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Sample records for project entitled low-cost

  1. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  2. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The goals of this project were to implement several stabilization methods for preventing or mitigating freeze-thaw damage to : granular surfaced roads and identify the most effective and economical methods for the soil and climate conditions of Iowa....

  3. The Project Of Another Low-Cost Metaphase Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The most popular and 'gold standard' phenomenon in Biological dosimetry is the appearance of dicentric chromosomes in metaphase in white blood cells. The metaphase finder is a tool for biological dosimetry that finds metaphase cells on slide glasses. The author and a software company were using new special software that was faster than conventional systems. A Nikon Eclipse Ni-E microscope with motorised X-Y stage, 4x objective lens and 1920 x 1024 pixels colour camera for hardware were used. The software uses mathematical morphology filters. The new system was compact and low-priced. And the remarkable point is, this system can be applicable not only to human blood, but also to non-human samples. The speed was 208-236 s per 5 x 20 mm area, while capturing 378 images, which achieved the aim of the project. The false-positive ratio achieved below 5% in some slides. (author)

  4. A low-cost and portable realization on fringe projection three-dimensional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Fringe projection three-dimensional measurement is widely applied in a wide range of industrial application. The traditional fringe projection system has the disadvantages of high expense, big size, and complicated calibration requirements. In this paper we introduce a low-cost and portable realization on three-dimensional measurement with Pico projector. It has the advantages of low cost, compact physical size, and flexible configuration. For the proposed fringe projection system, there is no restriction to camera and projector's relative alignment on parallelism and perpendicularity for installation. Moreover, plane-based calibration method is adopted in this paper that avoids critical requirements on calibration system such as additional gauge block or precise linear z stage. What is more, error sources existing in the proposed system are introduced in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed low cost and portable fringe projection system.

  5. Project-based physics labs using low-cost open-source hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, F.; Bobroff, J.; Fuchs-Gallezot, M.; Maurines, L.

    2017-03-01

    We describe a project-based physics lab, which we proposed to third-year university students. These labs are based on new open-source low-cost equipment (Arduino microcontrollers and compatible sensors). Students are given complete autonomy: they develop their own experimental setup and study the physics topic of their choice. The goal of these projects is to let students to discover the reality of experimental physics. Technical specifications of the acquisition material and case studies are presented for practical implementation in other universities.

  6. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  7. Opportunities for low-cost CO2 storage demonstration projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Kyle C.; Williams, Robert H.; Celia, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Several CO 2 storage demonstration projects are needed in a variety of geological formations worldwide to prove the viability of CO 2 capture and storage as a major option for climate change mitigation. China has several low-cost CO 2 sources at sites that produce NH 3 from coal via gasification. At these plants, CO 2 generated in excess of the amount needed for other purposes (e.g., urea synthesis) is vented as a relatively pure stream. These CO 2 sources would potentially be economically interesting candidates for storage demonstration projects if there are suitable storage sites nearby. In this study a survey was conducted to estimate CO 2 availability at modern Chinese coal-fed ammonia plants. Results indicate that annual quantities of available, relatively pure CO 2 per site range from 0.6 to 1.1 million tonnes. The CO 2 source assessment was complemented by analysis of possible nearby opportunities for CO 2 storage. CO 2 sources were mapped in relation to China's petroliferous sedimentary basins where prospective CO 2 storage reservoirs possibly exist. Four promising pairs of sources and sinks were identified. Project costs for storage in deep saline aquifers were estimated for each pairing ranging from $15-21/t of CO 2 . Potential enhanced oil recovery and enhanced coal bed methane recovery opportunities near each prospective source were also considered

  8. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  9. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  10. Project Minerva: A low-cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Anderson, Hobie; Caviezel, Kelly; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hamling, Steven; Johnson, Bryan; Kalberer, Martin; Machula, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface, using only two sets of two launches. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the senario originally proposed by R. Zubrin of Martin Marietta. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low earth orbit (LEO): one consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles, and the second consists of the upper stage/trans-Mars injection (TMI) booster. In LEO, the two payloads are joined and inserted into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis-type process to combine six tons of hydrogen brought from earth with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce 100 tons of liquid oxygen and methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. Once the in-situ propellant production is completed, approximately two years after the first set of launches, the manned portion of the mission leaves earth. This set of two launches is similar to that of the unmanned vehicles; the two payloads are the Manned Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and the upper stage/TMI booster. The MTV contains the manned rover and the habitat which houses the astronauts enroute to Mars and on the Martian surface. During the 180-day trip to Mars, artificial gravity is created by tethering the MTV to the TMI booster and inducing rotation. Upon arrival the MTV performs aerobraking maneuvers to land near the fully-fueled ERV, which will be used by the crew a year and a half later to return to earth. The mission entails moderate travel times with relatively low-energy conjunction-class trajectories and allows ample time for scientific

  11. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomes, John J; Finlayson, Chris E

    2016-01-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values. (paper)

  12. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, John J.; Finlayson, Chris E.

    2016-09-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values.

  13. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  14. Product platform considerations on a project that develops sustainable low-cost housing for townships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael; Bonev, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    Construction companies in Denmark are often working with profit margins as little as 1-3% in situations where they deliver high-end buildings to the local market. Even though customers are willing to pay a premium price for high quality, construction companies earn very little on their products...... their new owners the possibility to take a loan in their building which is expected to contribute to more businesses being started up and thereby strengthening the domestic economy. As a consequence of this, additional research is needed in how to further optimize the economy of sustainable low-cost housing...

  15. The use of low cost compact cameras with focus stacking functionality in entomological digitization projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mertens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Digitization of specimen collections has become a key priority of many natural history museums. The camera systems built for this purpose are expensive, providing a barrier in institutes with limited funding, and therefore hampering progress. An assessment is made on whether a low cost compact camera with image stacking functionality can help expedite the digitization process in large museums or provide smaller institutes and amateur entomologists with the means to digitize their collections. Images of a professional setup were compared with the Olympus Stylus TG-4 Tough, a low-cost compact camera with internal focus stacking functions. Parameters considered include image quality, digitization speed, price, and ease-of-use. The compact camera’s image quality, although inferior to the professional setup, is exceptional considering its fourfold lower price point. Producing the image slices in the compact camera is a matter of seconds and when optimal image quality is less of a priority, the internal stacking function omits the need for dedicated stacking software altogether, further decreasing the cost and speeding up the process. In general, it is found that, aware of its limitations, this compact camera is capable of digitizing entomological collections with sufficient quality. As technology advances, more institutes and amateur entomologists will be able to easily and affordably catalogue their specimens.

  16. Learning Based on the Project Entitled "Design and Construction of a Wooden Bridge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barris, Cristina; Torres, Lluís; Simon, Enric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a case involving the application of project-based learning carried out with students in the Mechanical Engineering degree program at the University of Girona. The project, entitled "Design and construction of a wooden bridge", was conducted at the Polytechnic School in the third-year Structures…

  17. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  18. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 12, January-April 1979 and proceedings of the 12th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period January through April 1979. It includes reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. It includes a report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held April 4-5, 1979.

  19. Multiobjective optimization applied to structural sizing of low cost university-class microsatellite projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Franchini, Sebastián

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, there has been continuing interest in the participation of university research groups in space technology studies by means of their own microsatellites. The involvement in such projects has some inherent challenges, such as limited budget and facilities. Also, due to the fact that the main objective of these projects is for educational purposes, usually there are uncertainties regarding their in orbit mission and scientific payloads at the early phases of the project. On the other hand, there are predetermined limitations for their mass and volume budgets owing to the fact that most of them are launched as an auxiliary payload in which the launch cost is reduced considerably. The satellite structure subsystem is the one which is most affected by the launcher constraints. This can affect different aspects, including dimensions, strength and frequency requirements. In this paper, the main focus is on developing a structural design sizing tool containing not only the primary structures properties as variables but also the system level variables such as payload mass budget and satellite total mass and dimensions. This approach enables the design team to obtain better insight into the design in an extended design envelope. The structural design sizing tool is based on analytical structural design formulas and appropriate assumptions including both static and dynamic models of the satellite. Finally, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) multiobjective optimization is applied to the design space. The result is a Pareto-optimal based on two objectives, minimum satellite total mass and maximum payload mass budget, which gives a useful insight to the design team at the early phases of the design.

  20. (abstract) Science-Project Interaction in the Low-Cost Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Large, complex, and highly optimized missions have performed most of the preliminary reconnaisance of the solar system. As a result we have now mapped significant fractions of its total surface (or surface-equivalent) area. Now, however, scientific exploration of the solar system is undergoing a major change in scale, and existing missions find it necessary to limit costs while fulfilling existing goals. In the future, NASA's Discovery program will continue the reconnaisance, exploration, and diagnostic phases of planetary research using lower cost missions, which will include lower cost mission operations systems (MOS). Historically, one of the more expensive functions of MOS has been its interaction with the science community. Traditional MOS elements that this interaction have embraced include mission planning, science (and engineering) event conflict resolution, sequence optimization and integration, data production (e.g., assembly, enhancement, quality assurance, documentation, archive), and other science support services. In the past, the payoff from these efforts has been that use of mission resources has been highly optimized, constraining resources have been generally completely consumed, and data products have been accurate and well documented. But because these functions are expensive we are now challenged to reduce their cost while preserving the benefits. In this paper, we will consider ways of revising the traditional MOS approach that might save project resources while retaining a high degree of service to the Projects' customers. Pre-launch, science interaction can be made simplier by limiting numbers of instruments and by providing greater redundancy in mission plans. Post launch, possibilities include prioritizing data collection into a few categories, easing requirements on real-time of quick-look data delivery, and closer integration of scientists into the mission operation.

  1. Final Report for Project titled High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Alahyari, Abbas [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Heat exchangers (HXs) are critical components in a wide range of heat transfer applications, from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Cooling) to automobiles to manufacturing plants. They require materials capable of transferring heat at high rates while also minimizing thermal expansion over the usage temperature range. Conventionally, metals are used for applications where effective and efficient heat exchange is required, since many metals exhibit thermal conductivity over 100 W/m K. While metal HXs are constantly being improved, they still have some inherent drawbacks due to their metal construction, in particular corrosion. Polymeric material can offer solution to such durability issues and allow designs that cannot be afforded by metal construction either due to complexity or cost. A major drawback of polymeric material is their low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5? W/mK) that would lead to large system size. Recent improvements in the area of filled polymers have highlighted the possibility to greatly improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials while retaining their inherent manufacturing advantage, and have been applied to heat sink applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a robust review of materials for the manufacturing of industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. This review consisted of material identification, literature evaluation, as well as empirical and model characterization, resulting in a database of relevant material properties and characteristics to provide guidance for future heat exchanger development.

  2. Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Clayton

    1980-12-01

    The initial contract was a Phase II Process Development for a process sequence, but with concentration on two particular process steps: laserscribing and spray-on junction formation. The add-on portion of the contract was to further develop these tasks, to incorporate spray-on of AR Coating and aluminum and to study the application of microwave energy to solar cell fabrication. The overall process cost projection is 97.918 cents/Wp. The major contributor to this excess cost is the module encapsulation materials cost. During the span of this contract the study of microwave application to solar cell fabrication produced the ability to apply this technique to any requirement of 600/sup 0/C or less. Above this temperature, non-uniformity caused the processing to be unreliable. The process sequence is described in detail, and a SAMICS cost analysis for each valid process step studied is presented. A temporary catalog for expense items is included, and engineering specifications for the process steps are given. (WHK)

  3. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  4. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.

  5. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  6. Silicon materials task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project: Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M. H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of impurities and processing on the characteristics of silicon and terrestrial silicon solar cells were defined in order to develop cost benefit relationships for the use of cheaper, less pure solar grades of silicon. The amount of concentrations of commonly encountered impurities that can be tolerated in typical p or n base solar cells was established, then a preliminary analytical model from which the cell performance could be projected depending on the kinds and amounts of contaminants in the silicon base material was developed. The impurity data base was expanded to include construction materials, and the impurity performace model was refined to account for additional effects such as base resistivity, grain boundary interactions, thermal processing, synergic behavior, and nonuniform impurity distributions. A preliminary assessment of long term (aging) behavior of impurities was also undertaken.

  7. Final Project Report for DOE/EERE High-Capacity and Low-Cost Hydrogen-Storage Sorbents for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hong-Cai [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Liu, Di-Jia [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report provides a review of the objectives, progress, and milestones of the research conducted during this project on the topic of developing innovative metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic polymers (POPs) for high-capacity and low-cost hydrogen-storage sorbents in automotive applications.1 The objectives of the proposed research were to develop new materials as next-generation hydrogen storage sorbents that meet or exceed DOE’s 2017 performance targets of gravimetric capacity of 0.055 kg H2/kgsystem and volumetric capacity of 0.040 kg H2/Lsystem at a cost of $400/kg H2 stored. Texas A&M University (TAMU) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated in developing low-cost and high-capacity hydrogen-storage sorbents with appropriate stability, sorption kinetics, and thermal conductivity. The research scope and methods developed to achieve the project’s goals include the following: Advanced ligand design and synthesis to construct MOF sorbents with optimal hydrogen storage capacities, low cost and high stability; Substantially improve the hydrogen uptake capacity and chemical stability of MOF-based sorbents by incorporating high valent metal ions during synthesis or through the post-synthetic metal metathesis oxidation approach; Enhance sorbent storage capacity through material engineering and characterization; Generate a better understanding of the H2-sorbent interaction through advanced characterization and simulation. Over the course of the project 5 different MOFs were developed and studied: PCN-250, PCN-12, PCN-12’, PCN-608 and PCN-609.2-3 Two different samples were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in order to validate their hydrogen adsorption capacity, PCN-250 and PCN-12. Neither of these samples reached the project’s Go/No-Go requirements but the data obtained did further prove the hypothesis that the presence of open metal

  8. SmallSats, Iodine Propulsion Technology, Applications to Low-Cost Lunar Missions, and the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.

  9. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  10. Final Progress Report for Project Entitled: Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bartl, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reimus, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mella, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-12

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new class of tracers that offer great promise for use in characterizing fracture networks in EGS reservoirs. From laboratory synthesis and testing through numerical modeling and field demonstrations, we have demonstrated the amazing versatility and applicability of quantum dot tracers. This report summarizes the results of four years of research into the design, synthesis, and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) for use as geothermal tracers.

  11. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  12. STTR Phase 1 Final Technical Report for Project Entitled "Developing a Mobile Torrefaction Machine"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Joseph J. [President, ATP

    2014-03-11

    The goal of this project, sponsored by Agri-Tech Producers, LLC (ATP), the small business grantee, was to determine if the torrefaction technology, developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU), which ATP has licensed, could be feasibly deployed in a mobile unit. The study adds to the area investigated, by having ATP’s STTR Phase I team give thoughtful consideration to how to use NCSU’s technology in a mobile unit. The findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology would best perform in units 30’ by 80’ (See Spec Sheet for the Torre-Tech 5.0 Unit in the Appendix) and the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility investigation suggested that such units were not easily, efficiently or safely utilized in a forest or farm setting. (Note rendering of possible mobile system in the Appendix) Therefore, the findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology could not feasibly be deployed as a mobile unit.

  13. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  14. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Phase 2. Annual technical report, September 20, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang S.; Jones, Gregory T.; Allison, Kimberly L.

    1978-01-01

    This program was conducted to develop and demonstrate those solar cells and module process steps which have the technological readiness or capability to achieve the 1986 LSA goals. Results are reported. Seventeen process groups were investigated. Very promising results were achieved. A laserscribe computer program was developed. It demonstrated that silicon solar cells could be trimmed and holed by laser without causing mechanical defects (i.e., microcracks) nor any major degradation in solar cell electrical performance. The silicon wafer surface preparation task demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput texturizing process readily adaptable to automation. Performance verification tests of a laser scanning system showed a limited capability to detect hidden cracks or defects in solar cells. A general review of currently available thick film printing equipment provided the indication that state-of-the-art technology can adequately transform the capability of current printing machines to the elevated rate of 7200 wafers per hour. The LFE System 8000 silicon nitride plasma deposition system with the inclusion of minor equipment modifications was shown to be consistent with the 1986 LSA pricing goals. The performance verification test of the silicon nitride A.R. coating process provided the result that texturized, A.R. coated solar cells display a 14.1% improvement in electrical performance over identical solar cells without an A.R. coating. A new electroless nickel plating system was installed and demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput process readily adaptable to automation. A multiple wafer dipping method was investigated and operational parameters defined. A flux removal method consisting of a three stage D.I. water cascade rinse system with ultrasonic agitator was found to be very promising. Also, a SAMICS cost analysis was performed. (WHK)

  15. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  16. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  17. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  18. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  19. Low cost nuclear data printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachiya, S.; Aungkultewaraksa, S.; Pengphol, S.

    1988-01-01

    The data printer is essential for nuclear radiation measuring system. A low cost nuclear data printer is developed from an electronic printing calculator. It can transfer the counting data from scaler and printout. The basic concept is that the BCD data is transferred and converted to decimal data sequentially by the interfacing circuit. After the counting time is ended, each digit is transferred to the printing calculator by data bus, digit by digit, until all the data are transferred and printed out. The low cost nuclear data printer consists of a CASIO model HR-8 electronic printing calculator and a printer interface model either NT 2602 or NT 2603 which are designed for printing out 6 digit data from the counter/timer CANBERRA model 1772. In this research the NT 2602 interface is designed only to transfer and printing out data. While the NT 2603 interface is designed to transfer, print out and average data. The NT 2603 can average from 2 to 9 sets of counting data. This data interfacing technique can be applied to work with all scientific instruments having readout as digital display and all kinds of electronic printing calculator

  20. Fabrication of large-volume, low-cost ceramic lanthanum halide scintillators for gamma ray detection : final report for DHS/DNDO/TRDD project TA-01-SL01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Yang, Pin; Chen, Ching-Fong; Sanchez, Margaret R.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2008-10-01

    This project uses advanced ceramic processes to fabricate large, optical-quality, polycrystalline lanthanum halide scintillators to replace small single crystals produced by the conventional Bridgman growth method. The new approach not only removes the size constraint imposed by the growth method, but also offers the potential advantages of both reducing manufacturing cost and increasing production rate. The project goal is to fabricate dense lanthanum halide ceramics with a preferred crystal orientation by applying texture engineering and solid-state conversion to reduce the thermal mechanical stress in the ceramic and minimize scintillation light scattering at grain boundaries. Ultimately, this method could deliver the sought-after high sensitivity and <3% energy resolution at 662 keV of lanthanum halide scintillators and unleash their full potential for advanced gamma ray detection, enabling rapid identification of radioactive materials in a variety of practical applications. This report documents processing details from powder synthesis, seed particle growth, to final densification and texture development of cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3}) ceramics. This investigation demonstrated that: (1) A rapid, flexible, cost efficient synthesis method of anhydrous lanthanum halides and their solid solutions was developed. Several batches of ultrafine LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3} powder, free of oxyhalide, were produced by a rigorously controlled process. (2) Micron size ({approx} 5 {micro}m), platelet shape LaBr{sub 3} seed particles of high purity can be synthesized by a vapor phase transport process. (3) High aspect-ratio seed particles can be effectively aligned in the shear direction in the ceramic matrix, using a rotational shear-forming process. (4) Small size, highly translucent LaBr{sub 3} (0.25-inch diameter, 0.08-inch thick) samples were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular consolidation process. (5) Large size, high density

  1. Implementation of online volatile fatty acids sensor for control and optimization of anaerobic process for low cost biogas production from manure. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.; Angelidaki, I.

    2010-10-15

    Proper monitoring and control can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) is the most widely recognized as a direct, relevant measure of stability. Classic on-line measurement of individual VFA is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling when applied with manure slurries. A VFA sensor developed at DTU Environment, based on headspace chromatography technique could avoid the problems from particulate matters. In this work, the sensor had been implemented for online monitoring of the lab-scale and the pilot-scale manure digester. The industrial prototype of the VFA sensor and sample acquisition system has been constructed and implemented at a pilot scale biogas plant, located at Lundtofte, DTU. The VFA sensor has shown very satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring the biogas process. Moreover, the online VFA and biogas registration data were used as process indicators for automatic control of the biogas reactor. The results from control experiments confirmed that the combination of biogas production, total VFA concentration and propionate concentration could effectively reflect the dynamic state of the process which was very crucial for automatic control. Due to the standardized analyzing condition (pH<2, temperature>70 deg. C), the sensor responses were not affected by the manure composition (TS, VS or the addition of extra organics), which made these results representative for implementing in the full-scale biogas plant where some industrial organic wastes were added to increase the biogas production. During the project period, the sensor design and construction had been modified and tested several times to improve the robustness. However, the implementation of the sensor in full-scale biogas plant would need some further development such as improvement of mechanical design and further up-scaling depending on the dry solid content in the

  2. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  3. Auctioning payment entitlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Payment entitlements is a new commodity that arises from the new European common agricultural policy. The agricultural subsidies are decoupled from the actual production and replaced by the so-called payment entitlements. A payment entitlement has a farm specific value and may be freely traded. T...

  4. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  5. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  6. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  7. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  8. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources. PMID:29382039

  9. PEM Low Cost Endplates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Martin; Clyens, S.; Steenstrup, F.R.; Christiansen, Jens [Danish Technological Institute. Plastics Technology, Taastrup (Denmark); Yde-Andersen, S. [IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In the project, an endplate for the PEM-type fuel cells has been developed. The initial idea was to use an injection mouldable fibre reinforced polymer to produce the endplate and thereby exploit the opportunities of greater geometrical freedom to reduce weight and material consumption. Different PPS/glass-fibre compounds were produced and tested in order to use the results to optimize the results on the computer through FEM simulations. As it turned out, it was impossible to achieve adequate stiffness for the endplates within the given geometrical limitations. At the relatively high temperatures at which the endplates operate the material simply goes to soft. Material focus shifted to fibre reinforced high strength concrete composite. Test specimens were produced and tested so the results again could be used for FEM-simulations which also accounted for the technical limitations the concrete composite has regarding casting ability. In the process, the way the endplate is mounted was also alternated to better accommodate the properties of the concrete composite. A number of endplates were cast in specially produced moulds in order to map the optimum process parameters, and a final endplate was tested at IRD Fuel Cells A/S. The field test was in many aspects successful. However, the gas sealing and the surface finish can be further improved. The weight may still be an issue for some applications, even though it is lower than the endplate currently used. This issue can be addressed in a future project. The work has resulted in a new endplate design, which makes the stack assembly simpler and with fewer components. The endplates fabrication involves low cost methods, which can be scaled up as demand of fuel cells begin to take off. (Author)

  10. Measurement of Psychological Entitlement in 28 Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M.; Piotrowski, J.; Cieciuch, J.; Calogero, R.M.; Van Hiel, A.; Argentero, P.; Baltatescu, S.; Baran, T.; Bardhwaj, G.; Bukowski, M.; Chargazia, M.; Clinton, A.; Halik, M.H.; Ilisko, D.; Khachatryan, N.; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav; Kovacs, M.; Letovancova, E.; Liik, K.; Marganski, A.; Michałowski, J.; Nord, I.; Paspalanova, E.; de Leon, P.P.; Techera, J.; Rojas, M.; Różycka, J.; Sawicka, A.; Seibt, B.; Semkiv, I.; Tiliouine, H.; Truong, H.K.; Van den Bos, K.; Wills-Herrera, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 207-217 ISSN 1015-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : psychological entitlement * Entitlement Attitudes Questionnaire * cross-cultural research * measurement invariance Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.328, year: 2016 http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10.1027/1015-5759/a000286

  11. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST CAMERA FOR AGING ACCELERATED POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Duarte Felisbino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the design, construction and testing of a low cost chamber for accelerated aging of polymers that meets a low and high ultraviolet radiation cycle on the test specimens in accordance with ASTM G154. The methodology was based on the survey of the standards related to the tests of accelerated aging of polymers and of the existing equipment, providing the subsidies for the development of the project, which was validated by the construction and evaluation of its performance. The camera control is performed by an Arduino-based electronic system and uses commercially available components that meet project specifications. The equipment met the requirements for both the specifications and the low cost and will integrate the laboratories of the University of Mogi das Cruzes (UMC, Villa-Lobos campus, to carry out tests on polymer materials.

  13. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  14. Design of low cost glaucoma screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A. G.; Langerhorst, C. T.; Geijssen, H. C.; Greve, E. L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991 the Netherlands Glaucoma Patient Association organized a glaucoma screening survey. This survey was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low cost screening setting. During a screening period of 8 days, 1259 subjects over the age of 49 years were examined by a team of

  15. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  16. Low-cost high purity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  17. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  18. low-cost apparatus from locally available materials for teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    twofold: i) to design and produce appropriate low cost apparatus from locally .... How are the low-cost and manufactured apparatus compared in terms of cost and efficiency? ... BASIC TOOLS FOR THE LOW COST APPARATUS PRODUCTION.

  19. Low-cost silicon wafer dicing using a craft cutter

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2014-05-20

    This paper reports a low-cost silicon wafer dicing technique using a commercial craft cutter. The 4-inch silicon wafers were scribed using a crafter cutter with a mounted diamond blade. The pre-programmed automated process can reach a minimum die feature of 3 mm by 3 mm. We performed this scribing process on the top polished surface of a silicon wafer; we also created a scribing method for the back-unpolished surface in order to protect the structures on the wafer during scribing. Compared with other wafer dicing methods, our proposed dicing technique is extremely low cost (lower than $1,000), and suitable for silicon wafer dicing in microelectromechanical or microfluidic fields, which usually have a relatively large die dimension. The proposed dicing technique is also usable for dicing multiple project wafers, a process where dies of different dimensions are diced on the same wafer.

  20. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  1. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

  2. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Li; Yu Lixin; Peng Heping; Zhuang Wei

    2015-01-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies. (paper)

  3. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  4. THE MARKETING MIX FOR LOW COST HEALTHCARE

    OpenAIRE

    Julie George; Dr. Manita D. Shah

    2017-01-01

    The Indian health care industry has a history of dealing with poor doctor-patient ratio, shortage of medical professionals, poor health infrastructure, and low expenditure on healthcare information technology; steep out of pocket spending (OOP), low health insurance coverage, inadequate government spending, poor access to health care facilities and social stigma related to diseases. The unique mindset and ability for frugality has successfully been applied in offering low cost healthcare of u...

  5. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  6. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, L; Insabella, M [LADOP, University of Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bilbao, L [INFIP, University of Buenos Aires and CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-06-19

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emission from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using pressurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  7. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, L; Insabella, M; Bilbao, L

    2012-01-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emission from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using pressurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  8. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  9. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  11. Hidden costs of low-cost screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrlak, D.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred women in Orange County, California, took part in a low-cost mammography screening project sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the KCBS-TV. Patients were followed up by telephone and questioned about actual costs incurred as a result of screening mammography, including costs of repeated and follow-up mammograms, US examinations and surgical consultations. The total number of biopsies, cancers found, and the costs involved were investigated. The authors' results suggest that particularly in centers with a high positive call rate, the cost of screening mammograms accounts for only a small proportion of the medical costs

  12. Low cost sic coated erosion resistant graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.F.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of materials with unique and improved properties using low cost processes is essential to increase performance and reduce cost of the solid rocket motors. Specifically advancements are needed for boost phase nozzle. As these motors operate at very high pressure and temperatures, the nozzle must survive high thermal stresses with minimal erosion to maintain performance. Currently three material choices are being exploited; which are refractory metals, graphite and carbon-carbon composites. Of these three materials graphite is the most attractive choice because of its low cost, light weight, and easy forming. However graphite is prone to erosion, both chemical and mechanical, which may affect the ballistic conditions and mechanical properties of the nozzle. To minimize this erosion high density graphite is usually preferred; which is again very expensive. Another technique used to minimize the erosion is Pyrolytic Graphite (PG) coating inside the nozzle. However PG coating is prone to cracking and spallation along with very cumbersome deposition process. Another possible methodology to avoid this erosion is to convert the inside surface of the rocket nozzle to Silicon Carbide (SiC), which is very erosion resistant and have much better thermal stability compared to graphite and even PG. Due to its functionally gradient nature such a layer will be very adherent and resistant to spallation. The current research is focused on synthesizing, characterizing and oxidation testing of such a converted SiC layer on commercial grade graphite. (author)

  13. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, A.; Barlas, E.; Emirhan, E.; Kutlu, Ç.; Ozben, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the 222 Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  14. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  15. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  16. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  17. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  18. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  19. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-27

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in <80 Hz data acquisition in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  20. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  1. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI's previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

  2. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    due to changes in the environmental conditions. Currently there is a lack of testing to ensure adequate sensor performance prior to marketing such instruments. Even when manufacturers provide detailed specification sheets, there is little guarantee that the specifications can actually be met in real-world conditions. Data quality is a pertinent concern, especially when citizens are collecting and interpreting the data by themselves. Poor or unknown data quality can lead to incorrect or inappropriate decisions. We present the experiences gained within the EU project CITI-SENSE, where low-cost sensors are one of the tools employed to empower citizens in air quality issues.

  3. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  4. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  5. Low-cost universal stereoscopic virtual reality interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Michael R.

    1993-09-01

    Low cost stereoscopic virtual reality hardware interfacing with nearly any computer and stereoscopic software running on any PC is described. Both are user configurable for serial or parallel ports. Stereo modeling, rendering, and interaction via gloves or 6D mice are provided. Low cost LCD Visors and external interfaces represent a breakthrough in convenience and price/performance. A complete system with software, Visor, interface and Power Glove is under $DOL500. StereoDrivers will interface with any system giving video sync (e.g., G of RGB). PC3D will access any standard serial port, while PCVR works with serial or parallel ports and glove devices. Model RF Visors detect magnetic fields and require no connection to the system. PGSI is a microprocessor control for the Power Glove and Visors. All interfaces will operate to 120 Hz with Model G Visors. The SpaceStations are demultiplexing, field doubling devices which convert field sequential video or graphics for stereo display with dual video projection or dual LCD SpaceHelmets.

  6. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  7. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  8. Low cost highly available digital control computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    When designing digital controllers for critical plant control it is important to provide several features. Among these are reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental protection, and low cost. An examination of several applications has lead to a design that can be produced for approximately $20,000 (1000 control points). This design is compatible with modern concepts in distributed and hierarchical control. The canonical controller element is a dual-redundant self-checking computer that communicates with a cross-strapped, electrically isolated input/output system. The input/output subsystem comprises multiple intelligent input/output cards. These cards accept commands from the primary processor which are validated, executed, and acknowledged. Each card may be hot replaced to facilitate sparing. The implementation of the dual-redundant computer architecture is discussed. Called the FS-86, this computer can be used for a variety of applications. It has most recently found application in the upgrade of San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train control currently in progress and has been proposed for feedwater control in a boiling water reactor

  9. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  10. Silicon Ingot Casting - Heat Exchanger Method (HEM). Multi-Wire Slicing - Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (Fast). Phase 4 Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Sheet Task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.

    1981-01-01

    The crystallinity of large HEM silicon ingots as a function of heat flow conditions is investigated. A balanced heat flow at the bottom of the ingot restricts spurious nucleation to the edge of the melted-back seed in contact with the crucible. Homogeneous resistivity distribution over all the ingot has been achieved. The positioning of diamonds electroplated on wirepacks used to slice silicon crystals is considered. The electroplating of diamonds on only the cutting edge is described and the improved slicing performance of these wires evaluated. An economic analysis of value added costs of HEM ingot casting and band saw sectioning indicates the projected add on cost of HEM is well below the 1986 allocation.

  11. Academic entitlement in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M

    2012-12-12

    The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students' attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students.

  12. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  13. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs.

  14. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, B.; Bramwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG and E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California

  15. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitledLow Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  16. Low-cost sensors to monitor groundwater drought in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one

  17. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  18. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  19. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  20. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  1. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  2. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  3. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  4. Research and development of a low cost expandable grid-linked inverter system: PG2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakin, R.A.

    2000-07-01

    The overall aim of the project was to research and develop an inverter for use in the conversion of solar energy into mains electricity, which is low-cost in volume manufacture and flexible in terms of expendability to meet different power level needs. (author)

  5. A low cost liquid metal reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Anderson, C.A.; Mangus, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A new, compact Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) plant arrangement designed by Westinghouse, featuring factory-fabricated modules and an integrated fuel cycle facility, has made it possible to project a commercially competitive LMR plant for the near future. This innovative liquid metal-cooled plant design will allow a combination of capital, fuel, operation and maintenance costs that could be lower than today's fossil-fueled or light water reactor plant costs, and incorporate features which enhance public safety even beyond current high standards. Following early core loadings, the plant feeds only on depleted uranium. No shipment of fuel is required. And the plant can be tailored to produce enough plutonium to meet its need or to provide fuel for other nuclear plants

  6. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  7. Low-Cost IoT: A Holistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ciuffoletti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable: an initial financial support may induce dependencies from technologies that become unsustainable in the long period. In addition, the initial adoption of an emerging technology that fails to affirm may jeopardize investment return. This paper investigates a smart-village use case, the success of which strongly depends on the initial cost and scalability, exploring a low-cost way for Internet of Things (IoT. We propose a simple conceptual framework for cost evaluation, and we verify its effectiveness with an exhaustive use case: a prototype sensor designed and tested with its surrounding eco-system. Using experimental results, we can estimate both performance and cost for a pilot system made of fifty sensors deployed in an urban area. We show that such cost grows linearly with system size, taking advantage of widely adopted technologies. The code and the design of the prototype are available, so that all steps are reproducible.

  8. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  9. A Low Cost Mechatronics Device for STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Larry Eugene, Jr.

    All of the low-cost STEM education devices currently available are limited in function which limits learning. The motivation was to design and develop a device that will intrigue post-secondary students to learn STEM education concepts in a hands-on manner. The device needed to be open source so as to lower the cost to make it available to more students. And, making it feature rich was important for use with multiple projects the students may encounter or build themselves as they grow. The device has provided visual and physical feedback to students making the device more intriguing to use. Using the open-source C compiler reduced cost for students to use the device and taught them how to use an industry standard programming language. Students enjoyed the WAV file rendering for sound effects and LED lighting effects from the device. Most interviewees were intrigued by the device for use in their training facilities and classrooms. There are a couple of multi-axis controllers available but none with position feedback. Ethernet or Bluetooth interfacing was mentioned as a future feature and it was encouraged by nearly all who were interviewed.

  10. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  11. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  12. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  13. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  14. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian

    2003-01-01

    .... EKOS has developed a novel activated carbon fiber - (ACF) that combines the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical agents...

  15. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  16. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  17. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  18. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2 ... commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  19. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    tanning, metallurgical operation and manufacturing have led to the release ... pulmonary fibrosis and inhibit many enzymatic functions. (Liphadzi ... sector is a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal but has ... as its economic value is less. The aim ...

  20. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.

    1982-01-01

    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  1. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  2. Low-Cost Production of Photonic Bandgap Materials Through Bubbling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Wetzel, Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... This report proposes a simple low-cost method for PBGM production. A device has been constructed that produces micrometer-sized, monodisperse bubbles that can be assembled into a crystal lattice by surface tension...

  3. development of low-cost educational materials for chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    development of low-cost Chemistry materials from locally available materials. It finally lists the ... According to the World Bank discussion paper (3) large investments have been made to improve the .... official language in Ethiopia) and English.

  4. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  5. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  6. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  8. Feasibility of a low-cost sounding rockoon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam; Raurell, Daniel Sors; Mitre, Alberto Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses and simulations for the design of a small sounding platform, dedicated to conducting scientific atmospheric research and capable of reaching the von Kármán line by means of a rocket launched from it. While recent private initiatives have opted for the air launch concept to send small payloads to Low Earth Orbit, several historical projects considered the use of balloons as the first stage of orbital and suborbital platforms, known as rockoons. Both of these approaches enable the minimization of drag losses. This paper addresses the issue of utilizing stratospheric balloons as launch platforms to conduct sub-orbital rocket flights. Research and simulations have been conducted to demonstrate these capabilities and feasibility. A small sounding solid propulsion rocket using commercially-off-the-shelf hardware is proposed. Its configuration and design are analyzed with special attention given to the propulsion system and its possible mission-orientated optimization. The cost effectiveness of this approach is discussed. Performance calculation outcomes are shown. Additionally, sensitivity study results for different design parameters are given. Minimum mass rocket configurations for various payload requirements are presented. The ultimate aim is to enhance low-cost experimentation maintaining high mobility of the system and simplicity of operations. An easier and more affordable access to a space-like environment can be achieved with this system, thus allowing for widespread outreach of space science and technology knowledge. This project is based on earlier experience of the authors in LEEM Association of the Technical University of Madrid and the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program developed at the Institute of Aviation and Warsaw University of Technology in Poland.

  9. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Tools: From Research to Practice (A Workshop Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In May 2017, a two-day workshop was held in Los Angeles (California, U.S.A. to gather practitioners who work with low-cost sensors used to make air quality measurements. The community of practice included individuals from academia, industry, non-profit groups, community-based organizations, and regulatory agencies. The group gathered to share knowledge developed from a variety of pilot projects in hopes of advancing the collective knowledge about how best to use low-cost air quality sensors. Panel discussion topics included: (1 best practices for deployment and calibration of low-cost sensor systems, (2 data standardization efforts and database design, (3 advances in sensor calibration, data management, and data analysis and visualization, and (4 lessons learned from research/community partnerships to encourage purposeful use of sensors and create change/action. Panel discussions summarized knowledge advances and project successes while also highlighting the questions, unresolved issues, and technological limitations that still remain within the low-cost air quality sensor arena.

  10. Low-Cost, High-Throughput 3-D Pulmonary Imager Using Hyperpolarized Contrast Agents and Low-Field MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    low- cost and high-throughput was a key element proposed for this project, which we believe will be of significant benefit to the patients suffering...Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0272 TITLE: Low- Cost , High-Throughput 3-D Pulmonary Imager Using Hyperpolarized Contrast Agents and Low-Field MRI...STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s

  11. Digital Image Quantitative Evaluations for Low Cost Film Digitizers Height Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin; Ahmad Nasir Yusof; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2016-01-01

    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) technology contributes significant improvement to the quality of industrial products, and the integrity of equipment and plants. Introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on the traditional nuclear based NDT technology. Demand for faster, reliable, low cost, and flexible technology is rapidly increased. With the growing demand for more efficient digital archiving, digital image analysis, and reporting results with a low cost technology, one cannot deny the importance of having another cheaper solution. This project will apply fundamental principle of image digitization to be used in building up a low cost film digitization solution. The height of the film digitization was carefully determined by examining each digital images produced. Three (3) repetitive quantitative evaluations (Modulation Transfer Function [MTF], Characteristic Transfer Curve [CTC], and Contrast to Noise Ratio [CNR]) were performed at different condition to assist with the determination of the low cost film digitizers height. All 3 evaluations were successfully applied and the most appropriate height was successfully determined. (author)

  12. Xpider: Design and Development of a Low Cost VTOL UAV Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Higuera Rincon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the Xpider project is to analyse, design and develop a low-cost VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle platform in order to provide a common architectural model for both embedded software and GCS (Ground Control Station software and communications system. This architectural model should be adaptable to any other hardware platforms or sensors. Some of the key points of the project were, on the one hand, the stabilization process using low-cost sensors and all the associated issues with low quality instruments, on the other hand the interface between the stabilization controller and the navigation controller, not forgetting the secure communication protocols. Additionally, as a side effect of the stabilization process analysis, a new metaheuristic optimization search algorithm has been developed to be used in PID (Proportional Integral Derivative controllercalibration tuning and has been successfully applied in the stabilization controller.

  13. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  14. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  15. Development of low-cost digital subtraction angiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imai, Yutaka; Yagishita, Akira; Kunieda, Etsuo.

    1983-01-01

    We developed a simple and low-cost DSA system. This system consists of a conventional fluoroscopic equipment for the GI tract and a mini-computer (GAMMA-11) which are connected each other with a video-disc recorder. The uniqueness of our system are 1. low-cost, 2. low-radiation dose, 3. off-line processing, 4. flexibility of software. The analysis of the time-density curve and image processing will bring us a more usefull information than DSA alone. (author)

  16. Low-cost satellite mechanical design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie-Gair, Nathaniel; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of techniques for low-cost design and construction of a CubeSat mechanical structure that can serve as a basis for academic programs and a starting point for government, military and commercial large-scale sensing networks, where the cost of each node must be minimized to facilitate system affordability and lower the cost and associated risk of losing any node. Spacecraft Design plays a large role in manufacturability. An intentionally simplified mechanical design is presented which reduces machining costs, as compared to more intricate designs that were considered. Several fabrication approaches are evaluated relative to the low-cost goal.

  17. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  18. Organizing for low cost space operations - Status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.

    1976-01-01

    Design features of the Space Transportation System (vehicle reuse, low cost expendable components, simple payload interfaces, standard support systems) must be matched by economical operational methods to achieve low operating and payload costs. Users will be responsible for their own payloads and will be charged according to the services they require. Efficient use of manpower, simple documentation, simplified test, checkout, and flight planning are firm goals, together with flexibility for quick response to varying user needs. Status of the Shuttle hardware, plans for establishing low cost procedures, and the policy for user charges are discussed.

  19. Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) to Support Low-Cost Spacecraft Operation via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul; Repaci, Max; Sames, David

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Packet telemetry, Internet IP networks and cost reduction; 2) Basic functions and technical features of SAFE; 3) Project goals, including low-cost satellite transmission to data centers to be distributed via an Internet; 4) Operations with a replicated file protocol; 5) File exchange operation; 6) Ground stations as gateways; 7) Lessons learned from demonstrations and tests with SAFE; and 8) Feedback and future initiatives.

  20. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  1. Low cost construction technologies and materials - case study Mozambuique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. Mozambique as with most of the developing world, from both historical...

  2. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  3. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  4. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  5. PRELIMINARY TESTS OF A NEW LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santise

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  6. Smartfactory, a modular, low cost productivity monitoring system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of the SMMEs the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step by step fashion with little training required in installation...

  7. Low-cost, locally available shelters in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammarah Mubarak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooding in 2010 affected 18 million people in Pakistan. With declining donor funds and flooding again in 2011 and 2012, the humanitarian community required low-cost solutions that could be scaled up to meet both the immediate and the transitional needs of large populations in differing geographical areas.

  8. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  9. Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling system in fruit and vegetables storage. ... on fruit and vegetables quality during harvesting, transportation, storage and marketing. ... The coolers were found to be effective in maintaining micro-environmental conditions for ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. sequential low cost interventions double hand hygiene rates among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... Request for reprints to: Onyema Ogbuagu, Yale University School of Medicine, Address – 135 College Street, suite 323, ... Objective: To assess the impact of multimodal low-cost interventions on hand hygiene ... system change including investment in provision ... Statistical software used was IBM SPSS.

  11. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design, development and performance evaluation of a low cost waste-water treatment plant had been carried out. The aim was to harness the usefulness of waste-waters from residential, institutional and commercial sources. The facultative lagoon method of waste-water treatment was adopted. Biological analysis of ...

  12. Towards low-cost gigabit wireless systems at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haibing

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide availability of the huge amount of license-free spectral space in the 60 GHz band provides wide room for gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) wireless applications. A commercial (read: low-cost) 60-GHz transceiver will, however, provide limited system performance due to the stringent link budget

  13. Low-Cost Servomotor Driver for PFM Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Jurado, David; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Perez-Peña, Fernando

    2017-12-31

    Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM. A low-cost commercial servomotor is used as the base system for the development: a small PCB that fits inside the case and allocates all the electronic components to control the motor has been designed to replace the original. The potentiometer is retained as the feedback sensor and a microcontroller is responsible for controlling the position of the motor. The paper compares the performance of a PWM and a PFM controlled servomotor. The comparison shows that the servomotor with our controller achieves a faster mechanism for switching targets and a lower latency. This controller can be used with neuromorphic systems to remove the conversion from events to PWM.

  14. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discrim- inators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a ...

  15. Development of a low-cost sun sensor for nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Andrea; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Sun sensors represent a common and reliable technology for attitude determination, employed in many space missions thanks to their limited size and weight. Typically, two-axis digital Sun sensors employ an array of active pixels arranged behind a small aperture; the position of the sunlight's spot allows to determine the direction of the Sun. With the advent of smaller vehicles such as CubeSats and Nanosats, there is the need to further reduce the size and weight of such devices: as a trade-off, this usually results in the curtail of the performances. Nowadays, state of the art Sun sensors for CubeSats have resolutions of about 0.5°, with fields of view in the ±45° to ±90° range, with off-the-self prices of several thousands of dollars. In this work we introduce a novel low-cost miniaturized Sun sensor, based on a commercial CMOS camera detector; its main feature is the reduced size with respect to state-of-the-art sensors developed from the same technology, making it employable on CubeSats. The sensor consists of a precisely machined pinhole with a 10 μm circular aperture, placed at a distance of 7 mm from the CMOS. The standoff distance and casing design allow for a maximum resolution of less than 0.03°, outperforming most of the products currently available for nano and pico platforms; furthermore, the nature of the technology allows for reduced size and lightweight characteristics. The design, development and laboratory tests of the sensor are here introduced, starting with the definition of the physical model, the geometrical layout and its theoretical resolution; a more accurate model was then developed in order to account for the geometrical deviations and deformations of the pinhole-projected light-spot, as well as to account for the background noise and disturbances to the electronics. Finally, the laboratory setup is presented along with the test campaigns: the results obtained are compared with the simulations, allowing for the validation of the

  16. Helping To Integrate The Visually Challenged Into Mainstream Society Through A Low-Cost Braille Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The visually challenged are often alienated from mainstream society because of their disabilities. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries which often do not have the resources necessary to integrate this people group into their communities or even help them to become independent. It should therefore be the aim of governments in developing countries to provide this vulnerable people group with access to assistive technologies at a low cost. This paper describes an ongoing project that aims to provide low-cost assistive technologies to the visually challenged in Barbados. As a part of this project a study was conducted on a sample of visually challenged members of the Barbados Association for the Blind and Deaf to determine their ICT skills, knowledge of Braille and their use of assistive technologies. An analysis of the results prompted the design and creation of a low-cost Braille device prototype. The cost of this prototype was about one-half that of a commercially available device and can be used without a screen reader. This device should help create equal opportunities for the visually challenged in Barbados and other developing countries. It should also allow the visually challenged to become more independent.

  17. NetPICOmag: A low-cost networked magnetometer and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-03-01

    NetPICOmag (NPM) is the culmination of a design effort to build a compact, low-cost, laboratory-grade, networked magnetometer designed for remote autonomous operation, suited for research and education. NPM allows wide placement of magnetometers sensitive enough to detect auroral activity and the daily variation, and is suitable for education projects and a range of geophysical applications. The use of networked microcontrollers and GPS timing is applicable to other small instruments for field or local deployment, and an onboard data logging capability has also been demonstrated. We illustrate the value of the placement of low-cost magnetometers to increase coverage in an area through the study of a Pc 5 pulsation event which took place on September 4, 2010. By combining results with those from auroral zone magnetometers supporting the THEMIS project, we find that the phase velocity of these morning sector pulsations was northward on the ground. The event took place under very quiet solar wind conditions, and credible mapping associates it with the inner magnetosphere. Another aspect beyond increasing areal coverage is increasing density of coverage, which becomes feasible with instruments of very low cost. We examine aspects of the April 5, 2010 space weather event which are possible to deduce from closely spaced magnetometers.

  18. Calibration of low-cost gas sensors for an urban air quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; He, C.; Ghugare, P.; Lehman, A.; Benish, S.; Stratton, P.; Dickerson, R. R.; Zuidema, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    In a warming world, environmental pollution may be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, such as climate change and the urban heat island effect, as well as natural phenomena such as heat waves. However, monitoring air pollution at federal reference standards (approximately 1 part per billion or ppb for ambient ozone) is cost-prohibitive in heterogeneous urban areas as many expensive devices are required to fully capture a region's geo-spatial variability. Innovation in low-cost sensors provide a potential solution, yet technical challenges remain to overcome possible imprecision in the data. We present the calibrations of ozone and nitrous dioxide from a low-cost air quality monitoring device designed for the Baltimore Open Air Project. The sensors used in this study are commercially available thin film electrochemical sensors from SPEC Sensor, which are amperometric, meaning they generate current proportional to volumetric fraction of gas. The results of sensor calibrations in the laboratory and field are presented.

  19. A FRAMEWORK FOR LOW-COST MULTI-PLATFORM VR AND AR SITE EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Wallgrün

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost consumer-level immersive solutions have the potential to revolutionize education and research in many fields by providing virtual experiences of sites that are either inaccessible, too dangerous, or too expensive to visit, or by augmenting in-situ experiences using augmented and mixed reality methods. We present our approach for creating low-cost multi-platform virtual and augmented reality site experiences of real world places for education and research purposes, making extensive use of Structure-from-Motion methods as well as 360° photography and videography. We discuss several example projects, for the Mayan City of Cahal Pech, Iceland’s Thrihnukar volcano, the Santa Marta informal settlement in Rio, and for the Penn State Campus, and we propose a framework for creating and maintaining such applications by combining declarative content specification methods with a central linked-data based spatio-temporal information system.

  20. a Framework for Low-Cost Multi-Platform VR and AR Site Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgrün, J. O.; Huang, J.; Zhao, J.; Masrur, A.; Oprean, D.; Klippel, A.

    2017-11-01

    Low-cost consumer-level immersive solutions have the potential to revolutionize education and research in many fields by providing virtual experiences of sites that are either inaccessible, too dangerous, or too expensive to visit, or by augmenting in-situ experiences using augmented and mixed reality methods. We present our approach for creating low-cost multi-platform virtual and augmented reality site experiences of real world places for education and research purposes, making extensive use of Structure-from-Motion methods as well as 360° photography and videography. We discuss several example projects, for the Mayan City of Cahal Pech, Iceland's Thrihnukar volcano, the Santa Marta informal settlement in Rio, and for the Penn State Campus, and we propose a framework for creating and maintaining such applications by combining declarative content specification methods with a central linked-data based spatio-temporal information system.

  1. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  2. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  3. Sensing of the atmospheric variation using Low Cost GNSS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanto, Brian; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.; Kuntjoro, Wedyanto; Tampubolon, Daniel A.

    2018-05-01

    As the GNSS signals transmitted through the atmosphere, they are delayed by interference of TEC (Total Electron Content) in the ionosphere and water vapor in the troposphere. By using inverse-problem, name GNSS Meteorology, those parameters can be obtained precisely and several researches has approved and supported that method. However, the geodetic GNSS receivers are relatively high cost (30,000 to 70,000 each) to be established on a regular and uniform network. This research aims to investigate the potential use of low cost GNSS receiver (less than 2,000) to observe the atmospheric dynamic both in ionosphere and troposphere. Results indicated that low cost GNSS receiver is a promising tools to sensing the atmospheric dynamic, however, further processing is needed to enhance the data quality. It is found that both of ionosphere and troposphere dynamic has diurnal periodic component.

  4. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  5. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  6. Alternative ceramic circuit constructions for low cost, high reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modes, Ch.; O'Neil, M.

    1997-01-01

    The growth in the use of hybrid circuit technology has recently been challenged by recent advances in low cost laminate technology, as well as the continued integration of functions into IC's. Size reduction of hybrid 'packages' has turned out to be a means to extend the useful life of this technology. The suppliers of thick film materials technology have responded to this challenge by developing a number of technology options to reduce circuit size, increase density, and reduce overall cost, while maintaining or increasing reliability. This paper provides an overview of the processes that have been developed, and, in many cases are used widely to produce low cost, reliable microcircuits. Comparisons of each of these circuit fabrication processes are made with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each technology. (author)

  7. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  8. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  9. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Pomar, A; Sandiumenge, F; Pinol, S; Mestres, N; Castano, O; Coll, M; Cavallaro, A; Palau, A; Gazquez, J; Gonzalez, J C; Gutierrez, J; Roma, N; Ricart, S; Moreto, J M; Rossell, M D; Tendeloo, G van

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  10. Low-cost amplifier for alpha detection with photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domienikan, Cláudio; Costa, Priscila; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: pcosta@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A low-cost amplifier for Hamamatsu S3590-09 PIN photodiode to be used in alpha detection is presented. This amplifier consists basically of two circuits: a pulse preamplifier and a shaper-driver. The PIN photodiode is reverse-biased and connected to a charge preamplifier input. Incident alpha particles generate a small current pulse in the photodiode. The integrating circuit of the low noise preamplifier transforms current pulse into a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to the charge carried by the current pulse. The shaper-driver consists of a differentiator and an integrator and is responsible for filtering and further amplifying the preamplifier signal, generating a NIM-compatible energy pulse. The performance of the set photodiode-amplifier was successively tested through the use of a {sup 243}Am radioactive source. The low-cost photodiode amplifier was designed and constructed at IPEN - CNEN/SP using national components and expertise. (author)

  11. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  12. Anteseden Customer Loyalty Pada Low Cost Carrier Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  13. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types (p < 0.0001. Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  14. A low-cost electrically pulsed shower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conversi, M; Gentile, S; Nardi, M

    1976-01-01

    A sampling total absorption detector characterized by an extremely low cost and providing also identification of particle tracks has been developed. Preliminary results on the performance of a model with 14 radiation lengths, exposed to electrons of energies E up to 4 GeV, show that this instrument can measure the primary electron energy with an accuracy (r.m.s.) $\\Delta E/E= \\pm(12 $%) / $\\sqrt E$ (E in GeV).

  15. Command vector memory systems: high performance at low cost

    OpenAIRE

    Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...

  16. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  17. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  18. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Quadrotor schematic showing rotor direction of rotation (From [2])................3 Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from...Some examples are the Walkera UFO #5, Walkera UFO #8, Dragonfly, and Alien Air Jump Jet. Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from Walkera...the X- UFO made by Silverlit Electronics used small mechanical gyros. These were relatively cheap due to low-cost labor, but suffered from mechanical

  19. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  20. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  1. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  2. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  3. 43 CFR 426.5 - Ownership entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonexempt land; (ii) Married couples who hold equal interests are entitled to receive irrigation water on a... entitled to receive irrigation water on that land owned jointly in marriage up to a maximum of 320 acres of... tenant, provided each tenant holds an equal interest in the tenancy; (vi) Partnerships subject to prior...

  4. AUTOMATED LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  5. Development and evaluation of a low cost probe-type instrument to measure the equilibrium moisture content of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage bags are common in Africa, Asia and many other less developed countries therefore a grain probing method is well-suited for moisture content (MC) measurement. A low cost meter was developed as part of a USAID project to reduce the post-harvest loss (PHL). The meter measures the MC of maize a...

  6. Construction of a low cost wind energy generator; Construcao de um gerador de energia eolica de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jonathan Penha de; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: jonathan_penha@poli.ufrj.br, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This project presents a low cost wind electric power generator constituted of cheap and easy access materials. The necessary materials are presented for it construction and the expected efficiency, having as reference the city of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. The elaboration of the generator was initially developed as alternative energy source during blackout.

  7. Rugged, Low Cost, Environmental Sensors for a Turbulent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B.; Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing scientific research and resource management require a diverse range of high-quality and low-cost sensors to maximize the number and type of measurements that can be obtained. To accomplish this, we have developed a series of diversified sensors for common environmental applications. The TP-DownHole is an ultra-compact temperature and pressure sensor designed for use in CMT (Continuous Multi-channel Tubing) multi-level wells. Its 1 mm water depth resolution, 30 cm altitude resolution, and rugged design make it ideal for both water level measurements and monitoring barometric pressure and associated temperature changes. The TP-DownHole sensor has also been incorporated into a self-contained, fully independent data recorder for extreme and remote environments. This device (the TP-Solo) is based around the TP-DownHole design, but has self-contained power and data storage and is designed to collect data independently for up to 6 months (logging at once an hour), creating a specialized tool for extreme environment data collection. To gather spectral information, we have also developed a very low cost photodiode-based Lux sensor to measure spectral irradiance; while this does not measure the entire solar radiation spectrum, simple modeling to rescale the remainder of the solar spectrum makes this a cost-effective alternative to a thermopile pyranometer. Lastly, we have developed an instrumentation amplifier which is designed to interface a wide range of sensitive instruments to common data logging systems, such as thermopile pyranometers, thermocouples, and many other analog output sensors. These three instruments are the first in a diverse family aimed to give researchers a set of powerful and low-cost tools for environmental instrumentation.

  8. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Nisha; Teare, June; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Wright, Caradee Yael; Mathee, Angela

    2017-11-18

    Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb) from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types ( p informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  9. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  10. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  11. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  13. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  14. Low cost nuclear spectrometer based on micro-controller device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.A.; Aramayo, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a gamma radiation Multichannel Analyzer device. That is to say, the development of a device able to display in the screen of a conventional computer a histogram of radioactive accounts (or accounts rate) received, in function of the different emission energies. It is a low cost implementation, oriented to mainly educational activities, but also applicable, within its limitations, to medium precision investigation works. In this first phase all the necessary one was implemented to detect the radioactive emissions, to measure them in energy, to store a complete spectrum and electronically to transfer it to a PC for its subsequent analysis. (author)

  15. Lightning rod: a simple and low cost experiment for eletrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing to make significant the scientific learning, this work suggests a simple and low-cost experiment to demonstrate electrostatics knowledge studied in High School. The experimental proposal has yet the concern of focusing the content, linking it to daily technological elements. Doing that, and due to the practical interest it can arouse in student, we presented the operation of an idealized Lightning Rod to apply in electrostatics school knowledge and to show that the same one can have an important day by day usefulness and it cannot be a turned off abstraction or distant from the reality.

  16. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  17. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  18. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal

    1998-05-01

    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  19. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    windings with well-defined thickness. Many advantages and disadvantages are described in depth. In this work, inverse coupling and direct coupling in the new geometry integrated inductors have been analyzed. Coupling characteristic caused by a special saturation behavior has been emphasis. And also...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost open-source gaze tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner; Møllenbach, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking system that is based on a webcam mounted close to the user's eye. The performance of the gaze tracker was evaluated in an eye-typing task using two different typing applications. Participants could type between 3.56 and 6.78 words per minute, depending...... on the typing system used. A pilot study to assess the usability of the system was also carried out in the home of a user with severe motor impairments. The user successfully typed on a wall-projected interface using his eye movements....

  1. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  2. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  3. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  4. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  5. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  6. Low-cost metamaterial-on-paper chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeqi, Aydin; Nejad, Hojatollah Rezaei; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2017-07-10

    We present a disposable low cost paper-based metamaterial for sensing liquids based on their dielectric properties. The sensor is based on resonance shift due to the change in the effective capacitance of each resonator in the metamaterial array. Key novelty in the design is the implementation of metamaterial on low cost and ubiquitous paper substrate. This metamaterial-on-paper sensor is fabricated in a totally cleanroom-free process using wax printing and screen printing. Wax patterning of paper enables creation of microfluidic channels such that liquid analytes can be delivered to each metamaterial unit cell for sensing. Screen printing is used to implement disc shaped resonator unit cells. We demonstrate sensing of liquids: Oil, methanol, glycerol and water each showing an average resonance frequency shift of 1.12 (9.6%), 4.12 (35.4%), 8.76 (75.3%) and 11.63 GHz (100%) around the center frequency of around 94 GHz respectively. Being label-free, this approach can be expanded to sense other liquids based on their dielectric constants.

  7. Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Tarchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar systems are largely employed for surveillance of wide and remote areas; the recent advent of drones gives the opportunity to exploit radar sensors on board of unmanned aerial platforms. Nevertheless, whereas drone radars are currently available for military applications, their employment in the civilian domain is still limited. The present research focuses on design, prototyping, and testing of an agile, low-cost, mini radar system, to be carried on board of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs or tethered aerostats. In particular, the paper faces the challenge to integrate the in-house developed radar sensor with a low-cost navigation board, which is used to estimate attitude and positioning data. In fact, a suitable synchronization between radar and navigation data is essential to properly reconstruct the radar picture whenever the platform is moving or the radar is scanning different azimuthal sectors. Preliminary results, relative to tests conducted in preoperational conditions, are provided and exploited to assert the suitable consistency of the obtained radar pictures. From the results, there is a high consistency between the radar images and the picture of the current environment emerges; finally, the comparison of radar images obtained in different scans shows the stability of the platform.

  8. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  9. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  10. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R

    2017-07-01

    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  11. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  12. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  13. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  14. Low-cost digital counting interface for fermentation gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Deluiche, S.R.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory- and pilot-scale volumetric measurement of fermentation gas can be readily determined with a standard wet-test gas meter. The initial cost of the meter, however, is quite prohibitive for experimental work and researchers have searched for other means of quantifying gas production. Techniques using calibrated floating gas holders, liquid displacement, flexible membranes, and conventional gas meters have been reported. Many of these methods lack a high degree of accuracy for small gas volumes. Residential gas meters such as those manufactured by Singer company, and others appear well suited for this application as long as a relatively dry gas is passed through the meter and a method is developed to subdivide the meter scale and record the results. The objective of this report was to construct a low cost, accurate, digital counting interface for concurrent operation with a low cost bellows-type gas meter. Although initially constructed for use in gas measurement studies, the interface can be used in other applications where digital output or computer interfacing are desired. 2 references.

  15. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts

  16. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  18. Cu II Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Low Cost Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Hadi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study the possibility of utilization of waste tires rubber ash (WTRA as a low-cost adsorbent and are available as a type of solid waste for the removal of copper ions from industrial wastewater. Depending on batch adsorption experiments, the effect of different parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage WTRA, contact time, initial concentration of the ion and shacking speed were studied. Results showed that the highest removal Cu+2 ions was 97.8% at pH equal to 6, 120 min contact time, dose WTRA 1.5 g/L, shacking speed 150 rpm. The experimental data were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models showed great compatibility with Langmuir model (R2=0.923. Adsorption kinetics was studied and the data was showed agree with Pseudo-first-order equation where the value of (kt=0.5115/min. The study also showed the possibility of using WTRA efficiently as adsorbent and low cost in the removal of copper ions from industrial waste water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.17

  19. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  20. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  1. Low Cost DIY Lenses kit For High School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn

    2017-09-01

    A set of lenses was fabricated from a low cost materials in a DIY (Do it yourself) process. The purpose was to demonstrate to teachers and students in high schools how to construct lenses by themselves with the local available materials. The lenses could be applied in teaching Physics, about the nature of a lens such as focal length and light rays passing through lenses in either direction, employing a set of simple laser pointers. This instrumental kit was made from a transparent 2 mm thick of acrylic Perspex. It was cut into rectangular pieces with dimensions of 2x15 cm2 and bent into curved shape by a hot air blower on a cylindrical wooden rod with curvature radii of about 3-4.5 cm. Then a pair of these Perspex were formed into a hollow thick lenses with a base supporting platform, so that any appropriate liquids could be filled in. The focal length of the lens was measured from laser beam drawing on a paper. The refractive index, n (n) of a filling liquid could be calculated from the measured focal length (f). The kit was low cost and DIY but was greatly applicable for optics teaching in high school laboratory.

  2. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  3. Optical incremental rotary encoder in low-cost-design; Optischer inkrementaler Drehgeber in Low-Cost-Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, David; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Optik; Seybold, Jonathan; Mayer, Volker [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Kueck, Heinz [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Zeitmesstechnik, Fein- und Mikrotechnik

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new concept for low-cost optical encoders to come up to meet the increasing demand for inexpensive rotary sensors. The principal idea is to use a micro patterned plastic disc with metal coating, as it is used for Compact Discs or DVDs. Such encoder discs can be manufactured by an efficient injection compression moulding process. With this well established technique it is possible to achieve highly precise micro patterns while running a cost effective process for high volume production. (orig.)

  4. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarsa, Eric [Cree, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  5. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  6. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  7. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED SENSOR ORIENTATION WITH A LOW-COST GNSS RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs whose weight does not exceed 5 kg is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections, or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forest or agricultural fields. In these challenging scenarios, integrated sensor orientation (ISO improves effectiveness and accuracy. Furthermore, in block geometry configurations, this mode of operation allows mapping without ground control points (GCPs. Accurate camera positions are traditionally determined by carrier-phase GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System positioning. However, such mode of positioning has strong requirements on receiver’s and antenna’s performance. In this article, we present a mapping project in which we employ a single-frequency, low-cost (< $100 GNSS receiver on a MAV. The performance of the low-cost receiver is assessed by comparing its trajectory with a reference trajectory obtained by a survey-grade, multi-frequency GNSS receiver. In addition, the camera positions derived from these two trajectories are used as observations in bundle adjustment (BA projects and mapping accuracy is evaluated at check points (ChP. Several BA scenarios are considered with absolute and relative aerial position control. Additionally, the presented experiments show the possibility of BA to determine a camera-antenna spatial offset, so-called lever-arm.

  8. Simple and Low-Cost Wireless Distributed Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Flammini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and realization of a simple and low-cost system for distributed measurements. Traditional handheld digital multimeters have been equipped with a radio-frequency interface in order to implement what the authors call WDMM, the basic block of a wireless multi-probe data logger. New functionalities require very few components and result in a cost increase of less than 10$. In addition, also maintenance has been facilitated since tracking data such as working state or last calibration time are available to the user. Data inquiry can be performed by a purposely designed module that has the same hardware of the WDMM but a different user interface or by a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a traditional personal computer thanks to a USB connection. Simple supervisory software has been realized under the LabVIEW graphical programming environment.

  9. Low-cost SI-POF analogue TIA and equaliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Ignacio; García del Pozo, Jose Maria; Mateo, Javier; Urdangarín, Julen; Celma, Santiago

    2012-11-01

    This article proposes the two first blocks of an analogue front-end suitable for plastic optical fibre systems suitable for the standard IEEE 1394. These blocks consist of a preamplifier followed by an equaliser which employs low-cost commercial components and are designed with two different bipolar technologies. With a supply voltage of 3.3 V, the front-end consumes 396 mW. The total gain is 70 dBΩ and it operates at up to 800 Mb/s. At this bit rate, with fibre lengths of up to 30 m, the circuit has a BER ≤ 10-12 and a maximum jitter of 170 psrms.

  10. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  11. Hydrocarbons - In the era of low-cost oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic; Delamarche, Myrtille; Cognasse, Olivier; De Jaegher, Thibaut; Fleitour, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    A set of articles addresses the current context of low cost oil and steep drop in oil prices. Graphs illustrate the evolution of oil prices, of supply and demand, of exploitation costs. This drop is partly due to the high level of production in Russia, Iraq and USA. This context results in drastic reductions of investments by companies involved in the oil sector, and therefore in job reduction, and in reduction of service costs. These reductions impact actors of the seismic analysis sector. Other consequences are more positive for consumers and refiners, and a trend towards diversification and consolidation for operators. The chairman of Technip answers some questions on Technip activities, situation and strategy. The case of the petrochemical sector is also addressed

  12. Low-cost in vitro fertilization: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh PJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pek Joo Teoh, Abha MaheshwariAberdeen Fertility Centre, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Despite the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF more than 30 years ago, the cost of treatment remains high. Furthermore, over the years, more sophisticated technologies and expensive medications have been introduced, making IVF increasingly inaccessible despite the increasing need. Globally, the option to undergo IVF is only available to a privileged few. In recent years, there has been growing interest in exploring strategies to reduce the cost of IVF treatment, which would allow the service to be provided in low-resource settings. In this review, we explore the various ways in which the cost of this treatment can be reduced.Keywords: IVF, low-cost, accessible, developing world

  13. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  14. Low cost open data acquisition system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Laniewski-Wollk, Przemyslaw; Zaworski, Wojciech

    2005-09-01

    In the biomedical applications it is often necessary to collect measurement data from different devices. It is relatively easy, if the devices are equipped with a MIB or Ethernet interface, however often they feature only the asynchronous serial link, and sometimes the measured values are available only as the analog signals. The system presented in the paper is a low cost alternative to commercially available data acquisition systems. The hardware and software architecture of the system is fully open, so it is possible to customize it for particular needs. The presented system offers various possibilities to connect it to the computer based data processing unit - e.g. using the USB or Ethernet ports. Both interfaces allow also to use many such systems in parallel to increase amount of serial and analog inputs. The open source software used in the system makes possible to process the acquired data with standard tools like MATLAB, Scilab or Octave, or with a dedicated, user supplied application.

  15. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  16. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  17. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  18. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriessen, R. [Holst Centre - Solliance, PO Box 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, J.M. [ECN - Solliance, Petten (Netherlands); Aernouts, T. [Imec, Solliance, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Solliance, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    This article describes how the Solliance Organic PhotoVoltaics (OPV) shared research Program addresses efficiency, lifetime and production costs for (near) future OPV applications. The balance of these three parameters depends of the envisaged application, but at the end, OPV should be able to compete somehow with Si PV in the future. Efficiency improvements are realized by developing new materials, by exploring and optimizing new device structures and novel interconnection technologies. Lifetime improvements are realized by using stabilized device stacks and materials and by applying high end flexible barriers. Production cost control is done by using a home made Cost of Ownership tool which guides towards the use of low-cost materials and processes.

  19. Low cost strategies for microbiological purification of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of sunlight intensities and freezing on prevalence of coliform bacteria in water were assessed in this study. Fish pond water indicated 1100 figure of most probable number (MPN) of coliforms, while on MacConkey agar they appeared uncountable. When this water was exposed to sunlight it was found that a exposure of 1.5 hours in ceramic containers covered by petri plates and those with magnifying lenses of 3X powers indicated 58 and 78% reduction in the coliforms, respectively. Corresponding figures for 3 hours exposure were found to be 100 percent less than the control MPN value. Freezing with subsequent thawing also reduced the microbial population. The experiments reported here are suggestive to construct simple low cost water treatment plants to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. Antibiotics sensitivity and resistant patterns of coliforms for tetracycline, piperacillin, streptomycin, metronidazole, erythromycin and chloramphenicol in connection to pre- and post treatments are indicated. (author)

  20. Dyes removal from water using low cost absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, S.; Ramirez, A. P.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the removal capacity of low cost adsorbents during the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) at different concentrations (50 and 100mg·L-1) was evaluated. These adsorbents were produced from wood wastes (cedar and teak) by chemical activation (ZnCl2). Both studied materials, Activated Cedar (AC) and activated teak (AT) showed a good fit of their experimental data to the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities for AC were 2000.0 and 444.4mg·g-1 for MB and CR, respectively, while for AT, maximum adsorption capacities of 1052.6 and 86.4mg·g-1 were found for MB and CR, respectively.

  1. Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, D; Barabas, J; Bove, V M; Jolly, S; DellaSilva, C; Smithwick, Q

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an architecture for a relatively low-cost, pc-driven holovideo monitor. The geometry uses minimal optics and is built to host a multi-channel acousto-optic modulator that can be driven by up-converted VGA signals. The display's target specifications include a standard vertical resolution (480 lines) output driven by an 18 channel acousto-optic modulator, 30Hz refresh-rate and multiple color operation. This paper reports early tests of this geometry with a single acousto-optic channel. The goal is to create a small but functional holographic display that can be readily replicated, easily driven and provide basic monitor functionality with a bill of materials in the hundreds, rather than thousands, of dollars.

  2. Low-cost portable TRNG, implementation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermevc Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will show one of many possible hardware implementations of random sequence generators and give a short survey on existing work related to techniques used for producing true random bits. By using cheap electronic components found in every specialized store such as 8-bit RISC microcontroler, double analogue comparator chip and USB to RS232 interface integrated circuit, we were able to produce a low cost, higly portable device that outputs random sequences with excellent statistical characteristics and high entropy. The source of randomness is a mix of techniques such as electronic noise, phase noise and oscillator jitter. The device in question has a built-in debiasing algorithm similar to [1] and a security mechanism that protects the end user by constantly monitoring the quality of digitized noise signal. Finaly, we will show the results of comparative analysis of data acquired from our device and „random.org“ online service.

  3. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D

    2013-08-12

    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  4. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  5. Microinsurance: innovations in low-cost health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.

  6. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  7. YSAR: a compact low-cost synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas G.; Arnold, David V.; Long, David G.; Miner, Gayle F.; Karlinsey, Thomas W.; Robertson, Adam E.

    1997-09-01

    The Brigham Young University Synthetic Aperture Radar (YSAR) is a compact, inexpensive SAR system which can be flown on a small aircraft. The system has exhibited a resolution of approximately 0.8 m by 0.8 m in test flights in calm conditions. YSAR has been used to collect data over archeological sites in Israel. Using a relatively low frequency (2.1 GHz), we hope to be able to identify walls or other archeological features to assist in excavation. A large data set of radar and photographic data have been collected over sites at Tel Safi, Qumran, Tel Micnah, and the Zippori National Forest in Israel. We show sample images from the archeological data. We are currently working on improved autofocus algorithms for this data and are developing a small, low-cost interferometric SAR system (YINSAR) for operation from a small aircraft.

  8. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Wenzler, C. J.; Rom, F. E.; Vanarsdale, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector for preheating ambient air was developed. This type of solar heating system would be applicable for preheating ventilation air for public buildings or other commercial and industrial ventilation requirements. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60 percent or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20 degrees for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that this type of solar system was economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, costs for the bare plate solar collector are attainable. Applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  9. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  10. Characterization of low cost orally disintegrating film (ODF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordao Barrozo Heinemann

    Full Text Available Abstract Orally disintegrating films (ODF produced with a hydrophilic polymers are a thin and flexible material, wich disintegrate in contact with saliva and can vehicule bioactive materials. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize ODF formulation with potential to act as a carrier for different bioactives compounds prepared with low cost polymers. Gelatin (G, starch (S, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and their blends (G:S, CMC:S, CMC:G, and CMC:S:G were prepared by casting technique with sorbitol as a plasticizer. The formulations were characterized in terms of visual aspects, FTIR, SEM, mechanical characteristics, hygroscopicity, dissolution (in vitro and in vivo and swelling index. FTIR analysis revealed that no interaction between polymers in ODF was observed. By SEM, it was possible to observe differences on surfaces by different polymers. ODF made with CMC and CMC:G presented higher water absorption (P<0.05 and higher swelling index probably due to the higher water affinity by CMC. Formulations with G, CMC:G and CMC:S:G presented the highest values of tensile strength (P<0.05. ODF prepared with S alone presented the highest disintegration time, the others formulations showed in vitro dissolution ranging from 5.22 to 8.50 min, while in vivo dissolution time ranged from 2.15 to 3.38 min. By the formulations made with G and blend of G:S and CMC:S:G it is possible to develop a ODF of low cost with desired characteristics being an alternative vehicle to deliver functional compounds for continuous use.

  11. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

  13. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  14. Low-cost safety enhancements for stop-controlled and signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present information on suggested effective, low-cost intersection countermeasures developed using intersection safety research results and input from an intersection safety expert panel. These low-cost countermeasur...

  15. State distributed PV policies: Can low cost (to government) policies have a market impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasko, Vitaliy A.; Doris, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of distributed generation photovoltaic (PV) markets. The focus is on low-cost market opening policies instead of various forms of government subsidies aimed at reducing installation costs. The ideas tested in this work are: (1) low-cost market opening policies can be effective in facilitating PV market growth without subsidizing projects, and (2) policies can be made more effective if states and localities stage their enactment in a particular order. The policies selected for evaluation emerge from a policy stacking theory outlined in Doris (2012), NREL/CP-7A30-54801, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A cross-section econometric analysis that takes into account the quality of interconnection standards, net metering standards, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), RPS set-asides, and a non-policy determinant (population) explains about 70% of the variation in newly installed PV capacity across states and indicates that all of the selected policies are significant. Nonparametric statistical tests confirm the regression results. Qualitative evidence is also presented indicating that effective policy ordering starts with improving interconnection standards, closely followed by improvements in net metering standards, and eventually strengthened by the enactment of an RPS and set-asides. - Highlights: • Impacts of low cost market opening policies on PV capacity are evaluated. • Impact of a strategic policy enactment sequence is evaluated. • Effective interconnection, net metering, RPS, and set-asides increase PV capacity. • Effective ordering is market preparation, then creation, then expansion policies

  16. A Low Cost Inflatable CubeSat Drag Brake Utilizing Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Adam Charles

    The United Nations Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee has adopted a 25-year post-mission lifetime requirement for any satellite orbiting below 2000 km in order to mitigate the growing orbital debris threat. Low-cost CubeSats have become important satellite platforms with startling capabilities, but this guideline restricts them to altitudes below 600 km because they remain in orbit too long. In order to enable CubeSat deployments at higher release altitudes, a low-cost, ultra-reliable deorbit device is needed. This thesis reports on efforts to develop a deployable and passively inflatable drag brake that can deorbit from higher orbital altitudes, thereby complying with the 25-year orbital lifetime guideline. On the basis of concepts first implemented during the NASA Echo Satellite Project, this study investigated the design of an inflatable CubeSat drag device that utilizes sublimating benzoic acid powder as the inflation propellant. Testing has focused on demonstrating the functionality of charging a Mylar drag brake bladder with appropriate quantities of benzoic acid powder, and the exposure to a controlled-temperature vacuum chamber causing the bladder to inflate. Although results show a measureable increase in internal pressure when introduced to anticipated orbital temperatures, a significant air-derived expansion prior to sublimation was encountered due to the undetectable volume of ambient residual air in the fabricated membrane bladders. These tests have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, thereby demonstrating that this concept can create a potentially smaller and less expensive drag device, eliminating inflation gas tanks and valves. In that way, this system can provide a low-cost, miniaturized system that reduces a CubeSat's orbital lifetime to less than 25 years, when placed at higher orbital altitude.

  17. Low-cost optical interconnect module for parallel optical data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Chad; Hirsch, Tom J.; Olla, M.; Spooner, C.; Yu, Jason J.

    1995-04-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a prototype parallel ten-channel unidirectional optical data link. When scaled to production, we project that this technology will satisfy the following market penetration requirements: (1) up to 70 meters transmission distance, (2) at least 1 gigabyte/second data rate, and (3) 0.35 to 0.50 MByte/second volume selling price. These goals can be achieved by means of the assembly innovations described in this paper: a novel alignment method that is integrated with low-cost, few chip module packaging techniques, yielding high coupling and reducing the component count. Furthermore, high coupling efficiency increases projected reliability reducing the driver's power requirements.

  18. LOW COST SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM. The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37–111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps

  19. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  20. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  1. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  2. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  3. SeeStar: an open-source, low-cost imaging system for subsea observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, F.; Kecy, C. D.; Haddock, S.

    2016-02-01

    Scientists and engineers at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have collaborated to develop SeeStar, a modular, light weight, self-contained, low-cost subsea imaging system for short- to long-term monitoring of marine ecosystems. SeeStar is composed of separate camera, battery, and LED lighting modules. Two versions of the system exist: one rated to 300 meters depth, the other rated to 1500 meters. Users can download plans and instructions from an online repository and build the system using low-cost off-the-shelf components. The system utilizes an easily programmable Arduino based controller, and the widely distributed GoPro camera. The system can be deployed in a variety of scenarios taking still images and video and can be operated either autonomously or tethered on a range of platforms, including ROVs, AUVs, landers, piers, and moorings. Several Seestar systems have been built and used for scientific studies and engineering tests. The long-term goal of this project is to have a widely distributed marine imaging network across thousands of locations, to develop baselines of biological information.

  4. Low-Cost Behavioral Nudges Increase Medicaid Take-Up Among Eligible Residents Of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill J; Garcia-Alexander, Ginny; Weller, Margarette A; Baicker, Katherine

    2017-05-01

    Efforts to reduce the ranks of the uninsured hinge on take-up of available programs and subsidies, but take-up of even free insurance is often less than complete. The evidence of the effectiveness of policies aiming to increase take-up is limited. We used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of improved communication and behaviorally informed "nudges" designed to increase Medicaid take-up among eligible populations. Fielding randomized interventions in two different study populations in Oregon, we found that even very low-cost interventions substantially increased enrollment. Effects were larger in a population whose members had already expressed interest in obtaining coverage, but the effects were more persistent in low-income populations whose members were already enrolled in other state assistance programs but had not expressed interest in health insurance. The effects were similar across different demographic groups. Our results suggest that improving the design of enrollment processes and using low-cost mass-outreach efforts have the potential to substantially increase insurance coverage of vulnerable populations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process...

  6. Low-cost feedstock conversion to biodiesel via ultrasound technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, O.; Petrik, L.; Amigun, B.; Ameer, F. [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Amigun, B. [Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock - in this case waste cooking oil - in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 {sup o}C, a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration were obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. (authors)

  7. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, Omotola [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Petrik, Leslie [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Amigun, Bamikole [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa) and Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ameer, Faraouk [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-09-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 deg C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  8. Low-cost activation analysis at small research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, G P; Lemmel, H; Niedermaier, M R; Joestl, K; Schröder, P; Böck, H H; Schachner, H; Klapfer, E

    2003-01-01

    A software implementation of a loss-free counting multichannel analyzer, storing immediately into the multimegabyte memory of a low-cost 486 or Pentium type PC, enables the real-time control of a rabbit system as well as the collection of up to 1000 pairs of simultaneously recorded loss-corrected and non-corrected spectra of 16 k channels each, in a true sequence without time gaps in between, at throughput rates of up to 200 kc/s. Intended for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions, the system renders possible peak to background optimizations and separations of lines with different half-lives without an a priori knowledge of sample composition by summing up appropriate numbers of spectra over appropriate intervals of time. By automatically adapting the noise filtering time to individual pulse intervals, the Preloaded Digital Filter (PLDF) combines low- to medium-rate resolutions comparable to those of high-quality Gaussian amplifiers with throughput rates of up to 100 kc/s, and high-rate reso...

  9. Applications Of A Low Cost System For Industrial Automatic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, C.; Ayache, A.; Bruel, A.

    1987-05-01

    In industrial environment, some repetitive tasks wich do not need a high degree of understanding, can be solved automatically owing to Vision. Among the systems available on the market, most of them are rather expensive with various capabilities. The described system is a modular system, built with some standard circuit boards. One of the advantages of this system is that its architecture can be redefined for each application, by assembling judiciously the standard modules. The vision system has been used successfully to sort fruits according to their colour and diameter. The system can sort 8 fruits per second on each sorting line and manage simultaneously up to 16 lines. An application of sheep skin cutting has been implemented too. After chemical and mechanical treatments, the skins present many defaults all around their contour, that must be cut off. A movable camera follows and inspects the contour ; the vision system determines where the cutting device must cut the skin. A third application has been implemented ; it concerns automatic recording and reproduction of logotypes. A moving camera driven by the system picks up the points, of the logotype contours. Before reproduction, programs can modify the logotypes shape, change the scale, and so on. For every application, the system uses the world smallest CCD camera developped in the laboratory. The small dimensions of the vision system and its low cost are major advantages for a wide use in industrial automatic inspection.

  10. Low-Cost Chemical-Responsive Adhesive Sensing Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weirui; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Wei

    2017-12-06

    Chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip is a new low-cost analytical platform that uses adhesive tape loaded with indicator reagents to detect or quantify the target analytes by directly sticking the tape to the samples of interest. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chips can be used with paper to analyze aqueous samples; they can also be used to detect and quantify solid, particulate, and powder analytes. The colorimetric indicators become immediately visible as the contact between the functionalized adhesives and target samples is made. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip expands the capability of paper-based analytical devices to analyze solid, particulate, or powder materials via one-step operation. It is also a simpler alternative way, to the covalent chemical modification of paper, to eliminate indicator leaching from the dipstick-style paper sensors. Chemical-responsive adhesive chips can display analytical results in the form of colorimetric dot patterns, symbols, and texts, enabling clear understanding of assay results by even nonprofessional users. In this work, we demonstrate the analyses of heavy metal salts in silica powder matrix, heavy metal ions in water, and bovine serum albumin in an aqueous solution. The detection is one-step, specific, sensitive, and easy-to-operate.

  11. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  12. Palliative and low cost radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry; Hussein, S.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. In many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative care centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Simple curative treatments could also be managed. Co60 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both Co60 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The role of palliative and low cost radiotherapy in Bangladesh is reviewed. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy.

  13. Low-cost hadron colliders at Fermilab: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.W.; Malamud, E.

    1996-01-01

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in collider energies as represented by the well known Livingston plot. The old idea of low cost, low field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (2) accurate remote guidance systems for tunnel survey and boring machine steering, (3) high T c superconductors operating at liquid N 2 or liquid H 2 temperatures, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables, (6) achievement of high luminosities in p-p and p-anti P colliders. The goal of this paper is to stimulate continuing discussions on approaches to this new collider and to identify critical areas needing calculations, construction of models, proof of principle experiments, and full scale prototypes in order to determine feasibility and arrive at cost estimates

  14. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  15. Odometry and Low-Cost Sensor Fusion in Tmm Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzino, A. M.; Taglioretti, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the most powerful motion model and filtering technique to represent an urban terrestrial mobile mapping (TMM) survey and ultimately to obtain the best representation of the car trajectory. The authors want to test how far a motion model and a more or less refined filtering technique could bring benefits in the determination of the car trajectory. To achieve the necessary data for the application of the motion models and the filtering techniques described in the article, the authors realized a TMM survey in the urban centre of Turin by equipping a vehicle with various instruments: a low-cost action-cam also able to record the GPS trace of the vehicle even in the presence of obstructions, an inertial measurement system and an odometer. The results of analysis show in the article indicate that the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) technique provides good results in the determination of the vehicle trajectory, especially if the motion model considers more states (such as the positions, the tangential velocity, the angular velocity, the heading, the acceleration). The authors also compared the results obtained with a motion model characterized by four, five and six states. A natural corollary to this work would be the introduction to the UKF of the photogrammetric information obtained by the same camera placed on board the vehicle. These data would permit to establish how photogrammetric measurements can improve the quality of TMM solutions, especially in the absence of GPS signals (like urban canyons).

  16. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  17. Characterization of a Large, Low-Cost 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imagery-based 3D scanning can be performed by scanners with multiple form factors, ranging from small and inexpensive scanners requiring manual movement around a stationary object to large freestanding (nearly instantaneous units. Small mobile units are problematic for use in scanning living creatures, which may be unwilling or unable to (or for the very young and animals, unaware of the need to hold a fixed position for an extended period of time. Alternately, very high cost scanners that can capture a complete scan within a few seconds are available, but they are cost prohibitive for some applications. This paper seeks to assess the performance of a large, low-cost 3D scanner, presented in prior work, which is able to concurrently capture imagery from all around an object. It provides the capabilities of the large, freestanding units at a price point akin to the smaller, mobile ones. This allows access to 3D scanning technology (particularly for applications requiring instantaneous imaging at a lower cost. Problematically, prior analysis of the scanner’s performance was extremely limited. This paper characterizes the efficacy of the scanner for scanning both inanimate objects and humans. Given the importance of lighting to visible light scanning systems, the scanner’s performance under multiple lighting configurations is evaluated, characterizing its sensitivity to lighting design.

  18. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  19. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  20. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  1. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  2. Low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktar, O.; Ari, G.; Guenduez, O.; Demirel, H.; Demirbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matri10. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared by an extruder in SANAEM. Molds suitable for extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and pressure were obtained. Plastic blocks prepared were optically and mechanically tested and its response against various radioactive sources was measured.This study has shown that plastic scintillators imported can be produced in SANAEM domestically and be used for detection of radioactive materials within the country or border gates.

  3. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Campo dell'Orto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient’s safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n=67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians.

  4. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo dell'Orto, Marco; Hempel, Dorothea; Starzetz, Agnieszka; Seibel, Armin; Hannemann, Ulf; Walcher, Felix; Breitkreutz, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient's safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n = 67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians. PMID:24288616

  5. Low cost light-sheet microscopy for whole brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Nasenbeny, Jordan; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia

    2018-02-01

    Light-sheet microscopy has evolved as an indispensable tool in imaging biological samples. It can image 3D samples at fast speed, with high-resolution optical sectioning, and with reduced photobleaching effects. These properties make light-sheet microscopy ideal for imaging fluorophores in a variety of biological samples and organisms, e.g. zebrafish, drosophila, cleared mouse brains, etc. While most commercial turnkey light-sheet systems are expensive, the existing lower cost implementations, e.g. OpenSPIM, are focused on achieving high-resolution imaging of small samples or organisms like zebrafish. In this work, we substantially reduce the cost of light-sheet microscope system while targeting to image much larger samples, i.e. cleared mouse brains, at single-cell resolution. The expensive components of a lightsheet system - excitation laser, water-immersion objectives, and translation stage - are replaced with an incoherent laser diode, dry objectives, and a custom-built Arduino-controlled translation stage. A low-cost CUBIC protocol is used to clear fixed mouse brain samples. The open-source platforms of μManager and Fiji support image acquisition, processing, and visualization. Our system can easily be extended to multi-color light-sheet microscopy.

  6. Very low cost multichannel analyzer with some additional features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudyka, Konrad, E-mail: konrad.tudyka@polsl.pl [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland); Bluszcz, Andrzej [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland)

    2011-12-11

    In this paper we present a multichannel analyzer (MCA) based on a digital signal controller (DSC). The multichannel analyzer is characterized by a very low cost and an additional feature of recording time intervals between pulses. The total cost of electronic parts used in construction of the MCA is around 50 USD. The electronic circuit is based on dsPIC30F2020 DSC unit from Microchip. The device has a 10-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) which can sample and convert 2 samples per {mu}s. The DSC samples the input voltage continuously and detects incoming pulses. The data belonging to a detected pulse and its time stamp are sent to a PC on-line. The analysis of data stored on the PC is performed off-line with the help of a genetic algorithm (GA) used to fit the pulse shape function. This allows determination of amplitude of each individual pulse. The effective resolution varies with the pulse length and is typically 1000 channels for pulses approximately 4{mu}s long.

  7. Low-Cost, Distributed Environmental Monitors for Factory Worker Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geb W. Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated network of environmental monitors was developed to continuously measure several airborne hazards in a manufacturing facility. The monitors integrated low-cost sensors to measure particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, noise, temperature and humidity. The monitors were developed and tested in situ for three months in several overlapping deployments, before a full cohort of 40 was deployed in a heavy vehicle manufacturing facility for a year of data collection. The monitors collect data from each sensor and report them to a central database every 5 min. The work includes an experimental validation of the particle, gas and noise monitors. The R2 for the particle sensor ranges between 0.98 and 0.99 for particle mass densities up to 300 μg/m3. The R2 for the carbon monoxide sensor is 0.99 for concentrations up to 15 ppm. The R2 for the oxidizing gas sensor is 0.98 over the sensitive range from 20 to 180 ppb. The noise monitor is precise within 1% between 65 and 95 dBA. This work demonstrates the capability of distributed monitoring as a means to examine exposure variability in both space and time, building an important preliminary step towards a new approach for workplace hazard monitoring.

  8. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  9. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  10. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  11. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  12. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  13. Technical features of a low-cost earthquake alert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyzes the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5,000 annually to maintain

  14. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  15. Mechanical design of a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hijazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator with small-to moderate size for direct electricity generation. Such model can be installed in rural areas which are not connected to governmental grid. Three diameters of the dish; 5, 10 and 20 m are investigated and the focal point to dish diameter ratio is set to be 0.3 in all studied cases. Special attention is given to the selection of the appropriate dimensions of the reflecting surfaces to be cut from the available sheets in the market aiming to reduce both cutting cost and sheets cost. The dimensions of the ribs and rings which support the reflecting surface are optimized in order to minimize the entire weight of the dish while providing the minimum possible total deflection and stresses in the beams. The study applies full stress analysis of the frame of the dish using Autodesk Inventor. The study recommends to use landscape orientation for the reflective facets and increase the ribs angle and the distance between the connecting rings. The methodology presented is robust and can be extended to larger dish diameters.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization-entrusted projects - Sunshine Program. Development of photovoltaic power system practical application technologies (Research on the practical application of low-cost monosilane production technologies); 1984 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tei cost monosilane seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Low-cost monosilane production technologies are studied for film formation on amorphous solar cells. In fiscal 1984, the monosilane generation system modified in the preceding fiscal year is subjected to an extended operation for stability test for improvement on the process. The purity of monosilane produced during the stability test operation is found to satisfy the target level, and this means that the system operates at high efficiency. As for electrolysis, important problems arise with detriment to the practical application of this method. Though a solution is found for each of the problems, yet the problem of how to prove their effect remains to be solved. As for technologies for monosilane purity evaluation, a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) proving furnace is built, and research is started as to how to perform purity estimation using the characteristics of silicon layers epitaxially grown on high-resistance silicon substrates. The monosilane is examined, and it is found that its has a spreading resistance of 1,000 ohm-cm against the 2,000 ohm-cm of monosilane available on the market. Since the characteristics determined in this way are greatly affected by the conditions set for CVD, it is necessary to make further efforts to enhance optimization. (NEDO)

  17. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. 38 CFR 21.3045 - Entitlement charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C...) Entitlement charges for elementary and secondary education. (1) When an eligible spouse or surviving spouse is... of the course or courses as a result of being— (A) Ordered, in connection with the Persian Gulf War...

  19. Tax treaty entitlement issues concerning dual residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, D.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether a dual resident taxpayer is entitled to tax treaties concluded by each residence state with a third state has been controversial. Since 2008, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Commentary on Article 4(1) of the OECD Model states that such a

  20. HOLE-BLOCKING LAYERS FOR SILICON/ORGANIC HETEROJUNCTIONS: A NEW CLASS OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY LOW-COST PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, James [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-12-04

    This project is the first investigation of the use of thin titanium dioxide layers on silicon as a hole-blocking / electron-transparent selective contact to silicon. The work was motivated by the goal of a high-efficiency low-cost silicon-based solar cells that could be processed entirely at low temperature (300 Degree Celsius) or less, without requiring plasma-processing.

  1. Road to Grid Parity through Deployment of Low-Cost 21.5% N-Type Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velundur, Vijay [Suniva, Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This project seeks to develop and deploy differentiated 21.5% efficient n-type Si solar cells while reaching the SunShot module cost goal of ≤ $0.50/W. This objective hinges on development of enabling low cost technologies that simplify the manufacturing process and reduce overall processing costs. These comprise of (1) Boron emitter formation and passivation; (2) Simplified processing process for emitter and BSF layers; and (3) Advanced metallization for the front and back contacts.

  2. Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting. Building Technologies Solid State Lighting (SSL) Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-10-06

    This project developed an integrated substrate which organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel developers could employ the integrated substrate to fabricate OLED devices with performance and projected cost meeting the MYPP targets of the Solid State Lighting Program of the Department of Energy. The project optimized the composition and processing conditions of the integrated substrate for OLED light extraction efficiency and overall performance. The process was further developed for scale up to a low-cost process and fabrication of prototype samples. The encapsulation of flexible OLEDs based on this integrated substrate was also investigated using commercial flexible barrier films.

  3. Parameters affecting the performance of a low cost solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.; Imteaz, M.; Thomas, U.A.; Azmi, M.; Rahman, A.; Nik Daud, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The triangular solar still is designed using cheap and durable materials. • The initial water depth has an inverse relationship with the production. • The water productivity is nearly proportional to the solar radiation. • The water quality parameters are within the accepted ranges of drinking water. - Abstract: This study aims at developing a low cost technique to be used in rural and coastal areas for converting saline water into potable water using solar energy. A triangular solar still (TrSS) was, therefore, designed and developed with cheap, lightweight, local and available materials. A number of field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of solar radiation intensity, ambient air temperature and the initial water depth on the daily water production of the TrSS. A time lag of about and hour between the hourly peaks of solar radiation and water production is observed. Finally, a few essential relationships were attained, e.g. between the daily production and the initial water depth, between the daily production and daily solar radiation, and between the daily production and the average ambient temperature. The effect of the initial water depth in the basin on the daily water productivity was evaluated by varying the water depths (1.5, 2.5 and 5 cm) with the climatic condition of Malaysia and an inverse proportional relationship was revealed between them. However, the daily water productivity is nearly proportional to the daily solar radiation. In addition, some important water quality parameters were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the distillate quality and were then compared with the drinking water standards

  4. Removal of arsenic from groundwater with low cost multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, A.; Rahman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 +- 4.2 micro g/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk's ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper) of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III) under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 micro g/L), sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk's ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper), particle size (<355 micro m), treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min), optimum volume (100 mL) and pH (5.0). Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 +- 1.2% - 82 +- 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 +- 0.4 micro g/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe) in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water. (author)

  5. Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater with Low Cost Multilayer Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Samad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 ± 4.2 µg/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk’s ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 µg/L, sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk’s ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper, particle size (<355 µm, treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min, optimum volume (100 mL and pH (5.0. Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 ± 1.2% - 82 ± 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 ± 0.4 µg/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water.

  6. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  7. A low cost tele-imaging platform for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou eADAMBOUNOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To design a low cost tele-imaging method allowing real time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centres and university hospital centres (expert centre.Materials and Methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centres, allows a real time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g. midwife, nurse, technician. The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography and computer tomography for example. The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40km from Lomé-Togo and 4500km from Tours-France and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours.Results: A real time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 seconds with an internet bandwidth of around 1Mbps (IP Camera and 512kbps (remote access software. A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient centre to the expert centre was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.

  8. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  9. A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.

    1997-12-01

    We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.

  10. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  11. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  12. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter: Scalable Low-Cost Deorbit System for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter project is to develop and demonstrate a scalable, simple, reliable, and low-cost active deorbiting system capable of controlling the downrange point of impact for the full-range of small satellites from 1 kg to 180 kg. The key enabling technology being developed is the Solid State Gas Generator (SSGG) chip, generating pure nitrogen gas from sodium azide (NaN3) micro-crystals. Coupled with a metalized nonelastic drag balloon, the complete Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) system is capable of repeated inflation/deflation cycles. The SSGG minimizes size, weight, electrical power, and cost when compared to the current state of the art.

  13. A low cost general purpose portable programmable master/slave manipulative appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.

    1984-01-01

    The TRIUMF 100 μA 500 MeV cyclotron, located at the University of British Columbia, required a low cost, portable master/slave manipulative capability for experimental beam line servicing. A programmable capability was also required for the hot cell manipulators. A general purpose unit was developed that might also have applications in light manufacturing and medical rehabilitation. The project now in prototype testing represents a modular portable robot costing less than $5000 that is lead-through-teach programmable by either a master controller or hands-on lead-through. Task programs are stored and retrieved on any 32 k personal computer. An on-board proportional integral derivative controller (Motorola 6809 based) gives discrete positioning of the six degrees of freedom 2 kg capacity end effector

  14. Development of processes for the production of low cost silicon dendritic web for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hill, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    High area output rates and continuous, automated growth are two key technical requirements for the growth of low-cost silicon ribbons for solar cells. By means of computer-aided furnace design, silicon dendritic web output rates as high as 27 sq cm/min have been achieved, a value in excess of that projected to meet a $0.50 per peak watt solar array manufacturing cost. The feasibility of simultaneous web growth while the melt is replenished with pelletized silicon has also been demonstrated. This step is an important precursor to the development of an automated growth system. Solar cells made on the replenished material were just as efficient as devices fabricated on typical webs grown without replenishment. Moreover, web cells made on a less-refined, pelletized polycrystalline silicon synthesized by the Battelle process yielded efficiencies up to 13% (AM1).

  15. Planning and production of a low cost cryostat for electrical characterization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsoni, G.B.; Carvalho, C.L.; Brito, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The system BSCCO can show three main Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO, Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O with critical temperatures around 20 K, 80 K and 110 K, respectively. Therefore, it is fundamental to study these materials in details at lowest temperatures, with simple systems and low cost equipment. In this work was projected a cryogenic system with capacity to reach temperatures below the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). Based on thermodynamic principles, which is used with liquid nitrogen system, with the vacuum application and control, it has been achieved temperatures about 63 K (freezing nitrogen temperature) in the sample holder. With the availability of a large range temperature becomes possible to identify at least two superconducting phases as in system BSCCO, which also involves a cost/benefit ratio more favorable, avoiding the use of more expensive refrigerates as liquid helium. (author)

  16. Tracking Clouds with low cost GNSS chips aided by the Arduino platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Saji; Realini, Eugenio; Ishida, Shinya

    2016-04-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a constellation of satellites that is used to provide geo-positioning services. Besides this application, the GNSS system is important for a wide range of scientific and civilian applications. For example, GNSS systems are routinely used in civilian applications such as surveying and scientific applications such as the study of crustal deformation. Another important scientific application of GNSS system is in meteorological research. Here it is mainly used to determine the total water vapour content of the troposphere, hereafter Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV). However, both GNSS receivers and software have prohibitively high price due to a variety of reasons. To overcome this somewhat artificial barrier we are exploring the use of low-cost GNSS receivers along with open source GNSS software for scientific research, in particular for GNSS meteorology research. To achieve this aim, we have developed a custom Arduino compatible data logging board that is able to operate together with a specific low-cost single frequency GNSS receiver chip from NVS Technologies AG. We have also developed an open-source software bundle that includes a new Arduino core for the Atmel324p chip, which is the main processor used in our custom logger. We have also developed software code that enables data collection, logging and parsing of the GNSS data stream. Additionally we have comprehensively evaluated the low power characteristics of the GNSS receiver and logger boards. Currently we are exploring the use of several openly source or free to use for research software to map GNSS delays to PWV. These include the open source goGPS (http://www.gogps-project.org/) and gLAB (http://gage.upc.edu/gLAB) and the openly available GAMIT software from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). We note that all the firmware and software developed as part of this project is available on an open source license.

  17. A REDUNDANT GNSS-INS LOW-COST UAV NAVIGATION SOLUTION FOR PROFESSIONAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Navarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m – which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  18. a Redundant Gnss-Ins Low-Cost Uav Navigation Solution for Professional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J.; Parés, M. E.; Colomina, I.; Bianchi, G.; Pluchino, S.; Baddour, R.; Consoli, A.; Ayadi, J.; Gameiro, A.; Sekkas, O.; Tsetsos, V.; Gatsos, T.; Navoni, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m - which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  19. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  20. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    are able to produce accurate and low-cost 3D-models of gullies.

  1. How to Mobilize your Library at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Abarca Villoldo

    2012-09-01

    tools are available free of charge. In other words, these are low-cost tools that offer high returns to the user.

  2. Pointo - a Low Cost Solution to Point Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Winkler, S.

    2017-11-01

    With advance in technology access to data especially 3D point cloud data becomes more and more an everyday task. 3D point clouds are usually captured with very expensive tools such as 3D laser scanners or very time consuming methods such as photogrammetry. Most of the available softwares for 3D point cloud processing are designed for experts and specialists in this field and are usually very large software packages containing variety of methods and tools. This results in softwares that are usually very expensive to acquire and also very difficult to use. Difficulty of use is caused by complicated user interfaces that is required to accommodate a large list of features. The aim of these complex softwares is to provide a powerful tool for a specific group of specialist. However they are not necessary required by the majority of the up coming average users of point clouds. In addition to complexity and high costs of these softwares they generally rely on expensive and modern hardware and only compatible with one specific operating system. Many point cloud customers are not point cloud processing experts or willing to spend the high acquisition costs of these expensive softwares and hardwares. In this paper we introduce a solution for low cost point cloud processing. Our approach is designed to accommodate the needs of the average point cloud user. To reduce the cost and complexity of software our approach focuses on one functionality at a time in contrast with most available softwares and tools that aim to solve as many problems as possible at the same time. Our simple and user oriented design improve the user experience and empower us to optimize our methods for creation of an efficient software. In this paper we introduce Pointo family as a series of connected softwares to provide easy to use tools with simple design for different point cloud processing requirements. PointoVIEWER and PointoCAD are introduced as the first components of the Pointo family to provide a

  3. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  4. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  5. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  6. Rights as entitlements and rights as claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo, Marco Antônio Oliveira de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há pelo menos dois registros diferentes sobre o significado de “direitos”. Segundo um deles, os direitos são relações entre dois termos: uma pessoa e um bem; para o outro, os direitos são relações entre três termos: um indivíduo, uma pessoa e uma ação ou algo. Os registros são diferentes, mas não são totalmente incompatíveis. De acordo com a interpretação de direitos como entitlements, trata-se de direitos morais ou legais, ou seja, as relações de ordem moral ou jurídica das pessoas com bens (de benefícios concedidos a pessoas por uma lei humana, moral ou legal. Como uma espécie de direitos, os direitos humanos são vistos como direitos (entitlements das pessoas ou dos indivíduos a bens essenciais, dos quais podem-se inferir reivindicações (claims contra outras pessoas ou contra governos e representantes. Falamos sobre direitos humanos geralmente desta forma. Mas de acordo com o outro registro, os direitos em sentido próprio têm que ser interpretados como claims. Neste artigo, pretendo apresentar alguns argumentos em favor da vantagem de expor todos os enunciados significativos dos direitos como entitlements em termos explícitos de claims

  7. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  8. Modulating ventilation - low cost VAV for office buildings. [Variable Air Volume]; Modulerende ventilation - low cost VAV til kontor-bygninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoej Christensen, A.; Olsen, Hans; Drivsholm, C.

    2012-02-15

    The report describes a concept for renovating older existing Constant Air Volume (CAV) ventilation systems to modulating low-cost Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems. The concept is based on the total ventilated area being divided into appropriate indoor climate zones, which can cover from one to several offices with similar climate needs. For this initial climate assessment two relatively ''simple'' tools were developed that can estimate the temperature level in one room from the ventilation airflow, heat loads, etc.: - BSimFast (24-hour mean temperature calculation according to SBI-196, 2000); - BSimLight (Temperature simulation based on Danvak Textbook of Heat and Climate Technology). The concept of 'one room' can also be extended to 'one zone' with appropriate assumptions. However, only one mean room temperature is calculated. The different climate zones were equipped with Halton HFB control unit at the air supply and exhaust side. The project the following feedback options were used: - HFB unit's damper opening degree (0 to 90 degrees); - HFB unit's current flow; - HFB unit's exhaust temperature; and feedback from: - Frequency transformer (fan speed); - The central static duct pressure at the ventilation unit. In the project a control algorithm is developed that ensures a robust control of the entire ventilation system without adverse cyclic variations, based among other things on the exhaust temperature for each climate zone, and with the requirement that at least one throttle valve is always at least 80% open. It turned out that information on the current partial air volumes was necessary in addition to the individual throttle settings. Otherwise, a cyclic variations could not be controlled..Thus, it was the exhaust temperature from individual climate zones that defined the respective volumes of air. The concept was implemented on a complete CAV system and on part of a large CAV system, respectively. (LN)

  9. Developing a low-cost open-source CTD for research and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, A. D.; Sturdivant, K.

    2013-12-01

    Developing a low-cost open-source CTD for research and outreach Andrew David Thaler and Kersey Sturdivant Conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD). With these three measurements, marine scientists can unlock ocean patterns hidden beneath the waves. The ocean is not uniform, it its filled with swirling eddies, temperature boundaries, layers of high and low salinity, changing densities, and many other physical characteristics. To reveal these patterns, oceanographers use a tool called the CTD. A CTD is found on almost every major research vessel. Rare is the scientific expedition-whether it be coastal work in shallow estuaries or journeys to the deepest ocean trenches-that doesn't begin with the humble CTD cast. The CTD is not cheap. Commercial CTD's start at more the 5,000 and can climb as high as 25,000 or more. We believe that the prohibitive cost of a CTD is an unacceptable barrier to open science. The price tag excludes individuals and groups who lack research grants or significant private funds from conducting oceanographic research. We want to make this tool-the workhorse of oceanographic research-available to anyone with an interest in the oceans. The OpenCTD is a low-cost, open-source CTD suitable for both educators and scientists. The platform is built using readily available parts and is powered by an Arduino-based microcontroller. Our goal is to create a device that is accurate enough to be used for scientific research and can be constructed for less than $200. Source codes, circuit diagrams, and building plans will be freely available. The final instrument will be effective to 200 meters depth. Why 200 meters? For many coastal regions, 200 meters of water depth covers the majority of the ocean that is accessible by small boat. The OpenCTD is targeted to people working in this niche, where entire research projects can be conducted for less than the cost of a commercial CTD. However, the Open CTD is scalable, and anyone with the inclination can adapt our

  10. Entitlement and organizational behaviors: the moderating role of narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szalkowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological entitlement (active, passive, and revenge, narcissism and two types of organizational behaviors in employees. Interactions between narcissism and psychological entitlement as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB were explored. Predictors were analyzed in an effort to determine whether psychological entitlement plays a more destructive role among narcissistic employees than among non-narcissistic ones and whether the effects of narcissism on OCB and CWB are mediated by entitlement. Participants and procedure Data were obtained from 100 employees (34% men aged 22 to 59 years (M = 37.00, SD = 9.30 from public and private companies. Participants were asked to complete the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (OCBS, the Counterproductive Organizational Behaviors Scale (COBS, the Entitlement Questionnaire, and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI. Results Positive aspects of entitlement were positively associated with OCB only among narcissistic employees, and active entitlement mediated the effects of narcissism on CWB. Active entitlement was negatively related to CWB. Negative aspects of entitlement were negatively related to OCB and unrelated to CWB. Conclusions This study provides evidence for positive (healthy aspects of entitlement for organizations. The unexpected interaction between narcissism and entitlement in predicting higher levels of OCB suggests that among narcissistic employees, healthy aspects of entitlement are desirable and profitable for an organization. Psychological entitlement was observed to be an important predictor of organizational behaviors beyond narcissism itself.

  11. Good Health at Low Cost 25 years on: lessons for the future of health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin

    2013-06-15

    In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Open source software and low cost sensors for teaching UAV science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Sanchez-Bragado, R.; El-Haddad, G.; Araus, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drones, also known as UASs (unmanned aerial systems), UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft systems), are both useful advanced scientific platforms and recreational toys that are appealing to younger generations. As such, they can make for excellent education tools as well as low-cost scientific research project alternatives. However, the process of taking pretty pictures to remote sensing science can be daunting if one is presented with only expensive software and sensor options. There are a number of open-source tools and low cost platform and sensor options available that can provide excellent scientific research results, and, by often requiring more user-involvement than commercial software and sensors, provide even greater educational benefits. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm implementations, such as the Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE), which can create quality 2D image mosaics with some motion and terrain adjustments and VisualSFM (Structure from Motion), which can provide full image mosaicking with movement and orthorectification capacities. RGB image quantification using alternate color space transforms, such as the BreedPix indices, can be calculated via plugins in the open-source software Fiji (http://fiji.sc/Fiji; http://github.com/george-haddad/CIMMYT). Recent analyses of aerial images from UAVs over different vegetation types and environments have shown RGB metrics can outperform more costly commercial sensors. Specifically, Hue-based pixel counts, the Triangle Greenness Index (TGI), and the Normalized Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) consistently outperformed NDVI in estimating abiotic and biotic stress impacts on crop health. Also, simple kits are available for NDVI camera conversions. Furthermore, suggestions for multivariate analyses of the different RGB indices in the "R program for statistical computing", such as classification and regression trees can allow for a more approachable

  13. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  14. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions in Africa (and other global locations), surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The US National Weather Service (NWS) International Activities Office (IAO) in partnership with University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to provide observations for environmental monitoring, and early warning alert systems that can be deployed at weather services in developing countries. Instrumentation is being designed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The initial effort is focused on designing a surface network using GIS-based tools, deploying an initial network in Zambia, and providing training to Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) staff. The presentation will provide an overview of the project concepts, design of the low cost instrumentation, and initial experiences deploying a surface network deployment in Zambia.

  15. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that identified and evaluated commercially available and state-of-the-art polymer-based material options for manufacturing industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. A heat exchanger concept was also developed and its performance evaluated with heat transfer modeling tools.

  16. Promoting a low cost energy future in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Robert Kirchner

    confidence of financial institutions and investors in RETs. The publication of a national solar and wind atlas, for example, informs potential investors about suitable areas and reduces the costs for feasibility studies (Renewable. Energy Ventures, 2012). Due to a lack of knowledge and project experience with RETs, obtaining ...

  17. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  18. Low cost infrastructure solutions for small embedded wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to demonstrate novel economic solutions to increase the potential for installing small-scale embedded wind generator systems at many UK sites which have so far been dismissed as too difficult. Details are given of the first phase of the study which examined current solutions to infrastructure problems and potential techniques. The use of drilled rock anchor foundations to minimise the need for delivery of ready-mix concrete to wind turbine sites, and the use of a winch and A-frame system for erecting a wind turbine to avoid the use of cranes are discussed. The demonstration of the installation of a 50kW wind turbine on the Isle of Luing in Scotland where there is no access for cranes or larger vehicles in the second phase of the project is described. The potential for the use of these techniques on larger wind turbines is considered.

  19. Low cost thin film poly-silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design and develop a high density plasma based thin-film poly-silicon (TFPS) deposition system based on PQL proprietary advanced plasma technology to produce semiconductor quality TFPS for fabricating a TFPS solar cell. Details are given of the TFPS deposition system, the material development programme, solar cell structure, and cell efficiencies. The reproducibility of the deposition process and prospects for commercial exploitation are discussed.

  20. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  1. a Precise, Low-Cost Rtk Gnss System for Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempfhuber, W.; Buchholz, M.

    2011-09-01

    High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1-3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance), and farming (precision farming) as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.). The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin - and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project in the area of

  2. A PRECISE, LOW-COST RTK GNSS SYSTEM FOR UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stempfhuber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1–3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance, and farming (precision farming as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.. The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin – and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project

  3. 42 CFR 31.11 - Persons entitled to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons entitled to treatment. 31.11 Section 31.11... § 31.11 Persons entitled to treatment. To the extent and under the circumstances prescribed in this part, the following persons shall be entitled to medical, surgical, and dental treatment and...

  4. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 725.219... of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning... month in which any one of the following events first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries...

  5. 20 CFR 725.218 - Conditions of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; child. 725.218... Conditions of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits where he or she meets the... the child of a deceased miner who: (1) Was receiving benefits under section 415 or part C of title IV...

  6. 20 CFR 410.212 - Conditions of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; child. 410.212...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.212 Conditions of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits if such individual: (1) Is the child or stepchild (see § 410.330) of (i) a deceased miner...

  7. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions of...

  8. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  9. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  10. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  11. Design of a low-cost hybrid powertrain with large fuel savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Romers, L.H.J.; Vroemen, B.G.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of a low-cost hybrid powertrain with large fuel savings. The hybrid powertrain contains only low-cost mechanical components, such as a flywheel module and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Noelectrical motor/generator or battery is used. Based on

  12. Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) Headset Design for Widespread Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    therefore did not implement or test actual sensors or electronic components (analog-to-digital conversion, power , and the wireless transmission ...ARL-TR-7703 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless Electroencephalography...originator. ARL-TR-7703 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless

  13. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...

  14. A low cost rapid prototype platform for a three phase PFC rectifier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a low cost rapid prototype platform for a Three Phase PFC rectifier application is presented. The active rectifier consists of a SiC-MOSFET based PWM converter and a low cost rapid prototype platform for simulating and implementing the digital control...

  15. Pasteurization of goat milk using a low cost solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Judith; Saravia, Luis; Javi, Veronica; Caso, Ricardo; Fernandez, Carlos [INENCO - UNSa, Av. Bolivia 5150, 4400, Salta (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents the design of a system for pasteurizing goat milk as a part of a process for artisan elaboration of cheese. The system consists in a Fresnel type concentrator used for cooking large amounts of food with a vaporizer located in the focus. The steam bubbles into the isolated container where the milk is cooked by a double boiler. When the desired temperature is reached, the steam flow is closed and the milk remains in this condition for 30 min into the closed container. Pasteurizing of 10 l of milk is done in about 1 h. The project considers guidelines for achieving a successful process. (author)

  16. 3D CAPTURING PERFORMANCES OF LOW-COST RANGE SENSORS FOR MASS-MARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010, several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  17. A portable low-cost 3D point cloud acquiring method based on structure light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Li; Zheng, Shunyi; Huang, Xia; Zhao, Like; Ma, Hao; Ge, Chao; Tang, Qiuxia

    2018-03-01

    A fast and low-cost method of acquiring 3D point cloud data is proposed in this paper, which can solve the problems of lack of texture information and low efficiency of acquiring point cloud data with only one pair of cheap cameras and projector. Firstly, we put forward a scene adaptive design method of random encoding pattern, that is, a coding pattern is projected onto the target surface in order to form texture information, which is favorable for image matching. Subsequently, we design an efficient dense matching algorithm that fits the projected texture. After the optimization of global algorithm and multi-kernel parallel development with the fusion of hardware and software, a fast acquisition system of point-cloud data is accomplished. Through the evaluation of point cloud accuracy, the results show that point cloud acquired by the method proposed in this paper has higher precision. What`s more, the scanning speed meets the demand of dynamic occasion and has better practical application value.

  18. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations in Data Sparse Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions of the World, surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), with support from USAID, has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The project is focused on improving weather observations for environmental monitoring and early warning alert systems on a regional to global scale. Instrumentation that has been developed use innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The goal of the project is to make the weather station designs, software, and processing tools an open community resource. The weather stations can be built locally by agencies, through educational institutions, and residential communities as a citizen effort to augment existing networks to improve detection of natural hazards for disaster risk reduction. The presentation will provide an overview of the open source weather station technology and evaluation of sensor observations for the initial networks that have been deployed in Africa.

  19. Efficient, Low Cost Dish Concentrator for a CPV Based Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayet, Haim; Kost, Ori; Moran, Rani; Lozovsky, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    Zenith Solar Ltd has developed efficient electricity and heat co-generation system based on segmented-parabolic dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 and water cooled dense array module combined of triple junction cells. Conventional parabolic dishes are inherently inefficient in the sense that the radiant flux distribution is non uniform causing inefficient generation by the PV array. Secondary optics improves uniformity but introduces additional complexity and losses to the system. Zenith's dish is assembled of 1200 flat mirrors of approximately 100 cm2 each. Every mirror facet has a unique shape such that the geometrical projection from each mirror on the focal plane is essentially the same. When perfectly aligned, the projected radiation from all mirrors overlaps uniformly on the PV surface. The low cost construction of the dish utilizes plastic mount supported by a precise metal frame. The precision of the metal frame affects the overall optical efficiency of the mirror and hence the efficiency of the system. State of the art dish of 11 m2 active aperture results in output of 2.25 kWp (900 W/m2) electrical and 5 kWp thermal power from one dish system representing 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 71% overall system efficiency.

  20. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In this report we summarize the implications, impacts, and deployment potential of reaching the SunShot 2030 targets for the electricity system in the contiguous United States. We model 25 scenarios of the U.S. power sector using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) and Distributed Generation (dGen) capacity expansion models. The scenarios cover a wide range of sensitivities to capture future uncertainties relating to fuel prices, retirements, renewable energy capital costs, and load growth. We give special attention to the potential for storage costs to also rapidly decline due to its large synergies with low-cost solar. The ReEDS and dGen models project utility- and distributed-scale power sector evolution, respectively, for the United States. Both models have been designed with special emphasis on capturing the unique traits of renewable energy, including variability and grid integration requirements. Across the suite of scenarios modeled, we find that reaching the SunShot 2030 target has the potential to lead to significant capacity additions of PV in the United States. By 2050, PV penetration levels are projected to reach 28-46 percent of total generation. If storage also sees significant reductions in cost, then the 2050 solar penetration levels could reach 41-64 percent. PV deployment is projected to occur in all of the lower 48 states, though the specific deployment level is scenario dependent. The growth in PV is projected to be dominated by utility-scale systems, but the actual mix between utility and distributed systems could ultimately vary depending on how policies, system costs, and rate structures evolve.

  1. Low cost bipolar current collector-separator for electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.

    1980-01-01

    A bipolar current collecting, cell separating element for electrochemical cells for conducting current from the anode electrode of one cell unit to cathode electrode of the adjacent cell unit comprises: (A) a pressure mold aggregate of electrically conductive carbon/graphite particles and thermoplastic fluorocarbon polymer resin particles in a weight ratio of 2.5:1 to 16:1 whereby said molded aggregated has a bulk resistivity which is less than 4x10 -3 ohm/inch, (B) said molded aggregate having a fluid imprevious main body, at least one recessed chamber on one side of said main body and a plurality of spaced, conductive projections extending from the base of said chamber for contacting and permitting current flow between the electrode of adjacent cell unit, and (C) means communicating with said recessed chambers to permit introduction and removal of fluids

  2. Low-cost solar array progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    It is pointed out that significant redirection has occurred in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaics Program, and thus in the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), since the 3rd European Communities Conference. The Silicon Materials Task has now the objective to sponsor theoretical and experimental research on silicon material refinement technology suitable for photovoltaic flat-plate solar arrays. With respect to the hydrochlorination reaction, a process proof of concept was completed through definition of reaction kinetics, catalyst, and reaction characteristics. In connection with the dichlorosilane chemical vapor desposition process, a preliminary design was completed of an experimental process system development unit with a capacity of 100 to 200 MT/yr of Si.Attention is also given to the silicon-sheet formation research area, environmental isolation research, the cell and module formation task, the engineering sciences area, and the module performance and failure analysis area.

  3. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  4. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  5. Can a sense of entitlement increase stealing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    Are people more likely to steal when the payoff they deserve is determined randomly or when it depends on their performance in a difficult task? In this paper I investigate how the probability of stealing is affected by the way in which payoff is earned. After answering a short survey one group...... to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than the participants in the random payment scheme. In contrast to previous findings in the cheating literature, stealing is an all-or-nothing decision rather than a trade-off between a slightly higher payoff and the desire to keep ones moral values intact....... The results support the theory that unethical behavior is increased by a sense of entitlement, which is more pronounced when wealth depends on performance than on the roll of a die....

  6. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  7. Low-Cost Telemetry System for Small/Micro Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William; Varnavas, Kosta

    2012-01-01

    A Software Defined Radio (SDR) concept uses a minimum amount of analog/radio frequency components to up/downconvert the RF signal to/from a digital format. Once in the digital domain, all other processing (filtering, modulation, demodulation, etc.) is done in software. The project will leverage existing designs and enhance capabilities in the commercial sector to provide a path to a radiation-hardened SDR transponder. The SDR transponder would incorporate baseline technologies dealing with improved Forward Error Correcting (FEC) codes to be deployed to all Near Earth Network (NEN) ground stations. By incorporating this FEC, at least a tenfold increase in data throughput can be achieved. A family of transponder products can be implemented using common platform architecture, allowing new products to be more quickly introduced into the market. Software can be reused across products, reducing software/hardware costs dramatically. New features and capabilities, such as encoding and decoding algorithms, filters, and bit synchronizers, can be added to the existing infrastructure without requiring major new capital expenditures, allowing implementation of advanced features in the communication systems. As new telecommunication technologies emerge, incorporating them into the SDR fabric will be easily accomplished with little or no requirements for new hardware. There are no preferred flight platforms for the SDR technology, so it can be used on any type of orbital or sub-orbital platform, all within a fully radiation hardened design.

  8. Low Cost Fabrication of 2G Wires for AC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodenkandath, T.; List, F.A., III

    2005-09-15

    Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as an adaptable technology for printing YBCO filaments using a Metal Organic (MO) YBCO precursor. The technology was demonstrated using AMSC's proprietary metal organic TFA-based YBCO precursor and a commercial piezoelectric print-head on RABiTS templates. Filaments with a width of 100 um and spacing of 200 um were successfully printed, decomposed and processed to YBCO. Critical currents of {approx} 200 A/cm-w were achieved in a series of filaments with a 2 mm width. The single nozzle laboratory printer used in the Phase 1 program is capable of printing {approx} 100 um wide single filaments at a rate of 8-10 cm/sec. The electrical stabilization of filaments with a Ag ink was also evaluated using ink-jet printing. The overall objective of the Phase 1 Project was the evaluation and demonstration of inkjet-printing for depositing YBCO filaments on textured templates (RABiTS, IBAD, ISD, etc. substrates) with properties appropriate for low loss ac conductors. Goals of the Phase 1 program included development of an appropriate precursor ink, demonstration of the printing process, processing and characterization of printed YBCO filaments and evaluation of the process for further development.

  9. Student Entitlement Models in Australia's National Training System: Expert Views. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kaye; McKenna, Suzy

    2016-01-01

    This occasional paper provides the views of 17 "thought leaders" in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. Their insight and opinions were sought to inform a larger research project focused on the student entitlement reforms that were introduced into the national VET system from 2012. These individuals offered a…

  10. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  11. Low cost energy in Canada: The view from downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, K.

    1993-01-01

    The key cost determinants of energy in Canada are analyzed and recommendations are made to ensure the competitiveness of Canadian energy costs and energy-consuming industries in the North American and world markets. Oil supplies 45% of world energy and has a key role in determining prices of all other energy forms since it serves as an incremental source of energy: its consumption changes according to economic growth, changes in weather patterns, and other factors. North America currently accounts for about a third of world oil consumption. North American oil demand is expected to remain flat over the next few decades. As Canada only produces ca 3% of world oil supply, it cannot determine oil prices. However, with an efficient downstream industry, Canada can influence the end-user price of energy. The cost structure of refined products in Canada is analyzed. The cost of raw materials is the single biggest determinant of the final product cost, followed by taxes, operating costs, and profit margin. For gasoline in Ontario, taxes account for half the retail cost, crude oil prices ca 30%, and refining costs ca 4%. Refining costs comprise about two thirds labor costs and one third energy costs. Refiner margins have not exceeded 2 cents/l since 1981, creating reluctance to invest in the refining sector. By 1994, some 200,000 bbl/d of refining capacity is expected to be shut down in Canada. Compared to refineries in the USA, Canadian refineries are smaller and have a much lower capacity to upgrade residual fuel oil to light products. Future challenges to the industry include a projected need for $5 billion in investment, largely to fund new environmental initiatives. Such an investment cannot be met through current industry profits. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  12. A LOW-COST GPR GAS PIPE & LEAK DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Cist; Alan Schutz

    2005-03-30

    A light-weight, easy to use ground penetrating radar (GPR) system for tracking metal/non-metal pipes has been developed. A pre-production prototype instrument has been developed whose production cost and ease of use should fit important market niches. It is a portable tool which is swept back and forth like a metal detector and which indicates when it goes over a target (metal, plastic, concrete, etc.) and how deep it is. The innovation of real time target detection frees the user from having to interpret geophysical data and instead presents targets as dots on the screen. Target depth is also interpreted automatically, relieving the user of having to do migration analysis. In this way the user can simply walk around looking for targets and, by ''connecting the dots'' on the GPS screen, locate and follow pipes in real time. This is the first tool known to locate metal and non-metal pipes in real time and map their location. This prototype design is similar to a metal detector one might use at the beach since it involves sliding a lightweight antenna back and forth over the ground surface. The antenna is affixed to the end of an extension that is either clipped to or held by the user. This allows him to walk around in any direction, either looking for or following pipes with the antenna location being constantly recorded by the positioning system. Once a target appears on the screen, the user can locate by swinging the unit to align the cursor over the dot. Leak detection was also a central part of this project, and although much effort was invested into its development, conclusive results are not available at the time of the writing of this document. Details of the efforts that were made as a part of this cooperative agreement are presented.

  13. Towards the next generation 23% efficient n-type cells with low cost manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Suniva, Inc., in collaboration with the University Center for Excellence in Photovoltaics (UCEP) at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) proposed this comprehensive three year program to enable the development of an advanced high performance product that will help the US regain its competitive edge in PV. This project was designed to overcome cost and efficiency barriers through advances in PV science, technology innovation, low-cost manufacturing and full production of ~22.5% efficient n-type Si cells in Norcross, GA. At the heart of the project is the desire to complement the technology being developed concurrently under the Solarmat and ARPAe initiatives to develop a differentiated product superior in both performance and cost effectiveness to the competing alternatives available on the market, and push towards achieving SunShot objectives while ensuring a sustainable business model based on US manufacturing. A significant reduction of the costs in modules produced today will need to combine reductions in wafer costs, cell processing costs as well as module fabrication costs while delivering a product that is not only more efficient under test conditions but also increases the energy yield in outdoor operations. This project will result in a differentiated high performance product and technology that is consistent with sustaining PV manufacturing in the US for a longer term and further highlights the need for continued support for developing the next generation concepts that can keep US manufacturing thriving to support the growing demand for PV in the US and consistent with the US government’s mandates for energy independence.

  14. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  15. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  16. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  17. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Todd; DeFanti, Thomas A.; Dawe, Greg; Prudhomme, Andrew; Schulze, Jurgen P.; Cutchin, Steve

    2011-03-01

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have created a new, relatively low-cost augmented reality system that enables users to touch the virtual environment they are immersed in. The Heads-Up Virtual Reality device (HUVR) couples a consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user's hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a force-feedback (haptic) device to interact with the 3D image, literally 'touching' the object's angles and contours as if it was a tangible physical object. HUVR can be used for training and education in structural and mechanical engineering, archaeology and medicine as well as other tasks that require hand-eye coordination. One of the most unique characteristics of HUVR is that a user can place their hands inside of the virtual environment without occluding the 3D image. Built using open-source software and consumer level hardware, HUVR offers users a tactile experience in an immersive environment that is functional, affordable and scalable.

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry Measurements in Schools and Outreach Activities with Low-cost Air Quality Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z.; Monks, P. S.; McKenzie, K.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing range of low cost air quality sensors entering the market-place or being developed in-house in the last couple of years has led to many possibilities for using these instruments for public outreach activities or citizen science projects. A range of instruments sent out into local schools for the children to interpret and analyse the data and put the air quality in their area into context. A teaching package with tutorials has been developed to bring the data to life and link in with curriculum.The instruments have also been positioned around the city of Leicester in the UK to help understand the spatial variations in air quality and to assess the impact of retro-fitting buses on a busy bus route. The data is easily accessible online on a near real time basis and the various instruments can be compared with others around the country or the world from classrooms around the world.We will give an overview of the instrumentation with a comparison with commercial and cutting edge research instrumentation, the type of activities that were carried out and the public outreach forums where the data can be used.

  19. Low cost heads-up virtual reality (HUVR) with optical tracking and haptic feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Margolis, Todd

    2011-01-23

    Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, have created a new, relatively low-cost augmented reality system that enables users to touch the virtual environment they are immersed in. The Heads-Up Virtual Reality device (HUVR) couples a consumer 3D HD flat screen TV with a half-silvered mirror to project any graphic image onto the user\\'s hands and into the space surrounding them. With his or her head position optically tracked to generate the correct perspective view, the user maneuvers a force-feedback (haptic) device to interact with the 3D image, literally \\'touching\\' the object\\'s angles and contours as if it was a tangible physical object. HUVR can be used for training and education in structural and mechanical engineering, archaeology and medicine as well as other tasks that require hand-eye coordination. One of the most unique characteristics of HUVR is that a user can place their hands inside of the virtual environment without occluding the 3D image. Built using open-source software and consumer level hardware, HUVR offers users a tactile experience in an immersive environment that is functional, affordable and scalable.

  20. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  1. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); McBride, Troy O. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Brambles, Oliver J. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Cashin, Emil A. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  2. Surface plasmon microscopy with low-cost metallic nanostructures for biosensing I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Nathan; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Otto, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    The field of plasmonics aims to manipulate light over dimensions smaller than the optical wavelength by exploiting surface plasmon resonances in metallic films. Typically, surface plasmons are excited by illuminating metallic nanostructures. For meaningful research in this exciting area, the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures is critical, and in an undergraduate setting, low-cost methods are desirable. Careful optical characterization of the metallic nanostructures is also required. Here, we present the use of novel, inexpensive nanofabrication techniques and the development of a customized surface plasmon microscopy setup for interdisciplinary undergraduate experiments in biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and surface plasmon imaging. A Bethel undergraduate student performs the nanofabrication in collaboration with the University of Minnesota. The rewards of mentoring undergraduate students in cooperation with a large research university are numerous, exposing them to a wide variety of opportunities. This research also interacts with upper-level, open-ended laboratory projects, summer research, a semester-long senior research experience, and will enable a large range of experiments into the future.

  3. A Low-Cost and Secure Solution for e-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Marc; Vacquez, Delphine; Rosenberger, Christophe

    We present in this paper a new architecture for remote banking and e-commerce applications. The proposed solution is designed to be low cost and provides some good guarantees of security for a client and his bank issuer. Indeed, the main problem for an issuer is to identify and authenticate one client (a cardholder) using his personal computer through the web when this client wants to access to remote banking services or when he wants to pay on a e-commerce site equipped with 3D-secure payment solution. The proposed solution described in this paper is MasterCard Chip Authentication Program compliant and was experimented in the project called SOPAS. The main contribution of this system consists in the use of a smartcard with a I2C bus that pilots a terminal only equipped with a screen and a keyboard. During the use of services, the user types his PIN code on the keyboard and all the security part of the transaction is performed by the chip of the smartcard. None information of security stays on the personal computer and a dynamic token created by the card is sent to the bank and verified by the front end. We present first the defined methodology and we analyze the main security aspects of the proposed solution.

  4. Low-cost, smartphone based frequency doubling technology visual field testing using virtual reality (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawa, Karam A.; Sayed, Mohamed; Arboleda, Alejandro; Durkee, Heather A.; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Lee, Richard K.

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to its wide prevalence, effective screening tools are necessary. The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that enables portable, cost effective, smartphone based visual field screening based on frequency doubling technology. The system is comprised of an Android smartphone to display frequency doubling stimuli and handle processing, a Bluetooth remote for user input, and a virtual reality headset to simulate the exam. The LG Nexus 5 smartphone and BoboVR Z3 virtual reality headset were used for their screen size and lens configuration, respectively. The system is capable of running the C-20, N-30, 24-2, and 30-2 testing patterns. Unlike the existing system, the smartphone FDT tests both eyes concurrently by showing the same background to both eyes but only displaying the stimulus to one eye at a time. Both the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the smartphone FDT were tested on five subjects without a history of ocular disease with the C-20 testing pattern. The smartphone FDT successfully produced frequency doubling stimuli at the correct spatial and temporal frequency. Subjects could not tell which eye was being tested. All five subjects preferred the smartphone FDT to the Humphrey Zeiss FDT due to comfort and ease of use. The smartphone FDT is a low-cost, portable visual field screening device that can be used as a screening tool for glaucoma.

  5. A Novel Low-Cost Adaptive Scanner Concept for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Stančić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in mobile robot applications is the need for accurate knowledge of the position of a vehicle for localizing itself and for avoiding obstacles in its path. In the search for a solution to this problem, researchers and engineers have developed different sensors, systems and techniques. Modern mobile robots relay information obtained from a variety of sensors and sophisticated data fusion algorithms. In this paper, a novel concept for a low-cost adaptive scanner based on a projected light pattern is proposed. The main advantage of the proposed system is its adaptivity, which enables the rapid scanning of the robot’s surroundings in search of obstacles and a more detailed scan of a single object to retrieve its surface configuration and perform some limited analyses. This paper addresses the concept behind such a scanner, where a proof-of-concept is achieved using an office DLP projector. During the measurements, the accuracy of the proposed system was tested on obstacles and objects with known configurations. The obtained results are presented and analyzed, and conclusions about the system’s performance and possible improvements are discussed.

  6. Making optics appealing in Colombia through low-cost experiments with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Juan R.; Barbosa, Nicolás.; Cotrino, Sergio; Guzmán, David A.; Mahecha, Víctor; Medina, Cristian; Navarrete, M. Cristina; Uribe, Leonardo; Valencia, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    With the aim of making optics reachable to all audiences, regardless of their age or area of study, we have decided to select, build and test a set of four experiments based on optical phenomena. An important factor in our approach is that the experiments should be used by any non-experienced exhibitor to amaze the audience and to arise in them interest in optics. Ease of setup is therefore desired. Requirements such as durability, repeatability and reduced cost are welcome as well. Taking advantage of the low prices of laser pointers, we focused on experiments which use this nowadays accessible element. The experiments that integrate our selection, costing less than USD75, are: a water stream optical fiber, curved light beams on a honey-water mixture, an optical music transmitter-receiver, and holographic film projections. Among the covered concepts are reflection and refraction of light, color, optical communications, optical interference and modern everyday life's applications. We have presented these setups in activities at our university to a wide range of educational levels, from 12-year old students, passing by last year high school students on a career day event, not leaving behind undergraduate students of any discipline. Moved by the positive response of the audience, we plan to expand its application to continuing education courses and kids' science fairs. We proved that having low-cost setups, useful when teaching science in developing countries, can help to broaden the target audience.

  7. A Novel Low-Cost Sensor Prototype for Monitoring Temperature during Wine Fermentation in Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multipurpose and low cost sensor for temperature control over the wine fermentation process, in order to steadily communicate data through wireless modules in real time to a viticulturist’s mobile or fixed device. The advantage of our prototype is due to the fact that it will be used by small winemakers in the “Ribera del Duero” area, and as it is a cheaper sensor and easy to use for the control and monitoring of the grape fermentation process, it will probably be used by other business men with the same necessities in the region. The microcontroller MSP430G2553 is among the components that make up the sensor, that are integrated onto a motherboard. It communicates with the RN-42 Bluetooth module through an UART interface. After verifying that all elements are working correctly, the parts are assembled to form the final prototype. This device has been tested in a winery in the region, fulfilling the initial project specifications.

  8. A low cost support post for SSC quadrupole magnets and other cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, M.W.; Kunz, R.J.; Lehmann, G.A.; Nilles, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    An injection molded support post has been designed and tested for use in the cryostat of the 5.4 meter long SSC Collider Quadrupole Magnet (CQM). This glass reinforced thermoplastic support is less costly than the complex alternative post designs that consist of filament wound tubes with thermal shrink fit metallic end pieces. The near net shape injection molding process delivers customized components at production rates suitable for present and proposed large scale cryogenic projects such as large accelerators, SMES, and Maglev. In addition, standard shapes (plates, tubes, threaded rods, and fasteners) comprised of this composite are available as catalog items. This paper presents the design considerations, material testing, and validation of predicted structural performance through component testing. Test results reported herein include compressive strength validations as well as previously unreported creep, thermal conductivity, and thermal contraction data. A delineated reliability method is discussed for verifying compliance with apportioned reliability targets using a synthesis of the FEA and test data. Also the design approach and data presented here can be extended toward the design of low cost mass produced supports for other cryogenic applications

  9. Low Cost Desktop Image Analysis Workstation With Enhanced Interactive User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Huang, H. K.

    1989-05-01

    A multimodality picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is in routine clinical use in the UCLA Radiology Department. Several types workstations are currently implemented for this PACS. Among them, the Apple Macintosh II personal computer was recently chosen to serve as a desktop workstation for display and analysis of radiological images. This personal computer was selected mainly because of its extremely friendly user-interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community and its low cost. In comparison to other microcomputer-based systems the Macintosh II offers the following advantages: the extreme standardization of its user interface, file system and networking, and the availability of a very large variety of commercial software packages. In the current configuration the Macintosh II operates as a stand-alone workstation where images are imported from a centralized PACS server through an Ethernet network using a standard TCP-IP protocol, and stored locally on magnetic disk. The use of high resolution screens (1024x768 pixels x 8bits) offer sufficient performance for image display and analysis. We focused our project on the design and implementation of a variety of image analysis algorithms ranging from automated structure and edge detection to sophisticated dynamic analysis of sequential images. Specific analysis programs were developed for ultrasound images, digitized angiograms, MRI and CT tomographic images and scintigraphic images.

  10. Extracting Objects for Aerial Manipulation on UAVs Using Low Cost Stereo Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Giving unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs the possibility to manipulate objects vastly extends the range of possible applications. This applies to rotary wing UAVs in particular, where their capability of hovering enables a suitable position for in-flight manipulation. Their manipulation skills must be suitable for primarily natural, partially known environments, where UAVs mostly operate. We have developed an on-board object extraction method that calculates information necessary for autonomous grasping of objects, without the need to provide the model of the object’s shape. A local map of the work-zone is generated using depth information, where object candidates are extracted by detecting areas different to our floor model. Their image projections are then evaluated using support vector machine (SVM classification to recognize specific objects or reject bad candidates. Our method builds a sparse cloud representation of each object and calculates the object’s centroid and the dominant axis. This information is then passed to a grasping module. Our method works under the assumption that objects are static and not clustered, have visual features and the floor shape of the work-zone area is known. We used low cost cameras for creating depth information that cause noisy point clouds, but our method has proved robust enough to process this data and return accurate results.

  11. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  12. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  13. Design, Development and Optimization of a Low Cost System for Digital Industrial Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    regional training courses in which participants from Member States were given training in DIR techniques. The IAEA also supported establishing facilities for DIR techniques in some Member States. Realizing the need for easy construction and assembly of a low cost, more economically viable system for DIR technology, the IAEA conducted a coordinated research project (CRP) during 2007-2010 for research and development in the field of digital radiology, with the participation of 12 Member State laboratories. The current publication on design, development and optimization of a low cost DIR system is based on the findings of this CRP and inputs from other experts. The report provides guidelines to enable interested Member States to build their own DIR system in an affordable manner

  14. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  15. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective

  16. A low-cost Raman spectrometer design used to study Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The paper discusses the design of a low cost Raman spectrometer. ... system. We observe both the radial-breathing mode (RBM) and the tangential mode ... broadened due to the inherent tube diameter distribution present in the material.

  17. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  18. Measuring In-Flight Angular Motion With a Low-Cost Magnetometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harkins, Thomas E; Wilson, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    A technique for obtaining pitch, yaw, and roll rates of a projectile from a single, low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf magnetometer has been developed at the Advanced Munitions Concepts Branch of the U.S...

  19. Low-Cost Planar PTF Sensors for the Identity Verification of Smartcard Holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The properties of mechanical flexibility, low-cost and planar geometry make polymer thick film (PTF) sensors attractive for embedded smartcard biometrics. PTF piezoelectric and piezoresistive pressure sensors are investigated for their potential to capture spatial human characteristics. However, it

  20. Innovative Applications of DoD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  1. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers for Air/Water Purification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian

    1999-01-01

    .... proposes a novel activated carbon fiber (ACF) that will combine the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical weapons...

  2. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Mulle, Matthieu; Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube

  3. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  4. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  5. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost, high vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at...

  6. A Low Cost Light Weight Polymer Derived Ceramic Telescope Mirror, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  7. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  8. Passive low-cost inkjet-printed smart skin sensor for structural health monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen; Shamim, Atif; Tentzeris, Manos

    2012-01-01

    presents a step towards fully integrated, low-cost, conformal and environmentally friendly smart skins for real-time monitoring of large structures. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.

  9. A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a...

  10. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  11. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  12. A low-cost vaporization-atomization system for atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn F, C.G.; Ambiado V, F.; Woerner V, R.

    1990-01-01

    A low-cost vaporization-atomization system for atomic absorption spectrometry is developed as an alternative to the use of a graphite furnace in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. (Author)

  13. An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An easy and low cost option for economic statistical process control using Excel. ... in both economic and economic statistical designs of the X-control chart. ... in this paper and the numerical examples illustrated are executed on this program.

  14. Tunable Laser for High-Performance, Low-Cost Distributed Sensing Platform, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will establish technical feasibility of an approach to optimizing a low-cost, fast-sweeping tunable laser for distributed sensing. Multiple...

  15. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  16. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Aakash C.; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to ...

  17. Architectural design for a low cost FPGA-based traffic signal detection system in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ignacio; Salvador, Rubén; Alarcón, Jaime; Moreno, Félix

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we propose an architecture for an embedded traffic signal detection system. Development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is one of the major trends of research in automotion nowadays. Examples of past and ongoing projects in the field are CHAMELEON ("Pre-Crash Application all around the vehicle" IST 1999-10108), PREVENT (Preventive and Active Safety Applications, FP6-507075, http://www.prevent-ip.org/) and AVRT in the US (Advanced Vision-Radar Threat Detection (AVRT): A Pre-Crash Detection and Active Safety System). It can be observed a major interest in systems for real-time analysis of complex driving scenarios, evaluating risk and anticipating collisions. The system will use a low cost CCD camera on the dashboard facing the road. The images will be processed by an Altera Cyclone family FPGA. The board does median and Sobel filtering of the incoming frames at PAL rate, and analyzes them for several categories of signals. The result is conveyed to the driver. The scarce resources provided by the hardware require an architecture developed for optimal use. The system will use a combination of neural networks and an adapted blackboard architecture. Several neural networks will be used in sequence for image analysis, by reconfiguring a single, generic hardware neural network in the FPGA. This generic network is optimized for speed, in order to admit several executions within the frame rate. The sequence will follow the execution cycle of the blackboard architecture. The global, blackboard architecture being developed and the hardware architecture for the generic, reconfigurable FPGA perceptron will be explained in this paper. The project is still at an early stage. However, some hardware implementation results are already available and will be offered in the paper.

  18. Teaching Rational Entitlement and Responsibility: A Socratic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a Socratic exercise that introduces participants to the norm of rational entitlement, as distinct from political entitlement, and the attendant norm of rational responsibility. The exercise demonstrates that, because participants are not willing to exchange their own opinion at random for another differing opinion to which the owner is, by the participants’ own admission, entitled, they treat their entitlement to their own opinion differently, giving it a special status. This gives rise to rational obligations such as the obligation to provide reasons, and a willingness to risk those opinions to the force of the better reason.

  19. Seal coat quality : does low cost mean low quality? : project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In the laboratory test program for aggregates, the research team found that the gravel aggregates, which are also SAC A aggregates, performed the best in terms of wear resistance as measured with the methods described here. The remaining aggregates, ...

  20. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Identify the most effective and economical methods for preventing or : mitigating freeze-thaw damage to granular surfaced roads in seasonally : cold regions : Construct demonstration test sections using several stabilization : methods recomme...

  1. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  2. Low cost solar array project. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support R and D for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) are presented. The civil construction work was completed and the mechanical bid package is in preparation. The electrical design effort is in progress. Parallel efforts which complement the mechanical design are the process flow diagrams and control instrumentation logic for startup operation and shutdown. These are in progress and will identify all process and utility streams, control systems, and flow logic. The data collection system takes the signals from the instrumentation, translates them into engineering units and finally develops a data report which summarizes all key performance parameters. Cleaning procedures have been established to assure a contamination-free product and inspection visits have been made to the fabricators of specialty equipment.

  3. Low cost silicon solar array project: Feasibility of low-cost, high-volume production of silane and pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    Silicon epitaxy analysis of silane produced in the Process Development Unit operating in a completely integrated mode consuming only hydrogen and metallurgical silicon resulted in film resistivities of up to 120 ohms cm N type. Preliminary kinetic studies of dichlorosilane disproportionation in the liquid phase have shown that 11.59% SiH4 is formed at equilibrium after 12 minutes contact time at 56 C. The fluid-bed reactor was operated continuously for 48 hours with a mixture of one percent silane in helium as the fluidizing gas. A high silane pyrolysis efficiency was obtained without the generation of excessive fines. Gas flow conditions near the base of the reactor were unfavorable for maintaining a bubbling bed with good heat transfer characteristics. Consequently, a porous agglomerate formed in the lower portion of the reactor. Dense coherent plating was obtained on the silicon seed particles which had remained fluidizied throughout the experiment.

  4. Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Feasibility of Low-cost, High-volume Production of Silane and Pyrolysis of Silane to Semiconductor-grade Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Farrier, E. G.; Morihara, H.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of copper promotes a more rapid approach to the steady stete operating condition and results in a more consistent reactor effluent composition. The average kinetic and equilibrium yield are unchanged. Incoloy has been identified as the preferred choice of material of construction for the hydrogenation reactor although certain metallurgical changes were noted in samples exposed to the H2/HCl atmosphere at 500 C which indicate the need for more testing.

  5. Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon phase 2. silicon material task, low-cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.; Rose, E. E.; Thompson, W. B.; Schmitt, W. A.; Fippin, J. S.; Kidd, R. W.; Liu, C. Y.; Kerbler, P. S.; Ackley, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Progress from October 1, 1977, through December 31, 1977, is reported in the design of the 50 MT/year experimental facility for the preparation of high purity silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles to form a free flowing granular product.

  6. Low cost silicon solar array project. Task 1: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low cost, high volume production of silane, SiH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, W. C.; Mui, J. Y. P.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of the redistribution of dichlorosilane and trichlorosilane vapor over a tertiary amine ion exchange resin catalyst were investigated. The hydrogenation of SiCl4 to form HSiCl3 and the direct synthesis of H2SiCl2 from HCl gas and metallurgical silicon metal were also studied. The purification of SiH4 using activated carbon adsorbent was studied along with a process for storing SiH4 absorbed on carbon. The latter makes possible a higher volumetric efficiency than compressed gas storage. A mini-plant designed to produce ten pounds per day of SiH4 is described.

  7. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  8. Engineering IT-enabled sustainable electricity services the tale of two low-cost green Azores Islands

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Le; Liu, Qixing

    2013-01-01

    Engineering IT-Enabled Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands covers sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative sources. The “Green Islands” project represents a decade of work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources. The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).  Sited on two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute, coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy, fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources available. This contributed volume presents methods for predicting variable resources, such as wind power generation, and analyzes the achievable accuracy of these predictions. Throughout this book, contributors sho...

  9. Academic Entitlement in the Context of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey, Jean; Joakim, Erin; Schoner, Vivian; Hambly, Derrick; Silver, Amber; Jayasundera, Rohan; Nelson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the linkages between students' sense of entitlement and their approaches to learning, based on survey research at a large public university in Canada. Through literature review and pilot testing, a questionnaire instrument was developed that measures four constructs: academic entitlement, deep learning, surface learning and…

  10. Entitlement Attitudes Predict Students' Poor Performance in Challenging Academic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna; Halberstadt, Jamin; Aitken, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Excessive entitlement--an exaggerated or unrealistic belief about what one deserves--has been associated with a variety of maladaptive behaviors, including a decline in motivation and effort. In the context of tertiary education, we reasoned that if students expend less effort to obtain positive outcomes to which they feel entitled, this should…

  11. 42 CFR 31.2 - Persons entitled to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons entitled to treatment. 31.2 Section 31.2... Public Health Service § 31.2 Persons entitled to treatment. To the extent and under the circumstances... treatment and hospitalization by the Service: (a) Coast Guard. (1) Commissioned officers, chief warrant...

  12. Personality, Self-Regulated Learning, and Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Chelsea K.; Jackson, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored the relation between the Big-Five personality domains, self-regulated learning, and academic entitlement. Academic entitlement is defined as the tendency to possess expectations of unearned academic success, unearned/undeserved academic services, and/or the expectation of unrealistic accommodation (Chowning and Campbell…

  13. Academic Entitlement and Its Relationship with Perception of Cheating Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rafik Z.

    2017-01-01

    Cheating is an epidemic in higher education. The author examined the psychological variable of academic entitlement and its relationship with the ethical perception of cheating using a sample of business students. Contrary to some previous research, the author found that millennials were only slightly more academically entitled than students from…

  14. Development of a Low-Cost Arduino-Based Sonde for Coastal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockridge, Grant; Dzwonkowski, Brian; Nelson, Reid; Powers, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This project addresses the need for an expansion in the monitoring of marine environments by providing a detailed description of a low cost, robust, user friendly sonde, built on Arduino Mega 2560 (Mega) and Arduino Uno (Uno) platforms. The sonde can be made without specialized tools or training and can be easily modified to meet individual application requirements. The platform allows for internal logging of multiple parameters of which conductivity, temperature, and GPS position are demonstrated. Two design configurations for different coastal hydrographic applications are highlighted to show the robust and versatile nature of this sensor platform. The initial sonde design was intended for use on a Lagrangian style surface drifter that recorded measurements of temperature; salinity; and position for a deployment duration of less than 24 h. Functional testing of the sensor consisted of a 55 h comparison with a regularly maintained water quality sensor (i.e., YSI 6600 sonde) in Mobile Bay, AL. The temperature and salinity data were highly correlated and had acceptable RMS errors of 0.154 °C and 1.35 psu for the environmental conditions. A second application using the sonde platform was designed for longer duration (~3–4 weeks); subsurface (1.5–4.0 m depths) deployment, moored to permanent structures. Design alterations reflected an emphasis on minimizing power consumption, which included the elimination of the GPS capabilities, increased battery capacity, and power-saving software modifications. The sonde designs presented serve as templates that will expand the hydrographic measurement capabilities of ocean scientists, students, and teachers. PMID:27089337

  15. Application of Low cost Spirulina growth medium using Deep sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dae-hack; Kim, Bong-ju; Lee, Sung-jae; Choi, Nag-chul; Park, Cheon-young

    2017-04-01

    Deep-sea water has a relatively constant temperature, abundant nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, nitrates, and phosphates, etc., and stable water quality, even though there might be some variations of their compositions according to collection places. Thus, deep-sea water would be a good substrate for algal growth and biomass production since it contains various nutrients, including a fluorescent red pigment, and β-carotene, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the economics of a culture condition through comparative analysis to Spirulina platensis growth characteristic under various medium conditions for cost-effective production of Spirulina sp.. Growth experiments were performed with S. platensis under various culture medium conditions (deep sea water + SP medium). Growth tests for culture medium demonstrated that the deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) was effective in S. platensis with the maximum biomass (1.35g/L) and minimum medium making cost per production mass (133.28 KRW/g). Parameter estimation of bio-kinetics (maximum growth rate and yield) for low cost medium results showed that the maximum growth rate and yield of N, P, K were obtained under deep sea water to SP medium ratio of 50:50(W/W) of 0.057 1/day and 0.151, 0.076, 0.123, respectively. Acknowledgment : "This research was a part of the project titled 'Development of microalgae culture technique for cosmetic materials based on ocean deep sea water(20160297)', funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea."

  16. Development of a Low-Cost Arduino-Based Sonde for Coastal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockridge, Grant; Dzwonkowski, Brian; Nelson, Reid; Powers, Sean

    2016-04-13

    This project addresses the need for an expansion in the monitoring of marine environments by providing a detailed description of a low cost, robust, user friendly sonde, built on Arduino Mega 2560 (Mega) and Arduino Uno (Uno) platforms. The sonde can be made without specialized tools or training and can be easily modified to meet individual application requirements. The platform allows for internal logging of multiple parameters of which conductivity, temperature, and GPS position are demonstrated. Two design configurations for different coastal hydrographic applications are highlighted to show the robust and versatile nature of this sensor platform. The initial sonde design was intended for use on a Lagrangian style surface drifter that recorded measurements of temperature; salinity; and position for a deployment duration of less than 24 h. Functional testing of the sensor consisted of a 55 h comparison with a regularly maintained water quality sensor (i.e., YSI 6600 sonde) in Mobile Bay, AL. The temperature and salinity data were highly correlated and had acceptable RMS errors of 0.154 °C and 1.35 psu for the environmental conditions. A second application using the sonde platform was designed for longer duration (~3-4 weeks); subsurface (1.5-4.0 m depths) deployment, moored to permanent structures. Design alterations reflected an emphasis on minimizing power consumption, which included the elimination of the GPS capabilities, increased battery capacity, and power-saving software modifications. The sonde designs presented serve as templates that will expand the hydrographic measurement capabilities of ocean scientists, students, and teachers.

  17. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hardy, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Corgnale, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ward, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Motyka, Ted [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-31

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate a metal hydride-based TES system for use with a CSP system. A unique approach has been applied to this project that combines our modeling experience with the extensive material knowledge and expertise at both SRNL and Curtin University (CU). Because of their high energy capacity and reasonable kinetics many metal hydride systems can be charged rapidly. Metal hydrides for vehicle applications have demonstrated charging rates in minutes and tens of minutes as opposed to hours. This coupled with high heat of reaction allows metal hydride TES systems to produce very high thermal power rates (approx. 1kW per 6-8 kg of material). A major objective of this work is to evaluate some of the new metal hydride materials that have recently become available. A problem with metal hydride TES systems in the past has been selecting a suitable high capacity low temperature metal hydride material to pair with the high temperature material. A unique aspect of metal hydride TES systems is that many of these systems can be located on or near dish/engine collectors due to their high thermal capacity and small size. The primary objective of this work is to develop a high enthalpy metal hydride that is capable of reversibly storing hydrogen at high temperatures (> 650 °C) and that can be paired with a suitable low enthalpy metal hydride with low cost materials. Furthermore, a demonstration of hydrogen cycling between the two hydride beds is desired.

  18. Thermal performance in three different low-cost dwellings for the tropical climate of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Marlon; Borges Leao, Erika F.T. [IGS-Institut fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Technical University Braunschweig (Germany); Jesus Albuquerque Nogueira, Marta C. de [Department of Architecture and Urbanism, UFMT, Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Souza Nogueira, Jose de [Department of Physics and Environment, UFMT, Cuiaba-MT (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this project was to analyze the thermal performance of passive low-cost housing in half-humid tropical climate. The houses are located in Cuiaba-MT (15.5 southern latitude), one of the hottest cities in Brazil. The data about the typology of the houses were obtained from three representative construction systems; wood, masonry, and prefabricated. The measurements had been carried out through a year, during 20 consecutive days of each season and were evaluated by three distinct methodologies: (1) analyses of previous recommendations of the construction where the envelope materials were compared with the Brazilian standard NBR 15220-3/ 2005, (2) frequency, through dry bulb temperature with values of 18 C and 29 C, and (3) performance, by analysis of comfort levels and bioclimatic strategies processed by Analysis Bio 2.1.2 program in accordance to the adapted Bioclimatic Chart of Givoni for developing countries. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war, das thermische Verhalten kostenguenstiger Passivwohnhaeuser im halbfeuchten tropischen Klima zu untersuchen. Die Haeuser befinden sich in Cuiaba-MT (15.5 suedlicher Breite), eine der heissesten Staedte Brasiliens. Die Daten ueber die Typologie der Haeuser wurden von drei repraesentativen Bauweisen gewonnen: Holz, Mauerwerk und Massivbauweise. Die Messungen wurden innerhalb eines Jahres waehrend jeweils 20 aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen in den vier Jahreszeiten durchgefuehrt und nach drei Kriterien ausgewertet: (1) Untersuchung der Konstruktionsempfehlungen und Vergleich der Aussenwandkonstruktion mit der brasilianischen Norm NBR 15220-3/2005, (2) Haeufigkeitsverteilung der Temperaturwerte 18 C und 29 C, sowie (3) thermisches Verhalten mit Untersuchung der Behaglichkeit und eines bioklimatischen Konzepts mit Hilfe der Software Analysis Bio 2.1.2 in Uebereinstimmung mit dem darin verwendeten Bioklimatischen Diagramm fuer Entwicklungslaender nach Givoni. (Abstract

  19. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  20. Analysis on Occupants’ Satisfaction for Safety Performance Assessment in Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Husrul Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery performance of the low cost housing is questioned since the occupants are prone towards safety hazards in the housing complex, such as structural instability and falling building fragments. Without defining the occupants’ requirements for the development of low cost housing, the prevailing safety factors are hard to be determined. This paper explores the rationale of safety performance assessment in the low cost housing by considering the occupants’ participation to achieve a better safety provision during occupancy period. Questionnaire survey was distributed to 380 occupants of the low cost housing in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. The result shows that 80.8% of the respondents had expressed their dissatisfaction with the safety performance of the lift. By referring to the mode of ranking level, the most significant aspect rated by the respondents is Building Safety Features, with 51.6% respondents. The attained aspects can be fundamental parameters which can be considered in the future development of low cost housing.

  1. Low-Cost Monitoring System of Sensors for Evaluating Dynamic Solicitations of Semitrailer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Luque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the fatigue life of a semitrailer structure necessitates identification of the loads and dynamic solicitations in the structure. These forces can be introduced in computer simulation software (multibody + finite element for analysing the response of different design solutions to them. These numerical models must be validated and some parameters need to be measured directly in a field test with real vehicles under various driving conditions. In this study, a low-cost monitoring system is developed for application to a real fleet of semitrailers. According to the definition of the numerical model, the guidance of a virtual vehicle is defined by the three-dimensional kinematics of the kingpin. For characterisation of these movements, a monitoring system having a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU and global positioning system (GPS antennas is developed with different configurations to enable analysis of the best cost-benefit (result accuracy solution, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF that characterises the kinematic guidance of the kingpin is proposed. A semitrailer was equipped with the experimental low-cost monitoring system and high-precision sensors (IMU, GPS in order to validate the results obtained by the experimental low-cost monitoring system and the inertial-extended Kalman filter developed. The validated system has applicability in the low-cost monitoring of a fleet of real vehicles.

  2. Directions of organisational and low-cost energy saving of engineering enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhedzhula Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses directions of energy saving of industrial enterprises. Taking into account the tendency to continuous growth of cost of energy resources, introduction of measures that would allow reduction of energy consumption of enterprises is an urgent task. One of the most important obstacles in the process of introduction of energy efficient solutions are fund limits and low awareness of owners and managers of industrial enterprises. The article offers a new classification of energy saving measures: apart from traditional expense and organisation measures it introduces the low-cost measures notion. It offers to consider low-cost those measures that are realised by the enterprise by means of own funds, moreover, their repayment term is not more than one year. It offers analytical expression for identification of annual funds saving from introduction of low-cost measures. It considers the process of identification of saving of funds from introduction of some of the main low-cost measures in detail: replacement of lighting units, balancing of ventilation networks and elimination of water leakages from pipelines and water supply equipment. Based on the analysis of bibliography information the article provides a list of main measures on energy saving, which could be referred to the low-cost ones. The proposed approaches would allow paying more attention to practical aspects of realisation of the concept of energy saving in the industry.

  3. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) Low Cost Telemetry - Access from Space Advanced Technologies or Down the Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, presently qualified satellite transponder applications were developed during the early 1960's space program. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR, NASA-MSFC SDR) technology revolutionizes satellite transponder technology by increasing data through-put capability by, at least, an order of magnitude. PULSAR leverages existing Marshall Space Flight Center SDR designs and commercially enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations will (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) a commensurate volume reduction. Also, PULSAR increases flexibility to implement multiple transponder types by utilizing the same hardware with altered logic - no analog hardware change is required - all of which can be accomplished in orbit. This provides high capability, low cost, transponders to programs of all sizes. The final project outcome would be the introduction of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost CubeSat to SmallSat telemetry system into the NASA Portfolio.

  4. Suppression of Noise to Obtain a High-Performance Low-Cost Optical Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, commercial encoders endowed with high precision are expensive sensors, and optical low-cost designs to measure the positioning angle have undesirable levels of system noise which reduce the good performance of devices. This research is devoted to the designing of mathematical filters to suppress noise in polarized transducers, in order to obtain high accuracy, precision, and resolution, along with an adaptive maximum response speed for low-cost optical encoders. This design was proved through a prototype inside a research platform, and experimental results show an accuracy of 3.9, a precision of 26, and a resolution of 17 [arc seconds], at least for the specified working conditions, for the sensing of the angular position of a rotary polarizer. From this work has been obtained a high-performance low-cost polyphase optical encoder, which uses filtering mathematical principles potentially generalizable to other inventions.

  5. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING OF LOW COST UAV PLATFORM FOR ORTHOPHOTO IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brucas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments. Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs – orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  6. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A; Deen, M J; Marsal, L F

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine. (topical review)

  7. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  8. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.

    2013-08-01

    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  9. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  10. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Deen, M. J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine.

  11. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  12. Mars Relay Satellite: Key to Enabling Low-Cost Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.; Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing evidence of a renewed focus on Mars exploration both by NASA and the international community. The thrust of this renewed interest appears to be manifesting itself in numerous low-cost missions employing small, light weight elements, which utilize advanced technologies including integrated microelectronics. A formidable problem facing these low-cost missions is communications with Earth. Providing adequate direct-link performance has very significant impacts on spacecraft power, pointing, mass and overall complexity. Additionally, for elements at or near the surface of Mars, there are serious connectivity constraints, especially at higher latitudes, which lose view of Earth for up to many months at a time. This paper will discuss the role a Mars relay satellite can play in enabling and enhancing low-cost missions to Mars...

  13. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-12-31

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to alarming consequences such as reporting acceptable air pollutant levels when they are above the limits deemed safe for human health. This article provides scientific guidance to the end-users for effectively deploying low-cost sensors for monitoring air pollution and people's exposure, while ensuring reasonable data quality. We review the performance characteristics of several low-cost particle and gas monitoring sensors and provide recommendations to end-users for making proper sensor selection by summarizing the capabilities and limitations of such sensors. The challenges, best practices, and future outlook for effectively deploying low-cost sensors, and maintaining data quality are also discussed. For data quality assurance, a two-stage sensor calibration process is recommended, which includes laboratory calibration under controlled conditions by the manufacturer supplemented with routine calibration checks performed by the end-user under final deployment conditions. For large sensor networks where routine calibration checks are impractical, statistical techniques for data quality assurance should be utilised. Further advancements and adoption of sophisticated mathematical and statistical techniques for sensor calibration, fault detection, and data quality assurance can indeed help to realise the promised benefits of a low-cost air pollution sensor network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a personalized environmental health information service using low-cost sensors and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Liu, Hai-Ying; Schneider, Philipp; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    Most European cities exceed the air quality guidelines established by the WHO to protect human health. As such, citizens are exposed to potentially harmful pollutant levels. Some cities have services (e.g., web pages, mobile apps, etc.) which provide timely air quality information to the public. However, air quality data at individual level is currently scarce or non-existent. Making this information directly useful to individuals poses a challenge. For instance, if a user is informed that the air quality is "poor", what does that mean for him/her, and how can this information be acted upon? Despite individuals having a unique relationship with their environment, the information on the state of atmospheric components and related hazards is currently mostly generic, and seldom personally relevant. This undermines citizens' interest in their environment, and consequently limits their ability to recognize and change both their contribution and their exposure to air pollution. In Oslo, two EU founded projects, CITI-SENSE (Engelken-Jorge et al., 2014) and Citi-Sense-MOB (Castell et al., 2014), are trying to establish a dialogue with citizens by providing them with the possibility of getting personalized air quality information on their smartphones. The users are able to check the air quality in their immediate surroundings and track their individual exposure while moving through the urban environment (Castell et al., 2014). In this way, they may be able to reduce their exposure such as by changing transport modes or routes, for example by selecting less polluted streets to walk or cycle through. Using a smartphone application, citizens are engaged in collecting and sharing environmental data generated by low-cost air quality sensors, and in reporting their individual perception (turning citizens into sensors themselves). The highly spatially resolved data on air quality and perception is geo-located. This allows for simultaneous visualization of both kinds of the sensor

  15. PENGARUH LAYANAN LOW COST CARRIER (LCC) TERHADAP KEPUASAN WISATAWAN DOMESTIK DI PT. INDONESIA AIRASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Tresia Silalahi; I Wayan Suardana; Ni Gusti Ayu Susrami Dewi

    2017-01-01

    AirAsia airline crash incident in December 2014 raises a big question to the satisfaction of the user rating AirAsia. Therefore, this study aims to determine: (1) the effect of partially Low Cost Carrier services to tourist satisfaction PT. Indonesia AirAsia; (2 effect of simultaneous service Low Cost Carrier to tourist satisfaction PT. Indonesia AirAsia. The samples in this study with a total sample of 110 respondents. The analysis used T-test & F-test. The results showed that parti...

  16. A low-cost vector processor boosting compute-intensive image processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorf, Hans-Martin

    1992-01-01

    Low-cost vector processing (VP) is within reach of everyone seriously engaged in scientific computing. The advent of affordable add-on VP-boards for standard workstations complemented by mathematical/statistical libraries is beginning to impact compute-intensive tasks such as image processing. A case in point in the restoration of distorted images from the Hubble Space Telescope. A low-cost implementation is presented of the standard Tarasko-Richardson-Lucy restoration algorithm on an Intel i860-based VP-board which is seamlessly interfaced to a commercial, interactive image processing system. First experience is reported (including some benchmarks for standalone FFT's) and some conclusions are drawn.

  17. The High Rise Low Cost Housing : Sustainable Neighbourhood Elements (Green Elements) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Noraziah; Mohamad, Ismail; Mohamad Zin, Rosli; Munikanan, Vikneswaran; Junaini, Syahrizan

    2018-03-01

    The sustainable development is a vital measure to alleviate the greenhouse gas effect, global warming and any other environment issues. The sustainable neighbourhood concept is not new in Malaysia, However, the concept still needs attention and awareness from the stakeholders. This paper discusses on the sustainable neighbourhood elements specifically green elements application on the high rise low cost housing in Malaysia. Malaysia should have focused sustainable neighbourhood planning and design especially on the high rise low cost housing therefore the future generation can be benefited from this type development.

  18. A simple and low-cost recirculating aquaculture system for the production of arapaima juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Andrew Mark; Moncayo Calderero, Edwin; Burgos Moran, Ricardo Ernesto; Anastacio Sánchez, Rogelio Lumbes; Avendaño Villamar, Ulises Tiberio; Ortega Torres, Nelson Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    A simple and low-cost recirculating system (RAS) for production of arapaima  (Arapaima gigas) juveniles is described. Twenty arapaima fry (mean 13.0 cm, 12.0 g) were housed in three production tanks and fed a high HUFA diet resulting in 90% of fry successfully progressing to juveniles (mean 17.4 cm long; 40.2 g). The fish were then reared for a further 72 days fed on commercial extruded pellet feed achieving a mean length of 42.6 cm and 656.6 g. The simple and low-cost RAS holds good potentia...

  19. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Z [UNIV OF MANCHESTER; Jaworski, A J [UNIV OF MANCHESTER

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  20. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...

  1. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...

  2. Návrh marketingové strategie low cost letecké společnosti

    OpenAIRE

    Khomutova, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    My Master thesis focuses on the design of the marketing strategy of a low-cost airline SparrowJet. The first chapter of the theoretical parts contains the required basics of theoretical information necessary to develop a marketing plan. In the second chapter is an analysis of the air transportation market with an emphasis on the low-cost segment. The final chapter of the theoretical part is dedicated to the marketing mix in the transportation. The practical part of my thesis begins with the s...

  3. Miniature and low cost fiber Bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, P. M.; Hagen, R. A. J.; Hakkesteegt, H. C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the beginning of 2013 and is financed by the Seventh Framework Program (FP7) of the European Commission. Within the PEASSS project, a Nano-Satellite is being designed and manufactured to be equipped with new technology that will help keep Europe on the cutting edge of space research, potentially reducing the cost and development time for more accurate future sensor platforms including synthetic aperture optics, moving target detection and identification, and compact radars. After on ground testing the satellite is planned to be launched at the end of 2015. Within the satellite, different technologies will be demonstrated on orbit to show their capabilities for different in-space applications. For our application the FBG interrogator monitors the structural and thermal behaviour of a so called "smart panel". These panels will enable fine angle control and thermal and vibration compensation in order to improve all types of future Earth observations, such as environmental and planetary mapping, border and regional imaging. The Fiber Optic (FO) system in PEASSS includes four FBG strain sensors and two FBG temperature sensors. The 3 channel interrogator has to have a small footprint (110x50x40mm), is low cost, low in mass and has a low power consumption. In order to meet all these requirements, an interrogator has been designed based on a tunable Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) enabling a wavelength sweep of around 7 nm. To guarantee the absolute and relative performance, two reference methods are included internally in the interrogator. First, stabilized reference FBG sensors are used to obtain absolute wavelength calibrations. This method is used for the temperature

  4. CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materialsfor low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Affinito, J. D.; Gross, M. E.; Bennett, W. D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  5. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  6. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors & Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Philip [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-06-09

    The research objective of this project is to design and demonstrate a low-cost, compact, easy-to-deploy, maintenance-free sensor node technology, and a network of such sensors, which enable the monitoring of multiphysical parameters and can transform today’s ordinary buildings into smart buildings with environmental awareness. We develop the sensor node and network via engineering and integration of existing technologies, including high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting, and ultralow-power integrated circuits (ICs) for sensing and wireless communication. Through integration and innovative power management via specifically designed low-power control circuits for wireless sensing applications, and tailoring energy-harvesting components to indoor applications, the target products will have smaller volume, higher efficiency, and much lower cost (in both manufacturing and maintenance) than the baseline technology. Our development and commercialization objective is to create prototypes for our target products under the CWRU-Intwine collaboration.

  7. Development and Testing of a Low-Cost Instrumentation Platform for Fixed-Wing UAV Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Dapper e Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The flight data of a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV can be evaluated by its designers in order to analyze its performance, to validate the project criteria and to make new decisions based on the data analyses. In this paper, the authors propose the development of a low-cost instrumentation platform capable of collecting the following data: airspeed, orientation and altitude of the airplane, and the current drained by the electric system. Moreover, this paper presents the use of a telemetry system in order to display the flight conditions to the pilot. The system contains a variety of sensors, which were chosen based on their price, applicability and ease of use. After a test flight had been performed, the collected measurements were plotted and analyzed. Having the flight data, a set of flight characteristics might be observed.

  8. Dynamic Characterization of a Low Cost Microwave Water-Cut Sensor in a Flow Loop

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Inline precise measurement of water fraction in oil (i.e. water-cut [WC]) finds numerous applications in oil and gas industry. This paper presents the characterization of an extremely low cost, completely non-intrusive and full range microwave water

  9. Impairment analysis of WDM-PON based on low-cost tunable lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael H.; Lawin, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    channel must be kept below 15%. Similar values result for the upstream pilot tones. In order to limit crosstalk, such systems require reduced launch power during wavelength tuning and can cover up to 40 km differential reach. These results confirm that WDM-PON based on low-cost lasers is a technically...

  10. Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.

  11. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  12. Performance Analysis of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Receivers in Hydrographic Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsobeiey, M.

    2017-10-01

    The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has issued standards that provide the minimum requirements for different types of hydrographic surveys execution to collect data to be used to compile navigational charts. Such standards are usually updated from time to time to reflect new survey techniques and practices and must be achieved to assure both surface navigation safety and marine environment protection. Hydrographic surveys can be classified to four orders namely, special order, order 1a, order 1b, and order 2. The order of hydrographic surveys to use should be determined in accordance with the importance to the safety of navigation in the surveyed area. Typically, geodetic-grade dual-frequency GPS receivers are utilized for position determination during data collection in hydrographic surveys. However, with the evolution of high-sensitivity low-cost single-frequency receivers, it is very important to evaluate the performance of such receivers. This paper investigates the performance of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers in hydrographic surveying applications. The main objective is to examine whether low-cost single-frequency receivers fulfil the IHO standards for hydrographic surveys. It is shown that the low-cost single-frequency receivers meet the IHO horizontal accuracy for all hydrographic surveys orders at any depth. However, the single-frequency receivers meet only order 2 requirements for vertical accuracy at depth more than or equal 100 m.

  13. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions...

  14. Low cost sensors: Field evaluations and multi-sensor approaches for emissions factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development, and application of low cost sensors to measure both particulate and gas-phase air pollutants is poised to explode over the next several years. The need for the sensors is driven by poor air quality experienced in inhabited regions throughout the world, in both de...

  15. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sens...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Air Pollutants in the South Coast Basin Using Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of small, portable, low-cost air sensors has encouraged a shift from traditional monitoring approaches for air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Air Quality ...

  17. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    -cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...

  18. Hybrid paper-based potentiostat for low-cost point-of-need diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bezuidenhout, PH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the manufacturing of a low-cost hybrid paper-based potentiostat. Potentiostats exhibit high sensitivity, and can be used for a variety of applications. The results highlight the functionality of a paper-based potentiostat...

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a biosurfactant produced in low-cost medium as stabilizing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B.B. Farias

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: This process provided a simpler route for nanoparticle synthesis compared to existing systems using whole organisms or partially purified biological extracts, showing that the low-cost biosurfactant can be used for nanoparticle synthesis as a non-toxic and biodegradable stabilizing agent.

  20. Gossip as an effective and low-cost form of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Cheng, Joey T; Willer, Robb

    2012-02-01

    The spreading of reputational information about group members through gossip represents a widespread, efficient, and low-cost form of punishment. Research shows that negative arousal states motivate individuals to gossip about the transgressions of group members. By sharing information in this way groups are better able to promote cooperation and maintain social control and order.

  1. Assessment of Low-Cost Elevators for Near Term Application in Transit Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This study of low-cost elevators for use in existing transit stations was commissioned by the Transportation Systems Center and included a four-day site study of screw column elevators manufactured by the Ebel Company of Brussels, Belgium. The site s...

  2. Low-cost regeneration techniques for mixed-species management – 20 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr

    2012-01-01

    Four variations of the fell-and-burn technique, a low-cost regeneration system developed for pine-hardwood mixtures in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, were tested in the Piedmont of South Carolina. All variations successfully improved the commercial value of low-quality hardwood stands by introducing a pine component. After 20 years, pines were almost as numerous...

  3. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  4. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  5. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  6. A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 1. A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake disc application. V Saravanan P R Thyla S R Balakrishnan. Volume 39 Issue 1 February 2016 pp 299-305 ...

  7. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy; Eid, Jessica; Ahlswede, Erik; Spiering, Stefanie; Powalla, Michael; Agrawal, Rakesh; Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning

  8. A comparative study on indoor air quality in a low cost and a green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is important because people spend most of their time inside houses. IAQ was monitored in two different types of rural houses namely a low cost house and a “green” house built with pyramidal shape of roof in the rural area. Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) concentrations ...

  9. Adsorption Studies of Heavy Metals by Low-Cost Adsorbents | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, removal of toxic metals Cr(VI) from artificially contaminated water has been investigated with the aim of detoxifying industrial effluents before their safe disposal onto land or into the river. Two low-cost natural adsorbents, Palm Kernel fiber and Coconut husks, were used to remove Cr(VI) ion from synthesized ...

  10. Comparisons of Two Commercial and Two Low-cost Interfaces for Virtual Skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present two comparisons of two novel physical interface for interacting with a virtual environment in the form of a skiing game. The interfaces were compared through two separate within-subjects studies. In the first study we compared a wobble board augmented with a low-cost 3D a...

  11. Smartfactory, a modular, low-cost productivity monitoring system to impact SMMEs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of SMMEs, the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step-by-step fashion with little training required in installation, maintenance...

  12. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  13. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an

  14. Construction and Characterization of a Compact, Portable, Low-Cost Colorimeter for the Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippard, Carrie M.; Hughes, William; Chohan, Balwant S.; Sykes, Danny G.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and portable colorimeter was constructed featuring a low-voltage programmable color light sensor-to-frequency converter, a CMOS 8-bit microcontroller, and an LCD display. The instrument has successfully facilitated the introduction and application of spectroscopy to groups of middle school, high school, and undergraduate students. A…

  15. Low-Cost Rapid Prototyping of Whole-Glass Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki; Goral, Vasiliy N.

    2012-01-01

    A low-cost, straightforward, rapid prototyping of whole-glass microfluidic devices is presented using glass-etching cream that can be easily purchased in local stores. A self-adhered vinyl stencil cut out by a desktop digital craft cutter was used as an etching mask for patterning microstructures in glass using the glass-etching cream. A specific…

  16. Keep on Blockin' in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called "Selective RFID Jamming". Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an

  17. Low-cost millimeter-wave transceiver module using SMD packaged MMICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Gauthier, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  18. Low-Cost Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Module using SMD packaged MMICs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  19. An effective and low-cost method for DNA extraction from herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhubarb is an important traditional Chinese herbal drug with high secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA extraction procedures and downstream applications, such as DNA restriction and amplification. An effective and low-cost protocol for isolating genomic DNA from root of Rheum tanguticum is described in this ...

  20. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Centimeter-Level Accuracy OEM GNSS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This report discusses the results of a study to quantify the performance of low-cost, centimeter-level accurate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers that have appeared on the market in the last few years. Centimeter-level accuracy is ...