  7. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  8. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  9. Vegetation studies on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hickson, Diana E.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1988-01-01

    Vandenburg Air Force Base, located in coastal central California with an area of 98,400 ac, contains resources of considerable biological significance. Available information on the vegetation and flora of Vandenburg is summarized and new data collected in this project are presented. A bibliography of 621 references dealing with vegetation and related topics related to Vanderburg was compiled from computer and manual literature searches and a review of past studies of the base. A preliminary floristic list of 642 taxa representing 311 genera and 80 families was compiled from past studies and plants identified in the vegetation sampling conducted in this project. Fifty-two special interest plant species are known to occur or were suggested to occur. Vegetation was sampled using permanent plots and transects in all major plant communities including chaparral, Bishop pine forest, tanbark oak forest, annual grassland, oak woodland, coastal sage scrub, purple sage scrub, coastal dune scrub, coastal dunes, box elder riparian woodland, will riparian woodland, freshwater marsh, salt marsh, and seasonal wetlands. Comparison of the new vegetation data to the compostie San Diego State University data does not indicate major changes in most communities since the original study. Recommendations are made for additional studies needed to maintain and extend the environmental data base and for management actions to improve resource protection.

  10. Leaf gas exchange and water status responses of a native and non-native grass to precipitation across contrasting soil surfaces in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignace, Danielle D; Huxman, Travis E; Weltzin, Jake F; Williams, David G

    2007-06-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems of the southwestern US are undergoing changes in vegetation composition and are predicted to experience shifts in climate. To understand implications of these current and predicted changes, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment on the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southeastern Arizona. The objectives of our study were to determine how soil surface and seasonal timing of rainfall events mediate the dynamics of leaf-level photosynthesis and plant water status of a native and non-native grass species in response to precipitation pulse events. We followed a simulated precipitation event (pulse) that occurred prior to the onset of the North American monsoon (in June) and at the peak of the monsoon (in August) for 2002 and 2003. We measured responses of pre-dawn water potential, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance of native (Heteropogon contortus) and non-native (Eragrostis lehmanniana) C(4) bunchgrasses on sandy and clay-rich soil surfaces. Soil surface did not always amplify differences in plant response to a pulse event. A June pulse event lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis. Whereas the August pulse did not lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis, due to favorable soil moisture conditions facilitating high plant performance during this period. E. lehmanniana did not demonstrate heightened photosynthetic performance over the native species in response to pulses across both soil surfaces. Overall accumulated leaf-level CO(2) response to a pulse event was dependent on antecedent soil moisture during the August pulse event, but not during the June pulse event. This work highlights the need to understand how desert species respond to pulse events across contrasting soil surfaces in water-limited systems that are predicted to experience changes in climate.

  11. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  12. Social impacts of IPM-FFS on urban and peri-urban vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social relations, social empowerment and sharing of IPM information, and sustainability and institutionalization of IPM) for vegetable producers in an integrated pest management (IPM) project using farmer field schools (FFS) in Cotonou.

  13. Water retention techniques for vegetation establishment in TxDOT West Texas districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Water harvesting is the collection of runoff for its productive use and may aid in the germination and : establishment of vegetation seeded in the roadside. This project is a synthesis study on the feasibility and : implications of adapting water har...

  14. NativeProtector: Protecting Android Applications by Isolating and Intercepting Third-Party Native Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong , Yu-Yang; Wang , Yu-Ping; Yin , Jie

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Software Security; International audience; An increasing number of Android developers are incorporating third-party native libraries in their applications for code reuse, CPU-intensive tasks and other purposes. However current Android security mechanism can not regulate the native code in applications well. Many approaches have been proposed to enforce security of Android applications, but few of them involve security of the native libraries in Android applications.In this paper, we p...

  15. Vegetated Riprap Installation Techniques for Steambank Protection, Fish and Wildlife Habitat Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Vegetated riprap is a cost effective alternative to conventional riprap erosion protection. Terra Erosion Control has experimented with the vegetation of riprap over the past ten years. As a result we have adapted a technique that can successfully establish vegetation during the installation of riprap structures. This presentation will demonstrate innovative ways of installing vegetated riprap for the protection of access roads on industrial sites and urban infrastructure such as storm water outfalls, bridge approaches and pedestrian pathways within public areas. This vegetation will provide additional bank protection, soften the rock appearance and enhance fish, wildlife and urban habitat along the shoreline. Vegetated riprap incorporates a combination of rock and native vegetation in the form of live cuttings. These are planted in conjunction with the placement of rock used to armour the banks of watercourses. Establishment of native vegetation will improve fish habitat by creating shade, cover and an input of small organic debris to stream banks. In most cases it will negate the need for the regulator (Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans) to require habitat alteration compensation. It will also provide added bank protection through the development of root mass. Adding vegetation to riprap provides a softer, more natural appearance to the installed rocks. This presentation will detail the processes involved in the installation of vegetated riprap such as the harvesting and soaking of live material, site preparation of the stream bank, placement of riprap in conjunction with live material and the use of burlap/coir fabric and soil amendments. It will also discuss the innovative method of using wooden boards to protect live cuttings during construction and to direct precipitation and/or irrigation water to the root zone during the establishment phase of the vegetation. These boards will eventually biodegrade within the rock. This approach was applied over

  16. The effect of native and introduced biofuel crops on the composition of soil biota communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan; Hedenec, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel crops are an accepted alternative to fossil fuels, but little is known about the ecological impact of their production. The aim of this contribution is to study the effect of native (Salix viminalis and Phalaris arundinacea) and introduced (Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria sachalinensis and Silphium perfoliatum) biofuel crop plantations on the soil biota in comparison with cultural meadow vegetation used as control. The study was performed as part of a split plot field experiment of the Crop Research Institute in the city of Chomutov (Czech Republic). The composition of the soil meso- and macrofauna community, composition of the cultivable fraction of the soil fungal community, cellulose decomposition (using litter bags), microbial biomass, basal soil respiration and PLFA composition (incl. F/B ratio) were studied in each site. The C:N ratio and content of polyphenols differed among plant species, but these results could not be considered significant between introduced and native plant species. Abundance of the soil meso- and macrofauna was higher in field sites planted with S. viminalis and P. arundinacea than those planted with S. perfoliatum, H. tuberosus and R. sachalinensis. RDA and Monte Carlo Permutation Test showed that the composition of the faunal community differed significantly between various native and introduced plants. Significantly different basal soil respiration was found in sites planted with various energy crops; however, this difference was not significant between native and introduced species. Microbial biomass carbon and cellulose decomposition did not exhibit any statistical differences among the biofuel crops. The largest statistically significant difference we found was in the content of actinobacterial and bacterial (bacteria, G+ bacteria and G- bacteria) PLFA in sites overgrown by P. arundinacea compared to introduced as well as native biofuel crops. In conclusion, certain parameters significantly differ between various native

  17. Integrated task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, June 1992 through May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to representative individuals. The primary objective of work to be performed through May 1994 is to determine the project's appropriate scope: space, time, radionuclides, pathways and representative individuals; determine the project's appropriate level of accuracy/level of uncertainty in dose estimates; complete model and data development; and estimate doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study and representative individuals. A major objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to the thyroid of individuals who were exposed to iodine-131. A principal pathway for many of these individuals was milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 released into the air from Hanford facilities. The plan for June 1992 through May 1994 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meetings on January 7--9, 1993 and February 25--26, 1993. The activities can be divided into three broad categories: (1) computer code and data development activities, (2) calculation of doses, and (3) technical and communication support to the TSP and the TSP Native American Working Group (NAWG). The following activities will be conducted to accomplish project objectives through May 1994

  18. Release from native root herbivores and biotic resistance by soil pathogens in a new habitat both affect the alien Ammophila arenaria in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knevel, IC; Lans, T; Menting, FBJ; Hertling, UM; van der Putten, WH

    2004-01-01

    Many native communities contain exotic plants that pose a major threat to indigenous vegetation and ecosystem functioning. Therefore the enemy release hypothesis (ERH) and biotic resistance hypothesis (BRH) were examined in relation to the invasiveness of the introduced dune grass Ammophila arenaria

  19. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  20. Vegetation classification and distribution mapping report Mesa Verde National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; McTeague, Monica L.; Ogden, Lindsay; Floyd, M. Lisa; Schulz, Keith; Friesen, Beverly A.; Fancher, Tammy; Waltermire, Robert G.; Cully, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The classification and distribution mapping of the vegetation of Mesa Verde National Park (MEVE) and surrounding environment was achieved through a multi-agency effort between 2004 and 2007. The National Park Service’s Southern Colorado Plateau Network facilitated the team that conducted the work, which comprised the U.S. Geological Survey’s Southwest Biological Science Center, Fort Collins Research Center, and Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center; Northern Arizona University; Prescott College; and NatureServe. The project team described 47 plant communities for MEVE, 34 of which were described from quantitative classification based on f eld-relevé data collected in 1993 and 2004. The team derived 13 additional plant communities from field observations during the photointerpretation phase of the project. The National Vegetation Classification Standard served as a framework for classifying these plant communities to the alliance and association level. Eleven of the 47 plant communities were classified as “park specials;” that is, plant communities with insufficient data to describe them as new alliances or associations. The project team also developed a spatial vegetation map database representing MEVE, with three different map-class schemas: base, group, and management map classes. The base map classes represent the fi nest level of spatial detail. Initial polygons were developed using Definiens Professional (at the time of our use, this software was called eCognition), assisted by interpretation of 1:12,000 true-color digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQs). These polygons (base map classes) were labeled using manual photo interpretation of the DOQQs and 1:12,000 true-color aerial photography. Field visits verified interpretation concepts. The vegetation map database includes 46 base map classes, which consist of associations, alliances, and park specials classified with quantitative analysis, additional associations and park specials noted

  1. Modification of a Community Garden to Attract Native Bee Pollinators in Urban San Luis Obispo, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin W. Thorp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardens have become increasingly important places for growing nutritional food, for conserving biodiversity, for biological and ecological research and education, and for community gathering. Gardens can also be designed with the goal of attracting specific wildlife, like birds and butterflies, but pollinators, like bees, can also be drawn to specially planned and modified gardens. A community garden in San Luis Obispo, California provided the setting for modification with the goal of attracting native bee pollinators by planting known bee-attractive plants. The local gardeners participated in a survey questionnaire and focused interviews to provide their input and interest in such a project. Presentations on our work with native bees in urban environments and gardening to attract bees were also given to interested gardeners. Work of this type also benefited from a lead gardener who managed donated bee plants and kept up momentum of the project. Modification of the garden and monitoring of native bees started in 2007 and continued through the growing season of 2009. Diversity of collected and observed native bees has increased each year since 2007. To date, 40 species in 17 genera of mostly native bees has been recorded from the garden, and this number is expected to increase through time.

  2. in Leafy Vegetable and Pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    successfully employed for the determination of copper (II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. ... Our previous studies of transition metal ions such as zinc, cobalt and ..... A new method for extractive photometric determination of.

  3. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  4. Tribal Recommendations for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2012-01-01

    Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues to reach Native youth on sensitive health topics. Project Red Talon, a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention project that serves the 43 federally recognized tribes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, used community-based participatory research…

  5. Long-term effects of seeding after wildfire on vegetation in Great Basin shrubland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive annual grasses alter fire regimes in shrubland ecosystems of the western USA, threatening ecosystem function and fragmenting habitats necessary for shrub-obligate species such as greater sage-grouse. Post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments have been administered to stabilize soils, reduce invasive species spread and restore or establish sustainable ecosystems in which native species are well represented. Long-term effectiveness of these treatments has rarely been evaluated. 2. We studied vegetation at 88 sites where aerial or drill seeding was implemented following fires between 1990 and 2003 in Great Basin (USA) shrublands. We examined sites on loamy soils that burned only once since 1970 to eliminate confounding effects of recurrent fire and to assess soils most conducive to establishment of seeded species. We evaluated whether seeding provided greater cover of perennial seeded species than burned–unseeded and unburned–unseeded sites, while also accounting for environmental variation. 3. Post-fire seeding of native perennial grasses generally did not increase cover relative to burned–unseeded areas. Native perennial grass cover did, however, increase after drill seeding when competitive non-natives were not included in mixes. Seeding non-native perennial grasses and the shrub Bassia prostrata resulted in more vegetative cover in aerial and drill seeding, with non-native perennial grass cover increasing with annual precipitation. Seeding native shrubs, particularly Artemisia tridentata, did not increase shrub cover or density in burned areas. Cover of undesirable, non-native annual grasses was lower in drill seeded relative to unseeded areas, but only at higher elevations. 4. Synthesis and applications. Management objectives are more likely to be met in high-elevation or precipitation locations where establishment of perennial grasses occurred. On lower and drier sites, management objectives are unlikely to be met with seeding alone

  6. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    our hypothesis. That is, the change of vegetation in space and time may be better understood when modelling vegetation change as both a dynamic and multivariate process. Therefore, future research will focus on a multivariate dynamical spatio-temporal modelling approach. This ongoing research is performed within the context of the project "Global impacts of hydrological and climatic extremes on vegetation" (project acronym: SAT-EX) which is part of the Belgian research programme for Earth Observation Stereo III.

  7. Stormwater runoff mitigation and nutrient leaching from a green roof designed to attract native pollinating insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, S.; Grogan, D. S.; Hale, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A green roof is typically installed for one of two reasons: to mitigate the 'urban heat island' effect, reducing ambient temperatures and creating energy savings, or to reduce both the quantity and intensity of stormwater runoff, which is a major cause of river erosion and eutrophication. The study of green roofs in the United States has focused on commercial systems that use a proprietary expanded shale or clay substrate, along with succulent desert plants (mainly Sedum species). The green roof has the potential not only to provide thermal insulation and reduce storm runoff, but also to reclaim some of the natural habitat that has been lost to the built environment. Of special importance is the loss of habitat for pollinating insects, particularly native bees, which have been in decline for at least two decades. These pollinators are essential for crop production and for the reproduction of at least 65% of wild plants globally. Our study involves the installation of a small (4ft by 4ft), self-designed green roof system built with readily available components from a hardware store. The garden will be filled with a soilless potting mix, combined with 15% compost, and planted with grasses and wildflowers native to the Seacoast, New Hampshire region. Some of the plant species are used by bees for nesting materials, while others provide food in the form of nectar, pollen, and seeds for bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, and granivorous birds. We monitor precipitation on the roof and runoff from the garden on a per storm basis, and test grab samples of runoff for dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorous. Runoff and nutrient concentration results are compared to a non-vegetated roof surface, and a proprietary Green Grid green roof system. This project is designed to address three main questions of interest: 1) Can these native plant species, which potentially provide greater ecosystem services than Sedum spp. in the form of food and habitat, survive in the conditions on

  8. HABITAT USE BY NATIVE AND STOCKED TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN TWO NORTHEAST STREAMS, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by stocked and native brown trout (Salmo trutta L. was assessed in two headwater streams of North-eastern Portugal. Underwater observations were made during the summer season in three successive years to evaluate the effect of supplemental trout stocking. Multivariate analysis techniques applied to data sets on microhabitat use were exploited to identify the focal elevation (distance of fish from the bottom, total depth and cover as the variables that contribute most to the discrimination between stocked and native trout. Preference curves computed for native and stocked trout of the same age (1+, showed a distinct pattern in their ability to explore the available microhabitat resources. Stocked trout tended to occupy deeper pools (total depth > 100 cm vs. 60-100 cm for native trout, holding higher focal elevations (140-160 cm vs. 22.5 cm and cover (combination of boulders and overhanging vegetation or undercut banks. Furthermore, a high poststocking movement of 80% hatchery-reared fish was verified just one month after their release, suggesting that stocking did not contribute to the sustainable populations in either stream, and is far from being an adequate management technique.

  9. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baldocchi, Dennis D, E-mail: lkoteen@berkeley.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  10. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  11. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  12. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Fall 2008, Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-01

    As part of its Native American outreach, DOE?s Wind Powering America program produces a newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events. This issue features an interview with Dave Danz, a tribal planner for the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa in northeastern Minnesota, and a feature on the new turbine that powers the KILI radio station on the Pine Ridge Reservation.

  13. Biodiesel in Belgium. From rapeseed oil to used vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkmans, L.

    1997-01-01

    There are two motives for the search for alternative motor fuels: reducing the growing pressure of traffic on environment, and looking for a replacement for petrol and diesel oil that are bound to be worn-out in a few decades. A promising alternative motor fuel is biodiesel. The author's institute is involved in its second biodiesel demonstration project. In the first project RME (rapeseed methyl ester) was used undiluted in five passenger cars for two years. There were no technical problems and a clear environmental advantage was noticed. However, the price remains a problem. The use of waste vegetable oils for the production of biodiesel could help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a second biodiesel demonstration project was started in which UVOME (used vegetable oil methyl ester) is used. The preliminary results show a great similarity with the RME results and no technical problems in real life use. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  14. Uptake of uranium by native aquatic plants: potential for bioindication and phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a part the on going study on the uraniferous geochemical province of Central Portugal in which, the use of aquatic plants as indicators of uranium contamination is being probed using aquatic plants emphasizing their potential use in the emerging phytotechnologies. Even though we have observed very low concentration of U in the fresh waters of the studied sites we found a set of vegetable species with the ability to accumulate U in concentrations which are orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding environment. We have observed that Apium nodiflorum, Callitriche stagnalis, Lemna minor and Fontinalis antipyretica accumulated significant amounts of uranium, whereas Oenanthe crocata excluded U. These results indicate substantial scope for proper radiophytoremediation and phytosociological investigation exploiting the native flora. These species show great potential for phytoremediation because they are endemic and easy to grow in their native conditions. A. nodiflorum and C. stagnalis have high bioproductivity and yield good biomass.

  15. Effects of Introduced and Indigenous Viruses on Native Plants: Exploring Their Disease Causing Potential at the Agro-Ecological Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stuart J.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The ever increasing movement of viruses around the world poses a major threat to plants growing in cultivated and natural ecosystems. Both generalist and specialist viruses move via trade in plants and plant products. Their potential to damage cultivated plants is well understood, but little attention has been given to the threat such viruses pose to plant biodiversity. To address this, we studied their impact, and that of indigenous viruses, on native plants from a global biodiversity hot spot in an isolated region where agriculture is very recent (plant species, we used introduced generalist and specialist viruses, and indigenous viruses, to inoculate plants of 15 native species belonging to eight families. We also measured resulting losses in biomass and reproductive ability for some host–virus combinations. In addition, we sampled native plants growing over a wide area to increase knowledge of natural infection with introduced viruses. The results suggest that generalist introduced viruses and indigenous viruses from other hosts pose a greater potential threat than introduced specialist viruses to populations of native plants encountered for the first time. Some introduced generalist viruses infected plants in more families than others and so pose a greater potential threat to biodiversity. The indigenous viruses tested were often surprisingly virulent when they infected native plant species they were not adapted to. These results are relevant to managing virus disease in new encounter scenarios at the agro-ecological interface between managed and natural vegetation, and within other disturbed natural vegetation situations. They are also relevant for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species and avoiding spread of damaging viruses to undisturbed natural vegetation beyond the agro-ecological interface. PMID:24621926

  16. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross Black-browed—Diomedea...

  17. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  18. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  19. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  20. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    with the most urgent case, the Kyitu language, the number of whose native speakers. Bécuwe (1981: 11) estimated ... group and the other a native speaker of Kulango—and one of few specialists of the language—was believed to ... open question inquired after the origin of this multilingual situation. The responses indicated ...

  1. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  2. Genetic resources of cultivated and volunteer vegetables in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Branka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plant species and populations in the diet and agriculture, and knowledge about them, their cultivation and use, represent the biological, cultural and social heritage of the humankind. Due to favourable geographic, soil, and climate conditions, and large diversity of flora in Serbia, there is a rich tradition of vegetable use in the diet, cultivated and volunteer, autochthonous. More than 70 botanical vegetable species that are accepted for long-term preservation are mentioned nowadays in Serbia. Besides that, some plant species that are classified as industrial, medicinal and aromatic plants are being used as vegetables. Vegetables include legumes used as stewing vegetables. Serbia has three vegetable regions: lowlands (along the rivers Danube, Tisa and Sava, Moravian (along three Morava Rivers and their tributaries and mountainous (Eastern, South-eastern and Western areas, Kosovo and Metohija. In these regions, genetic resources of vegetables should be looked for in cultivated and volunteering flora of different domestic and domesticated populations developed due to adaptation to the specific abiotic and biotic factors, including breeders' selection. International and national projects have been organised in the field of preserving genetic resources of vegetables in the past, as well as nowadays in Serbia. Collected samples are stored in Plant Gene Bank of Serbia and in gene banks all over the world. Significant part is located in the collections of national institutes and faculties. Samples are described with passport data, while those in collections even in more detail. However, none of this is sufficient. In the last decades in Serbia, many populations and vegetable species have threatened to disappear. Many villages are disappearing, there are few growers of vegetables, and extinction of numerous valuable genotypes is accelerated by unfavourable weather conditions. Large number of cultivars and vegetable species that were

  3. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target plant native species from Chaco forest (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia, Ferreira María; Carolina, Torres; Enzo, Bracamonte; Leonardo, Galetto

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days. A gradient of glyphosate rates (525, 1050, 2100, 4200, and 8400g ai/Ha; recommended field application rate (RFAR) = 2100g ai/Ha) was applied on four-week seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse and response variables (phytotoxicity, growth reduction, and sensitivity to the herbicide) were measured. This gradient of herbicide rates covers realistic rates of glyphosate applications in the crop field and also those that can reach vegetation of forest relicts by off-target drift and overspray. Testing was performed following guidelines for vegetative vigour (post-germination spray). All species showed lethal or sublethal effects after the application of the 25% of RFAR (50% of species showed severe phytotoxicity or death and 70% of species showed growth reduction). The results showed a gradient of sensitivity to glyphosate by which some of the studied species are very sensitive to glyphosate and seedlings died with 25% of RFAR while other species can be classified as herbicide-tolerant. Thus, the vegetation present in the forest relicts could be strongly affected by glyphosate application on crops. Lethal and sublethal effects of glyphosate on non-target plants could promote both the loss of biodiversity in native forest relicts immersed in the agroecosystems and the selection of new crop weeds considering that some biotypes are continuously exposed to low doses of glyphosate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference

  5. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  6. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land

  7. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin; Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C. (Fishery Science Consultant, Seattle, WA); McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick (Washington Trout, Duvall, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique.

  8. Cardiovascular health: associations with race-ethnicity, nativity, and education in a diverse, population-based sample of Californians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K; Crespi, Catherine M; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R; McCarthy, William J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association. We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their U.S.-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected American Heart Association guidelines) among adults ages 25 and older (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between U.S.-born and foreign-born White, Asian, and Latino respondents. All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with greater education were generally better off except among Asian respondents. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born respondents exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared with their U.S.-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  10. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  11. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  12. When the Native Is Also a Non-Native: "Retrodicting" the Complexity of Language Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) identities on second or foreign language teachers' cognition and practices in the classroom has mainly been investigated in ESL/EFL contexts. Using complexity theory as a framework, this case study attempts to fill the gap in the literature by presenting a foreign language teacher in the…

  13. Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.

  14. 75 FR 33589 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Alaska Native-Serving and Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... toward the page limit. Use a font that is either 12 point or larger, and no smaller than 10 pitch.... If a tie remains after applying the tie-breaker mechanism above, priority will be given in the case... Strengthening Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions programs: a. The percentage change, over...

  15. Defining "Native Speaker" in Multilingual Settings: English as a Native Language in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…

  16. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native species invasions across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analy...

  17. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  18. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  19. Vegetables and other core food groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Astrid A.M.; Delahunty, Conor M.; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n =

  20. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the...