WorldWideScience

Sample records for project early production

  1. The lazy project manager how to be twice as productive and still leave the office early

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Peter Taylor reveals how adopting a more focused approach to life, projects and work can make you twice as productive. The lazy project manager illustrates how anyone can apply the simple techniques of lazy project management in their own activities in order to work more effectively and consequently improve work-life balance. This 'productive laziness' approach builds on the Pareto principle that states that for many phenomena, 80 per cent of consequences stem from 20 per cent of the causes. To put it simply, only 20 per cent of the things people do during their working days really matter. Inside this insightful and informative book you'll discover: * The intelligence of laziness - why smart, lazy people have the edge over others; * Why the Jungle Book's 'Bare Necessities' should be the productive lazy theme tune; * How to get the maximum output for a minimised input; * Quick tips to productive lazy heaven. Everyone wants to achieve more without chaining themselves to their desk. By concentrating your project...

  2. The no-project alternative analysis: An early product of the Tahoe Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Hessenflow, Mark L.; Wein, Anne

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a No-project alternative analysis (NPAA) or “business as usual” scenario with respect to a 20-year projection of 21 indicators of environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the Lake Tahoe Basin for the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA). Our effort was inspired by earlier work that investigated the tradeoffs between an environmental and an economic objective. The NPAA study has implications for a longer term goal of building a Tahoe Decision Support System (TDSS) to assist the TRPA and other Basin agencies in assessing the outcomes of management strategies. The NPAA assumes no major deviations from current management practices or from recent environmental or societal trends and planned Environmental Improvement Program (EIP) projects. Quantitative “scenario generation” tools were constructed to simulate site-specific land uses, various population categories, and associated vehicle miles traveled. Projections of each indicator’s attainment status were made by building visual conceptual models of the relevant natural and social processes, extrapolating trends, and using available models, research, and expert opinion. We present results of the NPAA, projected indicator status, key factors affecting the indicators, indicator functionality, and knowledge gaps. One important result is that current management practices may slow the loss or degradation of environmental qualities but not halt or reverse it. Our analysis also predicts an increase in recreation and commuting into and within the basin, primarily in private vehicles. Private vehicles, which are a critical mechanism by which the Basin population affects the surrounding environment, are a key determinant of air-quality indicators, a source of particulate matter affecting Secchi depth, a source of noise, and a factor in recreational and scenic quality, largely owing to congestion. Key uncertainties in the NPAA include climate change, EIP project effectiveness, and

  3. A high-level dynamic analysis approach for studying global process plant availability and production time in the early stages of mining projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Travagini Cremonese

    Full Text Available Abstract In the early stage of front-end studies of a Mining Project, the global availability (i.e. number of hours a plant is available for production and production (number of hours a plant is actually operated with material time of the process plant are normally assumed based on the experience of the study team. Understanding and defining the availability hours at the early stages of the project are important for the future stages of the project, as drastic changes in work hours will impact the economics of the project at that stage. An innovative high-level dynamic modeling approach has been developed to assist in the rapid evaluation of assumptions made by the study team. This model incorporates systems or equipment that are commonly used in mining projects from mine to product stockyard discharge after the processing plant. It includes subsystems that will simulate all the component handling, and major process plant systems required for a mining project. The output data provided by this high-level dynamic simulation approach will enhance the confidence level of engineering carried out during the early stage of the project. This study discusses the capabilities of the approach, and a test case compared with standard techniques used in mining project front-end studies.

  4. FAA Loran early implementation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  5. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  6. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  7. Early awareness of emerging risks associated with food and feed production: Synopsis of pertinent work carried out within the SAFE FOODS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    This introduction to the journal¿s supplement on emerging food and feed safety issues summarizes the objectives and activities of the EU-funded SAFE FOODS project in general and its work package focusing on the early identification of emerging food safety risks, in particular. Within this work

  8. Early warnings : a phenomenon in project management

    OpenAIRE

    Nikander, Ilmari O.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of Concurrent Engineering has caused growing demands on project management. The classic project management methods are often slow: problems may already exist when those methods are applied. The objective of the present study is to improve the opportunities of those responsible for a project's operational management to receive advance information about potential problems and final results through early warnings typical of the theory of weak signals by Igor Ansoff. The researc...

  9. Early awareness of emerging risks associated with food and feed production: synopsis of pertinent work carried out within the SAFE FOODS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A

    2009-05-01

    This introduction to the journal's supplement on emerging food and feed safety issues summarizes the objectives and activities of the EU-funded SAFE FOODS project in general and its work package focusing on the early identification of emerging food safety risks, in particular. Within this work package, a number of studies have been carried out on methods enabling the early awareness, identification, and prevention of emerging issues before they can become real risks. The various reviews in this supplement explore the background of the emergence of known food safety risks, both of microbial and chemical/biochemical nature, as well the methods that can be used to identify such risks. Another review identifies a number of chemical and microbiological hazards that are likely to be affected by a changing climate. A major conclusion from these explorative reviews is that monitoring and information exchange systems or procedures are in place to detect, in an early phase, the emergence of potential food safety risks linked to known hazards. Additional systems are needed to predict the development of new potential food safety risks, which are linked to either new hazards or known hazards to which exposure has been altered.

  10. Risk management in product innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    In product innovation projects risk management has become increasingly important. Technological and commercial developments ask for effective and efficient product innovation. Systematic diagnosing and management of risks can help to make product innovation projects successful. In this paper a

  11. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  12. Multidisplinary Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal reflect the journal’s multidisciplinary approach to management research and can be categorized as belonging to three general topics: Project Management, Engineering and Project Management, and Project and Production Management.

  13. Multidisplinary Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal) reflect the journal’s multidisciplinary approach to management research and can be categorized as belonging to three general topics: Project Management, Engineering and Project Management, and Project and Production Management.

  14. Graduate Student Project: Operations Management Product Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    An operations management product project is an effective instructional technique that fills a void in current operations management literature in product planning. More than 94.1% of 286 graduates favored the project as a learning tool, and results demonstrate the significant impact the project had in predicting student performance. The author…

  15. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  16. A product of three projections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, E.; Müller, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 223, č. 2 (2014), s. 175-186 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07880S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Hilbert space * projection * extension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2014 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?sm223-2-4

  17. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...... on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...

  18. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  19. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and

  20. Diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of diagnosing risks in product-innovation projects is introduced in the paper. The method is an improvement on existing risk methods used on product-innovation projects, such as potential problem analysis and failure mode and effects analysis. Technological, organizational and

  1. Scheduling in Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2015-01-01

    This issue presents five papers selected from the 2013 (4th) International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM2013) held in Bangkok, Thailand. Three of the papers deal with scheduling problems faced in project and production management, while the remaining two focus on engineering management issues.

  2. The Management of Projects and Product Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Frederiksen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyses management of product innovation in project-based industries, offering a view on management not only of firms, but also of markets. It first argues that projects are prominent in industries where the nature of consumer demand means that product innovation takes place...... as experimentation. Then, the paper argues that if skills needed for projects are very diverse and projects are complex, there are few internal managerial economies of projects, and the scope for management then transcends the boundaries of firms. In these cases, markets become organized in combinations of people......, contracts, and other institutions, in order to facilitate the coordination of market-based projects. While contracts play a role, a continuous, active role of knowledgeable managers (leaders and boundary spanners) is also often necessary. Such managers --- and thus (core parts of) whole industries...

  3. Critical path analysis in early stage of nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2009-01-01

    The technical program and contract model as well as project management system and preliminary design defined in the early stage of nuclear power project are the key condition impact on the quality, schedule and cost of the nuclear power project. This paper, taking the CPR1000 coastal nuclear power station as an example, analyzes the critical path in the early stage of nuclear power project for five fields, i.e. licensing, design and procurement, site preparation, tender of construction contracts and construction preparation, and organization. (authors)

  4. Technology Uncertainty and Project Managers' Information Sharing - A comparative case study of two new product development projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde; Dietrich, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty during various phases of new product development (NPD) projects. In this study, we compare two longitudinal NPD sub-projects that differ in uncertainty within the same large NPD project, in which the data source is the complete email exchange between a project manager and various actors...... (consisting of 3979 emails). The results show high levels of information sharing with the customer in both the early and late phases of high uncertainty. Interestingly, in the low uncertainty project, information sharing with the production department and the supplier is higher during the late phase...... of the NPD project. Unexpectedly, in both sub-projects, the project manager shares information with a wider range of both intra- and inter-organization actors in the early phases of the projects than in the late phases....

  5. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  6. Fiscal planning of private electricity production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, R.

    2002-01-01

    Various fiscal considerations frequently encountered in the context of the planning of private electricity production projects were described. Two major themes were discussed: 1) the different jurisdictional vehicles that can be used during the planning of private electricity production projects and the associated fiscal considerations, and 2) the two main fiscal incentives of the Income Tax Act (Canada) which could impact on the financing and operation costs of such a project, namely the accelerated amortization and the possibility of deducting the costs associated to renewable energies and energy savings in Canada. This was a general presentation that did not go into specific details and did not represent a legal opinion. refs

  7. Project management characteristics and new product survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieme, R.J.; Song, X.M.; Shin, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a conceptual model of new product development (NPD) based on seminal and review articles in order to answer the question, "What project management characteristics will foster the development of new products that are more likely to survive in the marketplace?" Our model adopts Ruekert and

  8. Product development projects dynamics and emergent complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Schlick, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This book primarily explores two topics: the representation of simultaneous, cooperative work processes in product development projects with the help of statistical models, and the assessment of their emergent complexity using a metric from theoretical physics (Effective Measure Complexity, EMC). It is intended to promote more effective management of development projects by shifting the focus from the structural complexity of the product being developed to the dynamic complexity of the development processes involved. The book is divided into four main parts, the first of which provides an introduction to vector autoregression models, periodic vector autoregression models and linear dynamical systems for modeling cooperative work in product development projects. The second part presents theoretical approaches for assessing complexity in the product development environment, while the third highlights and explains closed-form solutions for the complexity metric EMC for vector autoregression models and linear dyn...

  9. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  10. Network model of project "Lean Production"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khisamova, E. D.

    2018-05-01

    Economical production implies primarily new approaches to culture of management and organization of production and offers a set of tools and techniques that allows reducing losses significantly and making the process cheaper and faster. Economical production tools are simple solutions that allow one to see opportunities for improvement of all aspects of the business, to reduce losses significantly, to constantly improve the whole spectrum of business processes, to increase significantly the transparency and manageability of the organization, to take advantage of the potential of each employee of the company, to increase competitiveness, and to obtain significant economic benefits without making large financial expenditures. Each of economical production tools solves a specific part of the problems, and only application of their combination will allow one to solve the problem or minimize it to acceptable values. The research of the governance process project "Lean Production" permitted studying the methods and tools of lean production and developing measures for their improvement.

  11. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  12. New Production Reactor project-management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrosson, F.J.; Hibbard, L.; Buckner, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This document provides a project management plan for the first phase of a project to design and build a new production reactor (NPR) at SRP. The design of the NPR is based upon proven SRP heavy water reactor design, with several enhancements such as full containment, moderator detritiation, improved cooling, and modernized control rooms and instrumentation. The first phase of the NPR project includes environmental and safety analyses, preparation of the technical data summary and basic data, site studies, engineering studies, and conceptual design. The project management plan was developed by a 14-member task force comprised of representatives from the Technical Division, the Manufacturing Division, the Departmental Engineer's Office, and the Engineering Department

  13. Knowledge Management in Product Development Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheik Muhamad, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Product data management system (PDM) solutions control vast quantities of information generated by engineers during the product development process. They provide vaulting capabilities to control access to shared data,workflow to distribute it, and configured product structures to relate it to product components. Nuclear Malaysia has the desire to have a proper CAD management system and this is achieved with the use of PDM system to manage all their designs throughout the product lifecycle, i.e., for drawing distribution and design change. The type of documents that Nuclear Malaysia manages are CAD files (as generated by CATIA, AUTOCAD), engineering files, reports, project files, documents (WORD, PDF), spreadsheet (EXCEL), bills of material, manufacturing processes and drawings. Besides managing drawings, we also want to control and manage engineering changes (ECO & ECR) in electronic format. (author

  14. Project feasibility and mine production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longworth, C R

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines the present investment environment existing in the Australian Coal Industry and places this in the context of the current world seaborne coal trade. Those factors which have the greatest influence on the viability of coal projects today, namely coal prices and quality, exchange rates, cash cost of production, capital and borrowing costs, infrastructure and government charges are dealt with briefly. The paper concludes by giving a schedule of those factors of a local character which can be changed to render projects more competitive and also presents some external factors beyond Australia's control which will, in part, influence the development of the industry in the next decade. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Testing Software Development Project Productivity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Ilya

    Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today's business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted. There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis. This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD. Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers. Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control

  16. The Construction Site Project: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Kathryn; Krentz, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The work of Malaguzzi (in Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 1998; Fraser, 2006) has made the fundamentals of the preschools of Reggio Emilia familiar to many early childhood educators. The article describes an authentic project that enhanced undergraduate and postgraduate participants' understanding of the impact of collaboration, conversation, and…

  17. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.; Schumacher, K.; van Vliet, O.; Moreira, J.R.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential to be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high interest

  18. Research project management 101: insiders' tips from Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristini, Luisa; Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Stichel, Torben

    2016-04-01

    From the very beginning of their career, it is important for Early Career Scientists (ECS) to develop project management skills to be able to organise their research efficiently. ECS are often in charge of specific tasks within their projects or for their teams. However, without specific training or tools, the successful completion of these assignments will depend entirely on the organisational skills of individual researchers. ECS are thus facing "sink-or-swim" situations, which can be either instructive or disastrous for their projects. Here we provide experience-based tips from fellow ECS that can help manage various project activities, including: 1. Communication with supervisors and peers 2. Lab management 3. Field trips (e.g., oceanographic campaigns) 4. Internships and collaborations with other institutions 5. Literature/background research 6. Conference convening These are potential "life buoys" for ECS, which will help them to carry out these tasks efficiently and successfully.

  19. Project ATTACK and Project VISTA: Benchmark studies on the road to NATO's early TNF policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with those studies and analyses that affected early NATO nuclear policy and force structure. The discussion focuses specifically on two open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes activities. Project VISTA and Project ATTACK. These two studies were chosen less because one can document their direct impact on NATO nuclear policy and more because they capture the state of thinking about tactical nuclear weapons at a particular point of time. Project VISTA offers an especially important benchmark in this respect. Project ATTACK is a rather different kind of benchmark. It is not a pathbreaking study. It is much narrower and more technical than VISTA. It appears to have received no public attention. Project ATTACK is interesting because it seems to capture a open-quotes nuts-and-boltsclose quotes feel for how U.S. (and thereby NATO) theater nuclear policy was evolving prior to MC 48. The background and context for Project VISTA and Project ATTACK are presented and discussed

  20. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Joint Polar Satellite System satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the Joint Polar Satellite System is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Department of Defense processing centers operated by the United States government. The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Environmental Data Records beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System programs. Under the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental

  1. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  2. The Namibia Early Flood Warning System, A CEOS Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Sohlberg, Robert; Handy, Matthew; Grossman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year few years, an international collaboration has developed a pilot project under the auspices of Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) Disasters team. The overall team consists of civilian satellite agencies. For this pilot effort, the development team consists of NASA, Canadian Space Agency, Univ. of Maryland, Univ. of Colorado, Univ. of Oklahoma, Ukraine Space Research Institute and Joint Research Center(JRC) for European Commission. This development team collaborates with regional , national and international agencies to deliver end-to-end disaster coverage. In particular, the team in collaborating on this effort with the Namibia Department of Hydrology to begin in Namibia . However, the ultimate goal is to expand the functionality to provide early warning over the South Africa region. The initial collaboration was initiated by United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs and CEOS Working Group for Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The initial driver was to demonstrate international interoperability using various space agency sensors and models along with regional in-situ ground sensors. In 2010, the team created a preliminary semi-manual system to demonstrate moving and combining key data streams and delivering the data to the Namibia Department of Hydrology during their flood season which typically is January through April. In this pilot, a variety of moderate resolution and high resolution satellite flood imagery was rapidly delivered and used in conjunction with flood predictive models in Namibia. This was collected in conjunction with ground measurements and was used to examine how to create a customized flood early warning system. During the first year, the team made use of SensorWeb technology to gather various sensor data which was used to monitor flood waves traveling down basins originating in Angola, but eventually flooding villages in Namibia. The team made use of standardized interfaces such as those articulated

  3. Early Generation Seed Production and Supply in Ethiopia: Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karta K. Kalsa

    the institutionalization of early generation seed production in Ethiopia. .... (Bishaw and van Gastel, 2007) and cross-pollinated crops (Maize Program, 1999).The .... Louwaars, 1999) have been suggested to address some critical gaps in early ...

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  6. Project and Production Management in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    In this issue, the Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal) presents five original research papers related to project and production management in the construction industry from authors in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

  7. Early screening for dyslexia--a collaborative pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S; Becker, T; Boys, M; Davies, S; Noton, H

    2001-01-01

    An ongoing collaborative project, currently being piloted in 12 Wiltshire primary schools, is described. The aim is to provide a means of identifying potentially dyslexic children by the end of Key Stage 1 (Year 2) with a view to early intervention. The causal links identified by research between phonological skills and literacy development are taken as the theoretical basis of an initial screening procedure, and an intervention package is implemented for identified children. Those demonstrating persistent difficulties one year later are further assessed over a school term using an assessment package designed to identify those children showing a dyslexic profile. Further intervention is then planned and implemented.

  8. Managing project complexity : A study into adapting early project phases to improve project performance in large engineering projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Engineering projects become increasingly more complex and project complexity is assumed to be one of the causes for projects being delivered late and over budget. However, what this project complexity actually comprised of was unclear. To improve the overall project performance, this study focuses

  9. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  10. Scoping a Product Configuration Project for Engineer-to-Order Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When implementing a product configuration system in a company making complex and highly engineered products, many decisions need to be made in the early phases of the project. This article presents a framework for supporting the initial scoping process and discusses experiences from applying...

  11. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  12. Arizona Twin Project: a focus on early resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Clifford, Sierra; McDonald, Kristy; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Valiente, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    The Arizona Twin Project is an ongoing longitudinal study designed to elucidate the genetic and environmental influences underlying the development of early competence and resilience to common mental and physical health problems during infancy and childhood. Participants are a sample of 600 twins (25% Hispanic) recruited from birth records in the state of Arizona, United States. Primary caregivers were interviewed on twins' development and early social environments when twins were 12 and 30 months of age. Measures include indices of prenatal and obstetrical risk coded from hospital medical records, as well as primary caregiver-report questionnaires assessing multiple indicators of environmental risk and resilience (e.g., parental warmth and control, family and social support), twins' developmental maturity, temperament, health, behavior problems, and competencies. Preliminary findings highlight the importance of the early environment for infant and toddler health and well-being, both directly and as a moderator of genetic influences. Future directions include a third longitudinal assessment in middle childhood examining daily bidirectional relations between sleep, health behaviors, stress, and mood.

  13. Projection display technology and product trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Frederic J.

    1999-05-01

    Major technology and market trends that could generate a 20 billion dollar electronic projector market by 2010 are reviewed in the perspective of recent product introductions. A log linear analysis shows that the light outputs of benchmark transportable data video projectors have increased at a rate of almost 90 percent per year since 1993. The list prices of these same projectors have decreased at a rate of over 40 percent per year. The tradeoffs of light output vs. resolution and weight are illustrated. Recent trends in projector efficacy vs. year are discussed. Lumen output per dollar of list price is shown to be a useful market metric. Continued technical advances and innovations including higher throughput light valve technologies with integrated drivers, brighter light source, field sequential color, integrated- and micro-optical components, and aerospace materials are likely to sustain these trends. The new technologies will enable projection displays for entertainment and computer applications with unprecedented levels of performance, compactness, and cost-effectiveness.

  14. Assessing the influence of project management on quality during the early phases of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevo Žanesa

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the quality of a process affects the quality of the end product, there is currently an insignif­icant amount of knowledge about the quality of project management (PM processes that directly affect the quality of the delivered product (constructed building. This study presents a proposal for modeling the impact of the quality of the PM process on the quality of the con­structed building. The quality of the PM process is rep­resented by the main quality factors and product quality indicators. It presents the results of the interviews that were conducted and study cases that were analyzed in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a variety of project partici­pants (with different managerial perspectives in terms of the indicators of quality of the delivered product. All par­ticipants, regardless of managerial perspective, believe that the most important indicator of the quality of prod­ucts for each phase of the project is “customer satisfaction in the end phase”, the measurement of which is different for each project phase that is presented. The results of the factor analysis of the definition and the planning phases show that 11 variables, namely, the quality factors of the PM process, can be grouped into three new factors, which is described as 66.61% (77.046% of the basic set of vari­ables.

  15. Pump Early, Pump Often: A Continuous Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L; Froh, Elizabeth B; Schwarz, Jessica; Houng, Kathy; Brewster, Isabel; Myers, Carey; Prince, Judy; Olkkola, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates that although many mothers initiate pumping for their critically ill children, few women are successful at maintaining milk supply throughout their infants' entire hospital stay. At the Garbose Family Special Delivery Unit (SDU) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, we care for mothers who have critically ill infants born with complex cardiac and congenital anomalies. Human milk is viewed as a medical intervention at our institution. Therefore, nurses on the SDU wanted to ensure best practice in terms of pumping initiation. This article describes a continuous quality improvement project that ensured mothers pumped early and often. Childbirth educators can play a key role in preparing mothers who are anticipating an infant who will require hospitalization immediately post-birth.

  16. Building Productivity in Virtual Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hamersly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase in project failure rates is leaving businesses searching for better integration techniques to virtualize their project environments. Through virtualization, organizations may have positive impacts on communities across geographical boundaries and resource constraints. The focus of this phenomenological study was to explore, via the experiences of successful project management practitioners, best practice strategies for integrating virtual project teams through data analysis. The conceptual framework included von Bertalanffy’s general systems theory, decomposition model of business process and project management frameworks, and the recomposition approach. Twenty-two senior project managers with more than 5 years of experience managing virtual project environments participated in semistructured telephone interviews. The van Kaam process employing normalization and bracketing approaches in data analysis resulted in the emergence of 34 thematic categories. The 10 most common themes culminated in the identification of strategies relevant for virtual project teams. The major themes pertained to 3 broad areas: (a structure that accommodates skills and technology for virtual team success, (b governance leading to efficient virtual project team management, and (c collaboration practices across diverse environments. This study involved the exploration of the experiences of the participants. Using the van Kaam method for normalization of the data and clustering like experiences into thematic statements, the study provided a plethora of new information concentrated on 10 themes that emerged.

  17. Forming the face of green products : Mood boards and early consumer involvement in ship interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murto, P.; Ahola, M.; Person, F.E.O.K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study mood boards and the process by which they can be used to understand consumer inferences about environmental sustainability in the early stages of green product development. As a component of a research project on sustainable ship design, we created mood boards showcasing

  18. Dual-Drive Production Prototype Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This project was an initiative to engineer, develop and build a plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle using the Dual-Drive system. The project aimed to build a plug-in hybrid utilitarian vehicle on a light commercial vehicle platform. The hybrid vehicle wi...

  19. Understanding new product project performance : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Pattikawa, L.H.; Verwaal, E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the accumulated body of knowledge on the performance of new product projects and provide directions for further research. Design/methodology/approach: Using a refined classification of antecedents of new product project performance the research

  20. Hypereutectoid steel in early medieval sword production in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kucypera, P.; Hošek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, [1] (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0860-0007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : swords * Early Middle Ages * hypereutectoid steel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. The HERSCHEL/PACS early Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieprecht, E.; Wetzstein, M.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.; De Meester, W.

    2006-07-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to be launched in 2007, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 microns). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It contains two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform imaging line spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The HERSCHEL ground segment (Herschel Common Science System - HCSS) is implemented using JAVA technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center and the three instrument teams. The PACS Common Software System (PCSS) is based on the HCSS and used for the online and offline analysis of PACS data. For telemetry bandwidth reasons PACS science data are partially processed on board, compressed, cut into telemetry packets and transmitted to the ground. These steps are instrument mode dependent. We will present the software model which allows to reverse the discrete on board processing steps and evaluate the data. After decompression and reconstruction the detector data and instrument status information are organized in two main PACS Products. The design of these JAVA classes considers the individual sampling rates, data formats, memory and performance optimization aspects and comfortable user interfaces.

  2. A Projection of Automated Book Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the recommendation of systematic introducing of XML technologies as a standard and integral factor in publishing and graphic business activities and as a further improvement of the existing PostScript graphic production platform. Procedures are proposed for applying norm setting in respect to production processes through related connections organized databases under XML technology in a hierarchical way, as well as a book production norm setting system. The proposal for work processes automation in the domain of printing business control is elaborated under the CIP4-JDF automating system. Operation results are used as guidelines for setting the elements of automated business operations in the book production domain, with integrated elements of new technologies, compatible with global trends.

  3. Ergo project builds up to full production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The East Rand Gold and Uranium Company (Ergo) - planned on a massive scale to recover gold, uranium and sulphuric acid from the slimes dams of the East Rand - captured imaginations both from a financial and a technical viewpoint. Operationally, the commissioning of the project is now well under way and satisfying profits have already been recorded. A broad look at the background and the design is given

  4. Ergo project builds up to full production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The East Rand Gold and Uranium Company (ERGO) - planned on a massive scale to recover gold, uranium and sulphuric acid from the slimes dams of the East Rand - captured imaginations both from a financial and a technical viewpoint. Operationally, the commissioning of the project is now well under way and satisfying profits have already been recorded. A broad look at the background and the design is given

  5. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...

  6. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China,Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project's dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable references for the operation of oversized hydropower plants.

  7. An Empirical Study of Capability Development within Product Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Javanmardi Kashan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop insights into firms’ strategic capability development processes within product innovation projects. In particular, the research aims at investigating the interactions among product innovation, knowledge processes, and capability development within firms. Building on qualitative data from the auto-industry, our analysis reveals that across four product innovation projects, the case company developed architectural knowledge and capability. Findings reveal that, along with changes at each level of product architecture, “design knowledge” and “design capability” have been developed at the same level of product architecture, leading to capability development at that level. Furthermore, findings suggest that such capability transformation resulting from knowledge and capability creation over the course of case projects leads to modularization of product architecture. Overall, the research contributes to identifying and emphasizing the role of micro processes in capability development and renewal, which in turn enhances our understanding of strategic capability development processes.

  8. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is the terminal report of a United Nations Development Program project to improve food and agricultural production in Thailand by means of nuclear and related technology. The project resulted in improved mutant material to be made available to plant breeders as well as in reports and recommendations on soil-water-plant management practices and livestock management. An additional benefit has been the specialized training that has been provided to many researchers in the country through the project

  9. Effects of Green River Project on Cassava Farmers Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effects of Green River project on cassava farmers' production in Ogba/Egbema/ Ndoni LGA of Rivers State. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured questionnaire, a field ...

  10. Spatial fuel data products of the LANDFIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Kevin C. Ryan; Matthew G. Rollins; Thomas G. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) Project is mapping wildland fuels, vegetation, and fire regime characteristics across the United States. The LANDFIRE project is unique because of its national scope, creating an integrated product suite at 30-m spatial resolution and complete spatial coverage of all lands within the 50...

  11. Experience in independent power production: Two projects that closed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappaz, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    K and M Engineering and Consulting Corporation`s experience in independent power production is outlined. The following topics are discussed: the KMR Power Corporation, K and M strengths and strategy, key success factors, project experience, selected projects, and capital structure.

  12. INFLUENCES ON ORGANISATIONAL SLACK IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERS RICHTNÉR; PÄR ÅHLSTRÖM

    2006-01-01

    Programs to decrease cost and to increase operational efficiency may reduce a company's ability to innovate, by reducing organisational slack. Previous research on the relationship between organisational slack and innovation has been at level of the firm and has neglected the processes underlying the relationship, which takes place at the level of product development projects. In this paper, we identify organisational slack and its influences at the level of the product development project. T...

  13. Projecting LED product life based on application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  14. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  15. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  16. Publication Productivity of Early-Career Orthopedic Trauma Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Mark E; Lee, John J; Goulet, James A

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to: (1) define the publication productivity of early-career orthopedic trauma surgeons over time; (2) compare the early-career publication productivity of recent orthopedic trauma fellowship graduates vs their more senior colleagues; and (3) determine the proportion of fellowship graduates who meet the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) publication criteria for active membership early in their careers. Orthopedic trauma fellowship graduates from 1982 to 2007 were analyzed. A literature search was performed for each fellow's publications for the 6-year period beginning the year of fellowship graduation. Publication productivity was compared between early and recent groups of graduates, 1987 to 1991 and 2003 to 2007, respectively. Fulfillment of OTA publication criteria was determined. Seventy-nine percent of graduates contributed to 1 or more publications. The recent group produced more total publications per graduate (4.06 vs 3.29, P=.01) and more coauthor publications (2.60 vs 2.04, P=.019) than the early group. The number of first-author publications did not differ between groups (1.46 vs 1.25, P=.26). A greater percentage of the recent group met current OTA publication criteria compared with the early group (51% vs 35%, P=.04). The findings showed that recent orthopedic trauma graduates had increased publication productivity compared with their more senior colleagues, although a proportion had not qualified for active OTA membership 6 years into their career. Overall, these data are encouraging and suggest that young orthopedic trauma surgeons remain committed to sustaining a high level of academic excellence. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Modeling Manpower and Equipment Productivity in Tall Building Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbai Krishnaswamy, Parthasarathy; Rajiah, Murugasan; Vasan, Ramya

    2017-12-01

    Tall building construction projects involve two critical resources of manpower and equipment. Their usage, however, widely varies due to several factors affecting their productivity. Currently, no systematic study for estimating and increasing their productivity is available. What is prevalent is the use of empirical data, experience of similar projects and assumptions. As tall building projects are here to stay and increase, to meet the emerging demands in ever shrinking urban spaces, it is imperative to explore ways and means of scientific productivity models for basic construction activities: concrete, reinforcement, formwork, block work and plastering for the input of specific resources in a mixed environment of manpower and equipment usage. Data pertaining to 72 tall building projects in India were collected and analyzed. Then, suitable productivity estimation models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis and validated using independent field data. It is hoped that the models developed in the study will be useful for quantity surveyors, cost engineers and project managers to estimate productivity of resources in tall building projects.

  18. Achievements of European projects on membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Marcoberardino, G.; Binotti, M.; Manzolini, G.; Viviente, J.L.; Arratibel Plazaola, A.; Roses, L.; Gallucci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane reactors for hydrogen production can increase both the hydrogen production efficiency at small scale and the electric efficiency in micro-cogeneration systems when coupled with Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells. This paper discusses the achievements of three European projects

  19. Understanding Project Based Production through Socio-technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper develops an approach for understanding Project Based Production. This form of production is characterized by unique deliverables, high complexity, high value, high risk, profound uncertainty and many stakeholders and is increasingly important the postmodern society. Common to the pract......This paper develops an approach for understanding Project Based Production. This form of production is characterized by unique deliverables, high complexity, high value, high risk, profound uncertainty and many stakeholders and is increasingly important the postmodern society. Common...... to the practices of PBP and other production practices is the goal of balancing the dilemma between creativity and productivity. In response to industrialized production, the concept of modularity gained popularity for addressing this dilemma by exploring product, process and organization structures. However...... with the starting point in system theory and a strong bias towards industrial production, the predominant understanding of modularity faces difficulty in explaining practices of Project Based Production in both social – technical and dynamic – stable aspects. Illustrated by a case the paper addresses this gap...

  20. Project and Innovation Management in New Product Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Leif; Gayretli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Although the process of innovation is one of the most important drivers behind the growth and prosperity of today’s global economy, it is one of the least understood. This paper aims to address specific problems in carrying out new product development processes. There are crucial issues related...... to product design processes like inefficient project management, increasing product complexity, conflict management, shortfall of existing methods and tools, and high failures in new product introduction. A new approach has been proposed for a system based platform, which consist of a product platform...

  1. Lessons learned from early microelectronics production at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, H.T.

    1998-02-01

    During the 1980s Sandia designed, developed, fabricated, tested, and delivered hundreds of thousands of radiation hardened Integrated Circuits (IC) for use in weapons and satellites. Initially, Sandia carried out all phases, design through delivery, so that development of next generation ICs and production of current generation circuits were carried out simultaneously. All this changed in the mid-eighties when an outside contractor was brought in to produce ICs that Sandia developed, in effect creating a crisp separation between development and production. This partnership had a severe impact on operations, but its more damaging effect was the degradation of Sandia`s microelectronics capabilities. This report outlines microelectronics development and production in the early eighties and summarizes the impact of changing to a separate contractor for production. This record suggests that low volume production be best accomplished within the development organization.

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project: Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement Program Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of the Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program Plan is to formalize and improve upon existing efforts to control costs which have been underway since project inception. This program plan has been coordinated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the DOE Field Office, Albuquerque (AL). It incorporates prior Uranium Mill Tallings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office guidance issued on the subject. The opportunities for reducing cosh and improving productivity are endless. The CR/PIP has these primary objectives: Improve productivity and quality; heighten the general cost consciousness of project participants, at all levels of their organizations; identify and implement specific innovative employee ideas that extend beyond what is required through existing processes and procedures; emphasize efforts that create additional value for the money spent by maintaining the project Total Estimated Cost (TEC) at the lowest possible level

  3. Final report investigation project agricultural products and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L.G.; Jimenez Dam, R.; Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the after-action report on six investigation projects: Thermoluminescence, Spectrometry gamma of low level, Agricultural products, Radon in the subsoil, Nuclear instrumentation, and X-ray fluorescence, executed between 1995-1997 by the Laboratory of Physical Nuclear Applied of the University of Costa Rica, in the which objectives are shown, applied methodology as well as the achievements and results each project. (Author) [es

  4. Errors in the Production of Adult Early and Late Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the grammatical knowledge of adult second language (L2 learners and heritage speakers. Given the differences in the mode and age of acquisition between L2 learners (late bilinguals and heritage speakers (early bilinguals, the question arises as to whether and how these groups differ from each other in their knowledge of Korean. To address this question, the present study looks at the production of Korean relative clauses by three groups of learners (26 L2 learners, 11 simultaneous bilinguals, and 38 early sequential bilinguals. The results of a written production task showed that all three groups made similar types of errors such as those involving the use of incorrect word order and case markers. Yet differences were also observed in the nature of errors made by these three groups. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications are drawn for classroom instruction.

  5. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  6. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bonneau, M.

    2008-01-01

    demands. A large EU-project (Q-PorkChains) funded by EU 6th framework programme was initiated in January 2007. The aim of Q-PorkChains is to improve the quality of pork and its products for the consumer and to develop innovative, integrated and sustainable food production chains with low environmental....... The European Unions self-sufficiency and leading position in the global market for pork and pork products is challenged by a number of non-European countries. Therefore, there is a need for developing innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer...... impact. Q-PorkChains is composed of six research modules (consumer and citizen demands, pig production, product development, pork chain management, molecular quality control and knowledge synthesis) and two horizontal modules focusing on implementation of obtained knowledge in pilot and demonstration...

  7. Laying the Foundations: Early Findings from the New Mathways Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachry Rutschow, Elizabeth; Diamond, John

    2015-01-01

    National studies reveal that 50 percent to 70 percent of community college students are required to take developmental, or remedial, math courses upon enrollment, and only 20 percent of developmental math students ever successfully complete a college-level math course. Taking up the challenge is the "New Mathways Project" (NMP),…

  8. Descubriendo la lectura: An Early Intervention Spanish Language Literacy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy; And Others

    During the 1989-90 school year, Descubriendo la Lectura, a Spanish-language adaptation of the English Reading Recovery project was implemented in a large urban school district in Arizona. The program is designed to identify first-grade students at risk of becoming poor readers and to provide a series of intense short-term learning experiences that…

  9. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF FORMING OF COLOR-BASED CARDS FOR ASSESSMENT OF EARLY STAGES INNOVATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Bragina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with functional program that allows to generate a visualrepresentation of the shareholder tothe innovative project early stage ofdevelopment, formed a color-based cards.

  10. ANALYSIS OF FORECASTING METHODS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EARLY WARNING CONCEPT IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin POPESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early warning system (EWS based on a reliable forecasting process has become a critical component of the management of large complex industrial projects in the globalized transnational environment. The purpose of this research is to critically analyze the forecasting methods from the point of view of early warning, choosing those useful for the construction of EWS. This research addresses complementary techniques, using Bayesian Networks, which addresses both uncertainties and causality in project planning and execution, with the goal of generating early warning signals for project managers. Even though Bayesian networks have been widely used in a range of decision-support applications, their application as early warning systems for project management is still new.

  11. Artful Dodgers: An Arts Education Research Project in Early Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Nóirín; Maguire, Jackie; Corcoran, Lucie; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Artful Dodgers is an arts education project developed by two artists and delivered in two early years settings located in two areas of urban disadvantage. It is a music and visual arts programme designed and implemented with early years teachers of children aged 3-5 years. It explored whether the provision of high-quality arts experiences could…

  12. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  13. Siting and early-stage project management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Li Guojin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, difficulties and challenges facing in siting of nuclear power plant after Fukushima nuclear accident is introduced. The key points for siting are analyzed. The site characteristics related to nuclear safety and the evaluated methods are discussed. From project management perspective, main procedures and key points for the early-stage of a nuclear power project are described. (authors)

  14. Parent Early Evaluation of Kids: PEEK Outreach Training Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jane; Twombly, Liz; Yockelson, Sue

    This report describes achievements and activities of the Parent Early Evaluation of Kids (PEEK) Outreach Project at the University of Oregon. This project focused on assisting state agencies, regional and tribal entities, and local health and education programs to develop comprehensive, low-cost systems for child-find and referral. Rural and inner…

  15. Containment of transuranic contamination at the early waste retrieval project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harness, J.L.; McKinney, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    On July 26, 1976, while retrieving buried transuranic waste under the Early Waste Retrieval Program, a corroded 55-gallon 17H drum was retrieved. When uprighted, several liters of liquid escaped from the drum. This liquid was contaminated with transuranics, principally Pu-239, Am-241, and some Pu-238. As a result of the spread of this contamination in the Operating Area Confinement, six working days were required to decontaminate the area. At no time did the contamination escape the interior of the Operating Area Confinement building, and no contamination to personnel resulted from this occurrence, nor was a hazard presented to the general public. The facility was designed and constructed to contain the transuranic contamination resulting from such an occurrence. Proper prior planning and personnel training prevented the contamination occurrence from becoming a major event. This report details the occurrence, the recovery, and the information obtained from this event

  16. How to Scope a Product Configuration Project in an Engineering Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When implementing a product configuration system in a company making complex and highly engineered products, many decisions need to be made in the early phases of the project. This article presents a framework for supporting the initial scoping process and discusses experiences from applying...... the framework in an engineering company. The framework covers a number of topics, such as identifying the users of the configuration system, prioritizing the user requirements, defining the input and output, and the overall functionality of the configuration system. Furthermore, the scoping process considers...

  17. Validation of Early Detection Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers (Team Project) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of Ovarian Cancer (OC) is one of the key clinical problems in this disease. We propose a team EDRN project to address the issue of early detection of OC by performing a validation study on candidate protein markers already identified in previous EDRN research or in the literature (e.g. protein products of TCGA identified mutations specific to ovarian cancer). (See appendix for full listing) Biospecimen sources have been identified which include samples obtained at diagnosis and matched controls (Urban, Godwin, Marks, Skates), and longitudinal samples obtained prior to diagnosis (Urban, Skates, Godwin). Bioinformatic filters will be applied to rank the candidates (Diamandis). In order of ranking, candidate proteins for which high quality antibodies are available will be measured by development of ELISAs at JHU (Chan/Zhang) or through NAPPA at DFCI (Anderson/LaBaer), while for other candidates mass spectrometry based selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assays will be developed at PNNL (Rodland). Three milestones are defined. The first two milestones are to assemble the necessary specimens and to develop the qualifying assay(s). The final milestone is to estimate the markers’ sensitivity one year prior to diagnosis at a given high specificity.

  18. Introduction--the Socially Sustainable Egg Production project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B

    2011-01-01

    The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.

  19. What to be implemented at the early stage of a large-scale project

    CERN Document Server

    Bachy, Gérard; Bachy, Gerard; Hameri, Ari Pekka

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the actions to be taken before the project planning phases begin. The approach taken stems from the production planning paradigm, with emphasis on the product, rather than on the process. It is argued that a complete part list or product breakdown structure (PBS) is the absolute prerequisite for the design of a successful work breakdown structure (WBS) for a project. This process requires the definition of the design and configuration disciplines during the engineering phase. These critical issues of concurrent engineering and product development are also emphasized in the paper. The WBS is, in turn, needed to establish a suitable organizational breakdown structure (OBS or organigram) for the project. Finally, the assembly sequence and the related assembly breakdown structure (ABS) of the end product is required before commencing the project planning phase, which provides the schedules, resource allocation, progress control, and the like for the project management. Detai...

  20. Earlier Snowmelt Changes the Ratio Between Early and Late Season Forest Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, J. F.; Molotch, N. P.; Trujillo, E.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future projections of declining snowpack and increasing potential evaporation associated with climate warming are predicted to advance the timing of snowmelt in mountain ecosystems globally. This scenario has direct implications for snowmelt-driven forest productivity, but the net effect of temporally shifting moisture dynamics is unknown with respect to the annual carbon balance. Accordingly, this study uses both satellite- and tower-based observations to document the forest productivity response to snowpack and potential evaporation variability between 1989 and 2012 throughout the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion, USA. These results show that a combination of low snow accumulation and record high potential evaporation in 2012 resulted in the 34-year minimum ecosystem productivity that could be indicative of future conditions. Moreover, early and late season productivity were significantly and inversely related, suggesting that future shifts toward earlier or reduced snowmelt could increase late-season moisture stress to vegetation and thus restrict productivity despite a longer growing season. This relationship was further subject to modification by summer precipitation, and the controls on the early/late season productivity ratio are explored within the context of ecosystem carbon storage in the future. Any perturbation to the carbon cycle at this scale represents a potential feedback to climate change since snow-covered forests represent an important global carbon sink.

  1. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Lieberman, Martin; Lee, Jessica Y; Scoville, Richard; Hannon, Cindy; Maramaldi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC) has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM) approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI) collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR) for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  2. Disease Management of Early Childhood Caries: ECC Collaborative Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Wai Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the standard of care for early childhood caries (ECC has been primarily surgical and restorative treatment with little emphasis on preventing and managing the disease itself. It is now recognized that surgical treatment alone does not address the underlying etiology of the disease. Despite costly surgeries and reparative treatment, the onset and progression of caries are likely to continue. A successful rebalance of risk and protective factors may prevent, slow down, or even arrest dental caries and its progression. An 18-month risk-based chronic disease management (DM approach to address ECC in preschool children was implemented as a quality improvement (QI collaborative by seven teams of oral health care providers across the United States. In the aggregate, fewer DM children experienced new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the operating room (OR for restorative treatment compared to baseline historical controls. The teams found that QI methods facilitated adoption of the DM approach and resulted in improved care to patients and better outcomes overall. Despite these successes, the wide scale adoption and spread of the DM approach may be limited unless health policy and payment reforms are enacted to compensate providers for implementing DM protocols in their practice.

  3. An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Beria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system.The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services.The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues.The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network.

  4. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  5. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same

  6. Mining-metallurgical projects for the production of uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria-Garza, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overall view of a complete project for a mining-metallurgical complex for the production of uranium concentrates. Relevant aspects of each important topic are discussed as parts of an integrated methodology. The principal project activities are analyzed and the relationships among the various factors affecting the design are indicated. A list of 96 principal activities is proposed as an example. These activities are distributed in eight groups: initial evaluations preliminary feasibility studies, project engineering, construction, industrial operation, decommissioning and post-decommissioning activities. The environmental impact and the radiological risks due to the construction and operation of the mining metallurgical complex are analyzed. The principles of radiological protection and the regulations, standards and recommendations for radiological protection in uranium mines and mills are discussed. This report is also a guide to the specialized literature: a bibliography with 765 references is included. (author)

  7. Evaluation of tile layer productivity in construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hassan, Siti Hafizan; Rosly, Noorsyalili; Ul-Saufie, Ahmad Zia

    2017-10-01

    Construction is a key sector of the national economy for countries all over the world. Until today, construction industries are still facing lots of problems concerning the low productivity, poor safety and insufficient quality. Labour productivity is one of the factors that will give impact to the quality of projects. This study is focusing on evaluating the tile layer productivity in the area of Seberang Perai, Penang. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship of age and experience of tile layers with their productivity and to evaluate the effect of nationality to tile layers productivity. Interview and site observation of tile layers has been conducted to obtain the data of age, experience and nationality of tile layers. Site observation is made to obtain the number of tiles installed for every tile layer for the duration of 1 hour, and the data were analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS Statistic 23) software. As a result, there is a moderate linear relationship between age and experience of tile layers with their productivity. The age of 30 and the experience of 4 years give the highest productivity. It also can be concluded that the tile layers from Indonesia tend to have higher productivity compared to tile layers from Myanmar.

  8. Projecting productivity losses for cancer-related mortality 2011 - 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison; Bradley, Cathy; Hanly, Paul; O'Neill, Ciaran; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal; Sharp, Linda

    2016-10-18

    When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach. National data were used for cancer, population and economic inputs. Both paid work and unpaid household activities were included. Sensitivity analyses estimated the impact of assumptions around future cancer mortality rates, retirement ages, value of unpaid work, wage growth and discounting. The 233,000 projected deaths from all invasive cancers in Ireland between 2011 and 2030 will result in lost productivity valued at €73 billion; €13 billion in paid work and €60 billion in household activities. These losses represent approximately 1.4 % of Ireland's GDP annually. The most costly cancers are lung (€14.4 billion), colorectal and breast cancer (€8.3 billion each). However, when viewed as productivity losses per cancer death, testis (€364,000 per death), cervix (€155,000 per death) and brain cancer (€136,000 per death) are most costly because they affect working age individuals. An annual 1 % reduction in mortality reduces productivity losses due to all invasive cancers by €8.5 billion over 20 years. Society incurs substantial losses in productivity as a result of cancer-related mortality, particularly when household production is included. These estimates provide valuable evidence to inform resource allocation decisions in cancer prevention and control.

  9. A Path to Successful Energy Retrofits: Early Collaboration through Integrated Project Delivery Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document guides you through a process for the early design phases of retrofit projects to help you mitigate frustrations commonly experienced by building owners and designers. It outlines the value of forming an integrated project delivery team and developing a communication and information-sharing infrastructure that fosters collaboration. This guide does not present a complete process for designing an energy retrofit for a building. Instead, it focuses on the early design phase tasks related to developing and selecting energy efficiency measures (EEMs) that benefit from collaboration, and highlights the resulting advantages.

  10. THE FRAME NETWORK OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STAKEHOLDER COMPOSITIONS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alexander Kjær; Nafei, Nadiim Mohamed Adel Abd El Fatta; Larsen, Michael Planck

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting p...... also identifies core activities and events of the framing process and propose a model describing an iterative cycle of six phases that stakeholders in New Product Development go through, which we in this article call ‘The Interdisciplinary Framing Loop’.......New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting...... in the early phases of NPD projects involving interdisciplinary stakeholders in organisational settings. The study indicates that stakeholders create isolated aspired values and working principles and from these form a ‘network’ of ‘partial frames’ before connecting them into ‘fully defined frames’. The study...

  11. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  12. Projected climate change threatens pollinators and crop production in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Giannini

    Full Text Available Animal pollination can impact food security since many crops depend on pollinators to produce fruits and seeds. However, the effects of projected climate change on crop pollinators and therefore on crop production are still unclear, especially for wild pollinators and aggregate community responses. Using species distributional modeling, we assessed the effects of climate change on the geographic distribution of 95 pollinator species of 13 Brazilian crops, and we estimated their relative impacts on crop production. We described these effects at the municipality level, and we assessed the crops that were grown, the gross production volume of these crops, the total crop production value, and the number of inhabitants. Overall, considering all crop species, we found that the projected climate change will reduce the probability of pollinator occurrence by almost 0.13 by 2050. Our models predict that almost 90% of the municipalities analyzed will face species loss. Decreases in the pollinator occurrence probability varied from 0.08 (persimmon to 0.25 (tomato and will potentially affect 9% (mandarin to 100% (sunflower of the municipalities that produce each crop. Municipalities in central and southern Brazil will potentially face relatively large impacts on crop production due to pollinator loss. In contrast, some municipalities in northern Brazil, particularly in the northwestern Amazon, could potentially benefit from climate change because pollinators of some crops may increase. The decline in the probability of pollinator occurrence is found in a large number of municipalities with the lowest GDP and will also likely affect some places where crop production is high (20% to 90% of the GDP and where the number of inhabitants is also high (more than 6 million people. Our study highlights key municipalities where crops are economically important and where pollinators will potentially face the worst conditions due to climate change. However, pollinators

  13. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  14. Operational Features of the Kamehameha Early Education Project. Technical Report #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report summarizes the operational features of the initial phases of the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP). The rationale for KEEP's focus on conducting research on programs similar to those in the public schools rather than on developing radically innovative educational programs is discussed. Start up procedures such as recruitment of…

  15. The DEBT Project: Early Intervention for Handicapped Children and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Daniel J.; And Others

    Project DEBT (Developmental Education Birth through Two), an early identification and intervention program for handicapped and at risk children and their parents, is described. The Koontz Child Developmental Program, the core curriculum for instructional planning and intervention in DEBT, is reviewed, and new data are presented. It is explained…

  16. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  17. Projection 0f Labor Needs and Productivity to Reduce Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Agusalim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of labor needs and productivity in Banten Province from 2016 until 2020. By estimating the needs and productivity of the labor, the government can use this information to create the appropriate policies in order to reduce the open unemployment rate (OUR in Banten Province. According to BPS data in 2014, OUR of Banten Province was the highest among other provinces in Java and second highest in Indonesia after Maluku. This study used the quantitative method, which are the exponential and geometric methods to project the labor needs. Other than that, this study used the descriptive method to interpret the quantitative data. The result showed that (1 from 2016 until 2020 there will be an increasing condition of employment, (2 from 2010 until 2014, the highest labor productivity were from electricity, gas and water sector. However from 2016 – 2020, the highest labor productivity will be from financing, insurance, real estate, land, and business services. (3 The number of OUR is expected to decrease annually. Meanwhile OUR in 2016 which is 7.39 percent will decrease to 3.94 percent in 2020.

  18. Orchestrating Information Sharing among Intra- And Inter-Organisational Core Actors in a Large New Product Development Project - The Particular Role of The Project Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    The success of NPD projects of high-cost, engineering-intensive, and customized development products is largely dependent on information sharing with actors from customers regarding their specific requirements (Von Hippel, 1986). But information sharing is also necessary among actors from different...... information sharing among other intra- or inter-organisational actors during the progression of an NPD project. In other words, this study emphasises the importance of the PM’s relationships on a day-to-day basis in information sharing among intra- and inter-organisational actors during the phases of an NPD...... organisations. Further, the findings show that to orchestrate the information sharing during the NPD project, the PM relies on relationships with several core intra-organisational actors who are particularly important to the orchestrating of information sharing during the early phases of the NPD project...

  19. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Juliette; Hamers, Timo; van Eck van der Sluijs-van de Bor, Margot; Schoeters, Greet; van der Ven, Leo; Eggesbo, Merete; Koppe, Janna; Feinberg, Max; Trnovec, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life). OBELIX is a 4-y project that started in May 2009 and which has the following 5 main objectives: 1) to assess early life exposure in humans to major classes of EDCs identified as potential inducers of obesity (ie, dioxin-like compounds, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds) by using mother-child cohorts from 4 European regions with different food-contaminant exposure patterns; 2) to relate early life exposure to EDCs with clinical markers, novel biomarkers, and health-effect data related to obesity; 3) to perform hazard characterization of early life exposure to EDCs for the development of obesity later in life by using a mouse model; 4) to determine mechanisms of action of obesogenic EDCs on developmental programming with in vivo and in vitro genomics and epigenetic analyses; and 5) to perform risk assessments of prenatal exposure to obesogenic EDCs in food by integrating maternal exposure through food-contaminant exposure and health-effect data in children and hazard data in animal studies.

  20. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  1. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... with the information sharing during NPD projects is limited; therefore, this study of longitudinal objective email data (4658 emails) during a NPD project contributes to theory and practice by advancing our understanding of when and how the project manager establishes relationships with different core actors inside...

  2. Status of the Korean nuclear hydrogen production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonghwa, Chang; Won-Jae, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The rapid climate changes and the heavy reliance on imported fuel in Korea have motivated interest in the hydrogen economy. The Korean government has set up a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy. To meet the expected demand of hydrogen as a fuel, hydrogen production using nuclear energy was also discussed. Recently the Korean Atomic Energy Committee has approved nuclear hydrogen production development and demonstration which will lead to commercialisation in late 2030's. An extensive research and development programme for the production of hydrogen using nuclear power has been underway since 2004 in Korea. During the first three years, a technological area was identified for the economic and efficient production of hydrogen using a VHTR. A pre-conceptual design of the commercial nuclear hydrogen production plant was also performed. As a result, the key technology area in the core design, the hydrogen production process, the coupling between reactor and chemical side, and the coated fuel were identified. During last three years, research activities have been focused on the key technology areas. A nuclear hydrogen production demonstration plant (NHDD) consisting of a 200 MWth capacity VHTR and five trains of water-splitting plants was proposed for demonstration of the performance and the economics of nuclear hydrogen. The computer tools for the VHTR and the water-splitting process were created and validated to some extent. The TRISO-coated particle fuel was fabricated and qualified. The properties of high temperature materials, including nuclear graphite, were studied. The sulphur-iodine thermochemical process was proved on a 3 litre/ hour scale. A small gas loop with practical pressure and temperature with the secondary sulphur acid loop was successfully built and commissioned. The results of the first phase research increased the confidence in the nuclear hydrogen technology. From 2009, the government decided to support further key technology

  3. Integrating Project Management, Product Design with Industry Sponsored Projects provides Stimulating Senior Capstone Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A. Sanger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract ¾ Many students are uncomfortable with real world engineering problems where needs and requirements must be concretely defined and the selection of design solutions is not black and white. This paper describes a two semester, multi-disciplinary senior capstone project for students from three Engineering and Technology Department programs (electrical engineering, electrical and computer engineering technology, and engineering technology that brings together the tools of project management and the creative product development process into industry sponsored projects.  The projects are fully integrated with the Center for Rapid Product Realization with its dual goals of economic development and enhanced learning.  The stage/gate development process is used with six formal reviews covering the development of the proposal through to the fabrication and testing of the project’s output.  Over the past four years thirty five (35 projects have been undertaken with students getting an exciting

  4. An Algorithm for the Weighted Earliness-Tardiness Unconstrained Project Scheduling Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar Nadjafi, Behrouz; Shadrokh, Shahram

    This research considers a project scheduling problem with the object of minimizing weighted earliness-tardiness penalty costs, taking into account a deadline for the project and precedence relations among the activities. An exact recursive method has been proposed for solving the basic form of this problem. We present a new depth-first branch and bound algorithm for extended form of the problem, which time value of money is taken into account by discounting the cash flows. The algorithm is extended with two bounding rules in order to reduce the size of the branch and bound tree. Finally, some test problems are solved and computational results are reported.

  5. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON

  6. The human early-life exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R; Granum, Berit; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure-health effect relationships. The "exposome" concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the "early-life exposome." Here we describe the general design of the project. In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother-child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother-child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure-response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome.

  7. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip

    2016-01-01

    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  8. SWARMS Early Trials Management for The SWARMs ECSEL-H2020 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Daniel; Morales, Tania; Castro, Ayoze; Barrera, Carlos; Hernández, Joaquín; Llinás, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    The work presented on this paper is aimed to explain how the Early Trials of the Project SWARMS were managed in order to complete the first field demonstrations on real environment. SWARMs aims to reduce the operational cost in the use of maritime robots and vehicles, in order to increase the safety of tasks and reduce profesional divers risks. This will be achieved enabling the AUVs/ROVs to work in a cooperative mesh. The challenge is to design and develop an integrated platform (a set of Software/Hardware components), incorporated into the current generation of underwater vehicles in order to improve autonomy, cooperation, robustness, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of the offshore operations. The first demonstration of the project has been performed at PLOCAN (The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands) where these technologies were validated on its first stage. The Early Trials have represented the first in situ deployment and test of the novel technologies developed during the initial 14 months of the Project. Going into the sea supposed a huge challenge also in terms of management. The 32 partners of SWARMS had very different requirements (logistics, technical needs, software/computation needs, etc.), and a limited time frame to test and prove their individual developments. In order to fullfill the project objectives, all these tests were divided in 7 missions that were aimed to cover this early demonstration requiements. From PLOCAN, a management protocol was designed in order to cover all the partners needs and make an efficient resource asignment from the begining. These results will be extended to other two demonstrations of the project that forseen to be held in Romania (2017) and Norway (2018).

  9. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance...

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock

  11. The TRIDEC Project: Future-Saving FOSS GIS Applications for Tsunami Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, P.; Wächter, J.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 killed over 240,000 people in 14 countries and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. This natural disaster coincided with an information catastrophy, as potentially life-saving early warning information existed, yet no means were available to deliver it to the communities under imminent threat. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for ongoing TEWS research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages. Since 2004, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CEGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already: The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a European project funded under the sixth Framework Programme (FP6). These developments are continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). This ongoing project focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application. All TRIDEC developments are based on Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components and industry standards where-ever possible. Tsunami Early Warning in TRIDEC is also based on mature system architecture models to ensure long-term usability and the flexibility to adapt to future generations of Tsunami sensors. All open source software produced by the project consortium are foreseen to be published on FOSSLAB, a publicly available

  12. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounalli, Leila

    2013-01-01

    radioisotopes production are much sought worldwide. There is a universal lack of these specialists. Regarding this situation, there is an urgency to collect the right conditions which allow the organization of a Master's degree in radio-pharmacy, radio-biology and radiochemistry. The projects of complementarities between Arab countries via the Arabic Agency of the Atomic Energy, the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Technical French Cooperation of the Atomic Energy Commission are useful to combine efforts for better training of the staff. (Author)

  13. The marketing function in exploratory product innovation : contrasting different project types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.A.J.; Dankbaar, B.; Vissers, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing function in product innovation projects in established b-t-b firms. The marketing function in an innovation project is a term to denote both the project members that connect the project to customers or, more broadly, the market, and their activities in innovation

  14. Linking project-based production and project management temporary systems in multiple contexts : An introduction to the special edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Pretorius, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    As organisations in more and more industries look for flexible ways of production in the wake of rapidly changing market environments, project-based organising is becoming an increasingly important mode of organisation (Eisenhardt & Tabrizi, 1995). Whereas project-based organisation was

  15. Estimation of volatility of selected oil production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lima, Gabriel A.; Suslick, Saul B.

    2006-01-01

    In oil project valuation and investment decision-making, volatility is a key parameter, but it is difficult to estimate. From a traditional investment viewpoint, volatility reduces project value because it increases its discount rate via a higher risk premium. Contrarily, according to the real-option pricing theory, volatility may aggregate value to the project, since the downside potential is limited whereas the upside is theoretically unbounded. However, the estimation of project volatility is very complicated since there is not a historical series of project values. In such cases, many analysts assume that oil price volatility is equal to that of project. In order to overcome such problems, in this paper an alternative numerical method based on present value of future cash flows and Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to estimate the volatility of projects. This method is applied to estimate the volatility of 12 deep-water offshore oil projects considering that oil price will evolve according to one of two stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion and Mean-Reverting Motion. Results indicate that the volatility of commodity usually undervalue that of project. For the set of offshore projects analyzed in this paper, project volatility is at least 79% higher than that of oil prices and increases dramatically in those cases of high capital expenditures and low price. (author)

  16. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodology ...

  17. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodol...

  18. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    Management (IPM). Therefore, the optimised use of agricultural technologies is considered to the extent they help farmers achieve their objectives, particularly their competitiveness. The principal BMPs flagged by CA that ensure biodiversity and environmental protection for a productive agriculture are based on minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and crop rotations. The project covers over 50 farms in Belgium, Denmark, France and Spain. INSPIA is promoting the uptake of sustainable agricultural practices throughout Europe by: • Raising awareness among EU policy stakeholders, technicians and farmers in favour of sustainable agriculture. • Recognition of farmers needs for helping dissemination of sustainable agriculture • Demonstrating that BMPs help to achieve sustainability in European agriculture. Provide a sustainable output graph based on a set of verifiable indicators; comparatives, evolution in time among others. • Consolidating a farm network in Belgium, Denmark, France and Spain to enable the validation, demonstration and communication of BMPs (first step), and extend this farm network to other countries (second step). Whereas the final objectives are: • Obtain adapted environmental and agricultural policies • Obtain recognition by farmers, decision makers and private sector of Sustainable Agriculture (Conservation Agriculture / ecological intensification with optimization across crop protection solutions) and of their operators (farmers in this system and their organizations / companies supportive)

  19. New product development projects evaluation under time uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Augusto de Oliveira Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development time is one of the key factors that contribute to the new product development success. In spite of that, the impact of the time uncertainty on the development has been not fully exploited, as far as decision supporting models to evaluate this kind of projects is concerned. In this context, the objective of the present paper is to evaluate the development process of new technologies under time uncertainty. We introduce a model which captures this source of uncertainty and develop an algorithm to evaluate projects that incorporates Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming. The novelty in our approach is to thoroughly blend the stochastic time with a formal approach to the problem, which preserves the Markov property. We base our model on the distinction between the decision epoch and the stochastic time. We discuss and illustrate the applicability of our model through an empirical example.O tempo de desenvolvimento é um dos fatores-chave que contribuem para o sucesso do desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Apesar disso, o impacto da incerteza de tempo no desenvolvimento tem sido pouco considerado em modelos de avaliação e valoração deste tipo de projetos. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar projetos de desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias mediante o tempo incerto. Introduzimos um modelo capaz de captar esta fonte de incerteza e desenvolvemos um algoritmo para a valoração do projeto que integra Simulação de Monte Carlo e Programação Dinâmica. A novidade neste trabalho é conseguir integrar meticulosamente o tempo estocástico a uma estrutura formal para tomada de decisão que preserva a propriedade de Markov. O principal ponto para viabilizar este fato é distinção entre o momento de revisão e o tempo estocástico. Ilustramos e discutimos a aplicabilidade deste modelo por meio de um exemplo empírico.

  20. A Phonological Analysis of Onomatopoeia in Early Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses longitudinal diary data from one infant acquiring German to seek a better understanding of the role of onomatopoeia in early language development. Onomatopoeic words (OWs) are traced over time in relation to their corresponding conventional forms (CWs), and an analysis of their phonological transitions is considered in…

  1. Defining project scenarios for the agile requirements engineering product-line development questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Kunwu; Lempert, Meli; Tang, Yan; Tian, Kun; Cooper, Kendra M.L.; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Current agile methods are focused on practices of small, rapid developing and iteration, more people oriented, less documentation projects, and the use of the methods in large, product line projects are somehow difficult. UTD and GESSI have started a project to develop an expert system that can assist a requirements enginer in selecting a requirements engineering process that is well suited for their project, in particular with respect to the use of agile and product line engineering methods....

  2. Analyzing the Accuracy of Calculations When Scoping Product Configuration Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Product configurators have increasingly been applied in industrial environments. With their help, companies providing customized products have managed to redesign their specification processes and to better handle the growing product variety. But despite the promising benefits, conducting...

  3. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  4. Building an early career network through outreach projects: The "mon océan & moi" example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieux, M.; Scheurle, C.; Ardyna, M.; Harmel, T.; Ferraris, M.; Jessin, T.; Lacour, L.; Mayot, N.; Organelli, E.; Pasqueron De Fommervault, O.; Penkerc'h, C.; Poteau, A.; Uitz, J.; Ramondec, S.; Sauzède, R.; Velluci, V.; Claustre, H.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean plays an important role in the global processes of our planet, from climate change to sea level rise, uptake of carbon dioxide to fisheries stocks. In addition, its scientific importance, extraordinary beauty and public fascination provide perfect ingredients for both education and public outreach. Four years ago, after the launch of the "mon océan & moi" outreach project, an early career network (Ph.D. students and postdocs) has been formed to "promote collaborations/exchanges between the scientific and educational worlds in order to co-elaborate a teaching method for raising the awareness of school children on marine environments". Scientists are pursuing new research yielding improved knowledge and new documentation resources. However, they lack the communication skills to make the subject accessible to the general public. On the other hand, teachers must be informed of recent discoveries and of new resources for educational purposes. To fill this gap, the early career scientists developed, in collaboration with a school authority and an experienced science communicators team, both a trail education program tested directly in middle and high schools and innovative supporting material (i.e., animations, educative video clips and experiments, interactive maps and quizzes). Here we outline a set of guidelines as to how to improve science outreach across a variety of disciplines (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and how this may impact the experience of early career scientists. These tips will be useful for other early career scientists and science outreach projects, large or small, regional, national or international. Such novel outreach initiatives will help educate current and next generations about the importance of ocean environments and the relevance of ocean sciences for the society, and may serve as an example of teamwork for other young scientists.

  5. PROJECT W-551 DETERMINATION DATA FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-08-11

    This report provides the detailed assessment forms and data for selection of the solids separation and cesium separation technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. This data was used to prepare a cross-cutting technology summary, reported in RPP-RPT-37740.

  6. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  7. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  8. Production of Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; Robert S. Marshall

    1999-03-01

    Nondestructive waste assay (NDA) methods are employed to determine the mass and activity of waste-entrained radionuclides as part of the National TRU (Trans-Uranic) Waste Characterization Program. In support of this program the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Mixed Waste Focus Area developed a plan to acquire capability/performance data on systems proposed for NDA purposes. The Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was designed to evaluate the NDA systems of commercial contractors by subjecting all participants to identical tests involving 55 gallon drum surrogates containing known quantities and distributions of radioactive materials in the form of sealed-source standards, referred to as working reference materials (WRMs). Although numerous Pu WRMs already exist, the CEP WRM set allows for the evaluation of the capability and performance of systems with respect to waste types/configurations which contain increased amounts of {sup 241}Am relative to weapons grade Pu, waste that is dominantly {sup 241}Am, as well as wastes containing various proportions of depleted uranium. The CEP WRMs consist of a special mixture of PuO{sub 2}/AmO{sub 2} (IAP) and diatomaceous earth (DE) or depleted uranium (DU) oxide and DE and were fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The IAP WRMS are contained inside a pair of welded inner and outer stainless steel containers. The DU WRMs are singly contained within a stainless steel container equivalent to the outer container of the IAP standards. This report gives a general overview and discussion relating to the production and certification of the CEP WRMs.

  9. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project's environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions

  10. Early ripening, productive soybean mutant variety suitable for combine harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1981 seeds of the early ripening Swedish variety ''Fiskeby V'' were treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea, sodium azide or gamma rays. Induced mutants were selected which are characterized by longer stalk, higher insertion point of the lowest pods and improved grain yield as well as sufficiently early maturity. Starting from 60 000 treated seeds, 6 mutant lines were developed, and in 1988 one variety named ''Dorado'' was released. Under optimal agrotechnical conditions in fields of 2-10 ha ''Dorado'' achieved grain yields between 1,5 and 2,3 t/ha during the last four years. It is intended to grow this variety in the middle and southern districts of the German Democratic Republic, primarily for human consumption. A technology for growing this variety was recommended

  11. Leptin production during early starvation in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Horowitz, J F; Landt, M; Goodrick, S J; Mohamed-Ali, V; Coppack, S W

    2000-02-01

    We evaluated abdominal adipose tissue leptin production during short-term fasting in nine lean [body mass index (BMI) 21 +/- 1 kg/m(2)] and nine upper body obese (BMI 36 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) women. Leptin kinetics were determined by arteriovenous balance across abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 and 22 h of fasting. At 14 h of fasting, net leptin release from abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects (10.9 +/- 1.9 ng x 100 g tissue x (-1) x min(-1)) was not significantly greater than the values observed in the lean group (7.6 +/- 2.1 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)). Estimated whole body leptin production was approximately fivefold greater in obese (6.97 +/- 1.18 microg/min) than lean subjects (1.25 +/- 0.28 microg/min) (P production rates decreased in both lean and obese groups (to 3.10 +/- 1.31 and 10.5 +/- 2.3 ng x 100 g adipose tissue(-1) x min(-1), respectively). However, the relative declines in both arterial leptin concentration and local leptin production in obese women (arterial concentration 13.8 +/- 4.4%, local production 10.0 +/- 12.3%) were less (P lean women (arterial concentration 39.0 +/- 5.5%, local production 56.9 +/- 13.0%). This study demonstrates that decreased leptin production accounts for the decline in plasma leptin concentration observed after fasting. However, compared with lean women, the fasting-induced decline in leptin production is blunted in women with upper body obesity. Differences in leptin production during fasting may be responsible for differences in the neuroendocrine response to fasting previously observed in lean and obese women.

  12. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  15. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  16. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  17. A Proposal to Build an Education Research and Development Program: The Kamehameha Early Education Project Proposal. Technical Report #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report summarizes the programmatic features of a proposal for the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP), a program aimed at the development, demonstration, and dissemination of methods for improving the education of Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian children. A brief description of the proposed project goals, structure, organization, and…

  18. Control panel and indicators for production control in building projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orihuela Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, every project should have indicators that monitor compliance with established goals. In con­struction projects, there are a large number of indicators proposed by many researchers; however, an analysis of the state of the art shows a frequent confusion between Result, Process and Leading Indicators. This paper, which is an extended version of the paper sub­mitted by the same authors at the Creative Construction Conference 2017 and published in Procedia Engineering (DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.230, presents a proposal of these three types of indicators for the design, supply and assembly phases of housing projects. Thus, all project stakeholders can have a control panel that will monitor if an indicator exceeds the limits, thereby allowing taking corrective actions in a timely and effective manner.

  19. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  20. Three-dimensional DNA image cytometry by optical projection tomographic microscopy for early cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Biancardi, Alberto M; Patten, Florence W; Reeves, Anthony P; Seibel, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    Aneuploidy is typically assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) and image cytometry (ICM). We used optical projection tomographic microscopy (OPTM) for assessing cellular DNA content using absorption and fluorescence stains. OPTM combines some of the attributes of both FCM and ICM and generates isometric high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) images of single cells. Although the depth of field of the microscope objective was in the submicron range, it was extended by scanning the objective's focal plane. The extended depth of field image is similar to a projection in a conventional x-ray computed tomography. These projections were later reconstructed using computed tomography methods to form a 3-D image. We also present an automated method for 3-D nuclear segmentation. Nuclei of chicken, trout, and triploid trout erythrocyte were used to calibrate OPTM. Ratios of integrated optical densities extracted from 50 images of each standard were compared to ratios of DNA indices from FCM. A comparison of mean square errors with thionin, hematoxylin, Feulgen, and SYTOX green was done. Feulgen technique was preferred as it showed highest stoichiometry, least variance, and preserved nuclear morphology in 3-D. The addition of this quantitative biomarker could further strengthen existing classifiers and improve early diagnosis of cancer using 3-D microscopy.

  1. Safety research in the field of energy production. Plan for continued Nordic projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, P E [Statens Vattenfallsverk, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, J [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway); Eckered, T [Statens Kaernkraftinspektion, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    NGS, an ad hoc group of the Nordic Co-ordination Committee for Atomic Energy, has prepared this survey of proposed cooperative projects as a continuation of previous projects. New areas to be given priority are:- reactor safety, environmental effects in energy production and human reliability. Continued projects are:- quality assurance, radioactive waste and radioecology. (JIW)

  2. Large urban projects and social actors : Forces supporting and opposing the production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenya, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    This research studies, by means of the analysis of a paradigmatic large urban project in Buenos Aires, the production process of a large urban project furthered by the State and directed to create a new centrality. The analysis is focused on the forces supporting and opposition the project that were

  3. Establishing a cost model when estimating product cost in early design phases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Johanna; Sjöberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    About 75% of the total product cost is determined in the early design phase, which means that the possibilities to affect costs are relatively small when the design phase is completed. For companies, it is therefore vital to conduct reliable cost estimates in the early design phase, when selecting between different design choices. When conducting a cost estimate there are many uncertainties. The aim with this study is therefore to explore how uncertainties regarding product cost can be consid...

  4. The AEROPATH project targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: crystallographic studies for assessment of potential targets in early-stage drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moynie, Lucille; Schnell, Robert; McMahon, Stephen A.; Sandalova, Tatyana; Boulkerou, Wassila Abdelli; Schmidberger, Jason W.; Alphey, Magnus; Cukier, Cyprian; Duthie, Fraser; Kopec, Jolanta; Liu, Huanting; Jacewicz, Agata; Hunter, William N.; Naismith, James H.; Schneider, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    A focused strategy has been directed towards the structural characterization of selected proteins from the bacterial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The objective is to exploit the resulting structural data, in combination with ligand-binding studies, and to assess the potential of these proteins for early-stage antimicrobial drug discovery. Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns

  5. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.J. Brooks; R.W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. By using a spread-sheet model, material flows in the Alaska forest sectorare fully accounted for. Demand for Alaska national forest timber is projected and depends on product output and harvest by other owners. Key...

  6. A desk evaluation review of project VIE/4/009 design and production of nuclear instruments. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A Project Desk Evaluation (PDE) is an intensive review process, using agreed guidelines, of the design, implementation, and the output of a project. This project is exclusively dealing with the design and production of nuclear instruments. The aim of this project would be to develop a viable capability for maintenance and repair of the nuclear instruments at the Dalat Research Institute (DNRI), the premier nuclear centre in Viet Nam, and also to meet the steadily increasing needs of DNRI, as well as of other national institutions, hospitals and universities engaged in the application of nuclear technologies, particularly in the southern part of the country. Project Summary with financial data is given along with training programme. 1 tab

  7. A desk evaluation review of project VIE/4/009 design and production of nuclear instruments. Project desk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-09

    A Project Desk Evaluation (PDE) is an intensive review process, using agreed guidelines, of the design, implementation, and the output of a project. This project is exclusively dealing with the design and production of nuclear instruments. The aim of this project would be to develop a viable capability for maintenance and repair of the nuclear instruments at the Dalat Research Institute (DNRI), the premier nuclear centre in Viet Nam, and also to meet the steadily increasing needs of DNRI, as well as of other national institutions, hospitals and universities engaged in the application of nuclear technologies, particularly in the southern part of the country. Project Summary with financial data is given along with training programme. 1 tab.

  8. Linking project-based production and project management temporary systems in multiple contexts: An introduction to the special edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon AG Oerlemans

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As organisations in more and more industries look for flexible ways of production in the wake of rapidly changing market environments, project-based organising is becoming an increasingly important mode of organisation (Eisenhardt & Tabrizi, 1995. Whereas project-based organisation was traditionally mainly the domain of industries such as film making (Sorenson & Waguespack, 2006, theatre (Goodman & Goodman, 1976, and construction (Gann & Salter, 2000, a project-based mode of operation has recently pervaded many other sectors in the economy, including software development, advertising, biotechnology, consulting, emergency response, fashion, television and complex products and systems (Grabher, 2004; Hobday, 2000. This increasing prevalence is reflected in an exponentially growing body of research (Bakker, 2010, which has made marked progress in areas such as project-based learning (Prencipe & Tell, 2001, project-based innovation (Eisenhardt & Tabrizi, 1995 and project-based careers (Jones, 1996. As a consequence, research on project organisation has moved from being a narrow specialty domain toward being a broad research paradigm, attending to a broad audience in organisation science and beyond (Sydow et al., 2004. In a fairly recent review paper, Bakker (2010 shows that in the period 1988–2008 scholarly attention, as indicated by publications in books and ISI-indexed journals, grew exponentially (see Figure 1. Comparing the number of publications in the period 1988-1998 with the period 1998–2008, he observed an increase of almost 340%.

  9. Procurement management in scientific research and production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yi

    2008-01-01

    To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)

  10. Peat production. Review of research projects; Turvetuotanto. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The development target in the research area of peat production is to improve the competitiveness of peat by reducing production costs by 20 % (by FIM 5 - 6/MWh) from the level of the year 1992 and to reduce environmental impacts. The most important research objects by which the target in peat production technology will be achieved are drawing and preparation technology, drying technology, mechanical technology, method technology, integration of wood harvesting and peat production, and the application of the results of the OPTIMITURVE Research Programme in practice. (orig.)

  11. SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change

  12. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  13. On the Economics of Innovation Projects Product Experimentation in the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Lorenzen; Lars Frederiksen

    2005-01-01

    The paper is conceptual, combining project and economic organization literatures in order to explain the organization and management of market-based projects. It dedicates particular focus to projects set up in order to facilitate product innovation through experimentation. It investigates the internal vs. market economies of scale and scope related to projects, as well as the issues of governance, planning and coordination related to reaping such economies. Incorporating trans...

  14. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF 136 EARLY B-TYPE STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmany, C. D.; Glaspey, J. W. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bragança, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Fernandes, M. Borges; Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP: 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI: 48109-1107 (United States); Bensby, T., E-mail: garmany@noao.edu [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    We have determined projected rotational velocities, v sin i, from Magellan/MIKE echelle spectra for a sample of 136 early B-type stars having large Galactocentric distances. The target selection was done independently of their possible membership in clusters, associations or field stars. We subsequently examined the literature and assigned each star as Field, Association, or Cluster. Our v sin i results are consistent with a difference in aggregate v sin i with stellar density. We fit bimodal Maxwellian distributions to the Field, Association, and Cluster subsamples representing sharp-lined and broad-lined components. The first two distributions, in particular, for the Field and Association are consistent with strong bimodality in v sin i. Radial velocities are also presented, which are useful for further studies of binarity in B-type stars, and we also identify a sample of possible new double-lined spectroscopic binaries. In addition, we find 18 candidate Be stars showing emission at Hα.

  15. Information support of decision-making in the early stages of new product development when approaching marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tishhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To create theoretical and practical approaches to information support of the decision making procedure at the initial stages of developing a new product with a marketing management approach that allows to improve the quality of management decisions on the product. Material and methods. The projected software package on the basis of expert assessments and fuzzy sets, allows to automate the decision to implement innovation at an early stage. The work used such scientific methods as generalization of scientific literature in the field of shaping and taking into account the features of innovation, Solutions in the initial stages of development, methods of expert evaluation and elements of fuzzy sets. Results and its discussion. The article presents the rationale and possibilities for informational support of the decision-making procedure for innovative products. The authors also proposed a methodology for making a decision when developing a new product based on expert and predictive assessments of innovation at the initial stages of its creation. A software package has been developed that automates the decision to manufacture a new product at the initial stages of production. Conclusion. Despite a large number of theoretical developments in innovative management, the risk associated with the release of new products remains quite high. The developed methodology of information support for decision-making at the initial stages of the development of a new product will reduce the risk of the lack of demand for innovation.

  16. Federated product data management in multi company projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.; Elmaraghy, H.A.; Elmaraghy, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    An approach for enabling concurrent engineering between companies by providing a proper collaboration platform, as developed in the VIDOP project is proposed. Apart from security, information status is an important element of trust. However, status-coding schemes differ much between companies and

  17. Product Quality Assurance Project for Teaching of Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the challenges in teaching Food Analysis are bringing relevance to the various chemical and physical analyses discussed and exposing students to the realities of quality assurance in the food industry. In a project to help meet those objectives, each student, with the assistance of a "resource person" from the food industry, completes the…

  18. Impact of projected climate change on agricultural production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The climate change projections data from global climate models were downscaled using self-organising maps technique. Under the conventional practices, results show that during long rainy season (from March to May) there is yield decline of 13% for cultivar Situka, no change for cultivar Kito and increase of 10% and ...

  19. Energy production forecasting, experiences from Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lasse; Schelander, Peter; Haakansson, Maans; Hansson, Johan (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    Forecasts of energy production at Lillgrund are being made with the prediction tool WPPT. The forecasts are updated every hour with observed wind- and production data. WPPT combines statistical and physical methods and the nature of the model changes with time. In the very short range, the observed data is the dominant factor predicting energy production while the physical methods, e.g. the weather forecasts, gradually are given more weight as we go further away from the production hour. Until recently Vattenfall has relied solely on weather forecasts from one institute, namely DMI (The Danish Meteorological Institute), in predicting the energy produced at Lillgrund. The uncertainty in the forecast has been given some attention but since only one source of information has been available the possibilities of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been limited. To meet the growing demand for quality and delivery reliability, Vattenfall has begun to purchase additional weather data from the Swedish supplier WeatherTech Scandinavia. These data will be used together with data from DMI. You get a kind of ensemble forecast approach. The difference in structure, configuration and physical approaches of the models presumably makes the model related forecast errors uncorrelated. This lays the path for quality improvements when the different forecasts are combined optimally. WPPT has been used in forecasting the energy production at Lillgrund since production began in 2007. The average absolute error in the production forecast / turbine is 0.17 MW. If WPPT only relied on a persistence forecast for the next 24 hours the error will become almost three times as high. So far WPPT has a skill score of 86% in the 24-hour forecasts compared to an assumption of persistence. There is a clearly visible pattern that WPPT underestimates production in situations with strong winds and conversely overestimate production when winds are weak. This is also typical for pure persistence

  20. Computationally-generated nuclear forensic characteristics of early production reactors with an emphasis on sensitivity and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redd, Evan M.; Sjoden, Glenn; Erickson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •X-10 reactor is used as a case study for nuclear forensic signatures. •S/U analysis is conducted to derive statistically relevant markers. •Computationally-generated signatures aid with proliferation pathway identification. •Highest uncertainty in total plutonium production originates from 238 Pu and 242 Pu. -- Abstract: With nuclear technology and analysis advancements, site access restrictions, and ban on nuclear testing, computationally-generated nuclear forensic signatures are becoming more important in gaining knowledge to a reclusive country’s weapon material production capabilities. In particular, graphite-moderated reactors provide an appropriate case study for isotopics relevant in Pu production in a clandestine nuclear program due to the ease of design and low thermal output. We study the production characteristics of the X-10 reactor with a goal to develop statistically-relevant nuclear forensic signatures from early Pu production. In X-10 reactor, a flat flux gradient and low burnup produce exceptionally pure Pu as evident by the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio. However, these design aspects also make determining reactor zone attribution, done with the 242 Pu/ 240 Pu ratio, uncertain. Alternatively, the same ratios produce statistically differentiable results between Manhattan Project and post-Manhattan Project reactor configurations, allowing for attribution conclusions.

  1. Brokerage by a Project Manager across a New Product Development Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde; Jepsen, Anna Lund; Dietrich, Perttu

    2012-01-01

    between three subtypes of brokerage: Brokerage connecting actors from the project team with actors from the various departments within the same organization (intra-organizational brokerage), brokerage connecting employees at the NPD organization with someone working in another organization (inter...... as a hub between possible suppliers for the project. We had also expected that the PM would be more involved in coordination of, to and from the project team than what we found in this study. Based on the study, it seems that some of the connections that we, based on existing knowledge, would expect...... that the management of the project in terms of linking the stakeholders takes off in the solution development phase rather than in the concept development phase which is the phase in focus in large parts of the research that has taken place in this field. Further, contrary to expectations based on existing knowledge...

  2. Early history of soil contamination with fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Underneath a balloon and instrument hut demolished today and on the natural pasture next to it, a series of 2 to 4-layer soil samples was carried out to determine the contents in Cs-137 and Sr-90. The results showed a sudded decrease of the Cs concentration behind the walls of the hut, but no further decrease towards the centre of the hut. As expected, the decrease of Sr-90 concentration was slower, both in a horizontal line and in the depth. The results reveal that the soil underneath the hut has not received further fission products since it was built in 1956 from depositions of later nuclear weapon tests. Furthermore, the radionuclides were not transported much further into lower strata so that by taking into consideration of the half-life of the two nuclides their concentration in the soil can be traced back to the year 1956 for comparison with the results measured at the time. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labe, Zachary; Ault, Toby; Zurita-Milla, Raul

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal transitions from winter to spring impact a wide variety of ecological and physical systems. While the effects of early springs across North America are widely documented, changes in their frequency and likelihood under the combined influences of climate change and natural variability are poorly understood. Extremely early springs, such as March 2012, can lead to severe economical losses and agricultural damage when these are followed by hard freeze events. Here we use the new Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project and Extended Spring Indices to simulate historical and future spring onsets across the United States and in the particular the Great Lakes region. We found a marked increase in the frequency of March 2012-like springs by midcentury in addition to an overall trend towards earlier spring onsets, which nearly doubles that of observational records. However, changes in the date of last freeze do not occur at the same rate, therefore, causing a potential increase in the threat of plant tissue damage. Although large-scale climate modes, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, have previously dominated decadal to multidecadal spring onset trends, our results indicate a decreased role in natural climate variability and hence a greater forced response by the end of the century for modulating trends. Without a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, our study suggests that years like 2012 in the US could become normal by mid-century.

  4. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  5. Consumption trend of modern dairy products and projections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. State of research and research possibilities of early medieval pottery from the Prague production zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 17-34 ISSN 0066-5924 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF13P01OVV014 Keywords : early Middle Ages * archaeology * pottery * Prague * chronology * Ceramic Reference Collection Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  7. DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.V.

    1996-02-01

    TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

  8. Early Involvement and Integration in Construction Projects: The Benefits of DfX in Elimination of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Halttula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical construction processes provide waste: material waste but especially process-related waste. The majority of this waste can be avoided with efficient planning in the front end of projects. The main aim is to describe how the concept of Design for Excellence (DfX can reduce the most severe waste in construction projects. Based on a literature review of waste and requirements that aid early involvement and integration, we created a survey for analyzing and prioritizing types of waste in the construction industry. We describe how DFX reduces this waste, especially through the use of early involvement and integration. When applied, DfX creates incentives for project stakeholders to eliminate waste automatically through early involvement and integration.

  9. The RIB production target for the SPES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Alberto; Andrighetto, Alberto; Petrovich, Carlo; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Rossetto, Francesco; Martinez Dominguez, Fernando; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Calderolla, Michele; Silingardi, Roberto; Mozzi, Aldo; Borgna, Francesca; Vivian, Gianluca; Boratto, Enrico; Ballan, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco; Meneghetti, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Facilities making use of the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) method for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) attract interest because they can be used for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research and interdisciplinary applications. The ISOL technique is based on the fast release of the nuclear reaction products from the chosen target material together with their ionization into short-lived nuclei beams. Within this context, the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) facility is now under construction in Italy at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare — Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). The SPES facility will produce RIBs mainly from n-rich isotopes obtained by a 40 MeV cyclotron proton beam (200 μA) directly impinging on a uranium carbide multi-foil fission target. The aim of this work is to describe and update, from a comprehensive point of view, the most important results obtained by the analysis of the on-line behavior of the SPES production target assembly. In particular an improved target configuration has been studied by comparing different codes and physics models: the thermal analyses and the isotope production are re-evaluated. Then some consequent radioprotection aspects, which are essential for the installation and operation of the facility, are presented.

  10. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and marketing research and....45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following activities... Secretary, establish or provide for the establishment of production research, and marketing research and...

  11. Knowledge Based Product Configuration - a documentatio tool for configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    . A lot of knowledge isput into these systems and many domain experts are involved. This calls for an effective documentation system in order to structure this knowledge in a way that fits to the systems. Standard configuration systems do not support this kind of documentation. The chapter deals...... with the development of a Lotus Notes application that serves as a knowledge based documentation tool for configuration projects. A prototype has been developed and tested empirically in an industrial case-company. It has proved to be a succes....

  12. Projecting southern timber supply for multiple products by subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt

    2009-01-01

    While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...

  13. The Book Trailer Project: Media Production within an Integrated Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Karen

    2017-01-01

    A special education co-teacher in an integrated elementary classroom describes key aspects of media literacy pedagogy for all students, including opportunities for critical analysis and creative media production. After elementary school students learned about author's craft, purpose, theme/message, three types of writing, and target audience, they…

  14. Mo-99 production by fission and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, E.C.; Novello, A.; Bronca, M.; Cestau, D.; Bavaro, R.; Centurion, R.; Bravo, C.; Bronca, P.; Gualda, E.; Fraguas, F.; Giomi, A.; Ivaldi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Description of the I-131 and Mo-99 production process: The process starts with the irradiation of uranium-aluminum mini plates in the RA-3, Argentinean Reactor No.3, Ezeiza Atomic Center. In a nuclear reactor there is a constant flow of neutrons and when a neutron with proper energy impacts on a nucleus of U-235, it is absorbed at the same time generate an unstable configuration nuclear. For this reason, the nucleus formed is fission, getting two different atoms. Approximately 6% of the fissions produce Mo-99 and 3% produce I-131; the percentage remaining corresponds to formation of atoms without interest for use in medicine. In conclusion, the objective of the process developed in the Fission Plant, is starting from uranium mini plates, separate the Mo-99 and I-131 generated, the remaining elements formed. - Evolution of Mo-99 Production in the last 10 years: The Fission Mo-99 Plant Production begins routine production of Mo-99 in 1985, using targets made of uranium enriched at 90% U-235. In the 1990s, global concern regarding the use of highly enriched uranium, due to non-proliferation issues, caused the interruption of supply of nuclear material (HEU enriched at 90% of U-235). Following this, Argentina developed target based on low-enriched uranium (less than 20% U-235), becoming in 2002 the first country in the world to produce Mo-99 with LEU targets. From 2002 to date, the activity produced of Mo-99 has been tripled annually (author)

  15. New product development processes for ICT-for-development projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McAlister, BN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available in developing regions of the world is increasing rapidly. A number of methods and practices have been used by organizations to develop and deliver such ICT solutions, but a need exists to formalize product development processes for use in the ICT...

  16. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N [TECNALIA, Leonardo Da Vinci No 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Hargreaves, B; Weager, B [NetComposites Ltd, 4A Broom Business Park, Chesterfield S41 9QG (United Kingdom); Breen, C, E-mail: celinav@leia.es [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-06

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  17. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N; Hargreaves, B; Weager, B; Breen, C

    2011-01-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  18. Advantageous use of an early Jerusalem artichoke cultivar for the production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, N.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an early maturing Jerusalem artichoke D19 cultivar combined with that of the late maturing Violet de Rennes cultivar would singificantly prolong the harvest season for the production of ethanol from their tuber extracts using yeast strains with inulinase activity. The D19 cultivar shows a low content of highly polymerized inulin (in early October) and is thus very satisfactory as a fermentation substrate. 9 references.

  19. The Role Of The Integrated, Thematic Project To Learning Progress Of The Child In The Early Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cornelia Stoian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed to present you the results of an empirical research in order to identify the positive aspects of the integrated, thematic project in learning progress of children in preschool. Using the observation method, we analyzed children's results regarding the objectives in the respect to the objectives in the grid. Children's progress in learning represents the confirmation and affirmation of the role of this integrated, thematic project in supporting the early learning child.

  20. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  1. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  2. Project Independence: Construction of an Integrated Biorefinery for Production of Renewable Biofuels at an Existing Pulp and Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Project Independence proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Wisconsin Rapids, isconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage Wisconsin System Incorporated’s Wisconsin Rapids Mill, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy for Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with biomass being harvested, sized, conditioned and fed into a ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) steam reformer where it is converted to high quality synthetic gas (syngas). The syngas is then cleaned, compressed, scrubbed, polished and fed into the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic reactors where the gas is converted into two, sulfur-free, clean crude products which will be marketed as revenue generating streams. Additionally, the Fischer-Tropsch products could be upgraded for use in automotive, aviation and chemical industries as valuable products, if desired. As the Project Independence project set out to prove forest products could be used to commercially produce biofuels, they planned to address and mitigate issues as they arose. In the early days of the Project Independence project, the plant was sized to process 500 dry tons of biomass per day but would

  3. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  4. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    OpenAIRE

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in T$h$e role of $E$nvironment in shaping $L$ow-mass $E$arly-type $N$earby g$a$laxies (hELENa) project. In this paper we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS$^{\\mathrm{3D}}$ survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit (IFU) - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, exten...

  5. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  6. A Collaborative Media Production Project on Human Rights: Bridging Everyday and Media Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Nazan; Kara, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of media institutions and universities as spaces of knowledge productions, development of "critical media pedagogy" becomes crucial for the establishment of a responsible and ethical media environment. Drawing from the collaborative project of The First Step into Human Rights: I do not do it!--A Short Film Project on…

  7. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development com...

  8. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production data. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Dietrich, F.S.; Mengoni, A.

    1999-12-01

    The report summarizes results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to photon preduction in neutron-induced reactions. The report presents 25 original contributions that reflect accomplishments achieved in measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production under the project in 1994-1997. Major results are highlighted and a list of the CRP publications is given. (author)

  9. The PRIMA-PIETRA Project: A Web-Based Platform for Early Autism Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruta, Liliana; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Tortorella, Gaetano; Boncoddo, Maria; Colombi, Costanza; Crifaci, Giulia; Billeci, Lucia; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Ferro, Marcello; Narzisi, Antonio; Muratori, Filippo; Pioggia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that the best outcomes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are achieved through early diagnosis and early intervention. ASD symptoms may occur as early as 12-18 months and different instruments have been developed for early autism risk assessment under the age of 2 years. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Children (M-CHAT) is a developmental surveillance-screening instrument administered during 18- to 36-month well-child visits that was demonstrated to improve early id...

  10. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  11. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  12. The early development of neutron diffraction: science in the wings of the Manhattan Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T. E., E-mail: masont@ornl.gov; Gawne, T. J.; Nagler, S. E.; Nestor, M. B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Carpenter, J. M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Early neutron diffraction experiments performed in 1944 using the first nuclear reactors are described. Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan Project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurement of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor. Subsequent work by Wollan and Clifford G. Shull, who joined Wollan’s group at Oak Ridge in 1946, laid the foundations for widespread application of neutron diffraction as an important research tool.

  13. Project first and eye on the sky: strategies for teaching space science in the early grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglierani, R.; Hawkins, I.

    Elementary educators typically have only limited opportunity to teach substantive science units. This is due, in great part, to the current primary focus on literacy and mathematics instruction in the early grades. It is not surprising then, that the time and resources allocated to science teaching are significantly less than those allocated to language arts and mathematics. The integration of elementary science curricula with language arts provides one means of addressing the challenge of maintaining a robust science presence in the elementary classroom. Project FIRST's Eye on the Sky suggests a model for the successful integration of science instruction with language arts through inquiry-based learning. The model has been adopted by other Education/Public Outreach efforts, most recently, the Cassini- Huygens Mission and the Space Telescope Institute. We will present Eye on the Sky: Our Star the Sun, a suite of integrated, inquiry-based lessons designed specifically for K-4 students and discuss data showing the program's impact on the user audience. These materials offer an exciting opportunity to explore the dynamic Sun and share research discoveries of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection with the elementary education community. The lessons were developed and tested by UC Berkeley educators and NASA scientists in partnership with classroom teachers. We will review the program components and examine the benefits and challenges inherent in implementing such a program in the elementary school setting.

  14. The early development of neutron diffraction: science in the wings of the Manhattan Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T. E.; Gawne, T. J.; Nagler, S. E.; Nestor, M. B.; Carpenter, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Early neutron diffraction experiments performed in 1944 using the first nuclear reactors are described. Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan Project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurement of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor. Subsequent work by Wollan and Clifford G. Shull, who joined Wollan’s group at Oak Ridge in 1946, laid the foundations for widespread application of neutron diffraction as an important research tool

  15. Disease management of early childhood caries: results of a pilot quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Man Wai; Torresyap, Gay; White, Alex; Melvin, Patrice; Graham, Dionne; Kane, Daniel; Scoville, Richard; Ohiomoba, Henry

    2012-08-01

    The purpose is to report findings of a quality improvement (QI) project implemented at two hospital-based dental clinics that care for children with early childhood caries (ECC). We tested a disease management (DM) approach in children younger than age 60 months with ECC. After 30 months, for the 403 and 234 DM patients at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) and Saint Joseph Hospital (SJH) who returned for at least two visits, rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR were 26.1, 13.4 and 10.9% for CHB and 41.0, 7.3 and 14.9% for SJH. Rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR for historical controls were 75.2, 21.7, and 20.9% for CHB and 71.3, 31.3, and 25.0% for SJH. A risk-based DM approach utilizing QI strategies to address ECC can be implemented into practice and has the potential to improve care and health outcomes.

  16. Adult Outcomes as a Function of an Early Childhood Educational Program: An Abecedarian Project Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Burchinal, Margaret; Kainz, Kirsten; Pan, Yi; Wasik, Barbara H.; Barbarin, Oscar A.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    Adult (age 30) educational, economic, and social-emotional adjustment outcomes were investigated for participants in the Abecedarian Project, a randomized controlled trial of early childhood education for children from low-income families. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 101 took part in the age 30 follow-up. Primary…

  17. Business transactions and standards. Towards a system of concepts and a method for early problem identification in standard implementation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukanova, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    To summarize, with respect to research question one we constructed a system of concepts, while in answer to research question two we proposed a method of how to apply this system of concepts in practice in order to identify potential problems in early stages of standard implementation projects.

  18. Effect of Foster Care on Language Learning at Eight Years: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Moraru, Ana; Nelson, Charles A., III.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on language outcomes at eight years from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled study of foster care. We previously have shown that children placed in foster care by age two have substantially stronger preschool language outcomes than children placed later and children remaining in institutional care.…

  19. Distinguishing the elements of a full product basis set needs only projective measurements and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2004-01-01

    Nonlocality without entanglement is an interesting field. A manifestation of quantum nonlocality without entanglement is the possible local indistinguishability of orthogonal product states. In this paper we analyze the character of operators to distinguish the elements of a full product basis set in a multipartite system, and show that distinguishing perfectly these product bases needs only local projective measurements and classical communication, and these measurements cannot damage each product basis. Employing these conclusions one can discuss local distinguishability of the elements of any full product basis set easily. Finally we discuss the generalization of these results to the locally distinguishability of the elements of incomplete product basis set

  20. Effects of the level of early productivity on the lifespan of ewes in contrasting flock environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, F; Jopson, N B; Friggens, N C; Amer, P R

    2016-12-01

    Selection for high levels of prolificacy has allowed substantial improvements in the production efficiency of New Zealand (NZ) sheep farms, but the consequences on ewe lifetime performance are mostly unknown. In this study, the relationship between the level of prolificacy early in ewes' productive lives and their probability to survive later (i.e. stayability) was evaluated in two contrasting NZ flock environments. Records were obtained from 6605 ewes from four ram breeder flocks representing either a moderate (n=2) or a highly variable (n=2) nutritional environment. All ewes lambed for the first time at 2 years of age and were mated the following year. The number of lambs born during the first 2 years of productive life (NLB2-3) was used as a measure of early prolificacy. Effects of NLB2-3 on stayability to 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 years old were analysed using logistic regression. Curvilinear effects (logit-transformed) were detected (Pewe stayability was reduced when the proportion of the litter that survived from birth to weaning (i.e. ewe rearing ability) was submaximal during the early productive life. High prolific ewes had a low rearing ability whatever the environment whereas the rearing ability of lowly prolific ewes was apparently more sensitive to the nutritional environment. The poor maternal performance of ewes with low levels of NLB2-3 led to a premature culling by breeders whereas the high early reproductive effort associated with high levels of NLB2-3 seemed to be at the cost of ewes' survival, even in the moderate flock environment. In conclusion, the flock environment influenced the level of early prolificacy beyond which ewe longevity was reduced. It is suggested that further selection for high and early prolificacy in NZ flocks is likely to impair ewes' lifetime productivity.

  1. The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. The thereby achieved possible speed-up in detector simulation of up to a factor 100 makes subsequent digitization and reconstruction the dominant contributions to the Monte Carlo (MC) production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitization and reconstruction are inside the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modeling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitization modules, which achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector track...

  2. The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. With the ISF, the simulation execution speed could be increased up to a factor 100, which makes subsequent digitisation and reconstruction processing the dominant contributions to the MC production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitisation and reconstruction are within the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modelling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitisation modules, and achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector tra...

  3. Early Flowering as a Drought Escape Mechanism in Plants: How Can It Aid Wheat Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Shavrukov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought escape (DE is a classical adaptive mechanism which involves rapid plant development to enable the completion of the full life-cycle prior to a coming drought event. This strategy is widely used in populations of native plants, and is also applicable to cereal crops such as wheat. Early flowering time and a shorter vegetative phase can be very important for wheat production in conditions of terminal drought since this can minimize exposure to dehydration during the sensitive flowering and post-anthesis grain filling periods. A gradual shift toward early flowering has been observed over the last century of wheat breeding in countries with a Mediterranean-type climate and frequent terminal drought. This trend is predicted to continue for wheat production in the coming years in response to global climate warming. The advantage of early flowering wheat is apparent under conditions of impending terminal drought, and modern varieties are significantly more productive due to minimization of the risk associated with drought stress. Under favorable conditions, a short vegetative phase can result in reduced plant biomass due to the reduction in time available for photosynthetic production and seed nutrient accumulation. However, high yield potential has been reported for the development of both shallow and deep roots, representing plasticity in response to drought in combination with the early flowering trait. Wheat productivity can be high both in well-watered and drought-affected field trials, where an efficient strategy of DE was associated with quick growth, yield potential and water use efficiency. Therefore, early flowering provides a promising strategy for the production of advanced drought-adapted wheat cultivars.

  4. Increasing the biomass production level of dedicated or semi-dedicated woody crops. Mains lessons learned from the SYLVABIOM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Jean-Charles; Bodineau, Guillaume; Gauvin, Jean; Berthelot, Alain; Maine, Patrice; Brignolas, Franck; Maury, Stephane; Le Jan, Isabelle; Delaunay, Alain; Charnet, Francois; Merzeau, Dominique; Marron, Nicolas; Dalle, Erwin; Toillon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    For three species (poplar, black locust and willow) cultivated as short or very short rotation coppices (SRC/ VSRC), the project relied on monitoring growth and efficiency with which trees use water and nitrogen in a network of four experimental sites, located in contrasting stations. The relevance of DNA methylation levels as an early marker of the level of productivity was also evaluated. For short-rotation plantations (SRP), the project was based on the collection of growth and biomass data in experimental networks, to build compartmented biomass yield tables (trunk, bark, branches and leaves) for forest species for which the literature is scarce. Significant differences appear, both in SRC and VSRC, between the three species, and between intraspecific genotypes for biomass production, its phenology, architecture, leaf structure, and resource use efficiency. The pedo-climatic conditions and the planting density modulated the complex relationships between these traits. Measurement of apex or leaf DNA methylation rate may be a good predictor for the growth potential in poplar. Mean annual biomass production ranging from 7 to 13 dry tons/ha can be expected at age 20 years with fast-growing conifers grown in SRP on site types other than those used for SRC and VSRC. Moreover, very significant genetic gains on biomass production in SRP are also offered by selection of efficient genotypes. (authors)

  5. A project management framework for enhanced productivity performance using building information modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Singapore government has mandated submissions of building plans in building information modelling (BIM format since July 2013, this does not yet seem to lead to enhanced productivity performance. BIM collaboration between designers and downstream contractors appears to remain inadequate. While many studies have been conducted on using BIM for better project outcomes, studies that relate BIM with the identification of non-value adding activities in the project lifecycle and the reduction of the resulting wastes are at infancy stage. This paper aims to propose a project management framework for enhancing the productivity of building projects in Singapore, which forms Phase I of an ongoing research project. A two-pronged approach is presented. Firstly, non-value adding activities in the current project delivery process that uses BIM partially in Singapore are identified by comparing the typical current process with full BIM-based processes; such activities are cut down after process transformation in terms of people, process, and technology. Secondly, time savings derived from reducing the wastes caused by these activities are quantified. The proposed framework was validated by a case study of a local residential project. It was concluded that this framework provides a valuable tool for project teams to enhance productivity performance.

  6. Use of Remote Sensing Products for the SERVIR Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) estimates that floods presently impacts greater than 520 million people per year worldwide, resulting in up to 25,000 annual deaths, extensive homelessness, disaster-induced disease, crop and livestock damage, famine, and other serious harm. Meanwhile, aid agencies such as the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) are increasingly seeking better information concerning flood hazards in order to plan for and help mitigate the effects of damaging floods. There is fertile ground to continue development of better remote sensing and modeling techniques to help manage flood related disasters. Disaster management and humanitarian aid organizations need accurate and timely information for making decisions regarding deployment of relief teams and emergency supplies during major floods. Flood maps based on the use of satellite data have proven extremely valuable to such organizations for identifying the location, extent, and severity of these events. However, despite extraordinary efforts on the part of remote sensing data providers to rapidly deliver such maps, there is typically a delay of several days or even weeks from the on-set of flooding until such maps are available to the disaster management community. This paper summarizes efforts at NASA to address this problem through development of an integrated and automated process of a) flood forecasting b) flood detection, c) satellite data acquisition, d) rapid flood mapping and distribution, and e) validation of flood forecasting and detection products.

  7. Production-history projections of fuels and some crucial metals in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, R A; Roper, L D

    1977-09-01

    The production-history projection method of the authors is refined to determine the earliest date at which reasonably well-determined depletion parameters can be ascertained. The method is applied to the United States production data for silver, crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, and uranium ore. 13 references.

  8. Tránsformation–Flow–Value as a strategic tool in Project Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Sven; Bonke, Sten

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of the Transformation-Flow-Value theory as a strategic tool in the development of the project production firm. When producing products such as ships, focus on value more than on cost may be the best approach, but in service industries such as construction, focus...

  9. Perceived risks in product innovation projects : development of a risk skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.; Song, X.M.

    1999-01-01

    The essence of undertaking a product innovation project is to create or establish something new. Risk taking is an intrinsic part of that process. In today's markets, with heavy competition, advanced technology and tough economic conditions, successful product innovation has become critically

  10. The Impact of Project Work and the Writing Process Method on Writing Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Ramírez, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of an investigation whose main goal was to implement the methodology of project work and a process approach in order to improve writing production in an English class of Colombian university students since their diagnostic tests showed that their written production had the lowest score. Based on data collected,…

  11. The Role of Geminates in Infants' Early Word Production and Word-Form Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn; Majoran, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    Infants learning languages with long consonants, or geminates, have been found to "overselect" and "overproduce" these consonants in early words and also to commonly omit the word-initial consonant. A production study with thirty Italian children recorded at 1;3 and 1;9 strongly confirmed both of these tendencies. To test the…

  12. Dealing with subjectivity in early product design phase: a systematic approch to exploit QFD potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raharjo, H.; Brombacher, A.C.; Xie, M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD), as a customer-driven tool, is generally used in the early phase of new or improved products/services design process, and therefore most of the input parameters are highly subjective in nature. The five major input components of the QFD, which are laid in the House

  13. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  14. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R. Eric [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  15. A Lean Framework for Production Control in Complex and Constrained Construction Projects (PC4P)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch; Wandahl, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Production conditions in construction are different than in themanufacturing industry. First of all, construction is rooted in place and conducted as on-site manufacturing. Secondly, every construction project is unique and a one-of-a-kind production, managed by a temporary organization consisting...... and constrained construction project. Even though several tools have attempted to add structure and to create order, to the complex, dynamic, and uncertain context in which constructions is conducted, none has yet fully succeeded in providing a robust production control system. With outset in the lean tool Last...

  16. Ownership options, financing structures, and regulatory considerations affecting independent power production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper is a framework for analysis of the legal, financing, and policy differences between independent power production projects (IPPs) and projects with qualifying facility status (QFs) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). At a basic level, there is no fundamental difference in types of ownership and financing structures available to IPPs and QFS. The key consideration, though, is the regulatory and legal implications to project participants. Significant issues arise for equity participants, lenders, developers, and project operators that are considering IPP projects. Of course, many of these same issues apply to certain types of QF projects that are not fully exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA)

  17. Project success: A methodological and evaluative case study of the early alert program interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Randy James

    environment possible in whatever form the focus group takes place. Suggestions for future research include recruiting participants from online classes and attempting to engage more disenfranchised students in other studies. Similar to new types of focus group methods due to technological advances, academic interventions for students facing failing grades are also increasing due to the internet and new methods of service delivery. The contextual aspect of this research involved asking students to participate in an initial focus group session, four weeks of email updates, and a final focus group session in which students participated in the same group as the initial session. The purpose of the focus groups was to evaluate whether or not the universities' attempts to help students succeed in a course known in the past for high failure rates through a program known as the Early Alert Project was succeeding. Interview data were analyzed using thematic coding to evaluate available support services using a comprehensive implementation evaluation model which included effort, monitoring, process, components; and treatment specification. The primary findings were although students believed the university was trying to help them succeed, Early Alert Project efforts were adversely received. In addition, participants felt that although there were enough support services to help them succeed in the course, the components of the support system were confusing and not organized in any systematic manner. Suggestions for further research included researching delivery of this type of communication that might be more amenable to the students who received it and applying this research to other courses to examine whether the same results occur. Finally, implications of the use of traditional methods and academic support services are discussed in addition to the effect of the research itself upon its participants.

  18. The Vallecas Project: a cohort to identify early markers and mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eOlazarán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a major threat for the well-being of an increasingly aged world population. The physiopathological mechanisms of late-onset AD are multiple, possibly heterogeneous, and not well understood. Different combinations of variables from several domains (i.e., clinical, neuropsychological, structural, and biochemical markers may predict dementia conversion, according to distinct physiopathological pathways, in different groups of subjects. Methods. We launched the Vallecas Project (VP, a cohort study of non-demented people aged 70 to 85, to characterize the social, clinical, neuropsychological, structural, and biochemical underpinnings of AD inception. Given the exploratory nature of the VP, multidimensional and machine learning techniques will be applied, in addition to the traditional multivariate statistical methods. Results. A total of 1,169 subjects were recruited between October 2011 and December 2013. Mean age was 74.4 years (SD 3.9, 63.5% of the subjects were women, and 17.9% of the subjects were carriers of at least one ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene. Cognitive diagnoses at inclusion were as follows: normal cognition 93.0% and mild cognitive impairment (MCI 7.0% (3.1% amnestic MCI, 0.1% non-amnestic MCI, 3.8% mixed MCI. Blood samples were obtained and stored for future determinations in 99.9% of the subjects and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study was conducted in 89.9% of the volunteers. The cohort is being followed up annually for four years after the baseline. Conclusion. We have established a valuable homogeneous single-center cohort which, by identifying groups of variables associated with high risk of MCI or dementia conversion, should help to clarify the early physiopathological mechanisms of AD and should provide avenues for prompt diagnosis and AD prevention.

  19. Use of OECD/NEA Data Project Products in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkas, G.; Raducu, Gheorghe; Riznic, J.; Yalaoui, S.; Huang, Hui-Wen; Holy, Jaroslav; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Sandberg, Jorma; Balmain, Michel; Bonnevialle, Anne-Marie; Curnier, Florence; Georgescu, Gabriel; Lanore, Jeanne-Marie; Lindner, Arndt; Fujimoto, Haruo; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Hwang, Taesuk; Jang, Seung-Cheol; Husarcek, Jan; Kovacs, Zoltan; Vazquez, Teresa; Johanson, Gunnar; Liwaang, Bo; Nyman, Ralph; Dang, Vinh; Schoen, Gerhard; Brook, Kevin; Hamblen, David; Siu, Nathan; Sturzebecher, Karl; Tobin, Margaret; Wood, Jeff; Amri, Abdallah; Breest, Axel

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations' (CSNI) Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) is tasked with supporting the improved use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in risk informed regulation and safety management through the analysis of results and the development of perspectives regarding potentially important risk contributors and associated risk reduction strategies. The task consists of the following major activities: Development, distribution, and completion of survey questionnaires; Analysis of survey questionnaire results at a task workshop; Preparation of the final task report. The main objectives of this task, as proposed by WGRISK and approved by CSNI, are the following: - Identification and characterization of the current uses of OECD data project products and data in support of PSA. In this context, the term 'products' refers to data analysis results, technical reports, and other project outputs. - Identification and characterization of technical and programmatic characteristics that either support or impede use of data project products in PSA. This includes an assessment of which PSA parameters could be potentially estimated from the various data project products and gaps between available product information and PSA data needs. - Identification of recommendations for enhancing the usefulness of data project products and the coordination between WGRISK and the data projects. This task report consists of the following sections: - Chapter 1 Provides a general overview of motivation and approach used for this task. - Chapter 2 Describes scope and objectives of the task. - Chapter 3 Provides an overview of the ICDE, FIRE, OPDE/CODAP, and COMPSIS data projects. For each project, the project objectives, project history, data collection methodology and quality assurance, project status, example PSA Applications, and information related to project participation is provided. - Chapter 4 Describes the

  20. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argaw Tarekegn Gurmu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry-wide survey to prioritize the best practices. Accordingly, project start-up plan, traffic control plan, machinery positioning strategy, project completion plan, and dynamic site layout plan were shown to be the top five best practices for construction methods. The study also revealed that high levels of implementation of best practices are associated with low levels of project delays. The use of best practices also varied according to the project costs. There were no discernible differences between the top five best practices. The authors suggest that they should be implemented jointly to improve productivity in building projects. Contractors could use the logistic regression model developed, to predict the probability of exceeding a baseline productivity factor and, on that basis, implement corrective actions to achieve the desired level of productivity.

  1. Marginal Productivity Gained Through Prefabrication: Case Studies of Building Projects in Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha Shahzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented benefits of prefabrication system (prefab compared to the traditional building system (TBS. However, the documented benefits have been anecdotal or fragmented with reports of isolated case study projects. Few studies have looked at the objectively quantified benefits from statistical significance point of view and across building types in New Zealand. This study contributes to filling this knowledge gap by analyzing cost and time-savings, and productivity improvement achievable by the use of prefab in place of the TBS. Records of completion times and final contract values of 66 building projects implemented using prefab in Auckland were collected. The building types included commercial, houses, apartments, educational, and community buildings. The project details included final contract sums, completion dates, gross floor areas, and number of floors. Based on these details, the equivalent completion times and the final cost estimates for similar buildings implemented using the TBS were obtained from the Rawlinsons construction data handbook and feedback from some designers and contractors. Marginal productivity outcome for each building project was computed as the product of the cost and time-savings achieved using the prefab. Results showed that the use of prefab in place of TBS resulted in 34% and 19% average reductions in the completion times and costs, respectively. This also translated to overall 7% average improvement in the productivity outcomes in the building projects. Univariate ANOVA-based hypothesis test results showed that ‘building type’ had no significant effects on the cost and productivity improvement outcomes, but had significant effect on the time savings analyzed in the case study projects. The greatest productivity gain of 11% was achieved in house projects. These evidence-based results could guide optimized use of prefab for specific building application. The hypothesis-testing outcome

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF TIMES AND COSTS OF PROJECT OF HORIZONTAL LAMINATOR PRODUCTION USING PERT/CPM TECHNICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Lermen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The PERT/CPM is a technique widely used in both the scheduling and in the project feasibility in terms of cost control and time.  In order to optimize time and costs involved in production, the work presented here aims to apply the PERT/CPM technique in the production project of the Horizontal Laminator, a machine used to cut polyurethane foam blocks in the mattresses industries. For the application of PERT/CPM technique in the project of Horizontal Laminator production were identified the activities that compose the project, the dependence between them, the normal and accelerated durations and the normal and accelerated costs. In this study, deterministic estimates for the duration of the activities were considered. The results show that the project can be completed in 520 hours at a total cost of R$7,042.50, when all activities are performed in their normal durations.  When all the activities that compose the critical path are accelerated, the project can be completed in 333.3 hours at a total cost of R$9,263.01. If the activities slacks have been exploited, it can obtain a final total cost of R$6,157.8, without changing the new duration of the project. It is noteworthy that the final total cost of the project if the slacks are used, will be lower than the initial cost. Regarding the initial cost of the project, after the application of the PERT/CPM technique, it presents a decrease of 12.56% of the total project cost.

  3. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A.

    2017-01-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining

  4. USING THE METHOD OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SEASONALITY OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна ПРОКОПЕНКО

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been proposed methods of fuzzy situational approach, providing decision-making in project management in enterprises with seasonal nature of production. The model of fuzzy graph situational project management in the investment phase, providing adequate and effective opportunity to describe the project taking into account seasonality and uncertainty in the tasks of planning and decision making. The conclusions about the choice of alternative strategic solutions for companies considering the seasonality of production based on the proposed fuzzy graph situational solutions that allow for the special factors such as the nature of the project and the environment; uncertainty in the design and environment; take account of the conditions of the process; and evaluate the results of actions and make choices alternatives for achieving the strategic objectives of the various activities of the enterprise, taking into account the seasonal factor.

  5. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced......, in South Africa.The study explores two main avenues of integration. First, integrating through better planning, focussing at the tools and procedures in use by Danced for project management -- integrating occupational health and safety into the project specification, so to speak.Second, integrating...... occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network...

  6. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations

  7. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  8. Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2018-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an efficient cell factory for producing bioactive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by its gad operon-encoded glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system. However, little mechanistic insights have been reported on the effects of carbohydrate, oxygen and early acidification on GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis. In the present study, GABA production from Lb. brevis was enhanced by accessible carbohydrates. Fast growth of this organism was stimulated by maltose and xylose. However, its GABA production was highly suppressed by oxygen exposure, but was fully restored by anaerobiosis that up-regulated the expression of gad operon in Lb. brevis cells. Although the level of cytosolic acidity was suitable for the functioning of GadA and GadB, early acidification of the medium (ipH 5 and ipH 4) restored GABA synthesis strictly in aerated cells of Lb. brevis because the expression of gad operon was not up-regulated in them. We conclude that GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis could be restored by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification. This will be of interest for controlling fermentation for synthesis of GABA and manufacturing GABA-rich fermented vegetables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The impact of friendship ties on new product development student projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kylindri, Stamatia; Blanas, George; Tanev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    The competition between firms for more effective new product development (NPD) capabilities has posed the research question: what possibilities are there to improve traditional and knowledge based project team organisation by analysing the impact of social relationships between team members......? The authors of this article tested the hypothesis that friendships have a positive impact on project team effectiveness using the cohesion social network metric. The methodology involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies applicable to social network analysis (SNA) research...

  10. Impact evaluation of productive use—An implementation guideline for electrification projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, Gunther; Peters, Jörg; Schmidt, Christoph M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus in the international community that rural electrification and, in particular, the productive use of electricity contributes to poverty alleviation. At the same time, efforts to evaluate the impacts of development projects have increased substantially. This paper provides a hands-on guide for designing evaluation studies regarding the impacts of productive electricity usage. Complementary to the existing literature on evaluation methods, this guide familiarizes project managers with the concrete steps that have to be undertaken to plan and implement an evaluation. The guide comprises three modules based on enterprise surveys and on anecdotal case studies. For each module, the implementation is described on a step-by-step basis including conceptual issues as well as logistics and methodological questions. - Highlights: ► Hands-on evaluation guideline for development project managers. ► Step-by-step procedure on how to implement evaluation. ► Impacts of productive electricity use.

  11. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the main, general-perspective themes of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's leadership and long and varied work are: the effect of present and future nuclear energy projects on society, not only in the United States but throughout the world; analysis, comparison, and combination of various sources of energy; extensive multiple use of nuclear energy complexes (so-called NUPLEX, for nuclear complex) for various areas of the world; and use of ''Big Technology'' and ''Big Science'' for solving, or helping to solve, political problems. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production is discussed, as well as two other energy-related engineering projects. Some of the projects originated or were inspired by work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the leadership of Dr. Alvin Weinberg. Also reported are the technical characteristics and interrelationships of the three components of the envisaged hydronuclear-solar project

  12. ON THE QUESTION OF CORPORATE FUNDING IMPLEMENTATION OF EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin D. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research, the content of the required theoretical and methodological tools in the field of corporate finance investment projects of exploration and production of hydrocarbons described. Indicated cash flow characteristics of such projects in accordance with the phases of the project, identified the risks associated with cash flows. In practical terms, the proposed approach to the financing of projects includes sequential algorithm deciding on the implementation of funding is considered on case studies and can be used in the process of financial planning oil and gas companies, in building policy project financing, corporate procedures and regulations. In solving problems of theoretical and applied scientific methods used in the study, including methods of logical, comparative and systematic analysis, as well as methods of economic-mathematical modeling.

  13. 3 dimensional modelling of early human brain development using optical projection tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Tom

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As development proceeds the human embryo attains an ever more complex three dimensional (3D structure. Analyzing the gene expression patterns that underlie these changes and interpreting their significance depends on identifying the anatomical structures to which they map and following these patterns in developing 3D structures over time. The difficulty of this task greatly increases as more gene expression patterns are added, particularly in organs with complex 3D structures such as the brain. Optical Projection Tomography (OPT is a new technology which has been developed for rapidly generating digital 3D models of intact specimens. We have assessed the resolution of unstained neuronal structures within a Carnegie Stage (CS17 OPT model and tested its use as a framework onto which anatomical structures can be defined and gene expression data mapped. Results Resolution of the OPT models was assessed by comparison of digital sections with physical sections stained, either with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E or by immunocytochemistry for GAP43 or PAX6, to identify specific anatomical features. Despite the 3D models being of unstained tissue, peripheral nervous system structures from the trigeminal ganglion (~300 μm by ~150 μm to the rootlets of cranial nerve XII (~20 μm in diameter were clearly identifiable, as were structures in the developing neural tube such as the zona limitans intrathalamica (core is ~30 μm thick. Fourteen anatomical domains have been identified and visualised within the CS17 model. Two 3D gene expression domains, known to be defined by Pax6 expression in the mouse, were clearly visible when PAX6 data from 2D sections were mapped to the CS17 model. The feasibility of applying the OPT technology to all stages from CS12 to CS23, which encompasses the major period of organogenesis for the human developing central nervous system, was successfully demonstrated. Conclusion In the CS17 model considerable detail

  14. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas......Focus in this paper is on the early innovation activities, in particular idea work. Based on a case study from industrial practice on the development of a new circulator (the Alpha Pro circulator) we aim at getting a better understanding of the work with ideas in the early phases of product...... through demands continuous mobilization of support among a range of actors. We suggest that the actors involved in idea work and their interaction such as negotiating different understandings of what constitutes a qualified idea as well as the continuous mobilization of support to their ideas among...

  15. Analysis of the production and transaction costs of forest carbon offset projects in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Christopher S; Cooley, David M; Baker, Justin S

    2012-12-15

    Forest carbon offset project implementation costs, comprised of both production and transaction costs, could present an important barrier to private landowner participation in carbon offset markets. These costs likewise represent a largely undocumented component of forest carbon offset potential. Using a custom spreadsheet model and accounting tool, this study examines the implementation costs of different forest offset project types operating in different forest types under different accounting and sampling methodologies. Sensitivity results are summarized concisely through response surface regression analysis to illustrate the relative effect of project-specific variables on total implementation costs. Results suggest that transaction costs may represent a relatively small percentage of total project implementation costs - generally less than 25% of the total. Results also show that carbon accounting methods, specifically the method used to establish project baseline, may be among the most important factors in driving implementation costs on a per-ton-of-carbon-sequestered basis, dramatically increasing variability in both transaction and production costs. This suggests that accounting could be a large driver in the financial viability of forest offset projects, with transaction costs likely being of largest concern to those projects at the margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MedHySol: Future federator project of massive production of solar hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmah, Bouziane; Harouadi, Farid; Chader, Samira; Belhamel, Maiouf; M' Raoui, Abdelhamid; Abdeladim, Kamel [CDER, BP 62, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria); Benmoussa, H. [LESEI, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Cherigui, Adel Nasser [Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, BP 87, Saint-Martin-D' Heres 38400 (France); Etievant, Claude [CETH, Innov' valley Entreprises, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2009-06-15

    Mediterranean Hydrogen Solar (MedHySol) is a federator project for development of a massive hydrogen production starting from solar energy and its exportation within a framework of a Euro-Maghrebian Cooperation project for industrial and energetic needs in the Mediterranean basin. The proposal of this project is included in the Algiers Declaration's on Hydrogen from Renewable Origin following the organization of the first international workshop on hydrogen which was held in 2005. Algeria is the privileged site to receive the MedHySol platform. The objective of the first step of the project is to realize a technological platform allowing the evaluation of emergent technologies of hydrogen production from solar energy with a significant size (10-100 kW) and to maintain the development of energetic rupture technologies. The second step of the project is to implement the most effective and less expensive technologies to pilot great projects (1-1000 MW). In this article we present the potentialities and the feasibility of MedHySol, as well as the fundamental elements for a scientific and technical supervision of this great project. (author)

  17. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  18. Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf daily oil and gas production rate projections from 1999 through 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  19. Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf daily oil and gas production rare projections from 1998 through 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals

  20. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  1. Stone as material for production of chipped artifacts in Early and Middle Neolithic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Josip A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied artifacts from 20 Early and Middle Neolithic sites in Serbia. Stone used as raw material for production of chipped tools are defined and we pointed to inadequate usage of certain terms. By using of the data from geologic literature and statistical analysis of representation of certain stone at distinct sites we present assumption about location of primary occurrence of so called "Balkan flint" and obsidian in the territory of Serbia.

  2. Petrophysical studies in heavy oil sands with early water production - Hamaca area, Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisch, H.A.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the main lines of petrophysical research in the Hamaca-Pao region of the Orinoco Oil Belt. The techniques and parameters most appropriate for petrophysical studies in the area of interest are discussed. Field tests have confirmed the conclusions of this study on early water production and low oil recovery. Steam injection was shown to be a means for increasing oil mobility to such a degree that significant amounts of additional oil can be produced.

  3. Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP and export of particulate organic carbon (EP are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

  4. Products for geoinformation support for spatial planning and management within the framework of the project ONIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc J. Zakrajšek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of four products in the subproject Geoinformation support for physical planning and spatial management on the local level in the framework of the Onix project. The products are a result of a comprehensive approach to the development of information support, whose main features are unified dealing with planning acts, from the statutory plan and development plans to permitting procedures, multi-disciplinary approach and object oriented information approach.

  5. The Student's Scientific Attitude and Creativity of Product in Environmental Issues Through Project Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yustina, Yustina; Suwondo, Suwondo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to got the information about student's scientific attitude and creativity of product and correlation both of it in enviromental issues through project based learning. This research was conducted from January to June 2015. Sample in this research were 34 students of 2014 grade in FKIP Biologi UR used parameters were (1) scientific attitude with 4 indicators (curiosity, cooperative, carefulness and discipline); (2) creativity of product. Observation instrument m...

  6. Knocking on Industry’s Door: Needs in Product-Cost Optimization in the Early Product Life Cycle Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Walter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While theoretical concepts for product-costing methodologies have evolved over the decades, little emphasis has been placed on their integration into modern information systems. During a co-innovation workshop at SAP SE, we initiated our collaborative research with selected large-scale enterprises from the discrete manufacturing industry. Moreover, we conducted interviews with business experts to gain a sophisticated understanding of the cost-optimization process itself. As a result, we present an exemplary optimization process with an emphasis on the specific characteristics of the product development stage. Based upon this example, we identified associated deficits in information system support. No current software fulfills the enterprises’ requirements regarding cost optimization in the early stages of a product’s life cycle. Thus, the respective processes lack integration in corporate environments. Taking this on, our article compiles detailed problem identification and, moreover, suggests approaches to overcome these hurdles.

  7. Tapping Technology in Creating Product Development Studies: Reflections on an ESP-Business Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a teacher's reflections on a technology-enhanced project-based learning approach to teaching an ESP-business lesson on product development, which is part of the curriculum for Conference English and Meetings Practice (CEMP), a business-track course for the Adult Continuing Education program at a private university in southern…

  8. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development : A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  9. Anatomy of a decision trap in complex new product development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, K.E.; Akkermans, H.A.; Sengupta, K.; van Wassenhove, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal process study of one firm's failed attempt to develop a new product. Our extensive data analysis suggests that teams in complex dynamic environments characterized by delays are subject to multiple “information filters” that blur their perception of actual project

  10. Artificial neural network decision support systems for new product development project selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieme, R.J.; Song, Michael; Calantone, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors extend and develop an artificial neural network decision support system and demonstrate how it can guide managers when they make complex new product development decisions. The authors use data from 612 projects to compare this new method with traditional methods for predicting various

  11. Description of historical crop calendar data bases developed to support foreign commodity production forecasting project experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The content, format, and storage of data bases developed for the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting project and used to produce normal crop calendars are described. In addition, the data bases may be used for agricultural meteorology, modeling of stage sequences and planting dates, and as indicators of possible drought and famine.

  12. Managerial trust in new product development projects : its antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayan, M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Colak, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - To explore managerial trust in new product development (NPD) projects. Design/methodology/approach - Touches on studies into managerial trust, observing few in the articles in the NPD area. Connects trust, interactional justice, management trust and NPD team performance within a conceptual

  13. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  14. Projecting county pulpwood production with historical production and macro-economic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consuelo Brandeis; Dayton M. Lambert

    2014-01-01

    We explored forecasting of county roundwood pulpwood produc-tion with county-vector autoregressive (CVAR) and spatial panelvector autoregressive (SPVAR) methods. The analysis used timberproducts output data for the state of Florida, together with a set ofmacro-economic variables. Overall, we found the SPVAR specifica-tion produced forecasts with lower error rates...

  15. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-06-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies (ETGs) observed with the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analysed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal versus dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  16. Implementation of quality management in early stages of research and development projects at a university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehe, Sandra; Wagner, Georg; Schlanstein, Peter; Rosefort, Christiane; Kopp, Rüdger; Bensberg, Ralf; Knipp, Peter; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-04-01

    The ultimate objective of university research and development projects is usually to create knowledge, but also to successfully transfer results to industry for subsequent marketing. We hypothesized that the university technology transfer requires efficient measures to improve this important step. Besides good scientific practice, foresighted and industry-specific adapted documentation of research processes in terms of a quality management system might improve the technology transfer. In order to bridge the gap between research institute and cooperating industry, a model project has been accompanied by a project specific amount of quality management. However, such a system had to remain manageable and must not constrain the researchers' creativity. Moreover, topics and research team are strongly interdisciplinary, which entails difficulties regarding communication because of different perspectives and terminology. In parallel to the technical work of the model project, an adaptable quality management system with a quality manual, defined procedures, and forms and documents accompanying the research, development and validation was implemented. After process acquisition and analysis the appropriate amount of management for the model project was identified by a self-developed rating system considering project characteristics like size, innovation, stakeholders, interdisciplinarity, etc. Employees were trained according to their needs. The management was supported and the technical documentation was optimized. Finally, the quality management system has been transferred successfully to further projects.

  17. REDD+ readiness: early insights on monitoring, reporting and verification systems of project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Shijo; Sunderlin, William D; Verchot, Louis V; Herold, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A functional measuring, monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system is essential to assess the additionality and impact on forest carbon in REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation) projects. This study assesses the MRV capacity and readiness of project developers at 20 REDD+ projects in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam, using a questionnaire survey and field visits. Nineteen performance criteria with 76 indicators were formulated in three categories, and capacity was measured with respect to each category. Of the 20 projects, 11 were found to have very high or high overall MRV capacity and readiness. At the regional level, capacity and readiness tended to be highest in the projects in Brazil and Peru and somewhat lower in Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. Although the MRV capacities of half the projects are high, there are capacity deficiencies in other projects that are a source of concern. These are not only due to limitations in technical expertise, but can also be attributed to the slowness of international REDD+ policy formulation and the unclear path of development of the forest carbon market. Based on the study results, priorities for MRV development and increased investment in readiness are proposed. (letter)

  18. Genetic diversity affects productivity in early but not late stages of stand development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skálová, Hana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2009), s. 411-419 ISSN 1439-1791 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050820; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050623; GA ČR GA206/06/0098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal grass * complementarity * diversity-productivity relationships Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.422, year: 2009

  19. The Climate Impacts Research Consortium: Lessons Learned from the Evaluation of Co-production projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovska, I.; Andrepont, J. A.; Lach, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Climate Impacts Research Consortium (CIRC) is a climate-science-to-climate-action team funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), member of NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program. The internal evaluation of the last 6 years of CIRC's work focused on the co-production of knowledge process. The evaluation was based on CIRC's Reflection and Logic model and used a mixed methods design. During regular monthly meetings in 2014/15, all CIRC PIs reflected on the co-production process and presented their evaluation of the projects they worked on. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews with CIRC participants, purposefully targeting key informants. The Climate Impacts Research Consortium teams also administered surveys to assess participants' experiences of the coproduction process as they were engaging in it. Identifying and cultivating an informant from the local stakeholder group with deep, accessible roots within the target community can lead to better coproduction results than having to build those relationships from naught. Across projects, most participants agreed that the project increased their understanding of their area's hazards and by the end of the project most participants were confident the project would produce useful results for themselves. Finally, most participants intended to share what they had learned from this experience with their colleagues and we found that co-production built capacities necessary for communities to incorporate climate change in discussions even after the end of CIRC's participation. During the projects, the involvement of non-traditional participants along with experts was critical to success and a lot of work and preparation needs to be put into the planning of any co-production meeting to overcome various barriers to communication and build trust.

  20. AN INTEGRATED MODEL FOR MANAGING INNOVATION IN THE EARLY STAGES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN SMES(RIKON Group)

    OpenAIRE

    Flinders, Clare; Lynch, Patrick; Holden, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper centralises the management of innovation in the early stages of the new product development (NPD) process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the critical episodes that enabled an SME to successfully manage the development of new product concepts from inception and, in so doing, presents implementable guidelines that can be used by SMEs to manage the delivery of creative and attractive new product concepts in the early stages of NPD. Action research was used to conduct a thre...

  1. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  2. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E.; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M.; Whelton, Helen L.; Craig, Oliver E.; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities. PMID:27849595

  3. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  4. Chemical methods and techniques to monitor early Maillard reaction in milk products; A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaei, Kataneh; Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöholm, Ingegerd

    2018-01-23

    Maillard reaction is an extensively studied, yet unresolved chemical reaction that occurs as a result of application of the heat and during the storage of foods. The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been the focus of several investigations recently. These molecules which are formed at the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction, are suspected to be involved in autoimmune diseases in humans. Therefore, understanding to which extent this reaction occurs in foods, is of vital significance. Because of their composition, milk products are ideal media for this reaction, especially when application of heat and prolonged storage are considered. Thus, in this work several chemical approaches to monitor this reaction in an early stage are reviewed. This is mostly done regarding available lysine blockage which takes place in the very beginning of the reaction. The most popular methods and their applications to various products are reviewed. The methods including their modifications are described in detail and their findings are discussed. The present paper provides an insight into the history of the most frequently-used methods and provides an overview on the indicators of the Maillard reaction in the early stage with its focus on milk products and especially milk powders.

  5. Preparing the Production of a New Product in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises by Using the Method of Projects Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijańska, Jolanta; Wodarski, Krzysztof; Wójcik, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Efficient and effective preparation the production of new products is important requirement for a functioning and development of small and medium-sized enterprises. One of the methods, which support the fulfilment of this condition is project management. This publication presents the results of considerations, which are aimed at developing a project management model of preparation the production of a new product, adopted to specificity of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  6. Integrating Environmental Decisions into the Product Development Process: Part 1 - The Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhamra, T.; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1999-01-01

    environmental decisions into their product development process which is very unusual in that ecodesign is significantly different for the pre- and post-specification stages of the design process. This paper explains the findings related to the first phase being the very early stages of the product development...... in the UK, Central Europe and the USA are carrying out Ecodesign. The survey also investigated the successes and failures companies had experienced and the lessons they had learnt along the way. From this survey we identified a number of success factors that enabled companies to successfully integrate...... process prior to the specification being finalised. A second paper, considers the findings from the later phases of the product development process....

  7. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  8. Earthquake early Warning ShakeAlert system: West coast wide production prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Neuhauser, Doug; Hensen, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Bodin, Paul; Kress, Victor; Thompson, Stephen; Felizardo, Claude; Brody, Jeff; Bhadha, Rayo; Schwarz, Stan

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is an application of seismological science that can give people, as well as mechanical and electrical systems, up to tens of seconds to take protective actions before peak earthquake shaking arrives at a location. Since 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in collaboration with several partners to develop EEW for the United States. The goal is to create and operate an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the highest risk areas of the United States, starting with the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. In early 2016, the Production Prototype v.1.0 was established for California; then, in early 2017, v.1.2 was established for the West Coast, with earthquake notifications being distributed to a group of beta users in California, Oregon, and Washington. The new ShakeAlert Production Prototype was an outgrowth from an earlier demonstration EEW system that began sending test notifications to selected users in California in January 2012. ShakeAlert leverages the considerable physical, technical, and organizational earthquake monitoring infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System, a nationwide federation of cooperating seismic networks. When fully implemented, the ShakeAlert system may reduce damage and injury caused by large earthquakes, improve the nation’s resilience, and speed recovery.

  9. The rationale for selecting the method of calculation of project products coast (works, services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Molchanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of management it is necessary to develop a number of recommendations on the introduction of management accounting at state-owned enterprises that carry out revenue-generating activities or based on the right of economic management. It is necessary to apply the correct cost-accounting method for the production of products, works, services for a more rational calculation of the cost price. This will allow management personnel to receive timely objective information about their cost price, identify the feasibility of production and sales, justify the assortment, plan profits. The procedure for determining the cost price of the project products (works, services in the theory and practice of the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproekt” is investigated in the work. With the existing practice of planning in design organizations, the planned cost price of design and survey works for established cost items is planned in the cost estimate for production by the design organization as a whole and by the types of work: design, survey and others, without subdividing it by orders (projects. According to this, accounting of the actual costs for work in the design organizations is based. The study showed that the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproyekt” performs different projects with different execution periods; therefore, it is advisable to use one method of calculating the cost price - job (order costing method, and link it to the responsibility centers depending on the department of the performer. Based on the research of the used method to the cost price calculate of the project products (works, services in the state enterprise of the Astrakhan region “Kasprybproekt”, it was proposed to use the job (order costing method that allows to detail all the project costs without distorting the final financial result and optimize the project costs. If the calculation method is correctly determined

  10. Perceived family relationship quality and use of poly-tobacco products during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Tzu Tsun; Wang, Man Ping; Leung, Lok Tung; Chen, Jianjiu; Wu, Yongda; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Sai Yin

    2018-05-24

    The role of family relationship in adolescent use of emerging tobacco products, which have become increasingly popular, is unknown. We examined the associations of perceived family relationship quality with current use of poly-tobacco products including cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe and smokeless tobacco in adolescents. Data from a representative sample of 42,250 US grade 7-12 equivalent students (mean ± SD age 14.6 ± 1.9 years; 51.3% boys) from 75 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong (2012-13) were analysed. Logistic regressions yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and poly-tobacco (≥2 products) in relation to perceived family relationship quality, adjusted for age, sex, perceived family affluence, parental education, family structure, parental and sibling smoking and secondhand smoke exposure at home. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare the associations in early (aged ≤14 years) versus late (>14) adolescents. The odds of current use increased with worse perceived family relationship quality with AORs (95% confidence interval) of up to 2.92 (2.32-3.68) for cigarettes, 7.28 (4.71-11.2) for e-cigarettes, 5.04 (3.44-7.40) for waterpipe, 8.09 (4.87-13.4) for smokeless tobacco and 5.25 (3.45-8.01) for poly-tobacco products use (all P for trend relationships were found between negatively perceived family relationship quality and current poly- and individual tobacco product use by Hong Kong Chinese secondary students. The associations were stronger for alternative tobacco products and in early adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of applying product-modelling techniques in configurator projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of the impact of using product-modelling techniques to structure and formalise knowledge in configurator projects. Companies that provide customised products increasingly apply configurators in support of sales and design activities, reaping benefits...... that include shorter lead times, improved quality of specifications and products, and lower overall product costs. The design and implementation of configurators are a challenging task that calls for scientifically based modelling techniques to support the formal representation of configurator knowledge. Even...... the phenomenon model and information model are considered visually, (2) non-UML-based modelling techniques, in which only the phenomenon model is considered and (3) non-formal modelling techniques. This study analyses the impact to companies from increased availability of product knowledge and improved control...

  12. Management of natural health products in pediatrics: a provider-focused quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Emily; Silbert-Flagg, JoAnne; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural health products by pediatric patients is common, yet health care providers often do not provide management guidance. The purpose of this project was to improve management of natural health products by pediatric nurse practitioners. Pediatric nurse practitioners from large metropolitan city were recruited (n = 32). A paired pretest-posttest design was used. Study participants were engaged to improve knowledge of natural health products, and a management toolkit was created and tested. Mean knowledge scores increased from 59.19 to 76.3 (p improved with regard to patient guidance (p product use (p = .51) and drug/herb interactions (p = .35) were not significant. This investigation is the first known study to improve knowledge and management of natural health products in pediatric clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  14. The demand for refined petroleum products in Iran: Estimation and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianian, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The estimation and projection of the demand for refined petroleum products of the OPEC states, are important for the world petroleum market from both the demand and supply sides. In this context, this study forms an econometric model to estimte the demand for the total and four major refined petroleum products (RPPs) in Iran and project their future trends into the year 2000. The fact that Iran has the largest domestic demand for RPPs among all the OPEC members has motivated some research primarily to study the structure of the demand for such products. None, however, has utilized econometric models to estimate or project the demand for RPPs. The first section of this study discusses the structure of the Iranian energy market. Next, the demand functions for gasoline, kerosine, gas oil, fuel oil, and the total RPPs in Iran are estimated. The third section puts together the demand functions to form a model used to project the demand for RPPs up to the year 2000 under an historical scenario. Finally, some condlusions are offered. 7 tabs

  15. Investigation of drug products received for analysis in the Swedish STRIDA project on new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckberg, Matilda; Jönsson, Karl-Henrik; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2018-02-01

    The web-based open sale of unregulated new psychoactive substances (NPS) has shown a steady increase in recent years. Analysis of drug products sold as NPS is useful to confirm the true chemical contents, for comparison with the substances detected in corresponding body fluids, but also to study drug trends. This work describes the examination of 251 drug products that were randomly submitted for analysis in 173 cases of suspected NPS-related intoxications in the Swedish STRIDA project in 2010-2015. Of the products, 39% were powders/crystals, 32% tablets/capsules, 16% herbal materials, 8% liquids, 1% blotters, and 4% others. The analysis involved tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In 88 products (35%), classic psychoactive substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, or doping agents were found; however, in none of these cases had an NPS-related intoxication been indicated from product markings or patient self-reports. Another 12 products tested negative for psychoactive substances. The remaining 151 products contained 86 different NPS (30% contained ≥2 substances). In 104 drug products, a specific NPS ingredient was indicated based on labelling (69%) or patient self-report; in 92 cases this was also analytically confirmed to be correct. Overall, the NPS products submitted for analysis in the STRIDA project showed a high degree of consistency between suspected and actual content (88%). The results of related urine and/or blood analysis further demonstrated that the patients commonly (89%) tested positive for the indicated NPS, but also revealed that polysubstance intoxication was common (83%), indicating use of additional drug products. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on photon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, L; Plumari, S; Scardina, F; Greco, V; Ruggieri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study we discuss our results on the spectrum of photons emitted from the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies. Simulating the space-time evolution of the fireball by solving the relativistic Boltzmann transport equation and including two-particle scattering processes with photon emission allows us to make a first step in the description of thermal photons from the QGP as well as of those produced in the pre-equilibrium stage. Indeed, we consider not only a standard Glauber initial condition but also a model in which quarks and gluons are produced in the very early stage through the Schwinger mechanism by the decay of an initial color-electric field. In the latter approach relativistic kinetic equations are coupled in a self-consistent way to field equations. We aim at spotting the impact of early stage non-equilibrium dynamics on the photon production. (paper)

  17. Emerging Use of Early Health Technology Assessment in Medical Product Development: A Scoping Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Maarten J; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Krahn, Murray

    2017-07-01

    Early health technology assessment is increasingly being used to support health economic evidence development during early stages of clinical research. Such early models can be used to inform research and development about the design and management of new medical technologies to mitigate the risks, perceived by industry and the public sector, associated with market access and reimbursement. Over the past 25 years it has been suggested that health economic evaluation in the early stages may benefit the development and diffusion of medical products. Early health technology assessment has been suggested in the context of iterative economic evaluation alongside phase I and II clinical research to inform clinical trial design, market access, and pricing. In addition, performing early health technology assessment was also proposed at an even earlier stage for managing technology portfolios. This scoping review suggests a generally accepted definition of early health technology assessment to be "all methods used to inform industry and other stakeholders about the potential value of new medical products in development, including methods to quantify and manage uncertainty". The present review also aimed to identify recent published empirical studies employing an early-stage assessment of a medical product. With most included studies carried out to support a market launch, the dominant methodology was early health economic modeling. Further methodological development is required, in particular, by combining systems engineering and health economics to manage uncertainty in medical product portfolios.

  18. Co-production of Snow Projections for a Study of Snow Persistence Projections for the American Wolverine Gulo gulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Guinotte, J. M.; Livneh, B.; Dewes, C.; Rangwala, I.; Heldmyer, A.; Torbit, S.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe the efforts of climate scientists to work with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to provide analysis of future snow persistence to support a Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the American wolverine (Gulo gulo), under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The project has been a research to application (R2A) study, aimed directly at the FWS needs, and in regular collaboration with FWS Region 6 personnel to discuss and agree on the choice downscaled projections to represent a range of plausible futures, and other methodological choices including use of high resolution (250m) physical hydrology modeling. FWS sought improved information on which to base a court-ordered re-evaluation of the conclusions of a previous SSA, due in 12 months, necessitating a quick turn-around for the snow research. The goal was to improve upon the the previous evaluation of snow persistence, both in understanding of the range of uncertainty and by using new snow modeling at spatial scales intended to be more relevant to both physical snowpack processes and to making inferences about potential wolverine denning opportunity. This project was embedded both in a specific legal/regulatory process and also in a broader FWS interest in building body of science for snow-dependent species that might support other ESA processes. Results of the co-production included new scientific questions and analytic approaches that arose from the interaction between climate scientists and ecologists. The fine spatial scales of the analysis compared to previous work allowed new hypotheses to be articulated, but also led to significant issues in the interpretation of the snow model output. This presentation will discuss key issues that arose in the collaboration between scientists and the managers developing the SSA, including the managing the independence of the science while remaining in a co-production mode, the challenges of the rapid time frame, and the challenges

  19. Increasing EFL Learners’ Oral Production at a Public School Through Project-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Marcela Vaca Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study examined how a group of ninth graders enhanced the speaking skill in an English as a foreign language classroom through project-based learning. Data about the experience were collected through field notes, transcripts of learners’ oral performance, and one interview. Grounded theory was implemented for data analysis, out of which three main findings emerged: (1 project-based learning encouraged students to increase oral production through lexical competence development, (2 helped them to overcome fears of speaking in L2, and (3, increased their interest in learning about their school life and community.

  20. Life project of adolescents, a product of socio-educational work of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maibel Rebollar-Ferrer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of formative work, through a life orientation that is characterized by the correspondence of aspirations or individual goals, potentials and social demands is a challenge to Junior high school in the design and implementation of sócio–educative system of actions, that led by principals and teachers, integrates socializing agents, in order to prepare adolescents in managing a developmental life project to ensure their integration into dynamic and complex society. This research paper nowadays, from the pedagogical, psychological and sociological references, a conceptual basis for understanding adolescents’ life project as an expression of integral formation and the product of social and educational work of school.

  1. Associations of prenatal and early life dietary inflammatory potential with childhood adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in Project Viva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Rifas-Shiman, S L; Shivappa, N; Wirth, M D; Hebert, J R; Gold, D R; Gillman, M W; Oken, E

    2018-05-01

    Limited information exists regarding the association between early-life diet and cardiometabolic risk. Examine associations of dietary inflammatory index (DII) in pregnancy and early childhood (3-5 years) with adiposity, blood pressure and metabolic markers in mid-childhood (6-10 years). Among 992 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort, we examined associations of DII scores with outcomes using multivariable linear regression adjusted for child age and sex and maternal age, BMI, education, parity, smoking, race and income. Mean (SD) maternal DII in pregnancy was -2.6(1.4) units and in child DII in early childhood was 0.3(0.7). Mean mid-childhood BMI z-score was 0.40(0.98) units. In boys only, DII in early childhood was associated with higher BMIz (adjusted β = 0.16 units per unit DII, 95%CI 0.02, 0.29), waist circumference (0.93 cm; -0.07, 1.92) and skin fold thicknesses (1.12 mm; 0.01, 2.23). Dietary inflammatory index in the highest quartiles during both pregnancy and in early childhood, compared to the lowest quartiles, was associated with higher waist circumference (2.4 cm; 0.14, 4.6) in all children, and BMIz in boys (0.78 units; 0.34, 1.22). Associations with BP and metabolic markers were null. A pro-inflammatory diet in pregnancy and early childhood may promote the development of adiposity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Research Disclosure Procedures for the Kamehameha Early Education Project. Technical Report #21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Sharon; And Others

    This report describes research disclosure procedures and materials developed for the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) to fulfill the informed consent principle of the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association. A requirement for registration of children in the program is that parents attend one of two disclosure…

  3. 23 CFR 771.111 - Early coordination, public involvement, and project development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.111 Early coordination... applicant for incorporation into the environmental assessment (EA) or draft EIS. (f) In order to ensure... obtained from: Director, Office of Human and Natural Environment, Federal Transit Administration...

  4. Early detection of COPD in primary care--the Copenhagen COPD Screening Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Backer, Vibeke; Gottlieb, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection...

  5. Early Transition and Use of VIIRS and GOES-R Products by NWS Forecast Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin K.; Smith, Mathew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, part of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), and the ABI and GLM sensors scheduled for the GOES-R geostationary satellite will bring advanced observing capabilities to the operational weather community. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at Marshall Space Flight Center has been facilitating the use of real-time experimental and research satellite data by NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) for a number of years to demonstrate the planned capabilities of future sensors to address particular forecast challenges through improve situational awareness and short-term weather forecasts. For the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) activity, SPoRT is developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. SPoRT developed the a pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper product and helped in the transition of the Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Convective Initiation (CI) proxy product for the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Experiment,. Along with its partner WFOs, SPoRT is evaluating MODIS/GOES Hybrid products, which brings ABI-like data sets from existing NASA instrumentation in front of the forecaster for everyday use. The Hybrid uses near real-time MODIS imagery to demonstrate future ABI capabilities, while utilizing standard GOES imagery to provide the temporal frequency of geostationary imagery expected by operational forecasters. In addition, SPoRT is collaborating with the GOES-R hydrology AWG to transition a baseline proxy product for rainfall rate / quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) to the OCONUS regions. For VIIRS, SPoRT is demonstrating multispectral observing capabilities and the utility of low-light channels not previously available on operational weather satellites to address a variety of weather forecast challenges. This presentation will discuss the results of

  6. The projects for heavy water production of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Bourg, J.M.; Garcia, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The bases and scope of the projects for heavy water production that are being currently developed by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are described. As an introduction, the following points are presented: a) the fundamentals of heavy water utilization in a nuclear reactor, with a mention of its properties and uses, b) a review of the physicochemical bases of the principal methods for heavy water production: chemical exchange (monothermal and bithermal processes), distillation and electrolysis, with tables summarizing the fundamental characteristics of the first two ones, and an evaluation of the different production methods from the viewpoint of their application in an industrial scale; and c) a synthetic information, in the form of tables, about the world's heavy water production. The subject of heavy water production in Argentina is treated in the principal section, describing the scope, location, main characteristics and chemical processes corresponding to the projects being developed by CNEA, which currently are the installation of an Industrial Plant in Arroyito (Province of Neuquen), purchased on a turnkey basis and using the NH 3 /H 2 isotopic exchange method; the installation of an Experimental Plant in Atucha (Province of Buenos Aires), for the development of the domestic technology of heavy-water production by the SH 2 /H 2 O isotopic exchange method, and the development of the engineering of an industrial plant (''Module 80''), based on the Experimental Plant's technology. (M.E.L.) [es

  7. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  8. Stimuli of Collaboration in Product Development: A Case Study in a Project Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jääskeläinen Aki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is already a wide acceptance on the importance of involving supplier and customer companies in product development. Decent understanding prevails on the relationship-oriented approach to product development including various collaboration forms. However, there is less research on the factors explaining the decision of attending to joint product development. In addition, less studies have examined the integrated role of both suppliers and customers in product development initiatives. This study searches answers to the following research questions: 1. What is the role of different actors in product development initiatives? 2. What factors motivate suppliers and customers to participate in product development? The research is carried out as an in-depth qualitative single case study in a large project manufacturing company. It takes the perspective of a focal company striving for product improvements. The first part of the empirical study consists of 15 semi-structured interviews. The second part includes two discursive workshops and builds upon the results of the interviews. This study contributes to the existing research by explaining the challenges and conditions facilitating joint product development with supplier and purchaser companies. The results highlight the role of customers in improving the effectiveness of product development. As a practical contribution, the paper reports the application of workshop method as a facilitator of collaboration between supplier, purchaser (focal company and customer companies.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  10. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  11. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  12. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  13. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car...... stages of the design process and, to investigate the factors that influence the different dimensions of comfort (physical, physiological and psychological). The investigation has been conducted in strong collaboration with an industrial partner working with ear-worn devices, providing access to data...

  14. Radioimmunoassay of an early plasmin degradation product of human fibrinogen, 'fragment A', and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, K; Kawai, T [Jichi Medical School, Kawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Upon the plasmin digestion of human fibrinogen, an early cleavage product, which has been designated as fragment A, was isolated, and to study the action of plasmin in the circulation, radioimmunoassay for fragment A was carried out. This assay used rabbit immune serum obtained by injection of fragment A mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant, and fragment A was labelled with /sup 125/I using the Chloramin-T method. In 20 normal healthy donors its serum level was 3.57 +- 1.62..mu..g/ml (mean+-SD), and it was increased significantly in certain diseases, such as acute leukemias, candiovascular disorders, malignancies, renal failure, systemic lupus erythematosus and sepsis.

  15. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: Model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Shi (Lu); H. Tian (Haijun); W.J. McCarthy (William); B. Berman (Barbara); S. Wu (Shinyi); R. Boer (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Mayo Lung Project (MLP), a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer

  16. 78 FR 26319 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Proposal of Future Early Restoration Projects and Environmental Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... selected and implemented in accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), the Framework Agreement... oil spill under the Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA; 33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.). Pursuant to OPA, federal and... cost of this project is approximately $3.5 million. Sea Rim State Park Amenities (Jefferson County...

  17. Acting Like a Mathematician: A Project to Encourage Inquiry Early in the Math Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry is promoted as a way to engage students so that they learn more deeply; inquiry is also an end in itself, introducing students to the research process and the behaviors of a mathematician. This article reflects on an individual exploratory project used in a sophomore-level number theory course, examining how it supported student inquiry…

  18. Loss of serotonin 2A receptors exceeds loss of serotonergic projections in early Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Frøkjær, Vibe; Kalbitzer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    and the serotonin transporter binding, the latter as a measure of serotonergic projections and neurons. Twelve patients with AD (average Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]: 24) and 11 healthy age-matched subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with [(18)F]altanserin and [(11)C...

  19. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-09-27

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO(2) rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified.

  20. The cleanroom case study in the Software Engineering Laboratory: Project description and early analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Scott; Kouchakdjian, Ara; Basili, Victor; Weidow, David

    1990-01-01

    This case study analyzes the application of the cleanroom software development methodology to the development of production software at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The cleanroom methodology emphasizes human discipline in program verification to produce reliable software products that are right the first time. Preliminary analysis of the cleanroom case study shows that the method can be applied successfully in the FDD environment and may increase staff productivity and product quality. Compared to typical Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) activities, there is evidence of lower failure rates, a more complete and consistent set of inline code documentation, a different distribution of phase effort activity, and a different growth profile in terms of lines of code developed. The major goals of the study were to: (1) assess the process used in the SEL cleanroom model with respect to team structure, team activities, and effort distribution; (2) analyze the products of the SEL cleanroom model and determine the impact on measures of interest, including reliability, productivity, overall life-cycle cost, and software quality; and (3) analyze the residual products in the application of the SEL cleanroom model, such as fault distribution, error characteristics, system growth, and computer usage.

  1. Baseline process description for simulating plutonium oxide production for precalc project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) started a multi-year project, the PreCalc Project, to develop a computational simulation of a plutonium oxide (PuO2) production facility with the objective to study the fundamental relationships between morphological and physicochemical properties. This report provides a detailed baseline process description to be used by SRNL personnel and collaborators to facilitate the initial design and construction of the simulation. The PreCalc Project team selected the HB-Line Plutonium Finishing Facility as the basis for a nominal baseline process since the facility is operational and significant model validation data can be obtained. The process boundary as well as process and facility design details necessary for multi-scale, multi-physics models are provided.

  2. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  3. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  4. Evaluating the impact of a community developed collaborative project for the prevention of early childhood caries: the Healthy Smile Happy Child project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Edwards, Jeanette M; Brothwell, Douglas J; Yakiwchuk, Carol A; Bertone, Mary F; Mellon, Bernadette; Ward, Jennifer; Ellis, Marion; Hai-Santiago, Khalida; Lawrence, Herenia P; Moffatt, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) project, a community-developed initiative promoting early childhood oral health in Manitoba, Canada. Specific aims were to assess improvements in caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours relating to early childhood oral health, and the burden of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). A serial cross-sectional study design was selected to contrast findings following the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) campaign in four communities with the previous baseline data. One community was a remote First Nation in northern Manitoba and another was a rural First Nation in southern Manitoba. The other two communities were urban centres, one of which was located in northern Manitoba. A community-development approach was adopted for the project to foster community solutions to address ECC. Goals of the HSHC program were to promote the project in each community, use existing community-based programs and services to deliver the oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities, and recruit and train natural leaders to assist in program development and to deliver the ECC prevention program. The HSHC coordinator worked with communities to develop a comprehensive list of potential strategies to address ECC. Numerous activities occurred in each community to engage members and increase their knowledge of early childhood oral health and ultimately lead them to adopt preventive oral health practices for their young children. Children under 71 months of age and their primary caregivers participated in this follow-up study. A -value ≤0.05 was statistically significant. 319 children (mean age 38.2±18.6 months) and their primary caregivers participated. Significant improvements in caregiver knowledge and attitudes were observed following the HSHC campaign, including that baby teeth are important (98.8%), that decay involving primary teeth can impact on health (94.3%), and the importance of a dental

  5. Network Insights for Partner Selection in Inter-Organisational New Product Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pedro Parraguez; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Selecting partners for new product development (NPD) is an important yet under-supported task. Thispaper focuses on decision-making support for the NPD collaboration stages of partner exploration andsearch. We provide a conceptual framework for a network-based platform to identify potential......: technologicalcloseness, relational closeness, geographical closeness and a set of organisational variables. In order toidentify a subset of new product development partners and aid the selection process, three characteristicsof NPD projects are considered as mediators of those success factors: the desired degree...... and illustrate with examples the networkbasedplatform to explore NPD partners. The developed framework and platform are part of Net-Sights,an ongoing research project to develop open-source decision-support tools for network insights. Thefirst version of this tool will soon be available as an online platform...

  6. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly alloca...

  7. Subgingival Microbiome Colonization and Cytokine Production during Early Dental Implant Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jeffrey B; Johnson, Paul G; Kok, Car Reen; Gomes-Neto, João C; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Schmid, Marian J; Hutkins, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about longitudinal development of the peri-implant subgingival microbiome and cytokine production as a new sulcus forms after dental implant placement. Therefore, the purpose of this observational study was to evaluate simultaneous longitudinal changes in the oral microbiome and cytokine production in the developing peri-implant sulcus compared to control natural teeth. Four and 12 weeks after implant placement and abutment connection, a dental implant and a natural tooth were sampled in 25 patients for subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF [around teeth] and peri-implant crevicular fluid [PICF] around implants). DNA from plaque samples was extracted and sequenced using Illumina-based 16S rRNA sequencing. GCF and PICF samples were analyzed using a customized Milliplex human cytokine and chemokine magnetic bead panel. Beta diversity analysis revealed that natural teeth and implants had similar subgingival microbiomes, while teeth had greater alpha diversity than implants. At the genus level, however, few differences were noted between teeth and dental implants over 12 weeks. Specifically, Actinomyces and Selenomonas were significantly elevated around teeth versus dental implants at both 4 weeks and 12 weeks, while Corynebacterium and Campylobacter were significantly elevated only at 4 weeks around teeth. The only difference between PICF and GCF biomarkers was significantly elevated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels around teeth versus dental implants at the 4-week visit. The subgingival microbiome and cytokine production were similar between teeth and implants during early healing, suggesting that these profiles are driven by the patient following dental implant placement and are not determined by anatomical niche. IMPORTANCE Dental implants are a common treatment option offered to patients for tooth replacement. However, little is known regarding initial colonization of the subgingival microbiome and

  8. Hydrogen production through photovoltaic processes: Italian ENEA and other research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Brief arguments favouring greater emphasis by government R ampersand D strategies on commercialization efforts to further develop hydrogen production processes involving the use of renewable energy sources are presented. These include the worsening global greenhouse effect problems due to the intensified use of fossil fuels and recent technological advances being made in photovoltaic energy conversion. A world-wide review is then made of on-going research programs in hydrogen production through the use of hydroelectric and solar energy sources. This review provides outlines of project objectives, schedules and financing schemes. Attention is given to the commercialization programs and strategies of ENEA (Italian Commission for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment)

  9. Environmental Impacts of the Production and Application of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Mireille; Woods, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    One of the potential benefits of biochar is carbon sequestration. To determine the overall net sequestration potential it is important to analyse the full supply chain, assessing both the direct and indirect emissions associated with the production and application of biochar. However, it is essential to also incorporate additional environmental impact categories to ensure the assessment of a more complete environmental impact profile. This paper uses a full life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the results from the EuroChar, 'biochar for carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere', project. This EU Seventh Framework Programme project aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar, and in particular explore possible pathways for its introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe. The LCA methodology, according to the ISO standards, is applied to the project-specific supply chains to analyse the environmental impacts of biochar production and application. Two conversion technologies for the production of biochar are assessed, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), in order to provide conversion efficiencies and emission factors for the biochar production component of the supply chain. The selected feedstocks include those derived from waste residues and dedicated crops. For the end use stage, various forms and methods for biochar application are considered. In addition to the Global Warming Potential category, other environmental impact categories are also included in the analysis. The resulting 'feedstock * conversion technology' matrix provides nine pathways for the production and application of biochar, which are applied as a representative basis for the scenario modelling. These scenarios have been developed in order to assess the feedstock and land availability in Europe for the production and application of biochar and to give an order of

  10. Inhibition of early T cell cytokine production by arsenic trioxide occurs independently of Nrf2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R VanDenBerg

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a stress-activated transcription factor that induces a variety of cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 also mediates immunosuppressive effects in multiple inflammatory models. Upon activation, Nrf2 dissociates from its repressor protein, Keap1, and translocates to the nucleus where it induces Nrf2 target genes. The Nrf2-Keap1 interaction is disrupted by the environmental toxicant and chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ATO on early events of T cell activation and the role of Nrf2 in those effects. The Nrf2 target genes Hmox-1, Nqo-1, and Gclc were all upregulated by ATO (1-2 μM in splenocytes derived from wild-type, but not Nrf2-null, mice, suggesting that Nrf2 is activated by ATO in splenocytes. ATO also inhibited IFNγ, IL-2, and GM-CSF mRNA and protein production in wild-type splenocytes activated with the T cell activator, anti-CD3/anti-CD28. However, ATO also decreased production of these cytokines in activated splenocytes from Nrf2-null mice, suggesting the inhibition is independent of Nrf2. Interestingly, ATO inhibited TNFα protein secretion, but not mRNA expression, in activated splenocytes suggesting the inhibition is due to post-transcriptional modification. In addition, c-Fos DNA binding was significantly diminished by ATO in wild-type and Nrf2-null splenocytes activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28, consistent with the observed inhibition of cytokine production by ATO. Collectively, this study suggests that although ATO activates Nrf2 in splenocytes, inhibition of early T cell cytokine production by ATO occurs independently of Nrf2 and may instead be due to impaired AP-1 DNA binding.

  11. Organising Sustainable Transition: Understanding the Product, Project and Service Domain of the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Koch-Ørvad, Nina; Maslesa, Esmir

    2016-01-01

    of three generic domains - the Project, Product and Service domain - with widely different markets, companies, business models and regulation. Besides identifying the characteristics of the different domains, the findings show that these domains are interdependent, but largely live their own lives......Sustainable transition of the built environment con struction industry is challenging the existing construction practices and business models. This article presents a framework for understanding and facilitating sustainable transition in the built environment. The framework was developed through...

  12. A study of best management practices for enhancing productivity in building projects: construction methods perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmu, Argaw Tarekegn; Aibinu, Ajibade Ayodeji; Chan, Toong Khuan

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates management practices that have the potential to enhance productivity in building projects by focusing on construction methods. In phase 1 of the study, face-to-face interviews with nineteen experts were conducted to identify the best management practices for construction methods. The qualitative data analysis reached saturation and resulted in a list of best practices for construction methods that are relevant to the local industry. The second phase used an industry...

  13. Evaluation and monitoring of wild/natural steelhead trout production: project progress report, 1996; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth, Brian D.; Holubetz, Terry; Nemeth, Doug

    2000-01-01

    This project was initiated to provide additional, and more definitive, information regarding wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in Idaho. Important streams for wild steelhead production were identified and selected for monitoring. Monitoring activities employed among streams varied, but generally included: aerial redd counts, placement of adult weirs, enumeration of juveniles through mask and snorkel counts, and emigrant trapping. This report details activities during the 1996 field season

  14. The Power of Programming and the EarlyNutrition project: opportunities for health promotion by nutrition during the first thousand days of life and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Chourdakis, Michael; Cramer, Simone; Grote, Veit; Hellmuth, Christian; Kirchberg, Franca; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina

    2014-01-01

    At The Power of Programming 2014 Conference, researchers from multiple disciplines presented and discussed the effects of early nutrition and other environmental cues during the first thousand days of life and beyond on the lifelong risk of noncommunicable diseases. This paper aims to summarize the concepts and some of the first achievements of the EarlyNutrition research project that initiated the conference. The EarlyNutrition consortium is a multinational, multidisciplinary research collaboration of researchers from Europe, the USA, and Australia. A focus is placed on exploration of the developmental origins of obesity, adiposity, and related health outcomes. Here we report on the first findings of experimental approaches, cohort studies, randomized clinical trials, and systematic reviews of current information, as well as position papers, which have all been developed with the involvement of project partners. We conclude that the EarlyNutrition project has successfully established itself during the first 2 project years as a very strong platform for collaborative research on early programming effects. The first results, available already at this early stage of the project, point to great opportunities for health prevention strategies via the implementation of dietary and lifestyle modifications, with large effect sizes. Further results are expected which should support improved recommendations and related policies for optimized nutrition and lifestyle choices before and during pregnancy, in infancy, and in early childhood. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Pay For Success And Population Health: Early Results From Eleven Projects Reveal Challenges And Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Rosenbaum, Sara; Ku, Leighton; Iovan, Samantha

    2016-11-01

    Pay for success (PFS) is a type of social impact investing that uses private capital to finance proven prevention programs that help a government reduce public expenditures or achieve greater value. We conducted an analysis of the first eleven PFS projects in the United States to investigate the potential of PFS as a strategy for financing and disseminating interventions aimed at improving population health and health equity. The PFS approach has significant potential for bringing private-sector resources to interventions regarding social determinants of health. Nonetheless, a number of challenges remain, including structuring PFS initiatives so that optimal prevention benefits can be achieved and ensuring that PFS interventions and evaluation designs are based on rigorous research principles. In addition, increased policy attention regarding key PFS payout issues is needed, including the "wrong pockets" problem and legal barriers to using federal Medicaid funds as an investor payout source. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Improvement of Student Critical Thinking Skills with the Natural Product Mini Project Laboratory Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliefman Hakim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate effect of learning using natural product mini project laboratory on students’ critical thinking skills. The research was conducted on sixth semester of 59 students of chemistry and chemistry education program from one of the state universities in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia in 2012/2013. This research revealed class where the student learn using natural product mini project laboratory had more critical thinking skills than those using verification laboratory. The average n-gain of critical thinking skills for experiment class was 0.58 while for the control class was 0.37. The highest n-gain in the experiment class was 0.70 for “deciding on an action (selecting criteria to judge possible solutions indicators”, while the smallest n-gain was 0.47 for “the making and judging value of judgments (balancing, weighing, and deciding indicators. We concluded that the natural product mini project laboratory was better than verification laboratory in improving the students’ critical thinking skills.

  17. Project-oriented management of industrial production of fire and rescue equipment by means of geometric modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Iu; Bondarenko, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the research is to develop a method based on the geometric modelling for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of fire protection project management in industrial production of fire protection technology systems. Methods: The theoretical inheritance mode of effective management in project-organizational structure of fire protection and specialized technical equipment production using geometric modelling. Results: Mathematical and geometric models of project ma...

  18. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  19. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    extension to the concept of IPDs discussed. Due to extended product responsibility, the concept of PSSs will offer new possibilities of planning and pre-defining life cycles of IPDs more precisely than for regular building components. Reducing or eliminating point-of-sales will induce producers to optimize...... on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...

  20. Educación Compensatoria. Aprendizaje temprano, éxito posterior (II: Carolina Abecedarian Project . [Compensatory education. Early learning, later success (II: Carolina Abecedarian Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo López López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review study which analyzes research that evaluates the long term effects of an early education program, the Abecedarian Project. The Abecedarian Project (ABC is a preventive compensatory education program for children from 0 to 5 years of high risk mothers. The experimental group (E received an intensive preschool treatment, while the control (C group did not. At five years old, each group was divided into another two groups: Two of these new groups (EE and CE received intensive schooling until the children reached 8 years old, while the other groups (EC and CC received no special treatment. The total sample was measured until each child reached 21 years. The results were as follows: The young adults, treated in the preschool years, had on average significantly higher cognitive test scores, earned higher scores on reading and math tests; they completed more years of education, they were more likely to attend a 4-year college or university, and they were less likely to become teen parents. Furthermore, the mothers of these students were more likely to reach a higher level of instruction and employment. Finally, the article discusses the validity of the study and the factors associated to the benefits (the early beginning, intensity and continuity of the program. Este es un estudio de revisión en el que se analizan las investigaciones que evalúan los efectos a lo largo del tiempo del temprano Abecedarian Project (ABC. El ABC es un programa compensador preventivo de 0-5 años y entresacados de madres de alto riesgo. El grupo experimental (E recibe tratamiento preescolar intensivo, no el control (C. Se prolongó escolarmente hasta los 8 años, subdividiéndose ambos grupos: Dos -EE y CE- recibieron tratamiento intensivo; otros (EC y CC convencional. Fueron medidos hasta los 21. Resultados: Los jóvenes adultos, tratados preescolarmente, mejoraron en rendimiento mental, lector y matemático; alcanzaron mayores instrucción y presencia en

  1. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  2. Lived Experiences of Sex Life Difficulties in Men and Women with Early RA - The Swedish TIRA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlund, Gunnel; Björk, Mathilda; Valtersson, Eva; Sverker, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience restrictions in everyday life, in spite of the development of new medications. Recent research has described in detail how participation limitations are experienced in everyday life from a patient perspective. However, knowledge of how sex and intimate relationships are affected is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to explore sex life experiences in relation to sexual function and sexual relationships in men and women with early RA. The study formed part of TIRA-2 (the Swedish acronym for the prospective multicentre early arthritis project). The data collection included 45 interviews with 21 men and 24 women, aged 20-63, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The critical incident technique was used to collect data, and content analysis to categorize the results. Half the participants stated that RA affected their sex life. The general descriptions formed five categories: sex life and tiredness; sex life and ageing; emotional consequences of impaired sexual function; facilitators of sexual function and sexual relationships; and strain on the sexual relationship. Sex life is affected in early RA, in spite of new effective treatment strategies. New strategies of communication, assessment and self-managing interventions concerning the sex lives of patients with RA need to be implemented by a multidisciplinary healthcare team. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Pilot Project of Early Integrated Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kwaon Lui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Document acute neurosurgical and rehabilitation parameters of patients of all traumatic brain injury (TBI severities and determine whether early screening along with very early integrated TBI rehabilitation changes functional outcomes. Methods. Prospective study involving all patients with TBI admitted to a neurosurgical department of a tertiary hospital. They were assessed within 72 hours of admission by the rehabilitation team and received twice weekly rehabilitation reviews. Patients with further rehabilitation needs were then transferred to the attached acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation unit (TREATS and their functional outcomes were compared against a historical group of patients. Demographic variables, acute neurosurgical characteristics, medical complications, and rehabilitation outcomes were recorded. Results. There were 298 patients screened with an average age of 61.8±19.1 years. The most common etiology was falls (77.5%. Most patients were discharged home directly (67.4% and 22.8% of patients were in TREATS. The TREATS group functionally improved (P<0.001. Regression analysis showed by the intervention of TREATS, that there was a statistically significant FIM functional gain of 18.445 points (95% CI −30.388 to −0.6502, P=0.03. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated important epidemiological data on an unselected cohort of patients with TBI in Singapore and functional improvement in patients who further received inpatient rehabilitation.

  4. The Brookline Early Education Project: a 25-year follow-up study of a family-centered early health and development intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfrey, Judith S; Hauser-Cram, Penny; Bronson, Martha B; Warfield, Marji Erickson; Sirin, Selcuk; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-07-01

    Clinicians, scientists, and policy makers are increasingly taking interest in the long-term outcomes of early intervention programs undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, which were intended to improve young children's health and educational prospects. The Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) was an innovative, community-based program that provided health and developmental services for children and their families from 3 months before birth until entry into kindergarten. It was open to all families in the town of Brookline and to families from neighboring Boston, to include a mixture of families from suburban and urban communities. The goal of the project, which was administered by the Brookline Public Schools, was to ensure that children would enter kindergarten healthy and ready to learn. Outcome studies of BEEP and comparison children during kindergarten and second grade demonstrated the program's effectiveness during the early school years. The goal of this follow-up study was to test the hypotheses that BEEP participants, in comparison with their peers, would have higher levels of educational attainment, higher incomes, and more positive health behaviors, mental health, and health efficacy during the young adult period. Participants were young adults who were enrolled in the BEEP project from 1973 to 1978. Comparison subjects were young adults in Boston and Brookline who did not participate in BEEP but were matched to the BEEP group with respect to age, ethnicity, mother's educational level, and neighborhood (during youth). A total of 169 children were enrolled originally in BEEP and monitored through second grade. The follow-up sample included a total of 120 young adults who had participated in BEEP as children. The sample differed from the original BEEP sample in having a slightly larger proportion of college-educated mothers and a slightly smaller proportion of urban families but otherwise resembled the original BEEP sample. The demographic features of

  5. A Hybrid MCDM Approach for Strategic Project Portfolio Selection of Agro By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Debnath

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing size of the population, society faces several challenges for sustainable and adequate agricultural production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the strategic project portfolio selection (SPPS. The initial adaptation of strategic portfolio management of genetically modified (GM Agro by-products (Ab-Ps is a huge challenge in terms of processing the agro food product supply-chain practices in an environmentally nonthreatening way. As a solution to the challenges, the socio-economic characteristics for SPPS of GM food purchasing scenarios are studied. Evaluation and selection of the GM agro portfolio management are the dynamic issues due to physical and immaterial criteria involving a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM approach, combining modified grey Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, Multi-Attributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC and sensitivity analysis. Evaluation criteria are grouped into social, differential and beneficial clusters, and the modified DEMATEL procedure is used to derive the criteria weights. The MABAC method is applied to rank the strategic project portfolios according to the aggregated preferences of decision makers (DMs. The usefulness of the proposed research framework is validated with a case study. The GM by-products are found to be the best portfolio. Moreover, this framework can unify the policies of agro technological improvement, corporate social responsibility (CSR and agro export promotion.

  6. Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

  7. Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

  8. The Effect of China’s New Circular Collective Forest Tenure Reform on Household Non-Timber Forest Product Production in Natural Forest Protection Project Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of China’s natural forest protection project (Protection Project in 1998 changed households’ forestry production modes in project regions, and China’s new circular collective forest tenure reform (Tenure Reform has been implemented since 2003 with the goal of motivating household forestry production and increasing household income from forests. Policymakers expect that Tenure Reform could also stimulate households to engage in non-timber forest products (NTFPs production in Protection Project regions. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of Tenure Reform on household NTFP production in Protection Project regions. To fill this gap, we built an integrative conceptual framework and estimated a corresponding structural equation model (SEM using survey data from 932 households in Protection Project regions in southwestern China. In our research framework, there are four factors, including household characteristics, labour and social capital, forestland characteristics, and the Tenure Reform, affecting household NTFP production. The results substantiate that Tenure Reform has had a significant positive effect on household NTFP production. Additionally, household and forestland characteristics have promoted household NTFP production, but quantitatively less than Tenure Reform. This report can be used to inform the government that future investment in Tenure Reform still needs to be enhanced, and policy enforcement still needs to be strengthened.

  9. Scientific computing and algorithms in industrial simulations projects and products of Fraunhofer SCAI

    CERN Document Server

    Schüller, Anton; Schweitzer, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The contributions gathered here provide an overview of current research projects and selected software products of the Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing SCAI. They show the wide range of challenges that scientific computing currently faces, the solutions it offers, and its important role in developing applications for industry. Given the exciting field of applied collaborative research and development it discusses, the book will appeal to scientists, practitioners, and students alike. The Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing SCAI combines excellent research and application-oriented development to provide added value for our partners. SCAI develops numerical techniques, parallel algorithms and specialized software tools to support and optimize industrial simulations. Moreover, it implements custom software solutions for production and logistics, and offers calculations on high-performance computers. Its services and products are based on state-of-the-art metho...

  10. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Ancăr, V; Cirstoiu, M M; Rădoi, V; Bohîlțea, L C; Furtunescu, F

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania, reaching in 2013 the average value of 8.06/ 100,000 women, and 15.97/ 100,000 women within the highest risk age range, having in recent years an increasing trend, being higher in urban than in rural population. Annually, approximately 800 new cases are registered in our country. The estimated lifetime risk of a woman to develop endometrial cancer is of about 1,03%. Based on an abnormal uterine bleeding, 35% of the endometrial cancers are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, with significantly diminished lifetime expectancy. Drafting a national program for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer. We proposed a standardization of the diagnostic steps and focused on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding occurring in pre/ post-menopausal women, investigating features/ anomalies of cervical cytology examination, diagnosis, treatment and proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms addresses the four risk groups, by improving information system reporting and record keeping. Improving addressability cases by increasing the health education of the population will increase the rate of diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the early stages of the disease. ACOG = American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, PATT = Partial Activated Thromboplastin Time, BRCA = Breast Cancer Gene, CT = Computerized Tomography, IFGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, HLG = Hemoleucogram, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, BMI = Body Mass Index, INR = International Normalized Ratio, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI

  11. Implementing a national early awareness and alert system for new and emerging health technologies in Italy: the COTE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Antonio; Perrini, Maria Rosaria; Jefferson, Tom; Cerbo, Marina

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a national Early Awareness and Alert (EAA) system for the identification and assessment of new and emerging health technologies in Italy. In 2008, Agenas, a public body supporting Regions and the Ministry of Health (MoH) in health services research, started a project named COTE (Observatory of New and Emerging Health Technologies) with the ultimate aim of implementing a national EAA system. The COTE project involved all stakeholders (MoH, Regions, Industry, Universities, technical government bodies, and Scientific Societies), in defining the key characteristics and methods of the EAA system. Agreement with stakeholders was reached using three separate workshops. During the workshops, participants shared and agreed methods for identification of new and emerging health technologies, prioritization, and assessment. The structure of the Horizon Scanning (HS) reports was discussed and defined. The main channels for dissemination of outputs were identified as the EuroScan database, and the stakeholders' Web portals. During the final workshop, Agenas presented the first three HS reports produced at national level and proposed the establishment of a permanent national EAA system. The COTE Project created the basis for a permanent national EAA system in Italy. An infrastructure to enable the stakeholders network to grow was created, methods to submit new and emerging health technologies for possible evaluation were established, methods for assessment of the technologies selected were defined, and the stakeholders involvement was delineated (in the identification, assessment, and dissemination stages).

  12. Spin-Projected Matrix Product States: Versatile Tool for Strongly Correlated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2017-06-13

    We present a new wave function ansatz that combines the strengths of spin projection with the language of matrix product states (MPS) and matrix product operators (MPO) as used in the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Specifically, spin-projected matrix product states (SP-MPS) are constructed as [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the spin projector for total spin S and |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩ is an MPS wave function with a given particle number N and spin projection M. This new ansatz possesses several attractive features: (1) It provides a much simpler route to achieve spin adaptation (i.e., to create eigenfunctions of Ŝ 2 ) compared to explicitly incorporating the non-Abelian SU(2) symmetry into the MPS. In particular, since the underlying state |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩ in the SP-MPS uses only Abelian symmetries, one does not need the singlet embedding scheme for nonsinglet states, as normally employed in spin-adapted DMRG, to achieve a single consistent variationally optimized state. (2) Due to the use of |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩ as its underlying state, the SP-MPS can be closely connected to broken-symmetry mean-field states. This allows one to straightforwardly generate the large number of broken-symmetry guesses needed to explore complex electronic landscapes in magnetic systems. Further, this connection can be exploited in the future development of quantum embedding theories for open-shell systems. (3) The sum of MPOs representation for the Hamiltonian and spin projector [Formula: see text] naturally leads to an embarrassingly parallel algorithm for computing expectation values and optimizing SP-MPS. (4) Optimizing SP-MPS belongs to the variation-after-projection (VAP) class of spin-projected theories. Unlike usual spin-projected theories based on determinants, the SP-MPS ansatz can be made essentially exact simply by increasing the bond dimensions in |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩. Computing excited states is also simple by imposing orthogonality constraints

  13. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, extended to the low-σ regime of dEs. The ages in our sample show more scatter at lower σ values, indicative of less massive galaxies being affected by the environment to a higher degree. The shape of the age-σ relations for cluster versus non-cluster galaxies suggests that cluster environment speeds up the placing of galaxies on the red sequence. While the scaling relations are tighter for cluster than for the field/group objects, we find no evidence for a difference in average population characteristics of the two samples. We investigate the properties of our sample in the Virgo cluster as a function of number density (rather than simple clustrocentric distance) and find that dE ages correlate with the local density such that galaxies in regions of lower density are younger, likely because they are later arrivals to the cluster or have experienced less pre-processing in groups, and consequently used up their gas reservoir more recently. Overall, dE properties correlate more strongly with density than those of massive ETGs, which was expected as less massive galaxies are more susceptible to external influences.

  14. Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D ampersand D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D ampersand D Focus Area's approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D ampersand D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD's awarded by the D ampersand D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP's selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP's Plant 1 D ampersand D Project which was an ongoing D ampersand D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D ampersand D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D ampersand D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D ampersand D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of open-quotes winners.close quotes All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP's baseline D ampersand D

  15. The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project, Products, and Mission Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric; Liou, Larry; Dankanich, John; Munk, Michelle M.; Kremic, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD), is continuing to invest in propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. This overview provides development status, near-term mission benefits, applicability, and availability of in-space propulsion technologies in the areas of aerocapture, electric propulsion, advanced chemical thrusters, and systems analysis tools. Aerocapture investments improved: guidance, navigation, and control models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; atmospheric models for Earth, Titan, Mars, and Venus; and models for aerothermal effects. Investments in electric propulsion technologies focused on completing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6 to 7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system. The project is also concluding its High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC) mid-term product specifically designed for a low-cost electric propulsion option. The primary chemical propulsion investment is on the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance for lower cost. The project is also delivering products to assist technology infusion and quantify mission applicability and benefits through mission analysis and tools. In-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for flagship destinations currently under evaluation, as well as having broad applicability to future Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations.

  16. Meteorite Impact-Induced Rapid NH3 Production on Early Earth: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-12-01

    NH3 is an essential molecule as a nitrogen source for prebiotic amino acid syntheses such as the Strecker reaction. Previous shock experiments demonstrated that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have provided a considerable amount of NH3 from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. However, specific production mechanisms remain unclear, and impact velocities employed in the experiments were substantially lower than typical impact velocities of meteorites on the early Earth. Here, to investigate the issues from the atomistic viewpoint, we performed multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealed a rapid production of NH3 within several picoseconds after the shock, indicating that shocks with greater impact velocities would provide further increase in the yield of NH3. Meanwhile, the picosecond-order production makes one expect that the important nitrogen source precursors of amino acids were obtained immediately after the impact. It was also observed that the reduction of N2 proceeded according to an associative mechanism, rather than a dissociative mechanism as in the Haber-Bosch process.

  17. Recombinant Protein Production from TPO Gen Cloning and Expression for Early Detection of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanni'am, Aulanni'am; Kinasih Wuragil, Dyah; Wahono Soeatmadji, Djoko; Zulkarnain; Marhendra, Agung Pramana W.

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) is an autoimmune disease that has many clinical symptoms but is difficult to detect at the onset of disease progression. Most thyroid autoimmune disease patients are positive with high titre of thyroid autoantibodies, especially thyroid peroxidase (TPO). The detection AITD are still needed because these tests are extremely high cost and have not regularly been performed in most of clinical laboratories. In the past, we have explored the autoimmune disease marker and it has been developed as source of polyclonal antibodies from patient origin. In the current study, we develop recombinant protein which resulted from cloning and expression of TPO gene from normal person and AITD patients. This work flows involves: DNA isolation and PCR to obtain TPO gene from human blood, insertion of TPO gene to plasmid and transformation to E. coli BL21, Bacterial culture to obtain protein product, protein purification and product analysis. This products can use for application to immunochromatography based test. This work could achieved with the goal of producing autoimmune markers with a guaranteed quality, sensitive, specific and economically. So with the collaboration with industries these devices could be used for early detection. Keywords: recombinant protein, TPO gene, Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD)ction of the diseases in the community.

  18. Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: A critical review of methods and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available,

  19. The early development of neutron diffraction: science in the wings of the Manhattan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, T E; Gawne, T J; Nagler, S E; Nestor, M B; Carpenter, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although neutron diffraction was first observed using radioactive decay sources shortly after the discovery of the neutron, it was only with the availability of higher intensity neutron beams from the first nuclear reactors, constructed as part of the Manhattan Project, that systematic investigation of Bragg scattering became possible. Remarkably, at a time when the war effort was singularly focused on the development of the atomic bomb, groups working at Oak Ridge and Chicago carried out key measurements and recognized the future utility of neutron diffraction quite independent of its contributions to the measurement of nuclear cross sections. Ernest O. Wollan, Lyle B. Borst and Walter H. Zinn were all able to observe neutron diffraction in 1944 using the X-10 graphite reactor and the CP-3 heavy water reactor. Subsequent work by Wollan and Clifford G. Shull, who joined Wollan's group at Oak Ridge in 1946, laid the foundations for widespread application of neutron diffraction as an important research tool.

  20. Projected changes in the future distribution and production of sessile oak forests near the xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre; Veperdi, Gábor

    2017-04-01

    As a result of regional climate change, most European countries are experiencing an increase in mean annual temperature and CO2 concentration and a decrease in mean annual precipitation. In low-elevation areas in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is a limiting factor, the projected climate change threatens the health, production, and potential distribution of forest ecosystems. The intensive summer droughts and commonly occurring extreme weather events create negative influences that cause health declines, changes in yield potential, and tree mortality. Due to the observed damages, attention has been focused on these problems. The impacts of climatic extremes cause difficulties in forest management; these difficulties occur more frequently in Hungary, which is a region that is the most sensitive to climatic extremes. Regional climate model simulations project that the frequency of extremely high temperatures and long-term dry periods will increase; both of these factors have negative effects on future tree species distribution and production. Thus, the aim of our study is to utilize the sessile oak (Quercus petraea) as a climate indicator tree species to investigate potential future distribution and estimate changes in growth trends. For future spatial distribution, we used the Fuzzy membership distribution model in a new Decision Support System (DSS) which was developed for the Hungarian forestry and agricultural sectors. Through study techniques we can employ DSS, which contains various environmental layers (topography, vegetation, past and projected future climate, soils, and hydrology), to create probability distribution maps. The results, based on 12 regional climate model simulations (www.ensembles-eu.org), show that the area of sessile oak forests is shrinking continuously and will continue to do so to the end of the 21st century. For future production estimations, we analysed intensive long-term growth monitoring network plots that were established in

  1. Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated Coral Reef Observation Network/Coral Reef Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated Coral Reef Observation System/Coral Reef Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.

  2. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of Lerna ceramics (Greece) at Early Bronze Age: local production and trade exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is a powerful tool for determining the provenance of ancient ceramics. A sophisticated analytical system for gamma-ray spectrometry, designed specifically for the chemical analysis of ceramics by thermal neutron activation, was used to determine the concentrations of twenty elements in samples of ancient pottery. The measurements were made relative to the standard pottery of Perlman and Asaro. The purpose of the work was to study the production of fine pottery at the settlement of Lerna, in the Argolid of Greece, during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BC). About half of the 50 samples analysed formed the major compositional group, which was attributed to Lerna. It included, besides the majority of the samples from the second phase of the Early Bronze Age (Lerna III), several samples from the third phase (Lerna IV); that is, from levels immediately succeeding the great destruction which marks the end of the Lerna III settlement. A small number of objects forms a second group of local origin and includes 4 of the 5 clay sealings sampled. Among the archaeologically unusual objects, several could be attributed to Lerna, while others were characterized as imports [fr

  4. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, C.O., E-mail: bacri@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France); Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France)

    2010-02-11

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  5. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacri, C. O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.; Cacao Group

    2010-02-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives à Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  6. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacri, C.O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.

    2010-01-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  7. Modelling and Simulation of National Electronic Product Code Network Demonstrator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, John P. T.

    The National Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network Demonstrator Project (NDP) was the first large scale consumer goods track and trace investigation in the world using full EPC protocol system for applying RFID technology in supply chains. The NDP demonstrated the methods of sharing information securely using EPC Network, providing authentication to interacting parties, and enhancing the ability to track and trace movement of goods within the entire supply chain involving transactions among multiple enterprise. Due to project constraints, the actual run of the NDP was 3 months only and was unable to consolidate with quantitative results. This paper discusses the modelling and simulation of activities in the NDP in a discrete event simulation environment and provides an estimation of the potential benefits that can be derived from the NDP if it was continued for one whole year.

  8. Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved

  9. The Impact of Early Infant Jaw-Orthopaedics on Early Speech Production in Toddlers with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmander, Anette; Lillvik, Malin; Friede, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the impact of pre-surgical Infant Orthopaedics (IO) on consonant production at 18 months of age in children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) and to compare the consonant production to that of age-matched children without clefts. The first ten children in a consecutive series of 20 with UCLP…

  10. Project PHaEDRA: Preserving Harvard's Early Data and Research in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquin, Daina; Frey, Katie; Henneken, Edwin; McEachern, Maria; McGrath, Alex; Guarracino, Daniel; Koch, Jennifer; Damon, James; Brownell, Eric; Smith-Zrull, Lindsay; Daina Bouquin

    2018-01-01

    Material originally produced during 19th and early 20th century by researchers at the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) was recently re-discovered in the HCO Astronomical Plate Stacks collection. This material helps represent the history of the HCO and acts as an irreplaceable primary source on the evolution of observation methods and astronomy as a science. The material is also relevant to the history of women in science as the collection contains logbooks and notebooks produced by the Harvard Computers, women who have come back into the spotlight due to the recent release of books like "The Glass Universe," "Rise of the Rocket Girls," and movies like "Hidden Figures". To ensure that this remarkable set of items is as accessible and useful as possible Wolbach Library, in collaboration with the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and others, is working to catalog, digitize, and preserve the entire collection. The material is also being transcribed by volunteers through the Smithsonian Transcription Center in DC. The transcription will allow the collection to be full-text searchable in ADS and for the notebooks to eventually be linked to their original source material: 500,000 glass plate photographs representing the first ever picture of the visible universe. The novel workflow of this distributed repository and the significance of the PHaEDRA collection both stand to support the research of future generations.

  11. Production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons by volcanic eruptions on early Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Antígona; Navarro-González, Rafael

    2005-10-01

    Methane and other larger hydrocarbons have been proposed as possible greenhouse gases on early Mars. In this work we explore if volcanic processes may have been a source for such molecules based on theoretical and experimental considerations. Geologic evidence and numerical simulations indicate that explosive volcanism was widely distributed throughout Mars. Volcanic lightning is typically produced in such explosive volcanism. Therefore this geologic setting was studied to determine if lightning could be a source for hydrocarbons in volcanic plumes. Volcanic lightning was simulated by focusing a high-energy infrared laser beam inside of a Pyrex reactor that contained the proposed volcanic gas mixture composed of 64% CH(4), 24% H(2), 10% H(2)O and 2% N(2), according to an accretion model and the nitrogen content measured in Martian meteorites. The analysis of products was performed by gas chromatography coupled to infrared and mass spectroscopy. Eleven hydrocarbons were identified among the products, of which acetylene (C(2)H(2)) was the most abundant. A thermochemical model was used to determine which hydrocarbons could arise only from volcanic heat. In this case, acetylene and ethylene are formed at magmatic temperatures. Our results indicate that explosive volcanism may have injected into the atmosphere of early Mars approximately 6 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of acetylene, and approximately 2 x 10(12) g yr(-1) of 1,3-butadiyne, both produced by volcanic lightning, approximately 5 x 10(11) g yr(-1) of ethylene produced by volcanic heat, and 10(13) g yr(-1) of methane.

  12. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  13. Revisiting an interdisciplinary hydrological modelling project. A socio-hydrology (?) example from the early 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasingly important role in global change research. Also, in the field of water resources interdisciplinarity as well as cooperation with stakeholders from outside academia have been recognized as important. In this contribution, we revisit an integrated regional modelling system (DANUBIA), which was developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers and relied on stakeholder participation in the framework of the GLOWA-Danube project from 2001 to 2011 (Mauser and Prasch 2016). As the model was developed before the current increase in literature on participatory modelling and interdisciplinarity, we ask how a socio-hydrology approach would have helped and in what way it would have made the work different. The present contribution firstly presents the interdisciplinary concept of DANUBIA, mainly with focus on the integration of human behaviour in a spatially explicit, process-based numerical modelling system (Roland Barthel, Janisch, Schwarz, Trifkovic, Nickel, Schulz, and Mauser 2008; R. Barthel, Nickel, Meleg, Trifkovic, and Braun 2005). Secondly, we compare the approaches to interdisciplinarity in GLOWA-Danube with concepts and ideas presented by socio-hydrology. Thirdly, we frame DANUBIA and a review of key literature on socio-hydrology in the context of a survey among hydrologists (N = 184). This discussion is used to highlight gaps and opportunities of the socio-hydrology approach. We show that the interdisciplinary aspect of the project and the participatory process of stakeholder integration in DANUBIA were not entirely successful. However, important insights were gained and important lessons were learnt. Against the background of these experiences we feel that in its current state, socio-hydrology is still lacking a plan for knowledge integration. Moreover, we consider necessary that socio-hydrology takes into account the lessons learnt from these earlier examples of knowledge integration

  14. NPOESS Preparatory Project Validation Program for Atmsophere Data Products from VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, D.; Wong, E.

    2009-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite Suite (NPOESS) Program, in partnership with National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA), will launch the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), a risk reduction and data continuity mission, prior to the first operational NPOESS launch. The NPOESS Program, in partnership with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS), will execute the NPP Validation program to ensure the data products comply with the requirements of the sponsoring agencies. Data from the NPP Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) will be used to produce Environmental Data Records (EDR's) for aerosol and clouds, specifically Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP), and Suspended Matter (SM); and Cloud Optical Thickness (COT), Cloud Effective Particle Size (CEPS), Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Height (CTH) and Pressure (CTP), and Cloud Base Height (CBH). The Aerosol and Cloud EDR Validation Program is a multifaceted effort to characterize and validate these data products. The program involves systematic comparison to heritage data products, e.g., MODIS, and ground-based correlative data, such as AERONET and ARM data products, and potentially airborne field measurements. To the extent possible, the domain is global. The program leverages various investments that have and are continuing to be made by national funding agencies in such resources, as well as the operational user community and the broad Earth science user community. This presentation will provide an overview of the approaches, data and schedule for the validation of the NPP VIIRS Aerosol and Cloud environmental data products.

  15. BAD-LAMP defines a subset of early endocytic organelles in subpopulations of cortical projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Alexandre; Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Defays, Axel; Beclin, Christophe; Camosseto, Voahirana; Gatti, Evelina; Cremer, Harold; Pierre, Philippe

    2007-01-15

    The brain-associated LAMP-like molecule (BAD-LAMP) is a new member of the family of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs). In contrast to other LAMPs, which show a widespread expression, BAD-LAMP expression in mice is confined to the postnatal brain and therein to neuronal subpopulations in layers II/III and V of the neocortex. Onset of expression strictly parallels cortical synaptogenesis. In cortical neurons, the protein is found in defined clustered vesicles, which accumulate along neurites where it localizes with phosphorylated epitopes of neurofilament H. In primary neurons, BAD-LAMP is endocytosed, but is not found in classical lysosomal/endosomal compartments. Modification of BAD-LAMP by addition of GFP revealed a cryptic lysosomal retention motif, suggesting that the cytoplasmic tail of BAD-LAMP is actively interacting with, or modified by, molecules that promote its sorting away from lysosomes. Analysis of BAD-LAMP endocytosis in transfected HeLa cells provided evidence that the protein recycles to the plasma membrane through a dynamin/AP2-dependent mechanism. Thus, BAD-LAMP is an unconventional LAMP-like molecule and defines a new endocytic compartment in specific subtypes of cortical projection neurons. The striking correlation between the appearance of BAD-LAMP and cortical synatogenesis points towards a physiological role of this vesicular determinant for neuronal function.

  16. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  17. Why did Wundt abandon his early theory of the unconscious? Towards a new interpretation of Wundt's psychological project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Despite the numerous and important contributions brought by Wundt scholarship in recent decades, some aspects of his work remain unclear and poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to explore one of these aspects, namely, the relationship between philosophy and psychology in Wundt's thought. To this end, we shall discuss an important yet neglected moment in Wundtian psychology, which remains unexplained to date: Why did Wundt abandon his early theory of the unconscious? According to the interpretation offered here, this can only be adequately explained by his intense philosophical studies in the period preceding the publication of the Grundzüge in 1874. Finally, we will point out some implications of this analysis to the general interpretation of Wundt's psychological project.

  18. Naïve Bayesian Classifier for Selecting Good/Bad Projects during the Early Stage of International Construction Bidding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, revenues generated by Korean contractors in international construction have increased rapidly, exceeding USD 70 billion per year in recent years. However, Korean contractors face significant risks from market uncertainty and sensitivity to economic volatility and technical difficulties. As the volatility of these risks threatens project profitability, approximately 15% of bad projects were found to account for 74% of losses from the same international construction sector. Anticipating bad projects via preemptive risk management can better prevent losses so that contractors can enhance the efficiency of bidding decisions during the early stages of a project cycle. In line with these objectives, this paper examines the effect of such factors on the degree of project profitability. The Naïve Bayesian classifier is applied to identify a good project screening tool, which increases practical applicability using binomial variables with limited information that is obtainable in the early stages. The proposed model produced superior classification results that adequately reflect contractor views of risk. It is anticipated that when users apply the proposed model based on their own knowledge and expertise, overall firm profit rates will increase as a result of early abandonment of bad projects as well as the prioritization of good projects before final bidding decisions are made.

  19. FY17Q4 Ristra project: Release Version 1.0 of a production toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungerford, Aimee L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daniel, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    The Next Generation Code project will release Version 1.0 of a production toolkit for multi-physics application development on advanced architectures. Features of this toolkit will include remap and link utilities, control and state manager, setup, visualization and I/O, as well as support for a variety of mesh and particle data representations. Numerical physics packages that operate atop this foundational toolkit will be employed in a multi-physics demonstration problem and released to the community along with results from the demonstration.

  20. Rapid product development: project engineering joined to design engineering in a concurrent engineering context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Alain; Ouazzani, A.; Chambolle, F.; Bocquet, Jean Claud

    1997-01-01

    Software tools for designers are mainly based on geometry. Today, many industrial modelers have been rebuilt with C++, or any other object oriented language. This paper proposes to locate the research topics, in order to develop a functional link between project management tools, technical data management and product models. The 'design process' aspect will also be justified through the need of capitalizing designer intent and design history. This is related to different research works of Mechanical Engineering and Logistics Laboratory of Ecole Centrale Paris, and especially two PhD topics.

  1. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project H-Series climate data record product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alisa H.; Knapp, Kenneth R.; Inamdar, Anand; Hankins, William; Rossow, William B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the new global long-term International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) H-series climate data record (CDR). The H-series data contain a suite of level 2 and 3 products for monitoring the distribution and variation of cloud and surface properties to better understand the effects of clouds on climate, the radiation budget, and the global hydrologic cycle. This product is currently available for public use and is derived from both geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite imaging radiometers with common visible and infrared (IR) channels. The H-series data currently span July 1983 to December 2009 with plans for continued production to extend the record to the present with regular updates. The H-series data are the longest combined geostationary and polar orbiter satellite-based CDR of cloud properties. Access to the data is provided in network common data form (netCDF) and archived by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) under the satellite Climate Data Record Program (https://doi.org/10.7289/V5QZ281S" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.7289/V5QZ281S). The basic characteristics, history, and evolution of the dataset are presented herein with particular emphasis on and discussion of product changes between the H-series and the widely used predecessor D-series product which also spans from July 1983 through December 2009. Key refinements included in the ISCCP H-series CDR are based on improved quality control measures, modified ancillary inputs, higher spatial resolution input and output products, calibration refinements, and updated documentation and metadata to bring the H-series product into compliance with existing standards for climate data records.

  2. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  3. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia, which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  4. Project-based production and project management: Findings and trends in research on temporary systems in multiple contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinus Pretorius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is challenging almost every aspect of the political, economic, social and technological environment. Organisations, whether public or private, have to adapt their strategies and operations to stay competitive and efficient. Historically, organisations adopted project-based operations as a mode to stay competitive, although the applications tended to be the oneoff type of operations such as construction and system development projects (Edum-Fotwe & McCaffer, 2000. As the world changed from an industrially driven to a more knowledge driven economy and the pace of continuous change became more intense, organisations adopted a project-based mode of operations on a broader scale. The knowledge economy lead to the creation of many service orientated industries. Organisations started facing portfolios of projects where the nature of these projects differed in technological complexity, urgency, customer value and social impact (Gutjahr & Froeschl, 2013. Based on their experience with more technically orientated projects, organisations focused their attention more intensely on new project management methods, tools and processes and not necessarily on the human and organisational interfaces. This paradigm changed however, especially since the 1980s and more and more organisations adopted temporary organisational forms (Bakker, 2010 in order to improve their competitiveness. The contributions in this special edition of the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences have a common focus on the importance of the human and organisational interface of project-based operations on project success. The purpose of this concluding article is to analyse the findings and recommendations in these papers and to detect trends and future research opportunities in the field of project-based operations.

  5. Benefits of GRI R and D products placed in commercial use through early 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, L.P.; Pine, G.D.; Rinholm, R.C.

    1992-02-01

    From GRI's inception in 1978 through early 1991, 170 GRI-sponsored research and development (R and D) products have been placed into commercial service. Twenty-four of these products were introduced between April 1990 and March 1991. Benefits have been quantified for 87 of the 170 items, and the calculated ratio of the benefits to gas customers to total GRI costs incurred through the end of 1990 is 4.9 to 1. The calculated internal rate of return to gas customers on their investment in GRI to date is 21.5 percent. When only the costs of completed, terminated, or deferred R and D are included, the benefit-to-cost ratio rises to 7.9 to 1, and the gas customer return on investment rises to 25 percent. The 4.9 to 1 benefit-to-cost ratio is greater than the ratio calculated in May 1990, primarily because of the quantification for the first time of the benefits of two groups of GRI information items: (1) items supporting the use of plastic pipe for gas distribution, and (2) items leading to a better understanding of mid-efficiency gas furnaces and their venting systems

  6. Testing Students’ Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy as an Early Predictor of Entrepreneurial Activities. Evidence From the SEAS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zięba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, since Bandura (1977 introduced the concept of selfefcacy, there have been a constantly growing number of research publicatons using this concept. Its early development resulted in the creaton of a new construct of entrepreneurial self-efcacy (ESE proposed for the frst tme by (Chen et al. 1998. Since then, many different groups of research concerning ESE have emerged - one of them is the study of ESE of students. With regard to this partcular group, a recent tendency to study ESE in a pre-post setng can be notced i.a. Karlsson, Moberg (2013, Shinnar, Hsu, Powell (2014, Ismail, Zain, Zulihar (2015. Due to the increasing interest in entrepreneurial self-efcacy research and the need to fll the gap in the literature with regard to European post-communist countries (and partcularly – Poland (Drnovsek, Wincent, Cardon, 2010, in this paper we present a brief overview of ESE research and pose the queston whether ESE of Polish students can serve as an early predictor of their subsequent entrepreneurial actvites, potentally leading them to nascent entrepreneurship. The research material was collected from the SEAS (Survey on Entrepreneurial Attudes of Students Project carried out at the Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdańsk University of Technology. The research sample was composed of 72 students - ESE was measured in a pre-post setng using a single item based on a fve-point Likert scale. One of the research conclusions is that ESE manifested by student-beginners seems to influence their later entrepreneurial behavior in a statstcally signifcant way - potentally making ESE a valuable early predictor of future entrepreneurial actvites. In the concluding part of the study, limitatons are discussed and future study developments are indicated.

  7. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market

  8. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-08-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  9. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-08-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  10. Promoting bioethanol production through clean development mechanism: Findings and lessons learnt from ASIATIC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Bedniaguine, Denis; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2005-12-15

    Global climate change mitigation policies call for increasing use of biomass fuels as renewable substitutes to fossil energy resources. Quantified targets for biofuels introduction in to the market exist in the United States, the European Union, and a number of developing countries. In this context, mixing biologically produced ethanol with conventional gasoline represents an attractive technical option allowing for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and lessening the dependence on non-renewable petrol in the transportation sector. This paper investigates technological and socio-economic aspects of ethanol production in developing countries, particularly in China, with special focus on determining eligibility of bioethanol projects for Clean Development Mechanism. Basing on the findings of the ASIATIC study (Agriculture and Small to Medium Scale Industries in Peri-urban Areas through Ethanol Production for Transport In China), we analyse how alcohol fuels can be produced in a sustainable way with mutual benefits between rural and urban people. The bioethanol production cost and life cycle CO2 eq. emissions were calculated for six different types of feedstock: sugarcane, sugarcane molasses, sweet sorghum juice, cassava, corn, and sorghum bagasse. Implications of the CDM rules and procedures for bioethanol industry were examined under the angles of environmental and economical additionality, and conformity with the principles of sustainable development. It is found that the starch-based (cassava) ethanol production path has the greatest potential for market penetration in China, followed by the conversion route using sugar-based feedstock (sorghum juice, sugarcane molasses). Meanwhile, the lignocelluloses biomass - to - ethanol technology may represent the highest interest for implementation as Clean Development Mechanism project. (Author)

  11. Long-term archives of land surface albedo products through the EUMETSAT/LSA-SAF and ECMWF/C3S projects: status and project development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, D.; Pinault, F.; Ceamanos, X.; Meurey, C.; Moparthy, S.; Swinnen, E.; Trigo, I.

    2017-12-01

    The two space programs of EUMETSAT (project CDOP3, LSA-SAF) and ECMWF (the Copernicus Climate Change Service; C3S_312a Lot9) provide (or will provide) added-value satellite products for the meteorological and environmental science communities, especially in the fields of climate modeling, environmental management, natural hazards management, and climate change detection. The EUMETSAT/LSA-SAF project started in 1999 with research and development activities. The Third Continuous Development and Operations Phase (CDOP-3) starts in March 2017 and will end in 2022. This project uses instruments on board European satellites that were, or will be, launched between 2004 and 2022. Unlike the LSA-SAF, the COPERNICUS/C3S_312a project has no NRT constraint. Its first phase started in november 2016. One of the major objective of the COPERNICUS/C3S_312a project is to harmonize datasets from various sensors in order to provide consistent and continuous ECV products from the 80's until now.Presently, the delivered operational products comprise several surface albedo products using data from various space missions (METEOSAT, NOAA, METOP, …). We present here the portfolio of the surface albedo products that are disseminated with an operational status. Their characteristics and accuracy are detailed here after. Also we will present the development plan to produce long-term re-analysis and to prepare the arrival of the next generation of satellite (MTG, EPS-SG, ...). This work will lead in 2018 to 40 years of products characterizing the albedo properties of the surface. These programs provide a great opportunity to monitor and identify human-induced climate change since consistent production of data sets is guaranteed until at least 2022.

  12. Early hydrogen water chemistry project review, improvement opportunities and conceptural design options at Exelon boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Odell, Andrew D.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2012-09-01

    Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) and its impacts have been a major concern to the BWR fleet since the mid-70's. Several alternative strategies have been employed to reduce the negative impacts, however, the newest being Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry (EHWC). The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the BWRVIP (Vessel Internals Project) has strongly supported the development of EHWC, including laboratory testing and a demonstration program that was performed at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station in October 2011. This paper will review the impacts of a 'Special Test Program' on a BWR plant including: Project management findings; technical reviews and documents required to support such a demonstration program; temporary equipment design, installation and testing; keeping the demonstration progressing along with the plant return from a refuel outage; and lessons learned that can be applied to EHWC implementation during future start-ups. Details will be compared between various Exelon BWRs in support of conceptual designs for EHWC systems and operation. Some comparisons on operational impacts will be provided between various types of BWR plants with differing 'Balance of Plant' designs. (authors)

  13. Early Lupus Project - A multicentre Italian study on systemic lupus erythematosus of recent onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, G D; Prevete, I; Piga, M; Iuliano, A; Bettio, S; Bortoluzzi, A; Coladonato, L; Tani, C; Spinelli, F R; Fineschi, I; Mathieu, A

    2015-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a high degree of variability at onset that is problematic for a correct and prompt diagnosis. We undertook this project with the purpose of collecting an inception cohort of Italian patients with recent-onset SLE, in order to obtain information on the main clinical and serological characteristics at the beginning of the disease. In this first report we describe the characteristics of this cohort at study entry. All patients with a diagnosis of SLE (1997 ACR criteria) and a disease duration less than 12 months were consecutively enrolled between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013 in a multicentre prospective study. Information on clinical and serological characteristics at study entry and then every six months was collected into a specific electronic database. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Openstat program. Among 122 patients enrolled (103 F) 94.3% were Caucasians. Mean age (SD) of patients at study entry was 37.3 (14.3) years, mean age at disease onset was 34.8 (14.3) years, mean age at diagnosis was 36.9 (14.3) years, and mean disease duration was 2.9 (3.9) months. The frequency of the manifestations included in the 1997 ACR criteria was as follows: ANA 97.5%, immunologic disorders (anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, antiphospholipid antibodies) 85.2%, arthritis 61.8%, haematologic disorders 55.7%, malar rash 31.1%, photosensitivity 29.5%, serositis 27%, renal disorders 27%, oral/nasal ulcers 11.5%, neurologic disorders 8.2%, and discoid rash 5.7%. The cumulative frequency of mucocutaneous symptoms was 77.8%. At enrolment, autoantibody frequency was: ANA 100%, anti-dsDNA 83.6%, anti-SSA 28%, anticardiolipin 24.5%, anti-nRNP 20.4%, anti-beta2GPI 17.2%, lupus anticoagulant 16.3%, anti-Sm 16%, and anti-SSB 13.1%. In this paper we describe the main clinical and serological characteristics of an Italian inception cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE. At disease onset, mucocutaneous

  14. DSM/DMM-based Methodology for Handling Changes in Product Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing complexity of the business context, companies are confronting more challenging Product Development (PD projects because of the potential risks externally brought by the partners’ participation and internally accumulated through the activities’ execution. In this paper, we formulate and decompose a PD project in a hierarchical way, and the obtained end elements perceived as objects are built into a number of Design Structure Matrices (DSMs and Domain Mapping Matrices (DMMs. We also propose a conceptual model of change occurring and change propagation, base on which the potential change propagating channels are discovered through observing and tracking change occurring and change propagation in DSMs and DMMs. Associated with the depth-first and breath-first search methods executed in matrices the critical objects during change propagation are discovered and the implicit change propagating channels cross multiple fields are identified. As the exploratory results, the critical objects taking account of change propagation are highlighted as the contribution to change management in PD project.

  15. Climate change projections of heat stress in Europe: From meteorological variables to impacts on productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Future climate change is likely to have important impacts in many socio-economic sectors. In particular, higher summer temperatures or more prolonged heat waves may be responsible for health problems and productivity losses related to heat stress, especially affecting people exposed to such situations (e.g. working under outside settings or in non-acclimatized workplaces). Heat stress on the body under work load and consequently their productivity loss can be described through heat stress indices that are based on multiple meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind and radiation. Exploring the changes of these variables under a warmer climate is of prime importance for the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability communities. In particular, the H2020 project HEAT-SHIELD aims at analyzing the impact of climate change on heat stress in strategic industries in Europe (manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture) within an inter-sectoral framework (climate scientists, biometeorologists, physiologists and stakeholders). In the present work we explore present and future heat stress over Europe using an ensemble of the state-of-the-art RCMs from the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Since RCMs cannot be directly used in impact studies due to their partly substantial biases, a standard bias correction method (empirical quantile mapping) is applied to correct the individual variables that are then used to derive heat stress indices. The objectives of this study are twofold, 1) to test the ability of the separately bias corrected variables to reproduce the main characteristics of heat stress indices in present climate conditions and 2) to explore climate change projections of heat stress indices. We use the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as primary heat stress index, considering two different versions for indoor (or in the shade, based on temperature and humidity conditions) and outdoor settings (including also wind and radiation). The WBGT

  16. BIM-Based 4D Simulation to Improve Module Manufacturing Productivity for Sustainable Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joosung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modular construction methods, where products are manufactured beforehand in a factory and then transported to the site for installation, are becoming increasingly popular for construction projects in many countries as this method facilitates the use of the advanced technologies that support sustainability in building projects. This approach requires dual factory–site process management to be carefully coordinated and the factory module manufacturing process must therefore be managed in a detailed and quantitative manner. However, currently, the limited algorithms available to support this process are based on mathematical methodologies that do not consider the complex mix of equipment, factories, personnel, and materials involved. This paper presents three new building information modeling-based 4D simulation frameworks to manage the three elements—process, quantity, and quality—that determine the productivity of factory module manufacturing. These frameworks leverage the advantages of 4D simulation and provide more precise information than existing conventional documents. By utilizing a 4D model that facilitates the visualization of a wide range of data variables, manufacturers can plan the module manufacturing process in detail and fully understand the material, equipment, and workflow needed to accomplish the manufacturing tasks. Managers can also access information about material quantities for each process and use this information for earned value management, warehousing/storage, fabrication, and assembly planning. By having a 4D view that connects 2D drawing models, manufacturing errors and rework can be minimized and problems such as construction delays, quality lapses, and cost overruns vastly reduced.

  17. From the HINDAS Project: Excitation Functions for Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Gloris, M.; Protoschill, J.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Weug, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Kubik, P.-W.; Schumann, D.; Synal, H.-A.; Weinreich, R.; Leya, I.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cugnon, J.

    2005-01-01

    A survey is given about efforts undertaken during the HINDAS project to investigate the energy dependence of residual nuclide production by proton-induced reactions from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. For proton-induced reactions, our experiments aimed to further develop and complete the cross-section database that was established by our collaboration in recent years. It was extended to the heavy-target elements Ta, W, Pb, and Bi for energies up to 2.6 GeV. In addition, new measurements for the target element iron were performed up to 2.6 GeV and for natural uranium for energies from 21 MeV to 69 MeV. For the target element lead, a comprehensive set of excitation functions published recently was completed by AMS-measurements of cross sections for the production of the long-lived radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and I-129 and by mass spectrometric measurements for stable and radioactive rare gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Comprehensive tests of the nuclear-reaction codes TALYS and INCL4+ABLA, which were developed within the HINDAS project, were performed with the new experimental results over the entire energy range

  18. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Aleksander; Kalinina, Olga; Levina, Anastasia

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  19. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  20. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  1. Actions to reduce the impact of construction products on indoor air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Richemont, S.de; Crump, D.; Maupetit, F.; Witterseh, T.; Gajdos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European project - HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on

  2. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanarong Vorapun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95 years. 689(34.9% are men and 1284(65.1% are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20 kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003. The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952 had highest level gait disorders. 39

  3. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanarong, Vorapun; Harnphadungkit, Kamolthip; Poungvarin, Niphon; Vannasaeng, Sathit; Chongwisal, Samut; Chakorn, Tipa; Jamjumrus, Piyanuch; Raksthaput, Atthapon; Chaichanettee, Sinisa; Aoonkaew, Nattapol; Udompunthurak, Suthipol; Doody, Rachelle S; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-10

    A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP) aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004-2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95) years. 689(34.9%) are men and 1284(65.1%) are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20) kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003). The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952) had highest level gait disorders. 39.5% of 1964 subjects were free of chronic diseases

  4. The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project : Progress Report, 1999-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-06-02

    The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. Chapter One also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Walla Walla River Basin. Objectives are outlined below for the statements of work for the 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 contract years. The same objectives were sometimes given different numbers in different years. Because this document is a synthesis of four years of reporting, we gave objectives letter designations and listed the objective number associated with the statement of work for each year. Some objectives were in all four work statements, while other objectives were in only one or two work statements. Each objective is discussed in a chapter. The chapter that reports activities and findings of each objective are listed with the objective below. Because data is often interrelated, aspects of some findings may be reported or discussed in more than one chapter. Specifics related to tasks, approaches, methods, results and discussion are addressed in the individual chapters.

  5. Project-based production and project management : Findings and trends in research on temporary systems in multiple contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretorius, M.W.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is challenging almost every aspect of the political, economic, social and technological environment. Organisations, whether public or private, have to adapt their strategies and operations to stay competitive and efficient. Historically, organisations adopted project-based operations

  6. Project Maghreb - Europe: Solar Production of Hydrogen. Phase I: Feasibility and opportunity study of the project; Projet Maghreb - Europe: Production d'hydrogene solaire. Phase I: Etude d'opportunite et de faisabilite du projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf; Chader, Samira; M' Raoui, Abdelhamid; Harouadi, Farid; Etievant, Claude; Lechevalier, Steve; Cherigui, Abdel-Nasser

    2007-07-01

    During the 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference which held on June 13-16, 2006, in Lyon (France), an important project appeared, the Maghreb-Europe Project for production and export of solar hydrogen, proposed in the Algiers Declaration of the hydrogen of origin renewable and directed by the researchers efforts of the Renewable Energies Development Center of Algiers (CDER) and members of the European company of Hydrogen Technologies (CETH). The present introductory communication exposes a scientific study on the appropriateness and the feasibility of the Project, as well as the objectives, missions and the fundamental elements for a scientific and technique accompaniment of this important project. (auth)

  7. Production of light elements by cascades from energetic antiprotons in the early Universe and problem of nuclear cosmoarcheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Yu.L.; Sobol', I.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model of the process of light-element (D and 3 He) production due to disintegration of 4 He nuclei, induced by nonequilibrium processes of production of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe is suggested. Numerical calculations show that formation of the nucleon cascade induced by antiproton slowing down increases the D and 3 He yield due to the growth of probability of disintegration of several 4 He nuclei by a single antiproton and due to disintegration of such nuclei by cascade protons. Restraints on the concentration of possible sources of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe are strengthened respectively

  8. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  9. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-trolet, Morgan; De Wolfshaar, Van Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of

  10. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang Geun [Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed.

  11. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  12. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  13. Project Minerva: A low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, David; Bryan, Richard; Bui, Tuyen; Caviezel, Kelly; Cinnamon, Mark; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hanks, Natasha; Hamilton, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface using only two sets of two launches from the Kennedy Space Center. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the scenario originally proposed by R. Zubrin. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low Earth orbit (LEO): the first payload consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles; the second payload consists of the trans-Mars injection (TMI) upper stage. In LEO, the two payloads are docked and the configuration is injected into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis type process to combine nine tons of hydrogen with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce over a hundred tons of liquid oxygen and liquid methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. The systems necessary for the flights to and from Mars, as well as those needed for the stay on Mars, are discussed. These systems include the transfer vehicle design, life support, guidance and communications, rovers and telepresence, power generation, and propellant manufacturing. Also included are the orbital mechanics, the scientific goals, and the estimated mission costs.

  14. Project development for mining-metallurgical complexes for production of uranium concentrates - an analysis and a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria G, S.; Blanco P, B.; Pena A, J.; Manzanera Q, C.

    1978-10-01

    Activities comprising the development of a project for a mining-metallurgical complex for production of uranium concentrates, from sampling and evaluation of an orebody until plant start-up, are analyzed. The analysis of the orebody, characterization of the ore, bench scale and pilot plant metallurgical studies, environmental studies and economic analyses of the project are described. The mining project and mine preparation and engineering and construction of the plant are reviewed in less detail. The estimated time lapse for the development of a typical project under ideal conditions is 66 months. A bar diagram is included showing an approximate timetable for each activity. (author)

  15. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  16. Extraction and radiochromatographic division of the early photosynthetic products of C3 plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolov, P.; Rangelov, B.; Borichenko, N.

    1978-01-01

    A complete method for extraction, radiochromatographic separation and 14 C balance of the early photosynthetic products in C 3 plants (peach, apple, plum, grapevine and beans) was worked out on the basis of comparative tests of methods presented in literature and of results obtained by investigations carried out. It was established that in view of accomplishing high quality chromatogram an appropriate way to purify the extracts is to eliminate the lipids, pigments, soluble proteins and high molecular carbohydrates in a two-phase system of methanol (chlorophorm)-water (6:5, 5:5) and to block the cations by 0.1 M EDTA. Two-directional ascending chromatography was applied on FN 4 paper rinsed with 0,01 M EDTA and 2 M CH 3 COOH and solvents: for the first direction - 98% ethamol 1 M ammonium acetate pH 7,5: 0,1 M EDTA (75/30 l) by repeated ascending and for the second direction - butanol (propyonic acid) water (10/5/7) by threefold rinsing. Twenty-four 14 C compounds were separated and identified, namely: sucrose diphosphates, uridine diphosphate-glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, phosphoglyceric acid, phosphoglycolic acid, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, dihydroacetone phosphate, aspartate glutamate, glycine, serine, alanine, citrate, malate, glycerate, glycolate, sorbitol, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and rafinose. For a full 14 C balance of the samples the radioactivity of starch, α-1,4-glucosyleglucans, lipids, pigments and residues was determined. (author)

  17. Early declarative memory predicts productive language: A longitudinal study of deferred imitation and communication at 9 and 16months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Annette; Nordqvist, Emelie; Koch, Felix-Sebastian; Heimann, Mikael

    2016-11-01

    Deferred imitation (DI) may be regarded as an early declarative-like memory ability shaping the infant's ability to learn about novelties and regularities of the surrounding world. In the current longitudinal study, infants were assessed at 9 and 16months. DI was assessed using five novel objects. Each infant's communicative development was measured by parental questionnaires. The results indicate stability in DI performance and early communicative development between 9 and 16months. The early achievers at 9months were still advanced at 16months. Results also identified a predictive relationship between the infant's gestural development at 9months and the infant's productive and receptive language at 16months. Moreover, the results show that declarative memory, measured with DI, and gestural communication at 9months independently predict productive language at 16months. These findings suggest a connection between the ability to form non-linguistic and linguistic mental representations. These results indicate that the child's DI ability when predominantly preverbal might be regarded as an early domain-general declarative memory ability underlying early productive language development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ERGONOMIC ASPECTS IN THE PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECTS: A TEXTILE PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION CENTER PROJECT CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lourenço da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The planning and execution phases of a distribution center project of a large textile industry was made, evaluating the ergonomic aspects related to the operations to be performed in the facility and staff anthropometric data. The ergonomic collaborative analysis of the tasks associated with the method of movement plotting, guided the planning of the picking, manual induction and order consolidation areas from the distribution center. Using this methodology, it was possible to obtain a proper ergonomically project planning and execution of the three studied areas.

  19. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I..., without recourse to the Government, for the settlement and satisfaction of all contractual and...

  20. CONCEPT OF IN-OIL PROJECT BASED ON BIOCONVERSION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Czekała

    2017-09-01

    The main assumption of the project is based on the introduction of by-products from the food processing industry to feeding with larvae of H. illucens. Biomass of insect larvae will then be processed into products that will be used for feed and energy purposes.

  1. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...] Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food... (OPD) grant program. The goal of FDA's OPD grant program is to support the clinical development of... product will be superior to the existing therapy. FDA provides grants for clinical studies on safety and...

  2. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orús, Román, E-mail: roman.orus@uni-mainz.de

    2014-10-15

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.

  3. Projecting hydropower production under future climates: a review of modelling challenges and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is a pillar for renewable electricity production in almost all world regions. The planning horizon of major hydropower infrastructure projects stretches over several decades and consideration of evolving climatic conditions plays an ever increasing role. This review of model-based climate change impact assessments provides a synthesis of the wealth of underlying modelling assumptions, highlights the importance of local factors and attempts to identify the most urgent open questions. Based on existing case studies, it critically discusses whether current hydro-climatic modelling frameworks are likely to provide narrow enough water scenario ranges to be included into economic analyses for end-to-end climate change impact assessments including electricity market models. This will be completed with an overview of not or indirectly climate-related boundary conditions, such as economic growth, legal constraints, national subsidy frameworks or growing competition for water, which might locally largely outweigh any climate change impacts.

  4. Women's independent access to productive resources: fish ponds in the Oxbow Lakes Project, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, D; Apu, N A

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the experiences of women in acquiring user rights to fish ponds on government owned lands in the Oxbow Lakes Project in Bangladesh. The analysis describes the significance, functioning, and problems of women in fish farming. The field reports were based on the authors' involvement in implementation of the extension of fishing rights to women during 6 weeks/year over 4 years. Analysis was based on observations and discussions during project implementation and on a survey conducted in March 1997. The project involved land reforms that transferred rights to a group of poor people. Most of the lakes had been overfished. The poor fishers were organized into Lake Fishing Teams (LFTs) with the right to culture and harvest fish in lakes that were under common property management. In late 1994, at least 50% of the women were included in the Fish Farming Groups (FFGs) to manage fish culture in ponds constructed in shallow areas of the lake shore. The proportion of women was increased to 75% in 1994-95 and favored women-headed households. By March 1997, there were 510 members of FFGs, of whom 84% were single, poor women. Women had low participation in fish sales and netting and guarding the harvest. Women in mixed gender groups complained that men dominated the key decision-making and financial areas. Production averaged 1500 kg/hectare in 1995-96. FFGs had higher expenses for feed and fertilizer than LFTs. This endeavor earned higher per capita income than poultry raising. All women groups performed better than mixed groups. These groups increased assertiveness and self-confidence.

  5. Circumpolar arctic tundra biomass and productivity dynamics in response to projected climate change and herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard; Engstrom, Ryan; Walker, Donald

    2017-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels. ArcVeg is driven by soil nitrogen output from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model, existing densities of Rangifer populations, and projected summer temperature changes by the NCAR CCSM4.0 general circulation model across the Arctic. We quantified the changes in aboveground biomass and NPP resulting from (i) observed herbivory only; (ii) projected climate change only; and (iii) coupled effects of projected climate change and herbivory. We evaluated model outputs of the absolute and relative differences in biomass and NPP by country, bioclimate subzone, and floristic province. Estimated potential biomass increases resulting from temperature increase only are approximately 5% greater than the biomass modeled due to coupled warming and herbivory. Such potential increases are greater in areas currently occupied by large or dense Rangifer herds such as the Nenets-occupied regions in Russia (27% greater vegetation increase without herbivores). In addition, herbivory modulates shifts in plant community structure caused by warming. Plant functional types such as shrubs and mosses were affected to a greater degree than other functional types by either warming or herbivory or coupled effects of the two. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fission product release during MCCI. CEC nuclear safety program: MCCI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenerino, G [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Cordfunke, E H.P. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hunterlaar, M E [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear reactors involving molten core-concrete interactions (MCCls) requires estimates of the quantities and physicochemical forms of the radioactive species released from the melt into the cavity atmosphere. Such estimates in turn require a detailed knowledge of the complex chemical interactions which would occur between the fission products, fuel and the components of the core structural materials and the concrete. In recent years, effort has been put into the thermodynamic characterization of these processes. The results of such studies are important for predicting several aspects of MCCls, including: 1. The release of species by vaporization; 2. the extent of concrete penetration: a. The melt solidus and liquidus temperatures, which in turn affect the heat transfer processes and hence tile predictions of the melt temperature and the onset of solidification, b. the amounts of the solid and liquid phases and the respective compositions, which determines the viscosity of the melt, and c. the composition of the crust formed following the addition of water to quench the interaction. d. the distribution of fission products among metallic and oxidic phases. This SOAR is devoted to thermochemical calculations in the context of MCCI where most fission products and the metallic components of the melt are transferred into an oxidic form sooner or later. Calculations on fission product release from a molten pool without MCCI are underway in the source term project of the CEC-RCA. The following conditions have to be taken into account in order to be able to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations. (orig./HP).

  7. Fission product release during MCCI. CEC nuclear safety program: MCCI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerino, G.; Hunterlaar, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear reactors involving molten core-concrete interactions (MCCls) requires estimates of the quantities and physicochemical forms of the radioactive species released from the melt into the cavity atmosphere. Such estimates in turn require a detailed knowledge of the complex chemical interactions which would occur between the fission products, fuel and the components of the core structural materials and the concrete. In recent years, effort has been put into the thermodynamic characterization of these processes. The results of such studies are important for predicting several aspects of MCCls, including: 1. The release of species by vaporization; 2. the extent of concrete penetration: a. The melt solidus and liquidus temperatures, which in turn affect the heat transfer processes and hence tile predictions of the melt temperature and the onset of solidification, b. the amounts of the solid and liquid phases and the respective compositions, which determines the viscosity of the melt, and c. the composition of the crust formed following the addition of water to quench the interaction. d. the distribution of fission products among metallic and oxidic phases. This SOAR is devoted to thermochemical calculations in the context of MCCI where most fission products and the metallic components of the melt are transferred into an oxidic form sooner or later. Calculations on fission product release from a molten pool without MCCI are underway in the source term project of the CEC-RCA. The following conditions have to be taken into account in order to be able to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations. (orig./HP)

  8. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  9. Milk production parameters in early lactiation: potential risk factors of cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate whether the incidence of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in dairy cows was related to milk production parameters (milk yield, milk fat and protein) in early lactation with special emphasis on the negative energy balance (NEB). The diagnosis of COD was made

  10. Discussion after implementation of possible ergonomics contributions in production lines automation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Canton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysis of the solution implemented, and the subsequent analysis of this design process. It was found that the adopted solution does not have enough leeway for dealing with variations inherent to the process, requiring constant interventions in the operation, by the operators in order to free the line to continue work. It was evident that the adopted solution did not involve the participation of important agents such as the operators and the maintenance crew, giving the project a technical vision that was concerned with eliminating the human factor. The conclusion of this study was that the Ergonomics integrated into the project development favors the collective construction of analysis of the research, and consequently, the development of more effective solutions.

  11. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  12. Power Production Analysis of the OE Buoy WEC for the CORES Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report describes the analysis performed on the OE Buoy for the CORES project by the wave energy group at Aalborg University, Denmark. OE Buoy is a type of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converter as part of the CORES project. This type of device is one of the most developed...... to extract energy from the ocean (1). Typically, a Wells turbine is used for the Power Take Off (PTO) for OWCs. The Wells turbine has the advantage that it is self-rectifying – with the ability to operate with either direction of airflow, which changes during each cycle of the wave. This type of turbine...... which a total of 39 hours of power production data was collected. A data acquisition system was used to sample the sensors on board and the generator shaft power time-series data was used in the analysis here. A wave-rider buoy, located at the site of OE Buoy and operated by the Marine Institute Ireland...

  13. The effects of climatic change on crop production. Results of a five-year research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T.; Carter, T.; Hakala, K.; Kaukoranta, T.; Laurila, H.; Niemi, K.; Saarikko, R.; Tiilikkala, K. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Hannukkala, A. [Agricultural Research Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland). Lapland Research Station

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research project, funded jointly by SILMU and by the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, was to evaluate the possible effects of changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth, development and yield of field crops and on crop pests and diseases in Finland. The study focused on two cereal crops (spring wheat and spring barley), a grass species (meadow fescue), some common pathogens of cereals and potato, insect pests of small fruits and nematode risk of potato and sugar beet. The results of this study indicate the following effects on crop production of the `best guess` climate change anticipated for Finland by 2050: A lengthening of the potential growing season of 3-5 weeks. A northward expansion of about 250-500 km in suitability for cereal production. Increased yields of adapted spring cereals. New, longer-season cultivars would benefit from both higher temperatures and elevated CO{sub 2}. Improved potential for the cultivation of higher-yielding winter sown cereals. Increased grass yields due to a lengthening growing season and increased growth rates, assuming that water and nutrient limitations are minor. However, there is a possibility of reduced winter hardening under higher autumn temperatures and an increased risk of winter damage. Potential for the successful cultivation of new crops like maize in southern Finland. Increased potential for yield losses due to crop pests and diseases under climatic warming. The range of many species is expected to expand northwards, additional generations of some species would develop successfully, and new species may become established in Finland. The research is continuing as part of a new European Community project, and will explore a wider range of crop types, focusing on the effects of climate change on agricultural risk at national scale

  14. The effects of climatic change on crop production. Results of a five-year research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T; Carter, T; Hakala, K; Kaukoranta, T; Laurila, H; Niemi, K; Saarikko, R; Tiilikkala, K [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Hannukkala, A [Agricultural Research Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland). Lapland Research Station

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this research project, funded jointly by SILMU and by the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, was to evaluate the possible effects of changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth, development and yield of field crops and on crop pests and diseases in Finland. The study focused on two cereal crops (spring wheat and spring barley), a grass species (meadow fescue), some common pathogens of cereals and potato, insect pests of small fruits and nematode risk of potato and sugar beet. The results of this study indicate the following effects on crop production of the `best guess` climate change anticipated for Finland by 2050: A lengthening of the potential growing season of 3-5 weeks. A northward expansion of about 250-500 km in suitability for cereal production. Increased yields of adapted spring cereals. New, longer-season cultivars would benefit from both higher temperatures and elevated CO{sub 2}. Improved potential for the cultivation of higher-yielding winter sown cereals. Increased grass yields due to a lengthening growing season and increased growth rates, assuming that water and nutrient limitations are minor. However, there is a possibility of reduced winter hardening under higher autumn temperatures and an increased risk of winter damage. Potential for the successful cultivation of new crops like maize in southern Finland. Increased potential for yield losses due to crop pests and diseases under climatic warming. The range of many species is expected to expand northwards, additional generations of some species would develop successfully, and new species may become established in Finland. The research is continuing as part of a new European Community project, and will explore a wider range of crop types, focusing on the effects of climate change on agricultural risk at national scale

  15. Research Paper: Production of A Protocol on Early Intervention for Speech and Language Delays in Early Childhood: An Novice Experience in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Vameghi

    2016-01-01

    Results The result of this study is presented as 7 intervention packages, including the following domains of disorders: prelingual lingual speech and language hearing impairment, speech sound, dysphagia, stuttering, and dysarthria  Conclusion Most studies have confirmed the effectiveness and need for early interventions for children with speech and language impairment. However, most do not explain the details of these interventions. Before the present study, no systematic and evidence-based protocol existed for early intervention in childhood speech and language impairments, in Iran; and due to language differences, as well as possible differences in the speech and language developmental process of children of different communities, making direct use of non-Persian references was not possible and effective. Thus, there was a clear demand for the production of such a protocol.

  16. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  17. Solar fuels production as a sustainable alternative for substituting fossil fuels: COSOLπ project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Romero-Paredes, R.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan José; Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo Alberto; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor Hugo; Villafán-Vidales, Heidi Isabel; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Abanades, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    This article presents, in summary form, the characteristics of COSOLπ development project and some of the results obtained to date. The benefits of the work of this project will include the generation of a not polluting transportable energy feedstock from a free, abundant and available primary energy source, in an efficient method with no greenhouse gas emission. This will help to ensure energy surety to a future transportation/energy infrastructure, without any fuel import. Further technological development of thermochemical production of clean fuels, together with solar reactors and also with the possibility of determining the optical and thermal properties of the materials involved a milestone in the search for new processes for industrialization. With the above in mind, important national academic institutions: UAM, UNAM, CINVESTAV, UACH, UNISON among others, have been promoting research in solar energy technologies. The Goals and objectives are to conduct research and technological development driving high-temperature thermochemical processes using concentrated solar radiation as thermal energy source for the future sustainable development of industrial processes. It focuses on the production of clean fuels such as H2, syngas, biofuels, without excluding the re-value of materials used in the industry. This project conducts theoretical and experimental studies for the identification, characterization, and optimization of the most promising thermochemical cycles, and for the thorough investigation of the reactive chemical systems. It applies material science and nano-engineering to improve chemicals properties and stability upon cycling. The characterization of materials will serve to measure the chemical composition and purity (MOX fraction-1) of each of the samples. The characterizations also focus on the solid particle morphology (shape, size, state of aggregation, homogeneity, specific surface) images obtained from SEM / TEM and BET measurements. Likewise

  18. Early Learning Visual Impairment Services Training and Advancement (EL VISTA) Project: Leading the Way for a New Profession within a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Vialard, Olaya; Ely, Mindy S.; Lartz, Maribeth Nelson

    2018-01-01

    The Frank Porter Graham (FPG) Child Development Institute, Early Intervention Training Center for Infants and Toddlers with Visual Impairments and Their Families, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, was a national project that developed resources with the goal of building the capacity of colleges and universities to prepare personnel to…

  19. "Someone Had to Have Faith in Them as Professionals": An Evaluation of an Action Research Project to Develop Educational Leadership across the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on an evaluation of three action research projects developed by a group of teachers working across the early years in three independent schools. The article examines the role of action research in developing educational leadership capabilities. Drawing on the educational leadership literature, concepts and ideas of action and…

  20. The early career researcher's toolkit:translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Wilson, Samantha L.; Patel, Asha K.; Barnes, Amanda L.; Adams, Christopher F.; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in...

  1. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...... IPDs with regard to longevity and adaptability. CONCLUSION The new type of service-focused IPD and the related life-cycle responsibility (development, building phase, maintenance and dismantling/adaption/recycling) creates incentive to integrate life cycle thinking into the development process of IPDs......, resulting in more sustainable building solutions with a greater extend of positive environmental, economical and social impacts. The research presented will also show the importance of adaption and configuration of these complex building components by architects and planners, as they will have a great...

  2. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  4. ARTIST: a cooperative safety project to study fission product retention in a ruptured steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentay, S.; Dehbi, A.; Suckow, D.; Birchley, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences such as a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) with stuck-open relief valve represent a significant public risk by virtue of the open path for release of radioactivity. The release may be lessened by deposition of fission products on the steam generator (SG) tubes and other structures or by scrubbing in the secondary coolant. The absence of empirical data, the complexity of the geometry and controlling processes, however, make the retention difficult to quantify and credit for it is typically not taken in risk assessments. The ARTIST experimental program to be conducted at Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland, will simulate the flow and retention of aerosol-borne fission products in the SG secondary, and thus provide a unique database to support safety assessments and analytical models. The project, foreseen in seven phases, will study phenomena at the separate effect and integral levels, and also address accident management (AM) issues. The prescribed values of the controlling parameters (aerosol size, aerosol type, gas flow velocity, residence time, etc) cover the range expected in severe and design basis accident scenarios. (authors)

  5. Ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting for early warning of floods and scheduling of hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvang Johansen, Stian; Steinsland, Ingelin; Engeland, Kolbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Running hydrological models with precipitation and temperature ensemble forcing to generate ensembles of streamflow is a commonly used method in operational hydrology. Evaluations of streamflow ensembles have however revealed that the ensembles are biased with respect to both mean and spread. Thus postprocessing of the ensembles is needed in order to improve the forecast skill. The aims of this study is (i) to to evaluate how postprocessing of streamflow ensembles works for Norwegian catchments within different hydrological regimes and to (ii) demonstrate how post processed streamflow ensembles are used operationally by a hydropower producer. These aims were achieved by postprocessing forecasted daily discharge for 10 lead-times for 20 catchments in Norway by using EPS forcing from ECMWF applied the semi-distributed HBV-model dividing each catchment into 10 elevation zones. Statkraft Energi uses forecasts from these catchments for scheduling hydropower production. The catchments represent different hydrological regimes. Some catchments have stable winter condition with winter low flow and a major flood event during spring or early summer caused by snow melting. Others has a more mixed snow-rain regime, often with a secondary flood season during autumn, and in the coastal areas, the stream flow is dominated by rain, and the main flood season is autumn and winter. For post processing, a Bayesian model averaging model (BMA) close to (Kleiber et al 2011) is used. The model creates a predictive PDF that is a weighted average of PDFs centered on the individual bias corrected forecasts. The weights are here equal since all ensemble members come from the same model, and thus have the same probability. For modeling streamflow, the gamma distribution is chosen as a predictive PDF. The bias correction parameters and the PDF parameters are estimated using a 30-day sliding window training period. Preliminary results show that the improvement varies between catchments depending

  6. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion mediates cardioprotection via increased nitric oxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T Gonon

    Full Text Available Consumption of L-arginine contributes to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO that is critical for the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to determine myocardial arginase expression and activity in ischemic-reperfusion myocardium and whether local inhibition of arginase within the ischemic myocardium results in increased NO production and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Anesthetized pigs were subjected to coronary artery occlusion for 40 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. The pigs were randomized to intracoronary infusion of vehicle (n = 7, the arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA, 2 mg/min, n = 7, the combination of nor-NOHA and the NO synthase inhibitor N(G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 0.35 mg/min, n = 6 into the jeopardized myocardial area or systemic intravenous infusion of nor-NOHA (2 mg/min, n = 5 at the end of ischemia and start of reperfusion. The infarct size of the vehicle group was 80 ± 4% of the area at risk. Intracoronary nor-NOHA reduced infarct size to 46 ± 5% (P<0.01. Co-administration of L-NMMA abrogated the cardioprotective effect mediated by nor-NOHA (infarct size 72 ± 6%. Intravenous nor-NOHA did not reduce infarct size. Arginase I and II were expressed in cardiomyocytes, endothelial, smooth muscle and poylmorphonuclear cells. There was no difference in cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression between ischemic-reperfused and non-ischemic myocardium. Arginase activity increased 2-fold in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium in comparison with non-ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion increases arginase activity without affecting cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion reduces infarct size via a mechanism that is dependent on increased bioavailability of NO.

  7. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  8. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  9. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  10. Armorican arrowhead biographies: Production and function of an Early Bronze Age prestige good from Brittany (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brittany can pride itself on the Armorican arrowheads found in Early Bronze Age graves (2150-1700 BC. In the present state of knowledge, these are the only specialized craft products in knapped flint produced in this region at the western edge of continental Europe. Admired since the 19th century, these flint arrowheads have never really been studied. Due to the wealth of graves and grave-goods, a relatively precise study can be undertaken of the development of these craft products, despite the low number of reliable radiocarbon dates.These arrowheads are characterized by a well-defined type (pointed tang and oblique barbs most often combined with ogival form. Raw materials show the selection of a high quality yellow translucent flint, of which the origin has to be sought at more than 400 kilometers (Lower Turonian flint from Cher Valley. From a technical point of view, Armorican arrowheads reveal a great mastery of retouch by pressure-flaking. This skill is written in stone by the perfection of forms, the extreme thinness (until 2,5 mm thick and very long barbs (until 25 mm long. Such work could not have been done without the use of copper, even bronze, awls. Moreover, some marks may testify to the implication of these tools. On 549 arrowheads that have reached to us, none of them presents diagnostical impact features. However, use-wear analysis indicates that most of them were hafted (adhesive traces, bright spots, blunt edges. These facts suggest that they are less functional arrowheads than objects for the show. In the graves, Armorican arrowheads are frequently set down carefully in wooden boxes taking the shaft off.The Armorican arrowheads with their exotic raw materials, their high-degree of technicality, and their absence of use, have all features of a prestige good. They have been discovered by dozens in few graves under barrows with very rich funeral items (bronze daggers decorated with golden pins, precious bracers, silver beakers

  11. New process modeling[sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice

  12. Stake holder involvement in the Canadian review process for uranium production projects in Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Canadian environmental review process for uranium production projects as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. While the Canadian review process potentially applies to any development, this case study focuses on the assessment of the uranium projects of northern Saskatchewan conducted during the 1990's. It describes the environmental assessment (EA) conducted in the 1990's for six new uranium facilities (including mines and mills and related tailings disposal sites) planned in northern Saskatchewan. Both the Canadian federal and the Saskatchewan provincial government have extensive environmental review processes that must under law be complete before any major industrial development judged to have potential environmental impacts is undertaken within their respective territories. However, even in those instances where no clear potential environmental impacts are evident, Canadian law mandates 'if public concern about the proposal is such that a public review is desirable, the initiating department shall refer the proposal to the Minister for review by a Panel'. (Wh95) As a stakeholder under law, in both Canada and Saskatchewan, the public plays an important role in the environmental review process. To encourage participation and assist the public in its review the two governments may provide funding (as done in this review) to assist qualified individuals or groups to participant in the review process. The first section of this case study sets the scene. It describes the Saskatchewan uranium mining story, focusing on how the importance of the public stakeholder evolved to become a major component, under law, in the EA process for new uranium mines. This increase in stakeholder involvement opportunities coincided with heightened public concern for the socio-economic impacts of the projects. In the late 1980's both governments were advised by

  13. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project: A Continuous Cored Non-Marine Record of Early Mesozoic Environmental and Biotic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmis, Randall; Olsen, Paul; Geissman, John; Gehrels, George; Kent, Dennis; Mundil, Roland; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Giesler, Dominique; Schaller, Morgan; Kürschner, Wolfram; Parker, William; Buhedma, Hesham

    2017-04-01

    The early Mesozoic is a critical time in earth history that saw the origin of modern ecosystems set against the back-drop of mass extinction and sudden climate events in a greenhouse world. Non-marine sedimentary strata in western North America preserve a rich archive of low latitude terrestrial ecosystem and environmental change during this time. Unfortunately, frequent lateral facies changes, discontinuous outcrops, and a lack of robust geochronologic constraints make lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic correlation difficult, and thus prevent full integration of these paleoenvironmental and paleontologic data into a regional and global context. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) seeks to remedy this situation by recovering a continuous cored record of early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks from the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. CPCP Phase 1 was initiated in 2013, with NSF- and ICDP-funded drilling of Triassic units in Petrified Forest National Park, northern Arizona, U.S.A. This phase recovered a 520 m core (1A) from the northern part of the park, and a 240 m core (2B) from the southern end of the park, comprising the entire Lower-Middle Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and most of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Since the conclusion of drilling, the cores have been CT scanned at the University of Texas - Austin, and split, imaged, and scanned (e.g., XRF, gamma, and magnetic susceptibility) at the University of Minnesota LacCore facility. Subsequently, at the Rutgers University Core Repository, core 1A was comprehensively sampled for paleomagnetism, zircon geochronology, petrography, palynology, and soil carbonate stable isotopes. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses are largely complete, and CA-TIMS U-Pb zircon, paleomagnetic, petrographic, and stable isotope analyses are on-going. Initial results reveal numerous horizons with a high proportion of Late Triassic-aged primary volcanic zircons, the age of which appears to be a close

  14. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  15. New Tobacco and Tobacco-Related Products: Early Detection of Product Development, Marketing Strategies, and Consumer Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Yvonne Cm; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Havermans, Anne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-05-28

    A wide variety of new tobacco and tobacco-related products have emerged on the market in recent years. To understand their potential implications for public health and to guide tobacco control efforts, we have used an infoveillance approach to identify new tobacco and tobacco-related products. Our search for tobacco(-related) products consists of several tailored search profiles using combinations of keywords such as "e-cigarette" and "new" to extract information from almost 9000 preselected sources such as websites of online shops, tobacco manufacturers, and news sites. Developments in e-cigarette design characteristics show a trend toward customization by possibilities to adjust temperature and airflow, and by the large variety of flavors of e-liquids. Additionally, more e-cigarettes are equipped with personalized accessories, such as mobile phones, applications, and Bluetooth. Waterpipe products follow the trend toward electronic vaping. Various heat-not-burn products were reintroduced to the market. Our search for tobacco(-related) products was specific and timely, though advances in product development require ongoing optimization of the search strategy. Our results show a trend toward products resembling tobacco cigarettes vaporizers that can be adapted to the consumers' needs. Our search for tobacco(-related) products could aid in the assessment of the likelihood of new products to gain market share, as a possible health risk or as an indicator for the need on independent and reliable information of the product to the general public. ©Yvonne CM Staal, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Anne Havermans, Reinskje Talhout. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 28.05.2018.

  16. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  17. The early days of computer aided newspaper productions sys­tems

    OpenAIRE

    Enlund, Nils; Andersin, Hans

    2007-01-01

    During the years 1970-1973, an ambitious research project, the Computer Graphics Project (CGP), was carried out at the laboratory of Information Processing Science at the Helsinki University of Technology. The initial objective of the project was to develop application oriented system solutions for the emerging computer graphics technology, but the activities were soon focused on the problems of producing newspaper text, advertisement, and complete pages using interactive computer graphics. T...

  18. Joint Industry-Funded R and D Projects in Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerillot, D.; Eschard, R.; Malla, M.; Van Buchem, F.; Baghbani, D.; Granjeon, D.; Wolf, S.; Callot, J.P.; Jardin, A.; Kirkwood, D.; Rodriguez, S.; Abadi, A.; Roure, F.; Ghandriche, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Moretti, I.; Le Melinaire, P.; Vizika, O.; Bekri, S.; Zinszner, B.; Lucet, N.; Rasologosaon, P.; Duquet, B.; Tonellot, T.; Nivlet, P.; Le Ravalec, M.; Bennis, C.; Barroux, C.; Hu, L.Y.; Doligez, B.; Vidal-Gilbert, S.; Zabalza-Mezghani, I.; Caillabet, Y.; Sarda, S.; Ricois, O.; Mouchel, R.; Behar, E.; Nabzar, L.; Zaitoun, A.; Audibert-Hayet, A.; Sauvant, V.; Chauchot, P.; Ropital, F.; Sinquin, A.; Decarre, S.; Larsen, R.; Biolley, F.; Brucy, F.; Charron, Y.; Averbuch, D.; Perrin, G.; Falcimaigne, J.; Roux, P.; Paen, D.; Broutin, P.; Renard, G.; Egermann, P.; Lombard, J.M.; Le Thiez, P.; Fries, G.

    2005-07-01

    IFP, the French Institute of Petroleum, spends more than 40% of its R and D budget on Exploration and Production. Part of this program is open to participation in the form of Joint Industry-Funded Projects (JIPs). This gives companies an opportunity to take part in the latest advances in research sponsoring the projects with others. They can steer their programs according to their needs and evaluate the practical contribution of these new technologies improving exploration and production. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2005 JIP seminar. Content: Opening Address; Session 1: Exploration and Petroleum System Evaluation: Berkine Gas with Sonatrach: an Evaluation of the Gas Potential of the Berkine Basin (Algeria), MEC with National Iran Oil Company: Middle East Cretaceous Sequence Stratigraphy Study, Dionisos: 3D Multi-lithological Stratigraphic Modeling for Basin and Reservoir, Scopes: Southern Cordillera Petroleum System Appraisal, Gaspe with Laval University (Quebec): Integrated Geophysical and Geological Study of the Gaspe Fold and Thrust Belt (Canada), Deep Sirt with the Petroleum Research Center (Libya): Deep Seismic Investigation in the Sirt Basin, Tell-offshore with Sonatrach: Petroleum Re-appraisal of North Algeria, Gong: Isotope Geochemistry of Natural Gases, Industrial JIP: Kine 3D Industrial with Earth Decision System: Putting Structural Geology Back into Structure Modeling; - Session 2: Petro-physics and Reservoir Characterization: PNM Car: Pore Scale Network Modeling for Carbonate Rocks, Pacs: Petro-acoustics of Carbonate Rocks for 4D Seismic Feasibility Studies, Safe: Seismic Analysis of Fracture Networks, Borneo 4D: 4D Time Lapse Seismic Modeling, Presti: Pre-stack Stratigraphic Inversion, Paris: Pseudo-Wells Applied to Reservoir Oriented Interpretation of Seismic Data, Muscat: Multi-scale Reservoir Description on Flexible Grids with Up-scaling and Down-scaling Techniques; - Session 3, Reservoir Engineering

  19. Soil nutrient budgets following projected corn stover harvest for biofuel production in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food and biofuel feedstocks may substantially affect soil nutrient budgets, especially in the United States where there is great potential for corn (Zea mays L) stover as a biofuel feedstock. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of projected stover harvest scenarios on budgets of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) currently and in the future across the conterminous United States. The required and removed N, P, and K amounts under each scenario were estimated on the basis of both their average contents in grain and stover and from an empirical model. Our analyses indicate a small depletion of soil N (−4 ± 35 kg ha−1) and K (−6 ± 36 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (37 ± 21 kg ha−1) currently on the national average, but with a noticeable variation from state to state. After harvesting both grain and projected stover, the deficits of soil N, P, and K were estimated at 114–127, 26–27, and 36–53 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2006–2010; 131–173, 29–32, and 41–96 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2020; and 161–207, 35–39, and 51–111 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2050. This study indicates that the harvestable stover amount derived from the minimum stover requirement for maintaining soil organic carbon level scenarios under current fertilization rates can be sustainable for soil nutrient supply and corn production at present, but the deficit of P and K at the national scale would become larger in the future.

  20. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  1. Early Improvement in Work Productivity Predicts Future Clinical Course in Depressed Outpatients: Findings from the CO-MED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manish K.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L.; Carmody, Thomas; Rush, A. John; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Depression symptom severity, the most commonly studied outcome in antidepressant treatment trials, accounts for only a small portion of burden related to major depression. While lost work productivity is the biggest contributor to depression’s economic burden, few studies have systematically evaluated the independent effect of treatment on work productivity and the relationship between changes in work productivity and longer-term clinical course. Method Work productivity was measured repeatedly by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) self-report in 331 employed participants with major depression enrolled in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial. Trajectories of change in work productivity during the first 6 weeks of treatment were identified and used to predict remission at 3 and 7 months. Results Participants reported reduced absence from work and increased work productivity with antidepressant treatment even after controlling for changes in depression severity. Three distinct trajectories of changes in work productivity were identified: 1) robust early improvement (24%), 2) minimal change (49%), and 3) high-impairment slight reduction (27%). As compared to other participants, those with robust improvement had 3–5 times higher remission rates at 3 months and 2–5 times higher remission rates at 7 months, even after controlling for select baseline variables and remission status at week 6. Conclusions In this secondary analysis, self-reported work productivity improved in depressed patients with antidepressant treatment even after accounting for depressive symptom reduction. Early improvement in work productivity is associated with much higher remission rates after 3 and 7 months of treatment. PMID:27523501

  2. Project Minerva: A low-cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Adam P.; Anderson, Hobie; Caviezel, Kelly; Daggert, Todd; Folkers, Mike; Fornia, Mark; Hamling, Steven; Johnson, Bryan; Kalberer, Martin; Machula, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Project Minerva is a low-cost manned Mars mission designed to deliver a crew of four to the Martian surface, using only two sets of two launches. Key concepts which make this mission realizable are the use of near-term technologies and in-situ propellant production, following the senario originally proposed by R. Zubrin of Martin Marietta. The first set of launches delivers two unmanned payloads into low earth orbit (LEO): one consists of an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), a propellant production plant, and a set of robotic vehicles, and the second consists of the upper stage/trans-Mars injection (TMI) booster. In LEO, the two payloads are joined and inserted into a Mars transfer orbit. The landing on Mars is performed with the aid of multiple aerobraking maneuvers. On the Martian surface, the propellant production plant uses a Sabatier/electrolysis-type process to combine six tons of hydrogen brought from earth with carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce 100 tons of liquid oxygen and methane, which are later used as the propellants for the rover expeditions and the manned return journey of the ERV. Once the in-situ propellant production is completed, approximately two years after the first set of launches, the manned portion of the mission leaves earth. This set of two launches is similar to that of the unmanned vehicles; the two payloads are the Manned Transfer Vehicle (MTV) and the upper stage/TMI booster. The MTV contains the manned rover and the habitat which houses the astronauts enroute to Mars and on the Martian surface. During the 180-day trip to Mars, artificial gravity is created by tethering the MTV to the TMI booster and inducing rotation. Upon arrival the MTV performs aerobraking maneuvers to land near the fully-fueled ERV, which will be used by the crew a year and a half later to return to earth. The mission entails moderate travel times with relatively low-energy conjunction-class trajectories and allows ample time for scientific

  3. Forms and Factors of Animal Products Marketing in the early post-Meiji Years

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Seishi

    1982-01-01

    As far as the period after the Meiji era is concerned, at its begining marketing of animal products was formed in conlpliance with the properties of products as a public commodity and the amount of investment needed. The former factor depends basically on the divisibility and the preservation possibilities of the products. The latter is the capital needed for marketing and production. 1) Eggs are the most divisible and preservable of all the animal products. Also, hens can be kept with sm...

  4. Dorsal-to-Ventral Shift in Midbrain Dopaminergic Projections and Increased Thalamic/Raphe Serotonergic Function in Early Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Seppänen, Marko; Noponen, Tommi; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2015-07-01

    Loss of nigrostriatal neurons leading to dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum is the pathologic hallmark of Parkinson disease contributing to the primary motor symptoms of the disease. However, Parkinson pathology is more widespread in the brain, affecting also other dopaminergic pathways and neurotransmitter systems, but these changes are less well characterized. This study aimed to investigate the mesencephalic striatal and extrastriatal dopaminergic projections together with extrastriatal serotonin transporter binding in Parkinson disease. Two hundred sixteen patients with Parkinson disease and 204 control patients (patients without neurodegenerative parkinsonism syndromes and normal SPECT imaging) were investigated with SPECT using the dopamine/serotonin transporter ligand (123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) in the clinical setting. The group differences and midbrain correlations were analyzed voxel by voxel over the entire brain. We found that Parkinson patients had lower (123)I-FP-CIT uptake in the striatum and ventral midbrain but higher uptake in the thalamus and raphe nuclei than control patients. In patients with Parkinson disease, the correlation of the midbrain tracer uptake was shifted from the putamen to widespread corticolimbic areas. All findings were highly significant at the voxel level familywise error-corrected P value of less than 0.05. Our findings show that Parkinson disease is associated not only with the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission, but also with a parallel shift toward mesolimbic and mesocortical function. Furthermore, Parkinson disease patients seem to have upregulation of brain serotonin transporter function at the early phase of the disease. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. Synchronizing early Eocene deep-sea and continental records - cyclostratigraphic age models for the Bighorn Basin Coring Project drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Wilkens, Roy H.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Clyde, William C.; Wing, Scott L.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Kraus, Mary J.

    2018-03-01

    A consistent chronostratigraphic framework is required to understand the effect of major paleoclimate perturbations on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Transient global warming events in the early Eocene, at 56-54 Ma, show the impact of large-scale carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system. Here we provide the first timescale synchronization of continental and marine deposits spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the interval just prior to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2). Cyclic variations in geochemical data come from continental drill cores of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP, Wyoming, USA) and from marine deep-sea drilling deposits retrieved by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Both are dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession cycles used to construct a common cyclostratigraphic framework. Integration of age models results in a revised astrochronology for the PETM in deep-sea records that is now generally consistent with independent 3He age models. The duration of the PETM is estimated at ˜ 200 kyr for the carbon isotope excursion and ˜ 120 kyr for the associated pelagic clay layer. A common terrestrial and marine age model shows a concurrent major change in marine and terrestrial biota ˜ 200 kyr before ETM-2. In the Bighorn Basin, the change is referred to as Biohorizon B and represents a period of significant mammalian turnover and immigration, separating the upper Haplomylus-Ectocion Range Zone from the Bunophorus Interval Zone and approximating the Wa-4-Wa-5 land mammal zone boundary. In sediments from ODP Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge), major changes in the biota at this time are documented by the radiation of a second generation of apical spine-bearing sphenolith species (e.g., S. radians and S. editus), the emergence of T. orthostylus, and the marked decline of D. multiradiatus.

  6. Early educator-supervised student rocketry: The galcit rocket research project, 1936-1939. A tribute to Frank J. Malina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George S.; Winter, Frank H.

    Dr. Frank J. Malina, (1912-1981) is best known to members of the International Astronautical Federation and the International Academy of Astronautics for his deep commitment to, and active involvement in, both organizations; to his associates at UNESCO for his leadership in organizing the UNESCO Division of Scientific Research; to members of the art world for his kinetic paintings and editorship of the journal Leonardo; and to aerospace historians for his co-founding, with Dr. Theodore von Karman (1881-1963), of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with its World War II development of rocket takeoff assist units for aircraft and, after WWII, America's first production sounding rocket, the WAC Corporal. However, Frank Malina has received little recognition from aerospace educators for his equally pioneering efforts on their behalf. This paper highlights Dr. Malina's efforts not only as an early participant in educator-supported student rocketry but also in helping establishing some of the guiding principles of this field of science motivation. As Dr. Malina noted in 1968, upon becoming one of the founding members of the Supervision of Youth Research Experiments (SYRE) subcommittee of the IAF's Education Committee, the fundamental safety and educational ground rules of: (A) qualified supervision, (B) proper safety facilities, and (C) professionally designed equipment, conceived almost fifty years ago, are equally valid to today's supervised youth rocketry space-related experiment educational programs.

  7. Disease activity decrease is associated with improvement in work productivity over 1 year in early axial spondyloarthritis (SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Fongen, Camilla; Landewé, Robert; Ramonda, Roberta; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Gaalen, Floris A

    2017-12-01

    To assess if a change in disease activity is associated with a change in work productivity loss (WPL) over 1 year in early axial SpA (axSpA) patients. Baseline and 1 year data of axSpA patients in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early cohort were analysed. Linear regression models were built explaining the change in the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) over time by the change in absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment over time. Effect modification and confounding were tested for age, gender, arm of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria, HLA-B27, duration of chronic back pain, profession and medication. At baseline, in 105 axSpA patients (48% female, mean age 30.8 years, mean symptom duration 13.6 months, 92% HLA-B27 positive, 24% radiographic sacroiliitis), the mean ASDAS was 2.4 (s.d. 1.0), absenteeism 9% (s.d. 23), presenteeism 33% (s.d. 28), WPL 36% (s.d. 30) and activity impairment 37% (s.d. 25). After 1 year, the mean ASDAS decreased to 2.0 (s.d. 0.8) and absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved to 6% (s.d. 22), 26% (s.d. 26), 27% (s.d. 29) and 27% (s.d. 26), respectively. Models showed that if ASDAS decreased 1 unit, absenteeism, presenteeism, WPL and activity impairment improved by 5, 17, 16 and 18%, respectively. The impact of disease activity on work productivity was higher in patients with shorter symptom duration and the impact on absenteeism was higher in patients starting pharmacological treatment. In early axSpA patients, work productivity and daily activities are seriously impacted at baseline and 1 year. However, decreasing disease activity is associated with marked improvements in work productivity and daily activities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Worksheet of Exogenous Variables that Impact the Success of Validation Stage of Product Delivery of a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino José Mentzingen de Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery.In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery.In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery. The importance of both Stages is crucial to

  9. Modeling of seasonal water balance for crop production in Bangladesh with implications for future projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R. Karim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Expecting the projected regional or global climate change, weather could have a significant effect on soil moisture and thereby affecting the plant growth. Water deficiency is considered as one of the major climatic restraints for crop production in Bangladesh, especially in the dry season. To better understand the crop responses to moisture variation, a quantitative analysis is done for major water balance components named, potential evapotranspiration (PET, actual evapotranspiration (AET, soil moisture storage (ST, water deficiency (WD and water surplus (WS with the use of Thornthwaite monthly water balance program. Analyses were carried out for three different seasons, together with interannual variability for 12 major rice growing districts of Bangladesh representing the north, central, southern and coastal zones. Hindcasted monthly average surface air temperature and precipitation data were collected from Bangladesh meteorological department during 1986 to 2006. Results suggested, trend of PET was same in every station and generally higher values were observed in the month of July and August. Khulna, the coastal station had the highest annual average PET of 1369 mm. The lowest annual AET of 1108 mm was estimated for Teknaf, while Dinajpur stood in second lowest position. ST was found almost at field capacity from July to September and, the southern station Chittagong experienced the highest average monthly ST. Maximum WD was found in Bogra and second highest shortage was in Dinajpur. The assessment of average WD of 178 mm yr-1 in northern Bangladesh reflected the worst situation among all regions, besides focusing the winter as the most crucial season regarding the water scarcity. Least amount of WS was noticed for the southern station Khulna. Significant positive relationship (p<0.05 between soil moisture and current rice yields proved the importance of surplus water conservation for the drought prone zone of Bangladesh. To boost up the

  10. Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Products and the Environmental Implication in Road Construction : Project Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-26

    This is the third annual report for Project #043352. Project #043352 is designed to establish the leaching characteristics for several different types of ash using a relatively rigorous leaching procedure developed by Kosson et al (2002) for a wide r...

  11. Designing a lessons learned model to improve the success of new product development in project oriented organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, project-based organizations need to utilize intellectual capital and knowledge to become leader in their business activities. The new approach to use knowledge based skills from one side and development of the new complicated products from the other side have increased the need for designing a lessons learned model. The purpose of this paper is to design a lessons learned model to improve the success of new product development for project oriented organizations. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 56 experts who were well informed about various techniques of new product development and lessons learned. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey were well above the desirable level. The results of the survey have indicated that there were positive and meaningful relationships between lessons learned components and the success of the new product development.

  12. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  13. Large-Scale Urban Projects, Production of Space and Neo-liberal Hegemony: A Comparative Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet PENPECİOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of neo-liberalism, large-scale urban projects (LDPs have become a powerful mechanism of urban policy. Creating spaces of neo-liberal urbanization such as central business districts, tourism centers, gated residences and shopping malls, LDPs play a role not only in the reproduction of capital accumulation relations but also in the shift of urban political priorities towards the construction of neo-liberal hegemony. The construction of neo-liberal hegemony and the role played by LDPs in this process could not only be investigated by the analysis of capital accumulation. For such an investigation; the role of state and civil society actors in LDPs, their collaborative and conflictual relationships should be researched and their functions in hegemony should be revealed. In the case of Izmir’s two LDPs, namely the New City Center (NCC and Inciraltı Tourism Center (ITC projects, this study analyzes the relationship between the production of space and neo-liberal hegemony. In the NCC project, local governments, investors, local capital organizations and professional chambers collaborated and disseminated hegemonic discourse, which provided social support for the project. Through these relationships and discourses, the NCC project has become a hegemonic project for producing space and constructed neo-liberal hegemony over urban political priorities. In contrast to the NCC project, the ITC project saw no collaboration between state and organized civil society actors. The social opposition against the ITC project, initiated by professional chambers, has brought legal action against the ITC development plans in order to prevent their implementation. As a result, the ITC project did not acquire the consent of organized social groups and failed to become a hegemonic project for producing space.

  14. U.S. financing for international independent power production projects: Legal and business issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, J.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental changes are occurring in the capital and project development markets both domestically and internationally. In the United States, the capital market has undergone dramatic changes recently, characterized by clubbed debt structures, uncertain pricing spreads, and declining leverage ratios. In response, project sponsors and their investment bankers have created innovative debt and equity structures to attract investors while at the same time minimizing project risk and preserving the flexibility for the project to operate optimally. The structure of a project financing, either U.S. or international, will vary depending on (1) the differing project management/control concerns, financial goals and risk profiles of the developer, equipment and fuel suppliers, bank lenders and equity sources, (2) regulatory issues, such as compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) in the U.S. and similar national utility legislation in the host foreign country, and (3) the tax implications of a given structure to the project owner, lender, and equity supplier. In response to these investor-specific goals and/or constraints, various forms of project structures have been developed. The focus of this paper is on legal and business issues which arise in international project finance, using U.S.project finance as a model that expresses the risk profile that U.S. financial institutions are accustomed to and overlaying the unique risks that are added to project financing which are international in nature

  15. Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to the Municipality of Montreal-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, G.; Joly, R.; Guay, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explored the environmental impacts associated with Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to its refinery in the east-end of Montreal. The project plan is based on a 6 year horizon from 2006-2012. The additional reservoirs would store new products destined for the petrochemical industry and for consumers, thus improving the flexibility and reliability of the refinery. The products would include low sulfur diesel and ethanol gasoline. The project does not involve any increase in refining capacity, and is estimated to cost $15 million. The main issues associated with this project are ambient air quality, the protection of groundwater and soil, as well as the security of areas inhabited by neighbouring areas in risk of a major accident. Emissions of organic compounds, including benzene, are considered minimal considering the use of sealed floating roofs. Geomembranes will be installed under the storage tanks to ensure the protection of groundwater and soil. Any consequences to the population of neighbouring areas resulting from accidents inside the industrial park will be limited since the reservoirs will be located more than 1 km away from a populated area. Quebec's Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks recommended that this project be approved as long as the terms and measures of environmental regulations are respected, and that an emergency plan is submitted before the operation of the first reservoir. 1 tab

  16. Empirical study of ill-supported activities in variation risk identification and assessment in early stage product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Kristian; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ebro, Martin

    2017-01-01

    medical device company by interviewing six key employees that work in the variation risk identification and assessment process. It is found that there are several ill-supported activities, and that the project teams rely heavily on tolerance experts’ assistance and experience in order to identify...... and assess the variation risk. Ill-supported activities are found to be: Balancing hardness of requirements and the screening; communicating mechanism understanding; predicting user input and internal component movement; documenting and communicating tolerance analysis; implementing robustness in the early...

  17. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  18. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  19. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...] Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food... per year. B. Research Objectives The goal of FDA's OPD grant program is to support the clinical... (OPD) grant program. The goal of FDA's OPD grant program is to support the clinical development of...

  20. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0394] Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  1. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Barbour; Roger D. Fight; Glenn A. Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber products under two treatment scenarios for the state of Montana. We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily...

  2. Improving Students' Argumentation Skills through a Product Life-Cycle Analysis Project in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, M. K.; Aksela, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study discussed in this paper was to link existing research about the argumentation skills of students to the teaching of life-cycle analysis (LCA) in order to promote an evidence-based approach to the teaching of and learning about materials used in consumer products. This case-study is part of a larger design research project that…

  3. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Brigham, Christopher [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lu, Jingnan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Quimby, John Westlake [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Gai, Claudia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Speth, Daan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Elliott, Sean [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Fei, John Qiang [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Bernardi, Amanda [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, Sophia [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grunwald, Stephan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grousseau, Estelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maiti, Soumen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Liu, Chole [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2013-12-16

    into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and ace

  4. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peletier, Reynier; Boselli, Alessandro; Lisker, Thorsten; Emsellem, Eric; Simon, Joshua D.; van de Ven, Glenn; Smakced Collaboration, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo cluster. This is the largest survey conducted so far on spatially resolved kinematics of dEs. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the absolute magnitude range -19.0

  5. The ATLAS3D project - X. On the origin of the molecular and ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Alatalo, Katherine; Sarzi, Marc; Bureau, Martin; Young, Lisa M.; Blitz, Leo; Serra, Paolo; Crocker, Alison F.; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    We make use of interferometric CO and H I observations, and optical integral-field spectroscopy from the ATLAS3D survey, to probe the origin of the molecular and ionized interstellar medium (ISM) in local early-type galaxies. We find that 36 ± 5 per cent of our sample of fast-rotating early-type

  6. The ATLAS3D project : X. On the origin of the molecular and ionized gas in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Alatalo, Katherine; Sarzi, Marc; Bureau, Martin; Young, Lisa M.; Blitz, Leo; Serra, Paolo; Crocker, Alison F.; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    We make use of interferometric CO and H i observations, and optical integral-field spectroscopy from the ATLAS3D survey, to probe the origin of the molecular and ionized interstellar medium (ISM) in local early-type galaxies. We find that 36 +/- 5 per cent of our sample of fast-rotating early-type

  7. Aortic superoxide production at the early hyperglycemic stage in a rat type 2 diabetes model and the effects of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Chigusa; Kajikuri, Junko; Hori, Eisei; Nagami, Chie; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Kimura, Kazunori; Itoh, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelium-derived superoxide induces vascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which leads to vascular superoxide production in type 2 diabetes, in addition to the effects of pravastatin. We studied these mechanisms in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (type 2 diabetes model) at the early hyperglycemic stage (vs. non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] rats). Superoxide production and catalase activity were measured in aortas, as were the protein expressions of PKCδ and phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS. Superoxide production was increased in OLETF rats, and this increase was inhibited by the selective conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976 and by the non-selective cPKC and novel PKC inhibitor GF109203X. Phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS was significantly increased in OLETF rats, whereas the protein expressions of PKCδ and phosopho-Thr(505) PKCδ and catalase activity were all greatly reduced. Pravastatin administration to OLETF rats in vivo had normalizing effects on all of these variables. The increment in superoxide production seen in OLETF rats (but not the production in pravastatin-treated OLETF rats) was abolished by high concentration of N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (electron transport inhibitor of eNOS), by sepiapterin (precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin), and by LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-kinase] inhibitor). In OLETF rats at the early hyperglycemic stage, aortic superoxide production is increased owing to activation of uncoupled eNOS through phosphorylation by PI3-kinase/Akt. This may be related to the observed reduction in PKCδ/catalase activities. Pravastatin inhibited endothelial superoxide production via normalization of PKCδ/catalase activities.

  8. A Study of Olmec Serpentinite: exchange, production, distribution, and consumption during the Early and Middle Formative period in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Jaime-Riverón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents recent results of our analysis of the operative sequence of production and consumption of Olmec greenstone artefacts. It documents the multi-disciplinary approach taken to the kinds of manufacturing techniques used by the Olmecs, the quarries where they extracted raw materials, and the contexts in which they sometimes buried their tools. This project uses implement petrography, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS, neutron activation analysis (NAA, and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE.

  9. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  10. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  11. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    -2013 UNECE data series for sawnwood and wood-based panels production taking into account for each year the percentage of anomaly. However, from 1976 to 1982, the anomalies are much reduced (-1% in average, which allow using the UNECE data series from 1964 to 1975. We estimated the average share of each HWP over the last ten years: 48% for sawnwood and 38% for wood-based panels. The 14% of other HWP are not considered in the analysis, either because they are short-lived products or marginal or difficult to estimate. A projection of HWP has been done until 2020 based on 2 alternative scenarios based on OGM strategy documents: intensive harvesting and extensive harvesting. For each scenario, intensive vs extensive, we disaggregated the 2013-2020 volume of industrial roundwood into the two HWPs, using the calculated percentages. The results of our analysis revealed that the HWP pool can add 3.14 Gg CO2 eq yr-1 additional removal to LULUCF sector in the GHG inventory of Turkey for 2013 compared to 1990. The amount of contribution is estimated to rise up to 13.70 Mt CO2 eq yr-1, and 10.99 Mt CO2 eq yr-1 for intensive and extensive scenarios that are developed based on OGM strategic plans in 2020.

  12. Projections for the Production of Bulk Volume Bio-Based Polymers in Europe and Environmental Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.; Crank, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the most important emerging groups of bio-based polymers for bulk volume applications and we discuss market projections for these types of bio-based polymers in the EU, thereby distinguishing between three scenarios. Bio-based polymers are projected to reach a

  13. Projected Climate Impacts to South African Maize and Wheat Production in 2055: A Comparison of Empirical and Mechanistic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon D.; Beukes, Hein; Bradley, Bethany A.; Debats, Stephanie R.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ruane, Alex C.; Schulze, Roland; Tadross, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Crop model-specific biases are a key uncertainty affecting our understanding of climate change impacts to agriculture. There is increasing research focus on intermodel variation, but comparisons between mechanistic (MMs) and empirical models (EMs) are rare despite both being used widely in this field. We combined MMs and EMs to project future (2055) changes in the potential distribution (suitability) and productivity of maize and spring wheat in South Africa under 18 downscaled climate scenarios (9 models run under 2 emissions scenarios). EMs projected larger yield losses or smaller gains than MMs. The EMs' median-projected maize and wheat yield changes were 3.6% and 6.2%, respectively, compared to 6.5% and 15.2% for the MM. The EM projected a 10% reduction in the potential maize growing area, where the MM projected a 9% gain. Both models showed increases in the potential spring wheat production region (EM = 48%, MM = 20%), but these results were more equivocal because both models (particularly the EM) substantially overestimated the extent of current suitability. The substantial water-use efficiency gains simulated by the MMs under elevated CO2 accounted for much of the EMMM difference, but EMs may have more accurately represented crop temperature sensitivities. Our results align with earlier studies showing that EMs may show larger climate change losses than MMs. Crop forecasting efforts should expand to include EMMM comparisons to provide a fuller picture of crop-climate response uncertainties.

  14. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  15. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SEU blending project, concept to commercial operation, Part 3: production of powder for demonstration irradiation fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, M.S.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Oliver, A.J.; Ozberk, E.

    2005-01-01

    The processes for production of Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) dioxide powder and Blended Dysprosium and Uranium (BDU) oxide powder that were developed at laboratory scale at Cameco Technology Development (CTD), were implemented and further optimized to supply to Zircatec Precision Industries (ZPI) the quantities required for manufacturing twenty six Low Void Reactivity (LVRF) CANFLEX fuel bundles. The production of this new fuel was a challenge for CTD and involved significant amount of work to prepare and review documentation, develop and approve new analytical procedures, and go through numerous internal reviews and audits by Bruce Power, CNSC and third parties independent consultants that verified the process and product quality. The audits were conducted by Quality Assurance specialists as well as by Human Factor Engineering experts with the objective to systematically address the role of human errors in the manufacturing of New Fuel and confirm whether or not a credible basis had been established for preventing human errors. The project team successfully passed through these audits. The project management structure that was established during the SEU and BDU blending process development, which included a cross-functional project team from several departments within Cameco, maintained its functionality when Cameco Technology Development was producing the powder for manufacturing Demonstration Irradiation fuel bundles. Special emphasis was placed on the consistency of operating steps and product quality certification, independent quality surveillance, materials segregation protocol, enhanced safety requirements, and accurate uranium accountability. (author)

  17. Implementation of a change management solution based on a product lifecycle management system for a large international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luehr, Anneke

    2011-08-01

    This Thesis describes the implementation of a Change Management solution based on a Product Lifecycle Management System (PLM System) for a large international project. The objective of Change Management is to ensure a systematic line of action for approving and implementing changes in the project. The Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY is one of the world's leading accelerator centres with locations in Hamburg and Zeuthen. Currently, DESY participates in the realization of the international research facility European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) at the Hamburg site. DESY was responsible for the planning of the XFEL. When the project entered the construction phase it was internationalized and now comprises project groups in 12 countries. Thus the requirements on Change Management have changed, as participants from several labs at many different locations are now involved. First the project scope is described and then a target process for the Change Management solution is developed by a requirement analysis. Afterwards the technical implementation of this process in DESY's PLM System is described and the Change Management solution is tested. The process is visualized using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Finally a description is given of how to transfer the solution to the project

  18. Risk Management Capability Maturity and Performance of Complex Product and System (CoPS Projects with an Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex Products and Systems (CoPS are high value, technology and engineering-intensive capital goods. The motivation of this study is the persistent high failure rate of CoPS projects, Asian CoPS provider’s weak capability and lack of specific research on CoPS risk management. This paper evaluates risk management maturity level of CoPS projects against a general CoPS risk management capability maturity model (RM-CMM developed by the authors. An Asian based survey was conducted to investigate the value of RM to project performance, and Asian (non-Japanese CoPS implementers’ perceived application of RM practices, their strengths and weaknesses. The survey result shows that higher RM maturity level leads to higher CoPS project performance. It also shows project complexity and uncertainty moderates the relationship between some RM practices and project performance, which implies that a contingency approach should be adopted to manage CoPS risks effectively. In addition, it shows that Asian CoPS implementers are weak in RM process and there are also rooms for improvement in the softer aspects of organizational capabilities and robustness.

  19. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  20. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.