WorldWideScience

Sample records for project collects precipitation

  1. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  2. Projections of precipitation, air temperature and potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mabouelhaggag

    Precipitation and air temperature records from 6 sites in Rwanda in the period from 1964 to 2010 are used for past/present climate assessment. Future climate projections (2010-2099) based on 3 general circulation models and 2 emission scenarios (A2 and B1) are used for climate projections. Precipitation, air temperature ...

  3. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of [le] 10 [mu]m dia.

  4. Probability Distribution and Projected Trends of Daily Precipitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Li-Ge; ZHONG; Jun; SU; Bu-Da; ZHAI; Jian-Qing; Macro; GEMMER

    2013-01-01

    Based on observed daily precipitation data of 540 stations and 3,839 gridded data from the high-resolution regional climate model COSMO-Climate Limited-area Modeling(CCLM)for 1961–2000,the simulation ability of CCLM on daily precipitation in China is examined,and the variation of daily precipitation distribution pattern is revealed.By applying the probability distribution and extreme value theory to the projected daily precipitation(2011–2050)under SRES A1B scenario with CCLM,trends of daily precipitation series and daily precipitation extremes are analyzed.Results show that except for the western Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and South China,distribution patterns of the kurtosis and skewness calculated from the simulated and observed series are consistent with each other;their spatial correlation coefcients are above 0.75.The CCLM can well capture the distribution characteristics of daily precipitation over China.It is projected that in some parts of the Jianghuai region,central-eastern Northeast China and Inner Mongolia,the kurtosis and skewness will increase significantly,and precipitation extremes will increase during 2011–2050.The projected increase of maximum daily rainfall and longest non-precipitation period during flood season in the aforementioned regions,also show increasing trends of droughts and floods in the next 40 years.

  5. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  6. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Pentad, Version 2.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 2.2 Pentad product covers the period January 1979 to the present,...

  7. Collection of low resistivity fly ash in an electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jędrusik, M; Świerczok, A; Jaworek, A

    2013-01-01

    Due to increasing restrictions on dust emission limits (IED directive), particularly in the fine particle size range, wider application of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in cleaning the combustion gases from stoker boilers can be anticipated. The objective of the model studies in this paper was to select the optimal construction of the discharge electrode in ESP for obtaining high collection efficiency of fly ash leaving stoker boilers. In these studies a test bench was constructed, which comprised one-stage model ESPs with a set of discharge and collecting electrodes. The main dimensions of the precipitator chamber were as follows: length of electric field 2.0 m; active height 0.45 m and spacing between the collecting electrodes 0.4 m. Four constructions of discharge electrode were tested for fly ash of different fractional sizes and chemical compositions. The aim of the tests was to determine the current-voltage characteristics and the discharge current distribution on the collection electrode so as to find out the optimal construction and ensure the maximal collection efficiency of ESP. The results of the collection efficiency measurements in these tests were compared with those obtained from an ordinary industrial ESP. The comparison shows that it is necessary to optimise the discharge electrode construction for a specific physico-chemical property of fly ash so as to obtain the highest collection efficiency.

  8. Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, Ivan; Prochaska, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the way and results of human reliability data analysis collected as a part of the Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project (BSDCP), which was performed by VUJE Trnava, Inc. with funding support from the U.S. DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration. The goal of the project was to create a methodology for simulator data collection and analysis to support activities in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and human reliability assessment for Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant consisting of two sets of twin units: two VVER 440/V-230 (V1) and two VVER 440/V-213 (V2) reactors. During the project training of V-2 control room crews was performed at VUJE-Trnava simulator. The simulator training and the data collection were done in parallel. The main goal of BSDCP was to collect suitable data of human errors under simulated conditions requiring the use of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SBEOPs). The subjects of the data collection were scenario progress time data, operator errors, and real-time technological parameters. The paper contains three main parts. The first part presents preparatory work and semi-automatic computer-based methods used to collect data and to check technological parameters in order to find hidden errors of operators, to be able to retrace the course of each scenario for purposes of further analysis, and to document the whole training process. The first part gives also an overview of collected data scope, human error taxonomy, and state classifications for SBEOP instructions coding. The second part describes analytical work undertaken to describe time distribution necessary for execution of various kinds of instructions performed by operators according to the classification for coding of SBEOP instructions. It also presents the methods used for determination of probability distribution for different operator errors. Results from the data evaluation are presented in the last part of the paper. An overview of

  9. Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.; Prochaska, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the way and results of human reliability data analysis collected as a part of the Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project (BSDCP), which was performed by VUJE Trnava, Inc. with funding support from the U.S. DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration. The goal of the project was to create a methodology for simulator data collection and analysis to support activities in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and human reliability assessment for Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant consisting of two sets of twin units: two VVER 440/V-230 (V1) and two VVER 440/V-213 (V2) reactors. During the project, training of V-2 control room crews was performed at VUJE Trnava simulator. The simulator training and the data collection were done in parallel. The main goal of BSDCP was to collect suitable data of human errors under simulated conditions requiring the use of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SBEOPs). The subjects of the data collection were scenario progress time data, operator errors, and real-time technological parameters. The paper contains three main parts. The first part presents preparatory work and semi-automatic computer-based methods used to collect data and to check technological parameters in order to find hidden errors of operators, to be able to retrace the course of each scenario for purposes of further analysis, and to document the whole training process. The first part gives also an overview of collected data scope, human error taxonomy, and state classifications for SBEOP instructions coding. The second part describes analytical work undertaken to describe time distribution necessary for execution of various kinds of instructions performed by operators according to the classification for coding of SBEOP instructions. It also presents the methods used for determination of probability distribution for various operator errors. Results from the data evaluation are presented in the last part of the paper. An overview of

  10. Impact of internal variability on projections of Sahel precipitation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Pohl, Benjamin; Robson, Jon; Dong, Buwen

    2017-11-01

    The impact of the increase of greenhouse gases on Sahelian precipitation is very uncertain in both its spatial pattern and magnitude. In particular, the relative importance of internal variability versus external forcings depends on the time horizon considered in the climate projection. In this study we address the respective roles of the internal climate variability versus external forcings on Sahelian precipitation by using the data from the CESM Large Ensemble Project, which consists of a 40 member ensemble performed with the CESM1-CAM5 coupled model for the period 1920-2100. We show that CESM1-CAM5 is able to simulate the mean and interannual variability of Sahel precipitation, and is representative of a CMIP5 ensemble of simulations (i.e. it simulates the same pattern of precipitation change along with equivalent magnitude and seasonal cycle changes as the CMIP5 ensemble mean). However, CESM1-CAM5 underestimates the long-term decadal variability in Sahel precipitation. For short-term (2010-2049) and mid-term (2030-2069) projections the simulated internal variability component is able to obscure the projected impact of the external forcing. For long-term (2060-2099) projections external forcing induced change becomes stronger than simulated internal variability. Precipitation changes are found to be more robust over the central Sahel than over the western Sahel, where climate change effects struggle to emerge. Ten (thirty) members are needed to separate the 10 year averaged forced response from climate internal variability response in the western Sahel for a long-term (short-term) horizon. Over the central Sahel two members (ten members) are needed for a long-term (short-term) horizon.

  11. The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Xie, Ping-Ping; Janowiak, John; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version 2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5 degrees x 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit-satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The merging approach utilizes the higher accuracy of the low-orbit microwave observations to calibrate, or adjust, the more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations. The data set is extended back into the premicrowave era (before 1987) by using infrared-only observations calibrated to the microwave-based analysis of the later years. The combined satellite-based product is adjusted by the raingauge analysis. This monthly analysis is the foundation for the GPCP suite of products including those at finer temporal resolution, satellite estimate, and error estimates for each field. The 23-year GPCP climatology is characterized, along with time and space variations of precipitation.

  12. The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection houses an invaluable collection of ancient papyrus manuscripts. At its center are the remains of the Tebtunis temple library, a unique archaeological discovery that represents the only large-scale institional library preserved from ancient Egypt. The papyri, which...... papyri known to date. It preserves a broad range of texts, including detailed manuals on the performance of various rituals, religious compendia and treatises, scientific texts concerned with divination and medicine, and narrative literature. The texts shed detailed light on the operation of a temple...

  13. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Climate Data Record (CDR), Version 2.3 (Monthly)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) consists of monthly satellite-gauge and associated precipitation error estimates and covers the period January...

  14. Comparison of TRMM and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Precipitation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric; Curtis, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) (launched in November 1997) information as the key calibration tool in a merged analysis on a 1 x 1' latitude/longitude monthly scale based on multiple satellite sources and raingauge analyses. The TRMM-based product is compared with the community-based Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) results. The long-term GPCP analysis is compared to the new TRMM-based analysis which uses the most accurate TRMM information to calibrate the estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges those estimates together with the TRMM and gauge information to produce accurate rainfall estimates with the increased sampling provided by the combined satellite information. The comparison with TRMM results on a month-to-month basis should clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the long-term GPCP product in the tropics and point to how to improve the monitoring analysis. Preliminary results from the TRMM merged satellite analysis indicates fairly close agreement with the GPCP estimates. The GPCP analysis is done at 2.5 degree latitude/longitude resolution and interpolated to a 1 degree grid for comparison with the TRMM analysis. As expected the same features are evident in both panels, but there are subtle differences in the magnitudes. Focusing on the Pacific Ocean Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) one can see the TRMM-based estimates having higher peak values and lower values in the ITCZ periphery. These attributes also show up in the statistics, where GPCP>TRMM at low values (below 10 mm/d) and TRMM>GPCP at high values (greater than 15 mm/d). The area in the Indian Ocean which shows consistently higher values of TRMM over GPCP needs to be examined carefully to determine if the lack of geosynchronous data has led to a difference in the two analyses. By the time of the meeting over a year of TRMM products will be available for

  15. High-resolution projections of mean and extreme precipitations over China through PRECIS under RCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinxin; Huang, Gordon; Wang, Xiuquan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui

    2018-06-01

    The impact of global warming on the characteristics of mean and extreme precipitations over China is investigated by using the Providing REgional Climate Impacts for Studies (PRECIS) model. The PRECIS model was driven by the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2 with Earth System components and coupling (HadGEM2-ES). The results of both models are analyzed in terms of mean precipitation and indices of precipitation extremes (R95p, R99p, SDII, WDF, and CWD) over China at the resolution of 25 km under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios for the baseline period (1976-2005) and two future periods (2036-2065 and 2070-2099). With improved resolution, the PRECIS model is able to better represent the fine-scale physical process than HadGEM2-ES. It can provide reliable spatial patterns of precipitation and its related extremes with high correlations to observations. Moreover, there is a notable improvement in temporal patterns simulation through the PRECIS model. The PRECIS model better reproduces the regional annual cycle and frequencies of daily precipitation intensity than its driving GCM. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, both the HadGEM2-ES and the precis project increasing annual precipitation over the entire country for two future periods. Precipitation increase in winter is greater than the increase in summer. The results suggest that increased radiative forcing from RCP4.5 to RCP8.5 would further intensify the magnitude of projected precipitation changes by both PRECIS and HadGEM2-ES. For example, some parts of south China with decreased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect even less precipitation under RCP8.5; regions (northwest, northcentral and northeast China) with increased precipitation under RCP4.5 would expect more precipitation under RCP8.5. Apart from the projected increase in annual total precipitation, the results also suggest that there will be an increase in the days with precipitation higher than

  16. Practical experience with a data collection project: the OREDA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtorv, Helge A.; Hokstad, Per; Thompson, David W.

    1996-01-01

    Experience data on the reliability of equipment has become vital to many types of engineering and maintenance analyses. The consequences of incorrect design or poor maintenance may adversely affect: safety, the environment or cost in most categories of process industries, and, in particular, offshore exploration and production industries. The OREDA project is a data collection programme for the offshore industry which has been operating since the early 80's. A high level of knowledge has been gained from this programme on: specification of data, data collection methods and the utilization of data. Some of the results and the knowledge gained from this project are presented in this paper

  17. Evaluation of CMIP5 models for projection of future precipitation change in Bornean tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mubasher; Yusof, Khamaruzaman Wan; Mustafa, Muhammad Raza Ul; Mahmood, Rashid; Jia, Shaofeng

    2017-10-01

    We present the climate change impact on the annual and seasonal precipitation over Rajang River Basin (RRB) in Sarawak by employing a set of models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Based on the capability to simulate the historical precipitation, we selected the three most suitable GCMs (i.e. ACCESS1.0, ACCESS1.3, and GFDL-ESM2M) and their mean ensemble (B3MMM) was used to project the future precipitation over the RRB. Historical (1976-2005) and future (2011-2100) precipitation ensembles of B3MMM were used to perturb the stochastically generated future precipitation over 25 rainfall stations in the river basin. The B3MMM exhibited a significant increase in precipitation during 2080s, up to 12 and 8% increase in annual precipitation over upper and lower RRB, respectively, under RCP8.5, and up to 7% increase in annual precipitation under RCP4.5. On the seasonal scale, Mann-Kendal trend test estimated statistically significant positive trend in the future precipitation during all seasons; except September to November when we only noted significant positive trend for the lower RRB under RCP4.5. Overall, at the end of the twenty-first century, an increase in annual precipitation is noteworthy in the whole RRB, with 7 and 10% increase in annual precipitation under the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, respectively.

  18. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  19. Projection operator method for collective tunneling transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohmura, Toshitake; Ohta, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Yukio; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Collective tunneling transitions take place in the case that a system has two nearly degenerate ground states with a slight energy splitting, which provides the time scale of the tunneling. The Liouville equation determines the evolution of the density matrix, while the Schroedinger equation determines that of a state. The Liouville equation seems to be more powerful for calculating accurately the energy splitting of two nearly degenerate eigenstates. However, no method to exactly solve the Liouville eigenvalue equation has been established. The usual projection operator method for the Liouville equation is not feasible. We analytically solve the Liouville evolution equation for nuclear collective tunneling from one Hartree minimum to another, proposing a simple and solvable model Hamiltonian for the transition. We derive an analytical expression for the splitting of energy eigenvalues from a spectral function of the Liouville evolution using a half-projected operator method. A full-order analytical expression for the energy splitting is obtained. We define the collective tunneling path of a microscopic Hamiltonian for collective tunneling, projecting the nuclear ground states onto n-particle n-hole state spaces. It is argued that the collective tunneling path sector of a microscopic Hamiltonian can be transformed into the present solvable model Hamiltonian. (author)

  20. Analysis of dual polarization images of precipitating clouds collected by the COSMO SkyMed constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Luca; Roberto, Nicoletta; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Fritz, Jason; Chandrasekar, V.

    2014-07-01

    Currently, several satellite missions are employing X-band synthetic aperture radars (SAR) with polarimetric capabilities. In images collected over land by X-band SAR, precipitation results mainly in evident attenuation of the surface returns. Effects of precipitation in polarimetric SAR images and how to exploit them for precipitation studies are emerging topics of interest. This paper investigates polarimetric signatures of precipitation in images collected by the X-band SARs of the Italian Space Agency COSMO SkyMed constellation using the HH-VV alternate polarimetric mode. Analyzed images were collected in 2010 when the constellation was composed of three satellites and operated in the “tandem like” interferometric configuration, which allowed acquisition of the same scene with the same viewing geometry and a minimum decorrelation time of one day. Observations collected in Piedmont (Italy) and Tampa Bay (Florida, US) have been analyzed along with coincident observations collected by operational weather radars, used to reconstruct the component of SAR returns due to precipitation at horizontal and vertical polarization states. Different techniques are used depending on the different characteristics of terrestrial radars. SAR observations reconstructed from terrestrial measurements are in fairly good agreement with actual SAR observations. Results confirm that the attenuation signature in SAR images collected over land is particularly pronounced in the presence of precipitation cells and can be related to the radar reflectivity integrated along the same path. The difference between copolar HH and VV power measurements reveals a differential attenuation due to anisotropy of precipitation, whose range is limited when the SAR incidence angle is low. A specific feature observed in the CosmoSkyMed alternate polarization implementation is the presence of the scalloping effect, a periodic effect along the azimuth direction that cannot always be removed by standard de

  1. Projection of extreme precipitation in the context of climate change ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, maximum 1-day precipitation and simple daily intensity to do ... The study area spans far and wide. It reaches .... design flood, and it is also an important purpose to study the ..... bridge University Press, Cambridge. Jinshan Zhang, Xingju ...

  2. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change

  3. Changes in precipitation extremes projected by a 20-km mesh global atmospheric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kitoh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution modeling is necessary to project weather and climate extremes and their future changes under global warming. A global high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model with grid size about 20 km is able to reproduce climate fields as well as regional-scale phenomena such as monsoonal rainfall, tropical and extratropical cyclones, and heavy precipitation. This 20-km mesh model is applied to project future changes in weather and climate extremes at the end of the 21st century with four different spatial patterns in sea surface temperature (SST changes: one with the mean SST changes by the 28 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP-8.5 scenario, and the other three obtained from a cluster analysis, in which tropical SST anomalies derived from the 28 CMIP5 models were grouped. Here we focus on future changes in regional precipitation and its extremes. Various precipitation indices averaged over the Twenty-two regional land domains are calculated. Heavy precipitation indices (maximum 5-day precipitation total and maximum 1-day precipitation total increase in all regional domains, even where mean precipitation decrease (Southern Africa, South Europe/Mediterranean, Central America. South Asia is the domain of the largest extreme precipitation increase. In some domains, different SST patterns result in large precipitation changes, possibly related to changes in large-scale circulations in the tropical Pacific.

  4. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz

    2016-04-01

    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  5. Floridian heatwaves and extreme precipitation: future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Ajay; Dai, Aiguo; Milrad, Shawn M.; Cloutier-Bisbee, Shealynn R.

    2018-02-01

    Observational analysis and climate modeling efforts concur that the frequency, intensity, and duration of heatwaves will increase as the Earth's mean climate shifts towards warmer temperatures. While the impacts and mechanisms of heatwaves have been well explored, extreme temperatures over Florida are generally understudied. This paper sheds light on Floridian heatwaves by exploring 13 years of daily data from surface observations and high-resolution WRF climate simulations for the same timeframe. The characteristics of the current and future heatwaves under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario for 2070-2099 were then investigated. Results show a tripling in the frequency, and greater than a sixfold increase in the mean duration of heatwaves over Florida when the current standard of heatwaves was used. The intensity of heatwaves also increased by 4-6 °C due to the combined effects of rising mean temperatures and a 1-2 °C increase attributed to the flattening of the temperature distribution. Since Florida's atmospheric boundary layer is rich in moisture and heatwaves could further increase the moisture content in the lower troposphere, the relationship between heatwaves and extreme precipitation was also explored in both the current and future climate. As expected, rainfall during a heatwave event was anomalously low, but it quickly recovered to normal within 3 days after the passage of a heatwave. Finally, the late 21st-century climate could witness a slight decrease in the mean precipitation over Florida, accompanied by heavier heatwave-associated extreme precipitation events over central and southern Florida.

  6. Projected Response of Low-Level Convergence and Associated Precipitation to Greenhouse Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Jakob, Christian; Reeder, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The parameterization of convection in climate models is a large source of uncertainty in projecting future precipitation changes. Here an objective method to identify organized low-level convergence lines has been used to better understand how atmospheric convection is organized and projected to change, as low-level convergence plays an important role in the processes leading to precipitation. The frequency and strength of convergence lines over both ocean and land in current climate simulations is too low compared to reanalysis data. Projections show a further reduction in the frequency and strength of convergence lines over the midlatitudes. In the tropics, the largest changes in frequency are generally associated with shifts in major low-latitude convergence zones, consistent with changes in the precipitation. Further, examining convergence lines when in the presence or absence of precipitation results in large spatial contrasts, providing a better understanding of regional changes in terms of thermodynamic and dynamic effects.

  7. Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections Analyzed with Climate Signal Maps: Seasonal and Extreme Precipitation for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Pfeifer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate signal maps can be used to identify regions where robust climate changes can be derived from an ensemble of climate change simulations. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Climate signal maps do not show all information available from the model ensemble, but give a condensed view in order to be useful for non-climate scientists who have to assess climate change impact during the course of their work. Three different ensembles of regional climate projections have been analyzed regarding changes of seasonal mean and extreme precipitation (defined as the number of days exceeding the 95th percentile threshold of daily precipitation for Germany, using climate signal maps. Although the models used and the scenario assumptions differ for the three ensembles (representative concentration pathway (RCP 4.5 vs. RCP8.5 vs. A1B, some similarities in the projections of future seasonal and extreme precipitation can be seen. For the winter season, both mean and extreme precipitation are projected to increase. The strength, robustness and regional pattern of this increase, however, depends on the ensemble. For summer, a robust decrease of mean precipitation can be detected only for small regions in southwestern Germany and only from two of the three ensembles, whereas none of them projects a robust increase of summer extreme precipitation.

  8. Projected Changes in the Annual Cycle of Precipitation over Central Asia by CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Future changes in the annual cycle of the precipitation in central Asia (CA) were estimated based on the historical and Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) experiments from 25 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) observations, the historical (1979-1999) experiments showed that most models can capture the migration of rainfall centers, but remarkable discrepancies exist in the location and intensity of rainfall centers between simulations and observations. Considering the skill scores of precipitation and pattern correlations of circulations, which are closely related to the precipitation for each month, for the 25 models, the four best models (e.g., CanESM2, CMCC-CMS, MIROC5 and MPI-ESM-LR) with relatively good performance were selected. The four models' ensemble mean indicated that the migration and location of the precipitation centers were better reproduced, except the intensity of the centers was overestimated, compared with the result that only considered precipitation. Based on the four best models' ensemble mean under RCP8.5 scenarios, precipitation was projected to increase dramatically over most of the CA region in the boreal cold seasons (November, December, January, February, March, April and May) with the maximum in December in the end of twenty-first century (2079-2099), and several positive centers were located in the Pamirs Plateau and the Tianshan Mountains. By contrast, the precipitation changes were weak in the boreal warm seasons (June, July, August, September and October), with a wet center located in the northern Himalayas. Furthermore, there remain some uncertainties in the projected precipitation regions and periods obtained by comparing models' ensemble results of this paper and the results of previous studies. These uncertainties should be investigated in future work.

  9. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  10. Precipitation extremes in the Iberian Peninsula: an overview of the CLIPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Gonçalves, Paulo M.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rocha, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of the project "Climate change of precipitation extreme episodes in the Iberian Peninsula and its forcing mechanisms - CLIPE" are 1) to diagnose the climate change signal in the precipitation extremes over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and 2) to identify the underlying physical mechanisms. For the first purpose, a multi-model ensemble of 25 Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations, from the ENSEMBLES project, is used. These experiments were generated by 15 RCMs, driven by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) under both historic conditions (1951-2000) and SRES A1B scenario (2001-2100). In this project, daily precipitation and mean sea level pressure, for the periods 1961-1990 (recent past) and 2021-2100 (future), are used. Using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) on a daily basis, a precipitation extreme is defined by the pair of threshold values (Dmin, Imin), where Dmin is the minimum number of consecutive days with daily SPI above the Imin value. For both past and future climates, a precipitation extreme of a specific type is then characterised by two variables: the number of episodes with a specific duration in days and the number of episodes with a specific mean intensity (SPI/duration). Climate change is also assessed by changes in their Probability Density Functions (PDFs), estimated at sectors representative of different precipitation regimes. Lastly, for the second objective of this project, links between precipitation and Circulation Weather Regimes (CWRs) are explored for both past and future climates. Acknowledgments: this work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project CLIPE (PTDC/AAC-CLI/111733/2009).

  11. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.

    2015-01-01

    Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models......), three are bias correction (BC) methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from 15 regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for 11 catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation...... that at least 30% and up to approximately half of the total variance is derived from the SDMs. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need for considering an ensemble of both SDMs and climate models. Recommendations are provided...

  12. "Intelligent Ensemble" Projections of Precipitation and Surface Radiation in Support of Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.; Baker, Noel C.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's climate is changing and will continue to change into the foreseeable future. Expected changes in the climatological distribution of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation will significantly impact agriculture. Adaptation strategies are, therefore, required to reduce the agricultural impacts of climate change. Climate change projections of precipitation, surface temperature, and surface solar radiation distributions are necessary input for adaption planning studies. These projections are conventionally constructed from an ensemble of climate model simulations (e.g., the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)) as an equal weighted average, one model one vote. Each climate model, however, represents the array of climate-relevant physical processes with varying degrees of fidelity influencing the projection of individual climate variables differently. Presented here is a new approach, termed the "Intelligent Ensemble, that constructs climate variable projections by weighting each model according to its ability to represent key physical processes, e.g., precipitation probability distribution. This approach provides added value over the equal weighted average method. Physical process metrics applied in the "Intelligent Ensemble" method are created using a combination of NASA and NOAA satellite and surface-based cloud, radiation, temperature, and precipitation data sets. The "Intelligent Ensemble" method is applied to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 anthropogenic climate forcing simulations within the CMIP5 archive to develop a set of climate change scenarios for precipitation, temperature, and surface solar radiation in each USDA Farm Resource Region for use in climate change adaptation studies.

  13. Projected changes in precipitation intensity and frequency over complex topography: a multi-model perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Keller, Denise; Liniger, Mark; Rajczak, Jan; Schär, Christoph; Appenzeller, Christof

    2014-05-01

    Fundamental changes in the hydrological cycle are expected in a future warmer climate. This is of particular relevance for the Alpine region, as a source and reservoir of several major rivers in Europe and being prone to extreme events such as floodings. For this region, climate change assessments based on the ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) project a significant decrease in summer mean precipitation under the A1B emission scenario by the mid-to-end of this century, while winter mean precipitation is expected to slightly rise. From an impact perspective, projected changes in seasonal means, however, are often insufficient to adequately address the multifaceted challenges of climate change adaptation. In this study, we revisit the full matrix of the ENSEMBLES RCM projections regarding changes in frequency and intensity, precipitation-type (convective versus stratiform) and temporal structure (wet/dry spells and transition probabilities) over Switzerland and surroundings. As proxies for raintype changes, we rely on the model parameterized convective and large-scale precipitation components. Part of the analysis involves a Bayesian multi-model combination algorithm to infer changes from the multi-model ensemble. The analysis suggests a summer drying that evolves altitude-specific: over low-land regions it is associated with wet-day frequency decreases of convective and large-scale precipitation, while over elevated regions it is primarily associated with a decline in large-scale precipitation only. As a consequence, almost all the models project an increase in the convective fraction at elevated Alpine altitudes. The decrease in the number of wet days during summer is accompanied by decreases (increases) in multi-day wet (dry) spells. This shift in multi-day episodes also lowers the likelihood of short dry spell occurrence in all of the models. For spring and autumn the combined multi-model projections indicate higher mean precipitation intensity north of the

  14. Education & Collection Facility GSHP Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joplin, Jeff [Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-03-28

    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) designed and implemented an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling its new Education and Collection Facility (ECF) building addition. The project goal was to successfully design and install an open-loop GSHP system that utilized water circulating within an underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water system as the heat sink/source as a demonstration project. The expected results were to significantly reduce traditional GSHP installation costs while increasing system efficiency, reduce building energy consumption, require significantly less area and capital to install, and be economically implemented wherever access to a recycled water system is available. The project added to the understanding of GSHP technology by implementing the first GSHP system in the United States utilizing a municipal recycled water system as a heat sink/source. The use of this fluid through a GSHP system has not been previously documented. This use application presents a new opportunity for local municipalities to develop and expand the use of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems. The installation costs for this type of technology in the building structure would be a cost savings over traditional GSHP costs, provided the local municipal infrastructure was developed. Additionally, the GSHP system functions as a viable method of heat sink/source as the thermal characteristics of the fluid are generally consistent throughout the year and are efficiently exchanged through the GSHP system and its components. The use of the recycled water system reduces the area required for bore or loop fields; therefore, presenting an application for building structures that have little to no available land use or access. This GSHP application demonstrates the viability of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems as technically achievable, environmentally supportive, and an efficient

  15. Studies of some phenomena in control engineering projects - With application to precipitation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoele-Hansen, Kjell

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the life-cycle of a control engineering project and some phenomena encountered in such projects. Different types of control strategies are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them into categories. Some case projects are presented and forms the basis for discussing the individual`s role in a change project. Further conditions for successful implementation of new control strategies are discussed in general, but also conditions for successful implementation of new control strategies at a process section of a nickel work. Procedures for implementing new control strategies are treated and some remarks are made about operation of control strategies. An introduction is given to the modelling of precipitation in pH systems and different model formulations are discused. The modelling of pH controlled precipitations is discussed in general. A variety of dynamic models, ranging from complex to simple, are proposed and discussed. A rigorous dynamic nonlinear mechanistic model of a precipitation reactor is developed. It is based on the theory of reaction invariants and variants. The model is verified against real process data. The dynamics and characteristics of the precipitation reactor are analysed and some remarks are made with respect to controllability. A new strategy for pH control is proposed. A new model based strategy for controlling the precipitation reactions is also proposed. 93 refs., 63 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Projections of Future Precipitation Extremes Over Europe: A Multimodel Assessment of Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczak, Jan; Schär, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    Projections of precipitation and its extremes over the European continent are analyzed in an extensive multimodel ensemble of 12 and 50 km resolution EURO-CORDEX Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced by RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) aerosol and greenhouse gas emission scenarios. A systematic intercomparison with ENSEMBLES RCMs is carried out, such that in total information is provided for an unprecedentedly large data set of 100 RCM simulations. An evaluation finds very reasonable skill for the EURO-CORDEX models in simulating temporal and geographical variations of (mean and heavy) precipitation at both horizontal resolutions. Heavy and extreme precipitation events are projected to intensify across most of Europe throughout the whole year. All considered models agree on a distinct intensification of extremes by often more than +20% in winter and fall and over central and northern Europe. A reduction of rainy days and mean precipitation in summer is simulated by a large majority of models in the Mediterranean area, but intermodel spread between the simulations is large. In central Europe and France during summer, models project decreases in precipitation but more intense heavy and extreme rainfalls. Comparison to previous RCM projections from ENSEMBLES reveals consistency but slight differences in summer, where reductions in southern European precipitation are not as pronounced as previously projected. The projected changes of the European hydrological cycle may have substantial impact on environmental and anthropogenic systems. In particular, the simulations indicate a rising probability of summertime drought in southern Europe and more frequent and intense heavy rainfall across all of Europe.

  17. Future Projections of Precipitation Characteristics in East Asia Simulated by the MRI CGCM2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio KITOH; Masahiro HOSAKA; Yukimasa ADACHI; Kenji KAMIGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    Projected changes in precipitation characteristics around the mid-21st century and end-of-the-century are analyzed using the daily precipitation output of the 3-member ensemble Meteorological Research Institute global ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model (MRI-CGCM2) simulations under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios. It is found that both the frequency and intensity increase in about 40% of the globe, while both the frequency and intensity decrease in about 20% of the globe. These numbers differ only a few percent from decade to decade of the 21st century and between the A2 and B2 scenarios. Over the rest of the globe (about one third), the precipitation frequency decreases but its intensity increases, suggesting a shift of precipitation distribution toward more intense events by global warming. South China is such a region where the summertime wet-day frequency decreases but the precipitation intensity increases. This is related to increased atmospheric moisture content due to global warming and an intensified and more westwardly extended North Pacific subtropical anticyclone,which may be related with an El Ni(n)o-like mean sea surface temperature change. On the other hand, a decrease in summer precipitation is noted in North China, thus augmenting a south-to-north precipit ation contrast more in the future.

  18. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  19. Precipitation in a warming world: Assessing projected hydro-climate changes in California and other Mediterranean climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polade, Suraj D; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R; Dettinger, Michael D; Pierce, David W

    2017-09-07

    In most Mediterranean climate (MedClim) regions around the world, global climate models (GCMs) consistently project drier futures. In California, however, projections of changes in annual precipitation are inconsistent. Analysis of daily precipitation in 30 GCMs reveals patterns in projected hydrometeorology over each of the five MedClm regions globally and helps disentangle their causes. MedClim regions, except California, are expected to dry via decreased frequency of winter precipitation. Frequencies of extreme precipitation, however, are projected to increase over the two MedClim regions of the Northern Hemisphere where projected warming is strongest. The increase in heavy and extreme precipitation is particularly robust over California, where it is only partially offset by projected decreases in low-medium intensity precipitation. Over the Mediterranean Basin, however, losses from decreasing frequency of low-medium-intensity precipitation are projected to dominate gains from intensifying projected extreme precipitation. MedClim regions are projected to become more sub-tropical, i.e. made dryer via pole-ward expanding subtropical subsidence. California's more nuanced hydrological future reflects a precarious balance between the expanding subtropical high from the south and the south-eastward extending Aleutian low from the north-west. These dynamical mechanisms and thermodynamic moistening of the warming atmosphere result in increased horizontal water vapor transport, bolstering extreme precipitation events.

  20. Fatigue Durability Analysis of Collecting Rapping System in Electrostatic Precipitators under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Lotfi Neyestanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of collecting rapping system in electrostatic precipitators (ESP and controlling the relevant damage under impact loading, fatigue durability of this system is analyzed in the present study based on the numerical and experimental results considering fatigue damage growth and vibration acceleration in the collecting system because of the successive impact of rapping hammers. By microscopic examination of the fracture surface of rapping hammer, beach marks obviously show typical fatigue failure in the rapping hammer arm. In addition, the microscopic examination of the cross section of the collecting plates indicates the corrosion voids which cause crack and eventually fatigue failure. The finite element method is applied to determine both the stress and concentration positions of dynamic stress on the rapping system under impact loading. The paper results can be utilized in system optimization and new material selection for the system by evaluating rapping system durability.

  1. Characteristics of Charging and Collection of 10-nm-Class Ultrafine Nanoparticles in an Electrostatic Precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bang Woo; Kim, Hak Joon; Kim, Yong Jin; Song, Dong Keun; Hong, Won Seok; Shin, Wan Ho

    2011-01-01

    The charging of 10-nm-class nanoparticles in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) according to particle charging ratio has been investigated and compared to the diffusion effect of the nanoparticles. The competition between the charging probability and the diffusion loss effect determines the collection efficiency of nanoparticles in the ESP. The collection efficiency of nanoparticles decreased continuously with decreasing particle diameter. This indicates that the partial charging effect of 10-nm-class nanoparticles is more dominant than their diffusion loss effect in the ESP for nanoparticles in the particle size range of less than 10 nm. The charging ratios based on unipolar diffusion charging calculations were in good agreement with the experimental collection efficiencies for nanoparticles less than 10 nm in diameter

  2. MATCHING CONFIGURATIONS PROJECTS OF COOPERATIVE MILK COLLECTION PROJECT ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Миколайович ТРИГУБА

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition analysis of dairy farming is done and the reasons for its degradation are revealed. The need of technologically integrated production systems projects, harvesting, and processing of milk are substantiated. A scientific methodology and the method of project design of milk provision cooperative coordination in the community of the project environment, which are based on systematic-evaluative approach and simulation are proposed. The criterion for the definition of rational parameters of objects configuration for milk provision cooperative projects in the community system is the maximum value of their product. The monetary functioning assessment of the configuration object of cooperative milk provision projects in the community is done. On the basis of the proposed method, we performed the coordination of project configuration of milk provision cooperative with the project environment of territory Zabolotsi community in Brody district of Lviv region.

  3. Simulated hydrologic response to projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the Congo River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aloysius

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their global significance, the impacts of climate change on water resources and associated ecosystem services in the Congo River basin (CRB have been understudied. Of particular need for decision makers is the availability of spatial and temporal variability of runoff projections. Here, with the aid of a spatially explicit hydrological model forced with precipitation and temperature projections from 25 global climate models (GCMs under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we explore the variability in modeled runoff in the near future (2016–2035 and mid-century (2046–2065. We find that total runoff from the CRB is projected to increase by 5 % [−9 %; 20 %] (mean – min and max – across model ensembles over the next two decades and by 7 % [−12 %; 24 %] by mid-century. Projected changes in runoff from subwatersheds distributed within the CRB vary in magnitude and sign. Over the equatorial region and in parts of northern and southwestern CRB, most models project an overall increase in precipitation and, subsequently, runoff. A simulated decrease in precipitation leads to a decline in runoff from headwater regions located in the northeastern and southeastern CRB. Climate model selection plays an important role in future projections for both magnitude and direction of change. The multimodel ensemble approach reveals that precipitation and runoff changes under business-as-usual and avoided greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RCP4.5 are relatively similar in the near term but deviate in the midterm, which underscores the need for rapid action on climate change adaptation. Our assessment demonstrates the need to include uncertainties in climate model and emission scenario selection during decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  4. Simulated hydrologic response to projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the Congo River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, Noel; Saiers, James

    2017-08-01

    Despite their global significance, the impacts of climate change on water resources and associated ecosystem services in the Congo River basin (CRB) have been understudied. Of particular need for decision makers is the availability of spatial and temporal variability of runoff projections. Here, with the aid of a spatially explicit hydrological model forced with precipitation and temperature projections from 25 global climate models (GCMs) under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we explore the variability in modeled runoff in the near future (2016-2035) and mid-century (2046-2065). We find that total runoff from the CRB is projected to increase by 5 % [-9 %; 20 %] (mean - min and max - across model ensembles) over the next two decades and by 7 % [-12 %; 24 %] by mid-century. Projected changes in runoff from subwatersheds distributed within the CRB vary in magnitude and sign. Over the equatorial region and in parts of northern and southwestern CRB, most models project an overall increase in precipitation and, subsequently, runoff. A simulated decrease in precipitation leads to a decline in runoff from headwater regions located in the northeastern and southeastern CRB. Climate model selection plays an important role in future projections for both magnitude and direction of change. The multimodel ensemble approach reveals that precipitation and runoff changes under business-as-usual and avoided greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RCP4.5) are relatively similar in the near term but deviate in the midterm, which underscores the need for rapid action on climate change adaptation. Our assessment demonstrates the need to include uncertainties in climate model and emission scenario selection during decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.

    impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors and four are bias correction methods. The change factor methods perturb the observations according to changes in precipitation properties estimated from the Regional Climate Models (RCMs). The bias correction methods correct the output from...... the RCMs. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from fifteen RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project for eleven catchments in Europe. The performance of the bias correction methods depends on the catchment, but in all cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM output. The overall...... results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in all the catchments in winter and in most catchments in summer. For each catchment, the results tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. These differences can be mainly explained due to differences in the RCMs....

  6. 78 FR 39829 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...: Title: Reporting of Nonpayroll Withheld Tax Liabilities. OMB Number: 1545-1413. Regulation Project...

  7. Future Projection of Summer Extreme Precipitation from High Resolution Multi-RCMs over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Min, Seung-Ki; Hong, Song-You; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the frequency and intensity of natural hazards have been increasing due to human-induced climate change. Because most damages of natural hazards over East Asia have been related to extreme precipitation events, it is important to estimate future change in extreme precipitation characteristics caused by climate change. We investigate future changes in extremal values of summer precipitation simulated by five regional climate models participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (i.e., HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, MM5, WRF, and GRIMs) over East Asia. 100-year return value calculated from the generalized extreme value (GEV) parameters is analysed as an indicator of extreme intensity. In the future climate, the mean values as well as the extreme values of daily precipitation tend to increase over land region. The increase of 100-year return value can be significantly associated with the changes in the location (intensity) and scale (variability) GEV parameters for extreme precipitation. It is expected that the results of this study can be used as fruitful references when making the policy of disaster management. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government and Development program under grant MPSS-NH-2013-63 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  8. Future projections of extreme precipitation using Advanced Weather Generator (AWE-GEN over Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Syafrina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic downscaling methodology known as the Advanced Weather Generator, AWE-GEN, has been tested at four stations in Peninsular Malaysia using observations available from 1975 to 2005. The methodology involves a stochastic downscaling procedure based on a Bayesian approach. Climate statistics from a multi-model ensemble of General Circulation Model (GCM outputs were calculated and factors of change were derived to produce the probability distribution functions (PDF. New parameters were obtained to project future climate time series. A multi-model ensemble was used in this study. The projections of extreme precipitation were based on the RCP 6.0 scenario (2081–2100. The model was able to simulate both hourly and 24-h extreme precipitation, as well as wet spell durations quite well for almost all regions. However, the performance of GCM models varies significantly in all regions showing high variability of monthly precipitation for both observed and future periods. The extreme precipitation for both hourly and 24-h seems to increase in future, while extreme of wet spells remain unchanged, up to the return periods of 10–40 years.

  9. Future projections of extreme precipitation using Advanced Weather Generator (AWE-GEN) over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrina, A. H.; Zalina, M. D.; Juneng, L.

    2014-09-01

    A stochastic downscaling methodology known as the Advanced Weather Generator, AWE-GEN, has been tested at four stations in Peninsular Malaysia using observations available from 1975 to 2005. The methodology involves a stochastic downscaling procedure based on a Bayesian approach. Climate statistics from a multi-model ensemble of General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs were calculated and factors of change were derived to produce the probability distribution functions (PDF). New parameters were obtained to project future climate time series. A multi-model ensemble was used in this study. The projections of extreme precipitation were based on the RCP 6.0 scenario (2081-2100). The model was able to simulate both hourly and 24-h extreme precipitation, as well as wet spell durations quite well for almost all regions. However, the performance of GCM models varies significantly in all regions showing high variability of monthly precipitation for both observed and future periods. The extreme precipitation for both hourly and 24-h seems to increase in future, while extreme of wet spells remain unchanged, up to the return periods of 10-40 years.

  10. Projecting changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Justin T. Schoof; Scott M. Robeson

    2016-01-01

    Regional and local climate extremes, and their impacts, result from the multifaceted interplay between large-scale climate forcing, local environmental factors (physiography), and societal vulnerability. In this paper, we review historical and projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States, with a focus on strengths and weaknesses of (1) commonly used definitions for extremes such as thresholds and percentiles, (2) statistical approaches to quantifying change...

  11. Data collected on TPAD implementation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    TPAD testing was conducted by CTR personnel at the following locations during TxDOT Project : 5-6005-01: Statewide Implementation of Total Pavement Acceptance Device (TPAD) (January : 2013 through August 2014): : (1) San Marcos Airport, : (2) IH 10 i...

  12. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  13. Recent Trends of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle Inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. P.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Sud, Y. C.; Betts, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scores of modeling studies have shown that increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere impact the global hydrologic cycle; however, disagreements on regional scales are large, and thus the simulated trends of such impacts, even for regions as large as the tropics, remain uncertain. The present investigation attempts to examine such trends in the observations using satellite data products comprising Global Precipitation Climatology Project precipitation and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud and radiation. Specifically, evolving trends of the tropical hydrological cycle over the last 20-30 years were identified and analyzed. The results show (1) intensification of tropical precipitation in the rising regions of the Walker and Hadley circulations and weakening over the sinking regions of the associated overturning circulation; (2) poleward shift of the subtropical dry zones (up to 2deg/decade in June-July-August (JJA) in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.3-0.7deg/decade in June-July-August and September-October-November in the Southern Hemisphere) consistent with an overall broadening of the Hadley circulation; and (3) significant poleward migration (0.9-1.7deg/decade) of cloud boundaries of Hadley cell and plausible narrowing of the high cloudiness in the Intertropical Convergence Zone region in some seasons. These results support findings of some of the previous studies that showed strengthening of the tropical hydrological cycle and expansion of the Hadley cell that are potentially related to the recent global warming trends.

  14. Project W-049H Collection System Acceptance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckles, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    The Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) Program for Project W-049H covers the following activities: Disposal system, Collection system, Instrumentation and control system. Each activity has its own ATP. The purpose of the ATPs is to verify that the systems have been constructed in accordance with the construction documents and to demonstrate that the systems function as required by the Project criteria. This ATP has been prepared to demonstrate that the Collection System Instrumentation functions as required by project criteria

  15. Soil response to long-term projections of extreme temperature and precipitation in the southern La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pántano, Vanesa C.; Penalba, Olga C.

    2017-12-01

    Projected changes were estimated considering the main variables which take part in soil-atmosphere interaction. The analysis was focused on the potential impact of these changes on soil hydric condition under extreme precipitation and evapotranspiration, using the combination of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and observational data. The region of study is the southern La Plata Basin that covers part of Argentine territory, where rainfed agriculture production is one of the most important economic activities. Monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures were used from high quality-controlled observed data from 46 meteorological stations and the ensemble of seven CMIP5 GCMs in two periods: 1970-2005 and 2065-2100. Projected changes in monthly effective temperature and precipitation were analysed. These changes were combined with observed series for each probabilistic interval. The result was used as input variables for the water balance model in order to obtain consequent soil hydric condition (deficit or excess). Effective temperature and precipitation are expected to increase according to the projections of GCMs, with few exceptions. The analysis revealed increase (decrease) in the prevalence of evapotranspiration over precipitation, during spring (winter). Projections for autumn months show precipitation higher than potential evapotranspiration more frequently. Under dry extremes, the analysis revealed higher projected deficit conditions, impacting on crop development. On the other hand, under wet extremes, excess would reach higher values only in particular months. During December, projected increase in temperatures reduces the impact of extreme high precipitation but favours deficit conditions, affecting flower-fructification stage of summer crops.

  16. A 50-year precipitation analysis over Europe at 5.5km within the UERRA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Eric; Abida, Rachid; Soci, Cornel; Verrelle, Antoine; Szczypta, Camille; Le Moigne, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The UERRA project is a 4-year project (2014-2017) financed by the European Union under its 7th Framework Programme SPACE. One of its main objectives is to provide a 50-year reanalysis dataset of surface essential climate variables (ECV) at 5.5km grid at European scale, together with, as much as possible, uncertainty estimates. One of the ECV is the precipitation and this variable is of essential interest in weather forecasting, climate study and to "drive" hydrological model for water management, or agrometeorology. After a brief description of the method used for the precipitation analysis (Soci et al. 2016)during this project, the preliminary results will be presented. The estimation of uncertainties will be also discussed associated with the problem of the evolution of the observation density network and its impact on the long term series. Additional information about the UERRA project can be found at http://www.uerra.eu The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union, Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2013-1) under grant agreement no 607193.

  17. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  18. Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Gu, Guojun; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    A procedure is described to estimate bias errors for mean precipitation by using multiple estimates from different algorithms, satellite sources, and merged products. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly product is used as a base precipitation estimate, with other input products included when they are within +/- 50% of the GPCP estimates on a zonal-mean basis (ocean and land separately). The standard deviation s of the included products is then taken to be the estimated systematic, or bias, error. The results allow one to examine monthly climatologies and the annual climatology, producing maps of estimated bias errors, zonal-mean errors, and estimated errors over large areas such as ocean and land for both the tropics and the globe. For ocean areas, where there is the largest question as to absolute magnitude of precipitation, the analysis shows spatial variations in the estimated bias errors, indicating areas where one should have more or less confidence in the mean precipitation estimates. In the tropics, relative bias error estimates (s/m, where m is the mean precipitation) over the eastern Pacific Ocean are as large as 20%, as compared with 10%-15% in the western Pacific part of the ITCZ. An examination of latitudinal differences over ocean clearly shows an increase in estimated bias error at higher latitudes, reaching up to 50%. Over land, the error estimates also locate regions of potential problems in the tropics and larger cold-season errors at high latitudes that are due to snow. An empirical technique to area average the gridded errors (s) is described that allows one to make error estimates for arbitrary areas and for the tropics and the globe (land and ocean separately, and combined). Over the tropics this calculation leads to a relative error estimate for tropical land and ocean combined of 7%, which is considered to be an upper bound because of the lack of sign-of-the-error canceling when integrating over different areas with a

  19. Regional climate projections for the MENA-CORDEX domain: analysis of projected temperature and precipitation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsler, Andreas; Weber, Torsten; Eggert, Bastian; Saeed, Fahad; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Within the CORDEX initiative a multi-model suite of regionalized climate change information will be made available for several regions of the world. The German Climate Service Center (CSC) is taking part in this initiative by applying the regional climate model REMO to downscale global climate projections of different coupled general circulation models (GCMs) for several CORDEX domains. Also for the MENA-CORDEX domain, a set of regional climate change projections has been established at the CSC by downscaling CMIP5 projections of the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 with the regional model REMO for the time period from 1950 to 2100 to a horizontal resolution of 0.44 degree. In this study we investigate projected changes in future climate conditions over the domain towards the end of the 21st century. Focus in the analysis is given to projected changes in the temperature and rainfall characteristics and their differences for the two scenarios will be highlighted.

  20. Evaluating IPCC AR4 cool-season precipitation simulations and projections for impacts assessment over North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, Stephanie A. [The University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, Tucson, AZ (United States); The Wilderness Society, Anchorage, AK (United States); Russell, Joellen L.; Goodman, Paul J. [The University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-12-15

    General circulation models (GCMs) have demonstrated success in simulating global climate, and they are critical tools for producing regional climate projections consistent with global changes in radiative forcing. GCM output is currently being used in a variety of ways for regional impacts projection. However, more work is required to assess model bias and evaluate whether assumptions about the independence of model projections and error are valid. This is particularly important where models do not display offsetting errors. Comparing simulated 300-hPa zonal winds and precipitation for the late 20th century with reanalysis and gridded precipitation data shows statistically significant and physically plausible associations between positive precipitation biases across all models and a marked increase in zonal wind speed around 30 N, as well as distortions in rain shadow patterns. Over the western United States, GCMs project drier conditions to the south and increasing precipitation to the north. There is a high degree of agreement between models, and many studies have made strong statements about implications for water resources and about ecosystem change on that basis. However, since one of the mechanisms driving changes in winter precipitation patterns appears to be associated with a source of error in simulating mean precipitation in the present, it suggests that greater caution should be used in interpreting impacts related to precipitation projections in this region and that standard assumptions underlying bias correction methods should be scrutinized. (orig.)

  1. Projected changes to short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, M. B.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate change on April-October short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces were evaluated using a multi-Regional Climate Model (RCM) ensemble available through the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Simulations considered include those performed with six RCMs driven by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis II product for the 1981-2000 period and those driven by four Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) for the current 1971-2000 and future 2041-2070 periods (i.e. a total of 11 current-to-future period simulation pairs). A regional frequency analysis approach was used to develop 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year return values of precipitation extremes from NCEP and AOGCM-driven current and future period simulations that respectively were used to study the performance of RCMs and projected changes for selected return values at regional, grid-cell and local scales. Performance errors due to internal dynamics and physics of RCMs studied for the 1981-2000 period reveal considerable variation in the performance of the RCMs. However, the performance errors were found to be much smaller for RCM ensemble averages than for individual RCMs. Projected changes in future climate to selected regional return values of short-duration (e.g. 15- and 30-min) precipitation extremes and for longer return periods (e.g. 50-year) were found to be mostly larger than those to the longer duration (e.g. 24- and 48-h) extremes and short return periods (e.g. 2-year). Overall, projected changes in precipitation extremes were larger for southeastern regions followed by southern and northern regions and smaller for southwestern and western regions of the study area. The changes to return values were also found to be statistically significant for the majority of the RCM-AOGCM simulation pairs. These projections might be useful as a key input for the future planning of urban

  2. EpiCollect+: linking smartphones to web applications for complex data collection projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanensen, David M; Huntley, Derek M; Menegazzo, Mirko; Powell, Chris I; Spratt, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of the generic mobile phone data gathering tool, EpiCollect, and an associated web application, providing two-way communication between multiple data gatherers and a project database. This software only allows data collection on the phone using a single questionnaire form that is tailored to the needs of the user (including a single GPS point and photo per entry), whereas many applications require a more complex structure, allowing users to link a series of forms in a linear or branching hierarchy, along with the addition of any number of media types accessible from smartphones and/or tablet devices (e.g., GPS, photos, videos, sound clips and barcode scanning). A much enhanced version of EpiCollect has been developed (EpiCollect+). The individual data collection forms in EpiCollect+ provide more design complexity than the single form used in EpiCollect, and the software allows the generation of complex data collection projects through the ability to link many forms together in a linear (or branching) hierarchy. Furthermore, EpiCollect+ allows the collection of multiple media types as well as standard text fields, increased data validation and form logic. The entire process of setting up a complex mobile phone data collection project to the specification of a user (project and form definitions) can be undertaken at the EpiCollect+ website using a simple 'drag and drop' procedure, with visualisation of the data gathered using Google Maps and charts at the project website. EpiCollect+ is suitable for situations where multiple users transmit complex data by mobile phone (or other Android devices) to a single project web database and is already being used for a range of field projects, particularly public health projects in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many uses can be envisaged from education, ecology and epidemiology to citizen science.

  3. 78 FR 23975 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... definition of a controlled foreign corporation, foreign base company income and foreign personal holding...

  4. 76 FR 43381 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Financial Asset Securitization Investment Trusts; Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits (TD 9004 (final...

  5. Goal-Oriented Data Collection Framework in Configuration Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Kristjansdottir, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    project. The framework consists of five steps, which are; establishing a goal and the methods for stakeholder analysis, categorize and group the data collection, prioritizing of products and functionalities, collection and validation of the data by domain experts and finally analysis, documentation......This article proposes a systematic framework for data collection when executing Product Configuration System (PCS) projects. Since the data collection in PCS is one of the most time consuming tasks, a systematic framework to handle and manage the large amount of complex data in the early stages...... of the PCS project is needed. The framework was developed based on the current literature in the field and revised during testing at a case company. The framework has proven to provide a structural approach for data collection, which saved the company both time and money in the initial phases of the PCS...

  6. Data Qualification Report: Precipitation and Surface Geology Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    The unqualified data addressed in this qualification report have been cited in an Analysis Model Report (AMR) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The unqualified data include precipitation volumes and surface geology maps The precipitation data consist of daily precipitation volumes measured at Yucca Mountain. The surface geology data include identification of the types and surface expressions of geologic units and associated structural features such as faults. These data were directly used in AMR U0010, Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates, ANL-NBS-HS-000032 (Hevesi et al. 2000), to estimate net infiltration into Yucca Mountain. This report evaluates the unqualified data within the context of supporting studies of this type for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of this report is to identify data that can be cited as qualified for use in technical products to support the YMP Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. The qualified data may either be retained in the original Data Tracking Number (DTN) or placed in new DTNs generated as a result of the evaluation. The appropriateness and limitations (if any) of the data with respect to intended use are addressed in this report. In accordance with Attachment 1 of procedure AP-3.15Q, Rev. 02, Managing Technical Product Inputs, it has been determined that the unqualified precipitation and surface geology data are not used in the direct calculation of Principal Factors for postclosure safety or disruptive events. References to tables, figures, and sections from Hevesi et al. (2000) are based on Rev. 00 of that document

  7. Precipitation projections under GCMs perspective and Turkish Water Foundation (TWF) statistical downscaling model procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabanlı, İsmail; Şen, Zekai

    2018-04-01

    The statistical climate downscaling model by the Turkish Water Foundation (TWF) is further developed and applied to a set of monthly precipitation records. The model is structured by two phases as spatial (regional) and temporal downscaling of global circulation model (GCM) scenarios. The TWF model takes into consideration the regional dependence function (RDF) for spatial structure and Markov whitening process (MWP) for temporal characteristics of the records to set projections. The impact of climate change on monthly precipitations is studied by downscaling Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Special Report on Emission Scenarios (IPCC-SRES) A2 and B2 emission scenarios from Max Plank Institute (EH40PYC) and Hadley Center (HadCM3). The main purposes are to explain the TWF statistical climate downscaling model procedures and to expose the validation tests, which are rewarded in same specifications as "very good" for all stations except one (Suhut) station in the Akarcay basin that is in the west central part of Turkey. Eventhough, the validation score is just a bit lower at the Suhut station, the results are "satisfactory." It is, therefore, possible to say that the TWF model has reasonably acceptable skill for highly accurate estimation regarding standard deviation ratio (SDR), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) criteria. Based on the validated model, precipitation predictions are generated from 2011 to 2100 by using 30-year reference observation period (1981-2010). Precipitation arithmetic average and standard deviation have less than 5% error for EH40PYC and HadCM3 SRES (A2 and B2) scenarios.

  8. 78 FR 39830 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... the Ozone Layer and on Products Containing Such Chemicals. OMB Number: 1545-1153. Regulation Project...

  9. 78 FR 70100 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Nuclear Power Plant. OMB Number: 1545-1378. Regulation Project Number: TD 8580. Abstract: This regulation...

  10. 78 FR 76893 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments.... Regulation Project Number: REG-209626-93 (TD 8796). Abstract: These regulations provide guidance concerning...

  11. 78 FR 45614 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... GST Deemed Allocations. OMB Number: 1545-1892. Regulation Project Number: REG-153841-02 (TD 9208...

  12. 78 FR 66424 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service [IA-33-92] Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... Project Number: IA-33-92. Abstract: Section 6050H of the Internal Revenue Code relates to the information...

  13. 78 FR 66423 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service [TD 9057, TD 9154, TD 9187] Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... Rules. OMB Number: 1545-1774. Regulation Project Number: TD 9057, TD 9154, and TD 9187. Abstract: The...

  14. 75 FR 2932 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service [REG-116664-01] RIN 1545-BC15 Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION.... OMB Number: 1545-1868. Regulation Project Number: REG-116664-01 (TD 9300 (final)). Abstract: This...

  15. 78 FR 76892 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Liabilities for Pension Funding Purposes. OMB Number: 1545-2095. Regulation Project Number: REG-139236-07 (TD...

  16. 75 FR 2930 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service [REG-106446-98] Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... From Joint and Several Liability. OMB Number: 1545-1719. Regulation Project Number: REG-106446-98...

  17. 76 FR 74117 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Number: 1545-0817. Regulation Project Number: EE-28-78 (TD 7845). Abstract: Internal Revenue Code section...

  18. PROJECTED PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN CENTRAL/EASTERN EUROPE ON THE BASIS OF ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Miklos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected precipitation changes in Central/Eastern Europe on the basis of ENSEMBLE simulations. For building appropriate local/national adaptation and mitigation strategies, detailed analysis of regional climate change is essential. In order to estimate the climate change for the 21st century, both global and regional models may be used. However, due to the coarse horizontal resolution, global climate models are not appropriate to describe regional scale climate processes. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs provide more realistic regional climate scenarios. A wide range of RCM experiments was accomplished in the frame of the ENSEMBLES project funded by the EU FP6 program, which was one of the largest climate change research project ever completed. All the RCM experiments used 25 km horizontal resolution and the A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level.The 25 km spatial resolution is fine enough to estimate the future hydrology-related conditions in different parts of Europe, from which we separated and analyzed simulated climate data sets for the Central/Eastern European region. Precipitation is an especially important climatological variable because of agricultural aspects and flood-related natural hazards, which may seriously affect all the countries in the evaluated region. On the basis of our results, different RCM simulations generally project drier summers and wetter winters (compared to the recent decades. The southern countries are more likely to suffer more intense warming, especially, in summer, and also, more intense drought events due to the stronger Mediterranean impact.

  19. Accounting for dynamics of mean precipitation in drought projections: A case study of Brazil for the 2050 and 2070 periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpelasoka, Freddie; Awange, Joseph L; Goncalves, Rodrigo Mikosz

    2018-05-01

    Changes in drought around the globe are among the most daunting potential effects of climate change. However, changes in droughts are often not well distinguished from changes in aridity levels. As drought constitutes conditions of aridity, the projected declines in mean precipitation tend to override changes in drought. This results in projections of more dire changes in drought than ever. The overestimate of changes can be attributed to the use of 'static' normal precipitation in the derivation of drought events. The failure in distinguishing drought from aridity is a conceptual problem of concern, particularly to drought policymakers. Given that the key objective of drought policies is to determine drought conditions, which are rare and so protracted that they are beyond the scope of normal risk management, for interventions. The main objective of this Case Study of Brazil is to demonstrate the differences between projections of changes in drought based on 'static' and '30-year dynamic' precipitation normal conditions. First we demonstrate that the 'static' based projections suggest 4-fold changes in the probability of drought-year occurrences against changes by the dynamic normal precipitation. The 'static-normal mean precipitation' based projections tend to be monotonically increasing in magnitude, and were arguably considered unrealistic. Based on the '30-year dynamic' normal precipitation conditions, the 13-member GCM ensemble median projection estimates of changes for 2050 under rcp4.5 1 and rcp8.5 2 suggest: (i) Significant differences between changes associated with rcp4.5 and rcp8.5, and are more noticeable for droughts at long than short timescales in the 2070; (ii) Overall, the results demonstrate more realistic projections of changes in drought characteristics over Brazil than previous projections based on 'static' normal precipitation conditions. However, the uncertainty of response of droughts to climate change in CMIP5 simulations is still large

  20. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  1. Data Qualification Report: Precipitation Chloride Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    The data covered by this qualification report have been cited in analysis/model reports (AMRs) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high level nuclear waste. Those analyses cited both qualified and unqualified hydrochemical data. This report evaluates unqualified precipitation chloride data based on the pedigree of the data and within the context of supporting analyses on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The following AMRs use the unqualified chloride data considered in this report: (1) AMR S0040, ''Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Directions, Mixing and Recharge at Yucca Mountain'' (ANL-NBS-HS-000021) (Kwicklis 2000)--an analysis of groundwater recharge rates, flow directions and velocities, and mixing proportions of water from different source areas based on groundwater geochemical and isotopic data. (2) AMR U0085, ''Analysis of Geochemical Data for the Unsaturated Zone'' (ANL-NBS-HS-000017) (Fabryka-Martin 2000)--identifies fluid geochemical parameters for the unsaturated zone, local precipitation, and surface water; discusses the occurrence and origins of fracture minerals; and presents a thermal history of the unsaturated zone. These data are being evaluated for inclusion in technical products to include AMRs and Process Modeling Reports (PMRs) that support the Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. A finding that the precipitation chloride data are qualified means that the data are adequate for generalized use and can be appropriately used in a wide variety of applications, so long as consideration is given to limitations on the accuracy, precision and representativeness of the data for an intended use in a technical product

  2. 78 FR 26694 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and...

  3. 78 FR 28703 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... requirements that must be met for an investment to qualify under Internal Revenue code section 936(d)(4) as an... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  4. 75 FR 28331 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... that must be met for an investment to qualify under Internal Revenue code section 936(d)(4) as an... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service [INTL-955-86] Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and...

  5. Collective effects and impedance issues for the SOLEIL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, G [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. pour l` Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE)

    1996-08-01

    Various issues related to collective effects in the SOLEIL project are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the effects of longitudinal oscillations on undulator brilliance. Preliminary estimates of turbulent bunch lengthening and of the transverse mode coupling threshold are presented. (author)

  6. 76 FR 21427 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... other administrative provisions of special application to manufacturers and retailers excise taxes... Manufacturers and Retailers Excise Taxes. OMB Number: 1545-0723. Regulation Project Number: T.D. 8043. Abstract... regulation. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Individuals...

  7. 76 FR 69329 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... collection requirements related to Tax Shelter Regulations. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before January 9, 2012 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette B... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Tax Shelter Disclosure Regulations. OMB Number: 1545-1685. Regulation Project...

  8. Projecting future precipitation and temperature at sites with diverse climate through multiple statistical downscaling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallam, P.; Qin, X. S.

    2017-10-01

    Anthropogenic-driven climate change would affect the global ecosystem and is becoming a world-wide concern. Numerous studies have been undertaken to determine the future trends of meteorological variables at different scales. Despite these studies, there remains significant uncertainty in the prediction of future climates. To examine the uncertainty arising from using different schemes to downscale the meteorological variables for the future horizons, projections from different statistical downscaling schemes were examined. These schemes included statistical downscaling method (SDSM), change factor incorporated with LARS-WG, and bias corrected disaggregation (BCD) method. Global circulation models (GCMs) based on CMIP3 (HadCM3) and CMIP5 (CanESM2) were utilized to perturb the changes in the future climate. Five study sites (i.e., Alice Springs, Edmonton, Frankfurt, Miami, and Singapore) with diverse climatic conditions were chosen for examining the spatial variability of applying various statistical downscaling schemes. The study results indicated that the regions experiencing heavy precipitation intensities were most likely to demonstrate the divergence between the predictions from various statistical downscaling methods. Also, the variance computed in projecting the weather extremes indicated the uncertainty derived from selection of downscaling tools and climate models. This study could help gain an improved understanding about the features of different downscaling approaches and the overall downscaling uncertainty.

  9. Local short-duration precipitation extremes in Sweden: observations, forecasts and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jonas; Berg, Peter; Simonsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Local short-duration precipitation extremes (LSPEs) are a key driver of hydrological hazards, notably in steep catchments with thin soils and in urban environments. The triggered floodings, landslides, etc., have large consequences for society in terms of both economy and health. Accurate estimations of LSPEs on both climatological time-scales (past, present, future) and in real-time is thus of great importance for improved hydrological predictions as well as design of constructions and infrastructure affected by hydrological fluxes. Analysis of LSPEs is, however, associated with various limitations and uncertainties. These are to a large degree associated with the small-scale nature of the meteorological processes behind LSPEs and the associated requirements on observation sensors as well as model descriptions. Some examples of causes for the limitations involved are given in the following. - Observations: High-resolution data sets available for LSPE analyses are often limited to either relatively long series from one or a few stations or relatively short series from larger station networks. Radar data have excellent resolutions in both time and space but the estimated local precipitation intensity is still highly uncertain. New and promising techniques (e.g. microwave links) are still in their infancy. - Weather forecasts (short-range): Although forecasts with the required spatial resolution for potential generation of LSPEs (around 2-4 km) are becoming operationally available, the actual forecast precision of LSPEs is largely unknown. Forecasted LSPEs may be displaced in time or, more critically, in space which strongly affects the possibility to assess hydrological risk. - Climate projections: The spatial resolution of the current RCM generation (around 25 km) is not sufficient for proper description of LSPEs. Statistical post-processing (i.e. downscaling) is required which adds substantial uncertainty to the final result. Ensemble generation of sufficiently

  10. Data of groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. 2011-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Nanjyo, Isao; Murakami, Hiroaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Yamazaki, Masanori; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Horonobe, Hokkaido (Japan); Kunimaru, Takanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Mizunami, Gifu (Japan); Oyama, Takahiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2010. (author)

  11. A dynamical characterization of the uncertainty in projections of regional precipitation change in the semi-arid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, A.

    2016-12-01

    The uncertainty in CMIP multi-model ensembles of regional precipitation change in tropical regions is well known: taken at face value, models do not agree on the direction of precipitation change. Consequently, in adaptation discourse, either projections are discounted, e.g., by giving more relevance to temperature projections, or outcomes are grossly misrepresented, e.g., in extrapolating recent drought into the long-term future. That this is an unsatisfactory state of affairs, given the dominant role of precipitation in shaping climate-sensitive human endeavors in the tropics, is an understatement.Here I will provide a dynamical characterization of the uncertainty in regional precipitation projections that exploits the CMIP multi-model ensembles. This characterization is based on decomposing the moisture budget and relating its terms to the influence of the oceans, specifically to the roles of moisture supply and stabilization of the vertical profile. I will discuss some preliminary findings highlighting the relevance of lessons learned from seasonal-to-interannual prediction. One such lesson is to go beyond the projection taken at face value, and understand physical processes, specifically, the role of the oceans, in order to be able to make qualitative arguments, in addition to quantitative predictions. One other lesson is to abandon the search for the "best model" and exploit the multi-model ensemble to characterize "emergent constraints".

  12. Data of groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. 2011-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Nanjyo, Isao; Murakami, Hiroaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Yamazaki, Masanori; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Oyama, Takahiro

    2012-02-01

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2010. (author)

  13. Power supply projects a collection of innovative and practical design projects

    CERN Document Server

    Maplin

    1996-01-01

    Using circuit diagrams, PCB layouts, parts lists and clear construction and installation details, this book provides everything someone with a basic knowledge of electronics needs to know in order to put that knowledge into practice.This latest collection of Maplin projects are a variety of power supply projects, the necessary components for which are readily available from the Maplin catalogue or any of their high street shops. Projects include, laboratory power supply projects for which there are a wide range of applications for the hobbyist, from servicing portable audio and video equipment

  14. Developing Collections With Get It Now: A Pilot Project for a Hybrid Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Gail Y; Gudenas, Jean

    2016-01-01

    As health sciences libraries transition from print to online journal collections that require significant institutional funding, librarians are investigating the use of on demand services in order to meet customer need and contain costs. In 2014 a three-year pilot project to determine if unmediated access to the Copyright Clearance Center's Get It Now service would expand access to needed content and provide usage data to inform collections decision making. The service provides rapid, automated delivery of unsubscribed, high-quality journal articles directly to the customer. The three-year pilot project aims to compare the cost of Get It Now to the traditional subscription model to learn if the service is a cost-effective and sustainable alternative that improves customer satisfaction and that can transform collection development with a hybrid model for journal acquisitions.

  15. Projected precipitation changes in South America: a dynamical downscaling within CLARIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensson, Anna A. [Centra de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera, CONICET/UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Menendez, Claudio G. [Centra de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera, CONICET/UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dept. de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, FCEN, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ruscica, Romina; Alexander, Peter [Dept. de Fisica, FCEN, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, Patrick; Willen, Ulrika [Rossby Centre, SMHI, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    Responses of precipitation seasonal means and extremes over South America in a downscaling of a climate change scenario are assessed with the Rossby Centre Regional Atmospheric Model (RCA). The anthropogenic warming under A1B scenario influences more on the likelihood of occurrence of severe extreme events like heavy precipitation and dry spells than on the mean seasonal precipitation. The risk of extreme precipitation increases in the La Plata Basin with a factor of 1.5-2.5 during all seasons and in the northwestern part of the continent with a factor 1.5-3 in summer, while it decreases in central and northeastern Brazil during winter and spring. The maximum amount of 5-days precipitation increases by up to 50% in La Plata Basin, indicating risks of flooding. Over central Brazil and the Bolivian lowland, where present 5-days precipitation is higher, the increases are similar in magnitude and could cause less impacts. In southern Amazonia, northeastern Brazil and the Amazon basin, the maximum number of consecutive dry days increases and mean winter and spring precipitation decreases, indicating a longer dry season. In the La Plata Basin, there is no clear pattern of change for the dry spell duration. (orig.)

  16. Project W-049H collection system Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the collection system equipment installed as Pump Station No. 1 (225-W) and Pump Station No. 2 (225-E) have been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria. This will be a wet test with potable water being introduced into the pump pits to test for leakage. Potable water will also be employed in the testing of the pumps and related mechanical equipment. All Instrument and Control equipment related to the pump stations will be checked electronically with simulated inputs/outputs when actual input/output signals are unavailable. Water from Pump Station 1 will be moved through the TEDF piping system and discharged into the disposal ponds. This will check the proper function of the air/vac valves not tested during construction, and the automated samplers

  17. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Climate Data Record (CDR), Version 1.3 (Daily)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GPCP Daily analysis is a companion to the GPCP Monthly analysis, and provides globally complete precipitation estimates at a spatial resolution of one degree...

  18. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  19. NASA Scientific Data Purchase Project: From Collection to User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lamar; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rose

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) project is currently a $70 million operation managed by the Earth Science Applications Directorate at Stennis Space Center. The SDP project was developed in 1997 to purchase scientific data from commercial sources for distribution to NASA Earth science researchers. Our current data holdings include 8TB of remote sensing imagery consisting of 18 products from 4 companies. Our anticipated data volume is 60 TB by 2004, and we will be receiving new data products from several additional companies. Our current system capacity is 24 TB, expandable to 89 TB. Operations include tasking of new data collections, archive ordering, shipment verification, data validation, distribution, metrics, finances, customer feedback, and technical support. The program has been included in the Stennis Space Center Commercial Remote Sensing ISO 9001 registration since its inception. Our operational system includes automatic quality control checks on data received (with MatLab analysis); internally developed, custom Web-based interfaces that tie into commercial-off-the-shelf software; and an integrated relational database that links and tracks all data through operations. We've distributed nearly 1500 datasets, and almost 18,000 data files have been downloaded from our public web site; on a 10-point scale, our customer satisfaction index is 8.32 at a 23% response level. More information about the SDP is available on our Web site.

  20. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  1. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  2. Possible teleconnections between East and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in projected future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sumin; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Oh, Jai-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examined the teleconnections between two huge Asian summer monsoon components (South and East Asia) during three time slices in future: near-(2010-2039), mid-(2040-2069) and far-(2070-2100) futures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For this purpose, a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model is used and integrated at 40 km horizontal resolution. To get more insight into the relationships between the two Asian monsoon components, we have studied the spatial displaying correlation coefficients (CCs) pattern of precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region with that of South Asia and three regions of East Asia (North China, Korea-Japan and Southern China) separately during the same three time slices. The possible factors responsible for these teleconnections are explored by using mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and wind fields at 850 hPa. The CC pattern of precipitation over South Asia shows an in-phase relationship with North China and an out-of-phase relationship with Korea-Japan, while precipitation variations over Korea-Japan and Southern China exhibit an out-of-phase relationship with South Asia. The CCs analysis between the two Asian blocks during different time slices shows the strongest CCs during the near and far future with the RCP8.5 scenario. The CC pattern of precipitation over Korea-Japan and Southern China with the wind (at 850 hPa) and MSLP fields indicate that the major parts of the moisture over Korea-Japan gets transported from the west Pacific along the western limb of NPSH, while the moisture over Southern China comes from the Bay of Bengal and South China Seas for good monsoon activity.

  3. Historical and projected trends in temperature and precipitation extremes in Australia in observations and CMIP5

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Lisa V.; Arblaster, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    This study expands previous work on climate extremes in Australia by investigating the simulation of a large number of extremes indices in the CMIP5 multi-model dataset and comparing them to multiple observational datasets over a century of observed data using consistent methods. We calculate 24 indices representing extremes of temperature and precipitation from 1911 to 2010 over Australia and show that there have been significant observed trends in temperature extremes associated with warmin...

  4. Isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The IAEA has operated the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) since 1961. There has been an increased need for GNIP data following the recognition of the role of precipitation stable isotopes in better simulating the hydrologic cycle in climate models. The isotopic composition of precipitation is closely related to rain formation conditions, i.e. with the temperature of formation, the origin of air masses, and the degree and mechanism of rainout. Over the last twenty years, use of GNIP data in climate model has indicated a need for a much more refined, process-based understanding of isotope variations in the hydrological cycle. This coordinated research project (CRP) was initiated with the aim of collecting new data on higher spatial density and temporal frequency to improve our knowledge of environmental isotope variations in atmospheric waters. The Mediterranean region was chosen for this study so that climatic and meteorological conditions, which govern the rain formation process, and their variations along east-west and north-south directions, could be investigated. In addition, the first steps of the hydrological cycle, that is evaporation from seawater and condensation of atmospheric vapour could also be studied. The IAEA invited scientists from institutes in Mediterranean countries who have already been involved in studies related to the isotopic composition of precipitation to take part in this CRP, which was initiated in 2000. This publication is a summary of the results achieved in the CRP. The overall achievements are presented as the executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final research coordination meeting, held in Vienna from 15 to 19 March 2004. The results of this CRP are relevant to the Member State scientists conducting hydrological research. In addition, the results would contribute to the IAEA programme on water resources, in particular to its activities

  5. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization related projects. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Uncertainty in projected point precipitation extremes for hydrological impact analysis of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, Els; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Current trends in the hydro-meteorological variables indicate the potential impact of climate change on hydrological extremes. Therefore, they trigger an increased importance climate adaptation strategies in water management. The impact of climate change on hydro-meteorological and hydrological extremes is, however, highly uncertain. This is due to uncertainties introduced by the climate models, the internal variability inherent to the climate system, the greenhouse gas scenarios and the statistical downscaling methods. In view of the need to define sustainable climate adaptation strategies, there is a need to assess these uncertainties. This is commonly done by means of ensemble approaches. Because more and more climate models and statistical downscaling methods become available, there is a need to facilitate the climate impact and uncertainty analysis. A Climate Perturbation Tool has been developed for that purpose, which combines a set of statistical downscaling methods including weather typing, weather generator, transfer function and advanced perturbation based approaches. By use of an interactive interface, climate impact modelers can apply these statistical downscaling methods in a semi-automatic way to an ensemble of climate model runs. The tool is applicable to any region, but has been demonstrated so far to cases in Belgium, Suriname, Vietnam and Bangladesh. Time series representing future local-scale precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) conditions were obtained, starting from time series of historical observations. Uncertainties on the future meteorological conditions are represented in two different ways: through an ensemble of time series, and a reduced set of synthetic scenarios. The both aim to span the full uncertainty range as assessed from the ensemble of climate model runs and downscaling methods. For Belgium, for instance, use was made of 100-year time series of 10-minutes precipitation observations and daily

  7. Greenhouse gas scenario sensitivity and uncertainties in precipitation projections for central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, E.; Willems, P.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change impact assessment on meteorological variables involves large uncertainties as a result of incomplete knowledge on the future greenhouse gas concentrations and climate model physics, next to the inherent internal variability of the climate system. Given that the alteration in greenhouse gas concentrations is the driver for the change, one expects the impacts to be highly dependent on the considered greenhouse gas scenario (GHS). In this study, we denote this behavior as GHS sensitivity. Due to the climate model related uncertainties, this sensitivity is, at local scale, not always that strong as expected. This paper aims to study the GHS sensitivity and its contributing role to climate scenarios for a case study in Belgium. An ensemble of 160 CMIP5 climate model runs is considered and climate change signals are studied for precipitation accumulation, daily precipitation intensities and wet day frequencies. This was done for the different seasons of the year and the scenario periods 2011-2040, 2031-2060, 2051-2081 and 2071-2100. By means of variance decomposition, the total variance in the climate change signals was separated in the contribution of the differences in GHSs and the other model-related uncertainty sources. These contributions were found dependent on the variable and season. Following the time of emergence concept, the GHS uncertainty contribution is found dependent on the time horizon and increases over time. For the most distinct time horizon (2071-2100), the climate model uncertainty accounts for the largest uncertainty contribution. The GHS differences explain up to 18% of the total variance in the climate change signals. The results point further at the importance of the climate model ensemble design, specifically the ensemble size and the combination of climate models, whereupon climate scenarios are based. The numerical noise, introduced at scales smaller than the skillful scale, e.g. at local scale, was not considered in this study.

  8. Precipitation collection and evapo(transpi)ration of living wall systems : A comparative study between a panel system and a planter box system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wouw, P.M.F.; Ros, E.J.M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    By reducing the quantity of precipitation reaching the ground, a green façade can contribute to a more natural way of rainwater drainage. Additionally, it provides shadowing, insulation, and evapotranspiration (ET) of water enabling it to reduce the heat load of a building. The collection of

  9. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within NSF...

  10. 76 FR 13423 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Contractor's Requisition-Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Contractor's Requisition--Project Mortgages AGENCY: Office of the.... Contractor's monthly application for distribution of insured mortgage proceeds for construction costs... Following Information Title of Proposal: Contractor's Requisition--Project Mortgages. OMB Approval Number...

  11. Projection of Korean Probable Maximum Precipitation under Future Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okjeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, air temperature and humidity of the future are expected to gradually increase over the current. In this study, future PMPs are estimated by using future dew point temperature projection data which are obtained from RCM data provided by the Korea Meteorological Administration. First, bias included in future dew point temperature projection data which is provided on a daily basis is corrected through a quantile-mapping method. Next, using a scale-invariance technique, 12-hour duration 100-year return period dew point temperatures which are essential input data for PMPs estimation are estimated from bias-corrected future dew point temperature data. After estimating future PMPs, it can be shown that PMPs in all future climate change scenarios (AR5 RCP2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5 are very likely to increase.

  12. 76 FR 30433 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... certain method of accounting, are affected. Current Actions: There is no change to this existing... OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long...) Whether the collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the...

  13. 76 FR 27749 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    .... Type of Review: Extension of currently approved collection. Affected Public: Businesses or other for...) estimates of capital or start-up costs and costs of operation, maintenance, and purchase of services to... collection requirements related to Capital Gains, Partnership, Subchapter S, and Trusts Provisions. DATES...

  14. 77 FR 12646 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of... internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26...

  15. 77 FR 31914 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of... internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26...

  16. 78 FR 36639 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... 501(c)(3). Such information exchange is necessary to ensure compliance with tax law requirements... collection of information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or...

  17. 78 FR 8225 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... submitted for renewal purposes only. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected... respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of...

  18. 75 FR 30905 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Project Number: LR-209-76 (T.D. 7941). Abstract: Internal Revenue Code section 6324A permits the executor... of a bond or personal liability if an election under section 6166 was made and the executor files an...

  19. Trend analysis of watershed-scale precipitation over Northern California by means of dynamically-downscaled CMIP5 future climate projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, K; Gorguner, M; Ercan, A; Trinh, T; Kavvas, M L

    2017-08-15

    The impacts of climate change on watershed-scale precipitation through the 21st century were investigated over eight study watersheds in Northern California based on dynamically downscaled CMIP5 future climate projections from three GCMs (CCSM4, HadGEM2-ES, and MIROC5) under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 future climate scenarios. After evaluating the modeling capability of the WRF model, the six future climate projections were dynamically downscaled by means of the WRF model over Northern California at 9km grid resolution and hourly temporal resolution during a 94-year period (2006-2100). The biases in the model simulations were corrected, and basin-average precipitation over the eight study watersheds was calculated from the dynamically downscaled precipitation data. Based on the dynamically downscaled basin-average precipitation, trends in annual depth and annual peaks of basin-average precipitation during the 21st century were analyzed over the eight study watersheds. The analyses in this study indicate that there may be differences between trends of annual depths and annual peaks of watershed-scale precipitation during the 21st century. Furthermore, trends in watershed-scale precipitation under future climate conditions may be different for different watersheds depending on their location and topography even if they are in the same region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 20355 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... collection). Affected Public: Current recipients of EDA assistance, to include (1) cities or other political... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Award Amendment Requests and Project Service Maps AGENCY: Economic Development...

  1. DOTD standards for GPS data collection accuracy : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), which includes GPS technologies : maintained by the United States, are used extensively throughout government : and industry. These technologies continue to revolutionize positional data : collection acti...

  2. 78 FR 79728 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... certain information documenting their sales of prepaid telephone cards to other carriers to avoid... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e...

  3. 77 FR 31686 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... losses on a yearly basis by the amount of estimated salvage recoverable if the company [[Page 31687...) Whether the collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the...

  4. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  5. 78 FR 42591 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... consent of taxpayers before representing conflicting interests; (3) practitioners do not use e-commerce to... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e...

  6. 75 FR 44851 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting... Income and Earnings and Profits under the Dollar Approximate Separate Transactions Method of Accounting... Transactions Method of Accounting (DASTM). OMB Number: 1545-1051. Regulation Project Number: INTL-29-91...

  7. 78 FR 24312 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning, Changes in Accounting Periods. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before June 24, 2013 to be... in Accounting Periods. OMB Number: 1545-1748. Regulation Project Number: TD 8996. Abstract: Section 1...

  8. 75 FR 33671 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning an existing final regulation, REG-106917-99 (TD 8996), Changes in Accounting Periods... INFORMATION: Title: Changes in Accounting Periods. OMB Number: 1545-1748. Regulation Project Number: REG...

  9. 75 FR 53023 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning an existing final regulation, CO-99-91 (TD 8490), Limitations on Corporate Net...: Limitations on Corporate Net Operating Loss. OMB Number: 1545-1345. Regulation Project Number: CO-99-91...

  10. 77 FR 57196 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning limitations on corporate net operating loss carryforwards. DATES: Written comments should be received on or... Corporate Net Operating Loss Carryforwards. OMB Number: 1545-1260. Regulation Project Number: CO-62-89...

  11. 75 FR 11997 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is... Trust as Part of an Estate (Sec. 1.645-1). DATES: Written comments should be received on or before May... INFORMATION: Title: Election to Treat Trust as Part of an Estate. OMB Number: 1545-1578. Regulation Project...

  12. 77 FR 31912 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... determining arbitrage profits. Under FI-7-94, the scope of interest rate hedging transactions covered by the... arbitrage restrictions on tax-exempt bonds. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before July 30...: Arbitrage Restrictions on Tax-Exempt Bonds. OMB Number: 1545-1347. Regulation Project Numbers: FI-36-92; FI...

  13. 78 FR 22036 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... fair market value of the underlying property before and after the donation and (2) the conservation... qualified conservation contributions (Sec. 1.170A-14). DATES: Written comments should be received on or... INFORMATION: Title: Qualified Conservation Contributions. OMB Number: 1545-0763. Regulation Project Number: TD...

  14. 76 FR 55741 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Qualified Separate Lines of Business. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 7...: Title: Qualified Separate Lines of Business. OMB Number: 1545-1221. Regulation Project Number: EE-147-87...

  15. 76 FR 34807 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning electing small business trusts. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before August 15, 2011to...: Electing Small Business Trusts. OMB Number: 1545-1591. Regulation Project Number: REG-251701-96 (TD 8894...

  16. Supporting Collective Training & Thinking in Joint Project Optic Windmill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Wiel, R.A.N. van de; Bosch, J.; Olthoff, R.

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, the Missile Defence Group of the Royal Netherlands Air Force, together with the German Air Force and the US Missile Defence Agency, organised the 10th edition of Exercise Joint Project Optic Windmill (JPOW). Over the past decade JPOW has become a world leading Integrated Air and

  17. 78 FR 41192 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... definitions; excise tax returns. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before September 9, 2013 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal... definitions; excise tax returns. OMB Number: 1545-2193. Regulation Project Number: REG-155087-05. Abstract...

  18. 77 FR 3840 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal Revenue Service, room 6129...-1353. Regulation Project Number: FI-189-84. Abstract: These regulations provide definitions, reporting requirements, elections, and general rules relating to the tax treatment of debt instruments with original...

  19. 78 FR 8222 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Minimum Tax--Tax Benefit Rule. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April 8, 2013 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal Revenue... Tax--Tax Benefit Rule. OMB Number: 1545-1093. Regulation Project Number: IA-56-87 and IA- 53-87 (TD...

  20. Multi-model Projection of July-August Climate Extreme Changes over China under CO2 Doubling. Part Ⅰ:Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongmei; FENG Lei; ZHOU Tianjun

    2011-01-01

    Potential changes in precipitation extremes in July-August over China in response to CO2 doubling are analyzed based on the output of 24 coupled climate models from the Twentieth-Century Climate in Coupled Models (20C3M) experiment and the 1% per year CO2 increase experiment (to doubling) (lpctto2x) of phase 3 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP3). Evaluation of the models' performance in simulating the mean state shows that the majority of models fairly reproduce the broad spatial pattern of observed precipitation. However, all the models underestimate extreme precipitation by ~50%. The spread among the models over the Tibetan Plateau is ~2-3 times larger than that over the other areas.Models with higher resolution generally perform better than those with lower resolutions in terms of spatial pattern and precipitation amount. Under the lpctto2x scenario, the ratio between the absolute value of MME extreme precipitation change and model spread is larger than that of total precipitation, indicating a relatively robust change of extremes. The change of extreme precipitation is more homogeneous than the total precipitation. Analysis on the output of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled climate model version 2.1 (GFDL-CM2.1) indicates that the spatially consistent increase of surface temperature and water vapor content contribute to the large increase of extreme precipitation over contiguous China,which follows the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Whereas, the meridionally tri-polar pattern of mean precipitation change over eastern China is dominated by the change of water vapor convergence, which is determined by the response of monsoon circulation to global warming.

  1. The TMI-2 clean-up project collection and databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osif, B.A.; Conkling, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    A publicly accessible collection containing several thousand of the videotapes, photographs, slides and technical reports generated during the clean-up of the TMI-2 reactor has been established by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The collection is intended to serve as a technical resource for the nuclear industry as well as the interested public. Two Internet-searchable databases describing the videotapes and technical reports have been created. The development and use of these materials and databases are described in this paper. (orig.)

  2. Collecting lessons learned : How project-based organizations in the oil and gas industry learn from their projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Project-based organizations collect lessons learned in order to improve the performance of projects. They aim to repeat successes by using positive lessons learned, and to avoid repeating negative experiences by using negative lessons learned. Cooke-Davies (2002) claimed that the ability to learn

  3. Metals and metalloids in precipitation collected during CHINARE campaign from Shanghai, China, to Zhongshan Station, Antarctica: Spatial variability and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G.; Teng, J.; Ma, H.; Li, Y.; Sun, B.

    2015-06-01

    Metals and metalloids in continental precipitation have been widely observed, but the data over open oceans are still very limited. Investigation of metals and metalloids in marine precipitation is of great significance to understand global transport of these elements in the atmosphere and their input fluxes to the oceans. So shipboard sampling of precipitation was conducted during a Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition campaign from Shanghai, China, to Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica, and 22 samples (including 17 rainfall and 5 snowfall events) were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Hg, As, Cd, Sb, Se, Zn, Mn, and Ti. Results show that concentrations of both metals and metalloids vary considerably along the cruise, with higher concentrations at coastal sites and lower values on the south Indian Ocean. Although only soluble fractions were determined for elements, concentrations in this study are generally comparable to the reported values of marine rain. Enrichment factor analysis shows that most of metals and metalloids are enriched versus crustal sources, even in the samples collected from remote south Indian Ocean. In addition, metals and metalloids in precipitation are also very enriched above sea-salt abundance, indicating that impacts of sea-salt aerosols on their concentrations are negligible. Main sources of metals and metalloids were explored with the aid of multivariate statistical analyses. The results show that human emissions have far-reaching distribution, which may exert an important influence on the solubility of elements in precipitation. This investigation provides valuable information on spatial variation and possible sources of trace elements in precipitation over the open oceans corresponding to understudied region.

  4. 77 FR 71039 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Payees, and Payments of Gross Proceeds From Sales Involving Investment Advisers. DATES: Written comments... on Behalf of Another Person, Payments to Joint Payees, and Payments of Gross Proceeds From Sales... of information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other...

  5. 76 FR 63993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... that support must be reported using the organization's overall method of accounting. All tax-exempt... information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must... functions of the agency, including whether the information shall have practical utility; (b) the accuracy of...

  6. 75 FR 47894 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... accounting for a dual consolidated loss where the dual resident corporation files a consolidated return... information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records... for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the information shall...

  7. 75 FR 33892 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request For Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... request the consent of the Commissioner to change their methods of accounting for the capitalization of... number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their... information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the...

  8. 75 FR 53740 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    .... This regulation grants the taxpayer consent to change its method of accounting for such transactions by... number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their... information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the...

  9. 78 FR 40549 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... request the consent of the Commissioner to change their methods of accounting for the capitalization of... number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their... information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the...

  10. 76 FR 27751 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). The IRS is soliciting comments concerning information collection related to Limitations on Corporate Net Operating Loss. DATES: Written comments should be received... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Limitations on Corporate Net Operating Loss. OMB Number: 1545-1381. [[Page...

  11. 76 FR 23645 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). The IRS is soliciting comments concerning information collection requirements related to Sale of Residence From Qualified Personal Residence Trust... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Sale of Residence From Qualified Personal Residence Trust. OMB Number: 1545...

  12. 78 FR 48771 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  13. 77 FR 31913 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  14. 76 FR 40449 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting... information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records... the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are...

  15. 77 FR 17123 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). The IRS is soliciting comments concerning information... the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  16. 77 FR 6864 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records... the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are...

  17. 78 FR 50142 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  18. 76 FR 77325 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must... revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential, as required by 26 U.S.C...

  19. 78 FR 59768 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments... the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  20. 78 FR 25358 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records... the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are...

  1. 76 FR 74118 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  2. 78 FR 36640 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulations Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their contents may become material in the administration of any internal revenue law...

  3. 76 FR 51127 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... from tax under section 4082(a), it must be indelibly dyed by use of a mechanical dye injection system... information collection requirements related to diesel fuel and kerosene excise tax; dye injection. DATES.... ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette B. Lawrence, Internal Revenue Service, Room 6129, 1111...

  4. 76 FR 33814 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... collection requirements related to Additional First Year Depreciation Deduction. DATES: Written comments... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Additional First Year Depreciation Deduction. OMB Number: 1545-2207... year depreciation deduction. Section 401(b) of the TRUIRJCA amends Sec. 168(k) by adding Sec. 168(k)(5...

  5. 77 FR 7241 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Internal Revenue Code section 1295 with respect to certain preferred shares of a passive foreign investment... be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette B. Lawrence, Internal... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e...

  6. 76 FR 74119 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Revenue Code section 1295 with respect to certain preferred shares of a passive foreign investment company... to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette B. Lawrence... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e...

  7. 77 FR 59454 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... modifications of commercial mortgage loans held by a real estate mortgage investment conduit. DATES: Written... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Environmental Settlement Funds... matter of public record. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the collection of information is necessary...

  8. 75 FR 60507 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ..., or a property transfer (or transfer of the right to use property) a fair market value. Current... opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork... Service, room 6129, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20224. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  9. 77 FR 68888 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    .... Abstract: This regulation prevents elimination of corporate-level tax because of the operation of the... approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of... will be summarized and/or included in the request for OMB approval. All comments will become a matter...

  10. Summer Student Project: Collecting and disseminating CDS KPIs

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Perez, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    CDS (CERN Document Server) stores over 900,000 bibliographic records, including 360,000 fulltext documents, of interest to people working in particle physics and related areas. My project consisted on extracting KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) from it and feeding them to a central IT KPI system. To achieve this, I learned the CDS-Invenio open source digital library software, and worked with its statistic module.

  11. 78 FR 64143 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition-Project Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5683-N-88] 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition--Project Mortgages AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... Title of Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition--Project Mortgages. OMB Approval Number: 2502...

  12. Spatio-temporal trend analysis of projected precipitation data over Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhire, I.; Tesfamichael, S. G.; Ahmed, F.; Minani, E.

    2018-01-01

    This study applied a number of statistical techniques aimed at quantifying the magnitude of projected mean rainfall and number of rainy days over Rwanda on monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales for the period 2015-2050. The datasets for this period were generated by BCM2.0 for the SRES emission scenario SRB1, CO2 concentration for the baseline scenario (2011-2030) using the stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG). It was observed that on average, there will be a steady decline in mean rainfall. Save for the short rainy season, a positive trend in mean rainfall is expected over the south-west, the north-east region, and the northern highlands. The other regions (central, south-east, and western regions) are likely to experience a decline in mean rainfall. The number of rainy days is expected to decrease in the central plateau and the south-eastern lowlands, while the south-west, the north-west, and north-east regions are expected to have a pattern of increased number of rainy days. This decline in mean rainfall and rainy days over a large part of Rwanda is an indicator of just how much the country is bound to experience reduced water supply for various uses (e.g., agriculture, domestic activities, and industrial activities).

  13. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  14. Indirect downscaling of global circulation model data based on atmospheric circulation and temperature for projections of future precipitation in hourly resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F.; Bárdossy, A.

    2013-07-01

    Many hydraulic applications like the design of urban sewage systems require projections of future precipitation in high temporal resolution. We developed a method to predict the regional distribution of hourly precipitation sums based on daily mean sea level pressure and temperature data from a Global Circulation Model. It is an indirect downscaling method avoiding uncertain precipitation data from the model. It is based on a fuzzy-logic classification of atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs) that is further subdivided by means of the average daily temperature. The observed empirical distributions at 30 rain gauges to each CP-temperature class are assumed as constant and used for projections of the hourly precipitation sums in the future. The method was applied to the CP-temperature sequence derived from the 20th century run and the scenario A1B run of ECHAM5. According to ECHAM5, the summers in southwest Germany will become progressively drier. Nevertheless, the frequency of the highest hourly precipitation sums will increase. According to the predictions, estival water stress and the risk of extreme hourly precipitation will both increase simultaneously during the next decades.

  15. Electrode geometry effects on the collection efficiency of submicron and ultra-fine dust particles in spike-plate electrostatic precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocilo, D; Podlinski, J; Chang, J S; Mizeraczyk, J; Findlay, R D

    2008-01-01

    The collection efficiency of electrostatic precipitators for the submicron particles ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm and ultrafine particles smaller than 0. lμm is below the requirements of new PM2.5 emission regulations. In this work, numerical and experimental studies were conducted to examine the effect of discharge and collecting electrode geometries on the ion density and electric field profiles and consequently their effect on the particle surface charge and collection efficiency. The collection efficiency prediction was based on a modified Deutsche's equation after calculation of three dimensional electric field and ion density profiles. Whereas, the particle surface charge was obtained from diffusion and field charging models. Results show that the collection efficiency of fine particles for the spike-type discharge electrode when compared to the conventional wire-type was improved. Experimental validations were conducted on a bench scale electrostatic precipitator for total and partial collection efficiency of particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 20 μm and the results indicated that the model can be effectively applied for prototype design, modification, and scale-up of collecting and discharge electrodes.

  16. 78 FR 45945 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition-Project Mortgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5687-N-34] 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition--Project Mortgages AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... Section A. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition...

  17. 78 FR 8192 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice... study will assess the implementation of resources, models, and technologies to determine how and why...

  18. The Pedagogic Project as Provocative of the Collective Work in the School

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Sampaio Araujo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss, starting from the historical-cultural perspective, the sense of a pedagogic project considering its procedural nature, the convergence of the personal and collective dimensions and the educational purpose. The goal is to notice the project as possibility in the field pragmatic and in the theory of the sciences of human formation, linking the human development with the schools and its projects. For that, it tries to demonstrate that pedagogic projec...

  19. Projection of future climate change conditions using IPCC simulations, neural networks and Bayesian statistics. Part 2: Precipitation mean state and seasonal cycle in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe [LODYC, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Tour 45-55/Etage 4/Case 100, UPMC, Paris Cedex 05 (France); University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, Fernando; Segura, Enrique C. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-02-15

    Evaluating the response of climate to greenhouse gas forcing is a major objective of the climate community, and the use of large ensemble of simulations is considered as a significant step toward that goal. The present paper thus discusses a new methodology based on neural network to mix ensemble of climate model simulations. Our analysis consists of one simulation of seven Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models, which participated in the IPCC Project and provided at least one simulation for the twentieth century (20c3m) and one simulation for each of three SRES scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. Our statistical method based on neural networks and Bayesian statistics computes a transfer function between models and observations. Such a transfer function was then used to project future conditions and to derive what we would call the optimal ensemble combination for twenty-first century climate change projections. Our approach is therefore based on one statement and one hypothesis. The statement is that an optimal ensemble projection should be built by giving larger weights to models, which have more skill in representing present climate conditions. The hypothesis is that our method based on neural network is actually weighting the models that way. While the statement is actually an open question, which answer may vary according to the region or climate signal under study, our results demonstrate that the neural network approach indeed allows to weighting models according to their skills. As such, our method is an improvement of existing Bayesian methods developed to mix ensembles of simulations. However, the general low skill of climate models in simulating precipitation mean climatology implies that the final projection maps (whatever the method used to compute them) may significantly change in the future as models improve. Therefore, the projection results for late twenty-first century conditions are presented as possible projections based on the &apos

  20. EMSP Project 70070: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The radioactive material was contained in water-based solutions generally characterized as having high pH values (basic solutions), high nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and high aluminum concentrations. The solutions were also hot, in some cases at or near boiling, as well as complex and highly variable in composition reflecting solutions obtained from multiple methods of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. In order to understand the observed and probable distribution of radionuclides in the ground at Hanford, major reactions that likely occurred between the leaked fluids and the sediment minerals were investigated in laboratory experiments simulating environmental conditions. Reactions involving the dissolution of quartz and biotite and the simultaneous formation of new minerals were quantified at controlled pH values and temperature. Result s show that the dissolution of quartz and formation of new zeolite-like minerals could have altered the flow path of ground water and contaminant plumes and provided an uptake mechanism for positively-charged soluble radionuclides, such as cesium. The dissolution of biotite, a layered-iron-aluminum-silicate mineral, provided iron in a reduced form that could have reacted with negatively-charged soluble chromium, a toxic component of the wastes, to cause its reduction and precipitation as a new reduced-chromium mineral. The quantity of iron released in the experiments is sufficient to explain observations of reductions in dissolved chromium concentration in a plume beneath one Hanford tank. Fundamental data obtained in the project are the rates of the reactions at variable temperatures and pHs. Fundamental data were also obtained on aspects of the surface reactivity of clay or layered-silicate minerals, a small proportion of the total mass of the sediment minerals, but a large proportion

  1. Geochemistry of natural and anthropogenic fall-out (aerosol and precipitation) collected from the NW Mediterranean: two different multivariate statistical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinaroli, E.; Pistolato, M.; Rampazzo, G.; Guerzoni, S.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical characteristics of the mineral fractions of aerosol and precipitation collected in Sardinia (NW Mediterranean) are highlighted by means of two multivariate statistical approaches. Two different combinations of classification and statistical methods for geochemical data are presented. It is shown that the application of cluster analysis subsequent to Q-Factor analysis better distinguishes among Saharan dust, background pollution (Europe-Mediterranean) and local aerosol from various source regions (Sardinia). Conversely, the application of simple cluster analysis was able to distinguish only between aerosols and precipitation particles, without assigning the sources (local or distant) to the aerosol. This method also highlighted the fact that crust-enriched precipitation is similar to desert-derived aerosol. Major elements (Al, Na) and trace metal (Pb) turn out to be the most discriminating elements of the analysed data set. Independent use of mineralogical, granulometric and meteorological data confirmed the results derived from the statistical methods employed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Bias correction of daily precipitation projected by the CORDEX-Africa ensemble for a sparsely gauged region in West Africa with regionalized distribution parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Manuel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrick; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Reliable estimates of future climatic conditions are indispensable for the sustainable planning of agricultural activities in West Africa. Precipitation time series of regional climate models (RCMs) typically exhibit a bias in the distribution of both rainfall intensities and wet day frequencies. Furthermore, the annual and monthly sums of precipitation may remarkably vary from the observations in this region. As West Africa experiences a distinct rainy season, sowing dates are oftentimes planned based on the beginning of this rainfall period. A biased representation of the annual cycle of precipitation in the uncorrected RCMs can therefore lead to crop failure. The precipitation ensemble, obtained from the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment CORDEX-Africa, was bias-corrected for the study region in West Africa (extending approximately 343,358 km2) which covers large parts of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Benin. In oder to debias the RCM precipitation simulations, a Quantile-Mapping method was applied to the historical period 1950-2005. For the RCM future projections (2006-2100), the Double-Quantile-Mapping procedure was chosen. This method makes use of the shift in the distribution function of the future precipitation values which allows to incorporate the climate change signal of the RCM projections into the bias correction. As large areas of the study region are ungauged, the assignment of the information from the nearest station to the ungauged location would lead to sharp changes in the estimated statistics from one location to another. Thus, the distribution parameters needed for the Quantile-Mapping were estimated by Kriging the distribution parameters of the available measurement stations. This way it is possible to obtain reasonable estimates of the expected distribution of precipitation at ungauged locations. The presentation will illustrate some aspects and trade-offs in the distribution parameter interpolation as well as an analysis of the uncertainties of the

  3. A Methodology for Collective Evaluation and Selection of Industrial R&D Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Muhittin Oral; Ossama Kettani; Pascal Lang

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for evaluating and selecting R&D projects in a collective decision setting, especially useful at sectorial and national levels. It consists of two major phases: Evaluation and Selection. The evaluation process repeatedly uses mathematical programming models to determine the "relative values" of a given R&D project from the viewpoint of the other R&D projects. The selection process of R&D projects is based on these "relative values" and is done through a model...

  4. Variations and Trends in Global and Regional Precipitation Based on the 22-year GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project) and Three-year TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R.; Curtis, S.; Huffman, G.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.

    2001-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the analysis of global precipitation over the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to study global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant trend in global precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. The global trend analysis must be interpreted carefully, however, because the inhomogeneity of the data set makes detecting a small signal very difficult, especially over this relatively short period. The relation of global (and tropical) total precipitation and ENSO events is quantified with no significant signal when land and ocean are combined. Identifying regional trends in precipitation may be more practical. From 1979 to 2000 the tropics have pattern of regional rainfall trends that has an ENSO-like pattern with features of both the El Nino and La Nina. This feature is related to a possible trend in the frequency of ENSO events (either El Nino or La Nina) over the past 20 years. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. A number of the features are shown to extend into high latitudes. Positive anomalies extend in the Southern Hemisphere (S.H.) from the Pacific southeastward across Chile and Argentina into the south Atlantic Ocean. In the Northern Hemisphere (N.H.) the counterpart feature extends across the southern U.S. and Atlantic Ocean into Europe

  5. 75 FR 27854 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of Section 25(a)(1) of the Arms... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of... automated collection techniques or other forms of technology. Abstract of proposed collection: Section 25(a...

  6. The Pedagogic Project as Provocative of the Collective Work in the School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sampaio Araujo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss, starting from the historical-cultural perspective, the sense of a pedagogic project considering its procedural nature, the convergence of the personal and collective dimensions and the educational purpose. The goal is to notice the project as possibility in the field pragmatic and in the theory of the sciences of human formation, linking the human development with the schools and its projects. For that, it tries to demonstrate that pedagogic projects configured as activity don't just legitimate the collective participation as it establish a new theoretical and/or methodological order in the organization of the pedagogic work, provoking a school that learns and grows in the search of forming men and women of the best human quality.

  7. WPA Precipitation Tabulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly precipitation data tabulated under the Work Projects Administration (WPA), a New Deal program created to reduce unemployment during the Great Depression....

  8. EpiCollect+: linking smartphones to web applications for complex data collection projects [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3vk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Aanensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have described the development of the generic mobile phone data gathering tool, EpiCollect, and an associated web application, providing two-way communication between multiple data gatherers and a project database. This software only allows data collection on the phone using a single questionnaire form that is tailored to the needs of the user (including a single GPS point and photo per entry, whereas many applications require a more complex structure, allowing users to link a series of forms in a linear or branching hierarchy, along with the addition of any number of media types accessible from smartphones and/or tablet devices (e.g., GPS, photos, videos, sound clips and barcode scanning. A much enhanced version of EpiCollect has been developed (EpiCollect+. The individual data collection forms in EpiCollect+ provide more design complexity than the single form used in EpiCollect, and the software allows the generation of complex data collection projects through the ability to link many forms together in a linear (or branching hierarchy. Furthermore, EpiCollect+ allows the collection of multiple media types as well as standard text fields, increased data validation and form logic. The entire process of setting up a complex mobile phone data collection project to the specification of a user (project and form definitions can be undertaken at the EpiCollect+ website using a simple ‘drag and drop’ procedure, with visualisation of the data gathered using Google Maps and charts at the project website. EpiCollect+ is suitable for situations where multiple users transmit complex data by mobile phone (or other Android devices to a single project web database and is already being used for a range of field projects, particularly public health projects in sub-Saharan Africa. However, many uses can be envisaged from education, ecology and epidemiology to citizen science.

  9. A simplified generator coordinate treatment with analytical projected-BCS solutions for isovector pairing collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Chen, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the projected-BCS energies and reaction transition rates among the isovector pairing collective states are obtained by the recognition of symmetry properties in a class of BCS wave functions. As a consequence, a simplified generator coordinate treatment is suggested [pt

  10. Future projections of extreme precipitation intensity-duration-frequency curves for climate adaptation planning in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur T. DeGaetano

    2017-01-01

    One-hundred-year recurrence interval precipitation amounts exhibit a median increase of between 5 and 10% across the state in the 2010–2039 period regardless of greenhouse gas concentration. By the 2040–2069 period, the median increase is on the order of 10–20% for the high concentration case (RCP 8.5, but remains below 10% if concentrations are lower (RCP 4.5. At the end of the century, all downscaling method climate model combinations indicate increases, with a median change of between 20 and 30% in the case of high concentrations.

  11. Comparison of different statistical downscaling methods to estimate changes in hourly extreme precipitation using RCM projections from ENSEMBLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    change method for extreme events, a weather generator combined with a disaggregation method and a climate analogue method. All three methods rely on different assumptions and use different outputs from the regional climate models (RCMs). The results of the three methods point towards an increase...... in extreme precipitation but the magnitude of the change varies depending on the RCM used and the spatial location. In general, a similar mean change is obtained for the three methods. This adds confidence in the results as each method uses different information from the RCMs. The results of this study...

  12. Future Projections of Air Temperature and Precipitation for the CORDEX-MENA Domain by Using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the projected changes for the periods of 2016 - 2035, 2046 - 2065, and 2081 - 2100 in the seasonal averages of air temperature and precipitation variables with respect to the reference period of 1981 - 2000 were examined for the Middle East and North Africa region. In this context, Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was run by using two different global climate models. MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and HadGEM2 of the Met Office Hadley Centre were dynamically downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX-MENA domain. The projections were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change).

  13. Collection and sharing of data and experience from EC-funded decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflugrad, K.; Colquhoun, A.P.; Schreck, G.; Huske, M.; Petrasch, P.; Tuenckens, L.R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Commission's Fourth Framework Programme (1994-1998) on Nuclear Fission Safety includes the funding of projects relevant to the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The objectives of the programme for decommissioning are to continue the development of technology (a) to collect and analyse relevant data (b) to test and evaluate strategies and techniques and to stimulate the exchange of information and experience. Objective (b) involves related projects aimed at collecting and analysing data from past, current and future EC programmes and making them understandable and readily available in databases as well as studying how these and other databases might be integrated in a decommissioning strategic planning tool (SPT). This aims to assist EU organizations in making strategic choices for optimizing decommissioning programmes. This paper gives an update on database work, a progress report on the development of an EU access network and work on the standardization of cost item definitions. Progress on the SPT study is reviewed. (author)

  14. Effects of Collective Efficacy, Teamwork Attitudes, and Experience on Group Project Performance: Comparisons between 2 Food Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Poppy Lauretta; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between past teamwork and task-related experiences, attitude toward teamwork, collective efficacy, and task performance among undergraduates (N = 298) assigned to group projects (N = 48) in 2 different Food Science courses was examined. The results of survey data collected at the beginning and end of the projects showed that past…

  15. Climate change projections of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration for the Middle East and Northern Africa until 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terink, W.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region can be considered as the most water-scarce region of the world. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects strong changes in climate across MENA, further exacerbating pressure on available water resources. The objective of this study is to

  16. Seabird tissue archival and monitoring project: Egg collections and analytical results 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Christopher, Steven J.; Roseneau, David G.; Becker, Paul R.; Day, Russel D.; Kucklick, John R.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Simac, Kristin S.; Weston-York, Geoff

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS-BRD), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) began the Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) to collect and cryogenically bank tissues from seabirds in Alaska for future retrospective analysis of anthropogenic contaminants. The approach of STAMP was similar to that of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP). AMMTAP was started in 1987 by NIST and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program sponsored by the Minerals Management Service. Presently sponsored by the USGS-BRD, AMMTAP continues its work as part of a larger national program, the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program. AMMTAP developed carefully designed sampling and specimen banking protocols. Since 1987, AMMTAP has collected tissues from marine mammals taken in Alaska Native subsistence hunts and has cryogenically banked these tissues at the NIST National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB). Through its own analytical work and working in partnership with other researchers both within and outside Alaska, AMMTAP has helped to develop a substantial database on contaminants in Alaska marine mammals. In contrast, data and information is limited on contaminants in Alaska seabirds, which are similar to marine mammals in that they feed near the top of the food chain and have the potential for accumulating anthropogenic contaminants. During its early planning stages, STAMP managers identified the seabird egg as the first tissue of choice for study by the project. There is a relatively long history of using bird eggs for environmental monitoring and for investigating the health status of bird populations. Since 1998, protocols for collecting and processing eggs, and cryogenically banking egg samples

  17. Collaborative learning environments and collective creation in 3 weeks bside project experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Rodríguez Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This  paper proposes  a  socio-critical review  and  reflection  related to collaborative learning environment as pedagogical agent and its relationship with artistic-practice communities of collective creativity. The main goal of this research is to introduce the case study 3 weeks bside project experience (3WBPE, from now on. Through participatory action research and the analysis of different concepts and their practical and theoretical aspects. In the framework of an education self-manage- ment development universe, the project pro- cess is based on a collaborative learning. It is focused on the constructions of a common discourse about the idea of territory that is represented in a publication and site specific exhibition. 3WBPE allowed setting up stanc- es that suggest a social interaction transfer related to construction of belong, participa- tion and transformation environment, ques- tion a teacher role or collective creation of a project, emphasizing the importance of pro- cess as a goal, beyond of culture artifact pro- ductions. It was dealt with dialog structures, where a social harmony supposed a personal and common reflection space about author’s stance, nigh socio-culture environments and the bond within the education, arts and visu- al culture focused in the horizontal and flexi- ble work capacity, that proposes a collabora- tive learning environment settings.

  18. Chemical composition of precipitation in India and Nepal: A preliminary report on an Indo-Swedish Project on Atmospheric Chemistry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parashar, D.C.; Granat, L.; Kulshreshta, U.C.; Pillai, A.G.; Naik, M.S.; Momin, G.A.; Rao, P.S.P.; Safai, P.D.; Khemani, L.T.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Narvekar, P.V.; Thapa, K.B.; Rodhe, H.

    distance from the coast. Delhi deviates in peculiar fashion with higher concentrations of SO sub(4) sup(2-) , NH sub(4) sup(+) and K sup(+) and lower in Ca sup(2+) and Mg sup(2+) . Amount of dustfall (as collected by funnels which probably only give a...

  19. Socialisme ou Barbarie: From Castoriadis’ Project of Individual and Collective Autonomy to the Collaborative Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Papadimitropoulos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine the content of socialism in the work of Cornelius Castoriadis in its potential relation to the current emergence of collaborative commons. I begin by analysing Castoriadis’ conceptualisation of socialism, as crystallised in the project of individual and collective autonomy, which was initially demonstrated in the journal Socialisme ou Barbarie (1949-1965 and evolved thereafter in his later writings. I continue by briefly presenting some basic points of criticism, after which I explore the potential compatibility of Castoriadis’ political project with the prospect of market socialism, as the latter emerges today in the form of collaborative commons. I argue, in particular, that collaborative commons echo Castoriadis’ conception of socialism in several respects. Finally, I critically develop a series of proposals made by Vasilis Kostakis and Michel Bauwens that could provide fertile ground for further discussion on the prospect of the commons.

  20. Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes over China as Measured by 50-yr Return Values and Periods Based on a CMIP5 Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Gao, Xuejie; Giorgi, Filippo; Zhou, Botao; Shi, Ying; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2018-04-01

    Future changes in the 50-yr return level for temperature and precipitation extremes over mainland China are investigated based on a CMIP5 multi-model ensemble for RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The following indices are analyzed: TXx and TNn (the annual maximum and minimum of daily maximum and minimum surface temperature), RX5day (the annual maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation) and CDD (maximum annual number of consecutive dry days). After first validating the model performance, future changes in the 50-yr return values and return periods for these indices are investigated along with the inter-model spread. Multi-model median changes show an increase in the 50-yr return values of TXx and a decrease for TNn, more specifically, by the end of the 21st century under RCP8.5, the present day 50-yr return period of warm events is reduced to 1.2 yr, while extreme cold events over the country are projected to essentially disappear. A general increase in RX5day 50-yr return values is found in the future. By the end of the 21st century under RCP8.5, events of the present RX5day 50-yr return period are projected to reduce to China. Changes in CDD-50 show a dipole pattern over China, with a decrease in the values and longer return periods in the north, and vice versa in the south. Our study also highlights the need for further improvements in the representation of extreme events in climate models to assess the future risks and engineering design related to large-scale infrastructure in China.

  1. ICDE project report on collection and analysis of common-cause failures of centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Several member countries of OECD/NEA decided to establish the International Common-Cause Failure Data Exchange (ICDE) Project to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to Common-Cause Failure (CCF) events. The project was initiated in August 1994 in Sweden and was discussed at meetings in both Sweden and France in 1995. A coding benchmark exercise was defined which was evaluated at meetings held in Germany and in the US in 1996. Subsequently, the exchange of centrifugal pump data was defined; the first phase of this exchange was evaluated at meetings in Switzerland and in France in 1997. The objectives of the ICDE Project are: - to collect and analyse CCF events in the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes, and their prevention, - to generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences, - to establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained on CCF phenomena, including the development of defences against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk based inspections. The ICDE Project is envisaged as including all possible events of interest, comprising complete, partial and incipient CCF events, called 'ICDE events' in the following. The Project covers the key components of the main safety systems, like centrifugal pumps, diesel generators, motor operated valves, power operated relief valves, safety relief valves, check valves, RPS circuit breakers, batteries and transmitters. Data are collected in an MS ACCESS based databank implemented and maintained at ES-Konsult, Sweden, by NEA appointed clearinghouse. The databank is regularly updated. The clearinghouse and the project group operate it. In the modelling of common-cause failures in systems consisting of several redundant components, two kinds of events are distinguished: a) Unavailability of a

  2. Precipitation and measurements of precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, F.H.; Bruin, H.A.R. de; Attmannspacher, W.; Harrold, T.W.; Kraijenhoff van de Leur, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In Western Europe, precipitation is normal phenomenon; it is of importance to all aspects of society, particularly to agriculture, in cattle breeding and, of course, it is a subject of hydrological research. Precipitation is an essential part in the hydrological cycle. How disastrous local

  3. Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types during summer over South Korea in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) projected by the RegCM4.0 based on four RCP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types over South Korea during summer in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) were projected under four RCP scenarios using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.0) with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km. Two boundary conditions, ERA-Interim and HadGEM2-AO, were used to drive the RegCM4.0 (jointly named RG4_ERA and RG4_HG2, respectively). In general, the RegCM4.0 reproduces the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over Northeast Asia for the current climate (1989-2008) reasonably well. The RG4_HG2 shows larger dry biases over South Korea, when compared with observations, than does the RG4_ERA. These strong dry biases result from the underestimation of convective precipitation (CPR) and are particularly noticeable in late afternoons during July and August. It is related to the performance of HadGEM2-AO which simulated southwesterly winds weakly in that time. However, interestingly, the RG4_HG2 simulates similar increases in the contribution of CPR to total precipitation after mid-July, resulting in comparable performance in the reproduction of heavy precipitation. In the late twenty-first century, a significant increase (decrease) in CPR (NCPR) is generally projected over South Korea, and particularly under the RCP8.5. During June, the total precipitation is affected primarily by changes in NCPR under RCP2.6 and RCP6.0. After mid-July, increasing total precipitation is primarily caused by the distinct increases in CPR in the late afternoons; this pattern is particularly noticeable under RCP8.5, which is associated with more destabilized atmospheric conditions during July and August. Light and heavy precipitation are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under RCP8.5.

  4. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  5. TCA precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins is commonly used to concentrate protein samples or remove contaminants, including salts and detergents, prior to downstream applications such as SDS-PAGE or 2D-gels. TCA precipitation denatures the protein, so it should not be used if the protein must remain in its folded state (e.g., if you want to measure a biochemical activity of the protein). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  7. The INCOMPASS project field and modelling campaign: Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Ganapati; Evans, Jonathan; Madan, Ranju; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Parker, Douglas; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Taylor, Christopher; Tripathi, Sachchida

    2017-04-01

    The INCOMPASS project uses data from a field and aircraft measurement campaign during the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. Here we will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles from aircraft data. We

  8. Multimodel GCM-RCM Ensemble-Based Projections of Temperature and Precipitation over West Africa for the Early 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Diallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable climate change scenarios are critical for West Africa, whose economy relies mostly on agriculture and, in this regard, multimodel ensembles are believed to provide the most robust climate change information. Toward this end, we analyze and intercompare the performance of a set of four regional climate models (RCMs driven by two global climate models (GCMs (for a total of 4 different GCM-RCM pairs in simulating present day and future climate over West Africa. The results show that the individual RCM members as well as their ensemble employing the same driving fields exhibit different biases and show mixed results in terms of outperforming the GCM simulation of seasonal temperature and precipitation, indicating a substantial sensitivity of RCMs to regional and local processes. These biases are reduced and GCM simulations improved upon by averaging all four RCM simulations, suggesting that multi-model RCM ensembles based on different driving GCMs help to compensate systematic errors from both the nested and the driving models. This confirms the importance of the multi-model approach for improving robustness of climate change projections. Illustrative examples of such ensemble reveal that the western Sahel undergoes substantial drying in future climate projections mostly due to a decrease in peak monsoon rainfall.

  9. Seabird tissue archival and monitoring project: Protocol for collecting and banking seabird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-York, Geoff; Porter, Barbara J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.; Simac, Kristin S.; Becker, Paul R.; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Archiving biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis is a major component of systematic environmental monitoring. The long-term storage of carefully selected, representative samples in an environmental specimen bank is an important complement to the real-time monitoring of the environment. These archived samples permit:The use of subsequently developed innovative analytical technology that was not available at the time the samples were archived, for clear state-of-art identification an~ quantification of analytes of interest,The identification and quantification of analytes that are of subsequent interest but that were not of interest at the time the samples were archived, andThe comparison of present and past analytical techniques and values, providing continued credibility of past analytical values, and allowing flexibility in environmental monitoring programs.Seabirds, including albatrosses, pelicans, cormorants, terns, kittiwakes, murres, guillemots, and puffins spend most of their lives at sea and have special adaptations for feeding in the marine environment, including the ability to excrete the excess salt obtained from ingesting seawater. Many species nest in dense groups (colonies) on steep, precipitous sea-cliffs and headlands.Seabirds are long-lived and slow to mature. They occupy high positions in the marine food web and are considered sensitive indicators for the marine environment (prey includes krill, small fish, and squid). Breeding success, timing of nesting, diets, and survival rates may provide early indications of changing environmental conditions (e.g., see Hatch et aI., 1993). Chemical analysis of seabird tissues, including egg contents, can be particularly useful in determining whether contaminants (and potential biological effects) associated with human industrial activities, such as offshore petroleum and mineral exploration and development, are accumulating in marine environments. The collection and archival of seabird

  10. Evaluation of radar-derived precipitation estimates using runoff simulation : report for the NFR Energy Norway funded project 'Utilisation of weather radar data in atmospheric and hydrological models'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdella, Yisak; Engeland, Kolbjoern; Lepioufle, Jean-Marie

    2012-11-01

    This report presents the results from the project called 'Utilisation of weather radar data in atmospheric and hydrological models' funded by NFR and Energy Norway. Three precipitation products (radar-derived, interpolated and combination of the two) were generated as input for hydrological models. All the three products were evaluated by comparing the simulated and observed runoff at catchments. In order to expose any bias in the precipitation inputs, no precipitation correction factors were applied. Three criteria were used to measure the performance: Nash, correlation coefficient, and bias. The results shows that the simulations with the combined precipitation input give the best performance. We also see that the radar-derived precipitation estimates give reasonable runoff simulation even without a region specific parameters for the Z-R relationship. All the three products resulted in an underestimation of the estimated runoff, revealing a systematic bias in measurements (e.g. catch deficit, orographic effects, Z-R relationships) that can be improved. There is an important potential of using radar-derived precipitation for simulation of runoff, especially in catchments without precipitation gauges inside.(Author)

  11. Factors influencing the development of primary care data collection projects from electronic health records: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Marie-Line; Cuggia, Marc; Fiquet, Laure; Hagenbourger, Camille; Le Berre, Thomas; Banâtre, Agnès; Renault, Eric; Bouzille, Guillaume; Chapron, Anthony

    2017-09-25

    Primary care data gathered from Electronic Health Records are of the utmost interest considering the essential role of general practitioners (GPs) as coordinators of patient care. These data represent the synthesis of the patient history and also give a comprehensive picture of the population health status. Nevertheless, discrepancies between countries exist concerning routine data collection projects. Therefore, we wanted to identify elements that influence the development and durability of such projects. A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed database to identify worldwide current primary care data collection projects. The gray literature was also searched via official project websites and their contact person was emailed to obtain information on the project managers. Data were retrieved from the included studies using a standardized form, screening four aspects: projects features, technological infrastructure, GPs' roles, data collection network organization. The literature search allowed identifying 36 routine data collection networks, mostly in English-speaking countries: CPRD and THIN in the United Kingdom, the Veterans Health Administration project in the United States, EMRALD and CPCSSN in Canada. These projects had in common the use of technical facilities that range from extraction tools to comprehensive computing platforms. Moreover, GPs initiated the extraction process and benefited from incentives for their participation. Finally, analysis of the literature data highlighted that governmental services, academic institutions, including departments of general practice, and software companies, are pivotal for the promotion and durability of primary care data collection projects. Solid technical facilities and strong academic and governmental support are required for promoting and supporting long-term and wide-range primary care data collection projects.

  12. Reflections on the individual–collective relation in change agency formation in the Samsø renewable energy island project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers reflections on change agency formation in the Renewable Energy Island (REI) project on Samsø, following a field visit to the island in June 2016. Both individual and collective agency are set out as central for the processes leading to the change in the REI project, spurring ref...

  13. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  14. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.

    2010-07-01

    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  15. Are REDD+ community forest projects following the principles for collective action, as proposed by Ostrom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Saeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forested countries in the global south that have agreed to engage in REDD+, a policy mechanism for addressing climate change, are receiving support to improve laws, policies, systems and structures. As a mechanism initiated at the global level and seeking to use forests to address a global commons crisis (atmospheric carbon concentration, understanding how REDD+ translates into implementation at the local level is essential. Therefore, using a systematic review approach, we examined 15 studies of REDD+ in the context of public and/or community managed forests, drawn from a comprehensive application of inclusion criteria to identify relevant published peer-reviewed empirical research. The common property resources literature was used to highlight the role of local institutions in REDD+ and to distil how REDD+ community forest projects conform to Ostrom’s collective action principles. The review revealed limited sharing of information and decision-making authority with communities; a general absence of FPIC; and a lack of defined benefit sharing and conflict resolution arrangements in many of the REDD+ projects.

  16. Introduction to the Special Collection of Papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: A Methodology for Evaluating Regional Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, descripti...

  17. Precipitation Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although weather, including its role in the water cycle, is included in most elementary science programs, any further examination of raindrops and snowflakes is rare. Together rain and snow make up most of the precipitation that replenishes Earth's life-sustaining fresh water supply. When viewed individually, raindrops and snowflakes are quite…

  18. GPM GROUND VALIDATION PRECIPITATION VIDEO IMAGER (PVI) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Precipitation Video Imager (PVI) GCPEx dataset collected precipitation particle images and drop size distribution data from November 2011...

  19. Collect, analyze and data base for building up the investment reports of Center for Nuclear Science and Technology construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quang Minh; Tran Chi Thanh; Cao Dinh Thanh; Mai Dinh Trung; Hoang Sy Than; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Trinh Van Giap; Le Ba Thuan; Vu Tien Ha

    2014-01-01

    Following the Contract No.19/HD/NVCB dated July 10, 2013 signed by the President of Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (VINATOM), an additional ministerial Project was approval by the Decision No. 526/QD-VNLNT dated July 8, 2013 by the VINATOM President in order to implement an important task for VINATOM. This project was implemented by the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INST) in Hanoi as management organization and VINATOM as the owner of project results. Main objectives of this Project are to support national budget for implementing to collected the general report from previous projects which are relevant to CNEST and new research reactor, IAEA guidance documents, documents provided by ROSATOM in seminars in 2010, 2012 and 2013, report from expert visits of Ministry of Science and Technology and completed the general report about the construction project of CNEST. (author)

  20. Towards improving the reliability of future regional climate projections: A bias-correction method applied to precipitation over the west coast of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valved, A.; Barstad, I.; Sobolowski, S.

    2012-04-01

    distribution to that of the observations and adds back the climate signal found in the model run. This bias-correction methodology is applied to the output of a four-member ensemble of a high resolution AGCM (30 km over Norway) plus a control simulation. Point observations from the Bergen area for the control period are used to build "ground truth" pdfs. After the bias-correction method is applied the future climate simulations (2031-2060) are compared to a 30-year control period (1961-1990). The results indicate that this method may lead to more reliable local scale projections for future precipitation change.

  1. Projection of the change in future extremes over Japan using a cloud-resolving model: (2) Precipitation Extremes and the results of the NHM-1km experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, S.; Nakano, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hayashi, S.; Kato, T.; Kurihara, K.; Sasaki, H.; Uchiyama, T.; Aranami, K.; Honda, Y.; Kitoh, A.

    2008-12-01

    In order to study changes in the regional climate in the vicinity of Japan during the summer rainy season due to global warming, experiments by a semi-cloud resolving non-hydrostatic model with a horizontal resolution of 5km (NHM-5km) have been conducted from June to October by nesting within the results of the 10-year time-integrated experiments using a hydrostatic atmospheric general circulation model with a horizontal grid of 20 km (AGCM-20km: TL959L60) for the present and future up to the year 2100. A non-hydrostatic model developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) (JMA-NHM; Saito et al. 2001, 2006) was adopted. Detailed descriptions of the NHM-5km are shown by the poster of Nakano et al. Our results show that rainy days over most of the Japanese Islands will decrease in June and July and increase in August and September in the future climate. Especially, remarkable increases in intense precipitations such as larger than 150 - 300 mm/day are projected from the present to future climate. The 90th percentiles of regional largest values among maximum daily precipitations (R-MDPs) grow 156 to 207 mm/day in the present and future climates, respectively. It is well-known that the horizontal distribution of precipitation, especially the heavy rainfall in the vicinity of Japan, much depends on the topography. Therefore, higher resolution experiments by a cloud-resolving model with a horizontal resolution of 1km (NHM-1km) are one-way nested within the results of NHM-5km. The basic frame and design of the NHM-1km is the same as those of the NHM-5km, but the topography is finer and no cumulus parameterization is used in the NHM-1km experiments. The NHM-1km, which treats the convection and cloud microphysics explicitly, can represent not only horizontal distributions of rainfall in detail but also the 3-dimensional structures of meso-beta-scale convective systems (MCSs). Because of the limitation of computation resources, only heavy rainfall events that rank in top

  2. Two-stage Framework for a Topology-Based Projection and Visualization of Classified Document Collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterling, Patrick; Scheuermann, Gerik; Teresniak, Sven; Heyer, Gerhard; Koch, Steffen; Ertl, Thomas; Weber, Gunther H.

    2010-07-19

    During the last decades, electronic textual information has become the world's largest and most important information source available. People have added a variety of daily newspapers, books, scientific and governmental publications, blogs and private messages to this wellspring of endless information and knowledge. Since neither the existing nor the new information can be read in its entirety, computers are used to extract and visualize meaningful or interesting topics and documents from this huge information clutter. In this paper, we extend, improve and combine existing individual approaches into an overall framework that supports topological analysis of high dimensional document point clouds given by the well-known tf-idf document-term weighting method. We show that traditional distance-based approaches fail in very high dimensional spaces, and we describe an improved two-stage method for topology-based projections from the original high dimensional information space to both two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) visualizations. To show the accuracy and usability of this framework, we compare it to methods introduced recently and apply it to complex document and patent collections.

  3. Pennsylvania Perspectives of the 2016 Election: A Project to Collect Web and Social Media Content Around Significant Societal Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony T Pinter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 election, Pennsylvania was viewed as a crucial state not only for the presidential race, but also for a Senate seat, seats in the House of Representatives, and for state-specific positions. In response to the attention placed on Pennsylvania during the election, Penn State University Libraries undertook a project to document the discourse that occurred online. The resulting project, “Pennsylvania Perspectives on the 2016 U.S. Election,” collected websites and Twitter data in order to document the people, voices, moments, and prominent issues in Pennsylvania. In this practice paper, we describe the project background, scope, collection methodology, lessons learned, and best practices that we discovered, in the hopes that it will inspire others to undertake similar projects to document important societal events at local, state, national, and international levels.

  4. Stable isotope (2H, 17O, 18O) and hydro chemical patterns of precipitation collected in weekly resolution at Hannover, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeniger, Paul; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Long-term observations of stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) in precipitation were initiated in May 2008 at the Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Hannover, Germany. In 2014 all precipitation samples were re-analyzed because a purchase of a new laser spectrometer (Picarro L2140-i) now allowed measurements of δ17O and a calculation of the 17O-excess parameter. Starting in October 2015 a routine analysis of hydro chemical parameters was added whenever enough sample aliquot was available (major ions, trace elements). A discussion of the stable isotope data of the seven year series of weekly precipitation samples (n = 370) will be presented. Beneath general patterns (seasonality and trends) we also focus on importance of amount weighing procedures, corrections for minor rain amounts, aspects of sample storage and re-analyzes, as well as impacts through changes in analytical equipment (IRMS, CRD spectroscopy) which is visible from the data. For stable isotopes a Thermo Fisher delta plus IRMS (Gasbench and H-Device) was used until 2011 and from 2012 on a Picarro L2120-i water vapor analyzer with long-term accuracies for quality check samples better than 0.2‰ and 0.8‰ for δ18O and δ2H, respectively.

  5. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutain, Doris M

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about how health disparities are created and sustained from those affected is needed. Collective knowledge sharing is one way to redefine and revalue dialogue and critique processes with the aim of promoting just relationships of knowledge production. This article describes how a community service project focused on using collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy with health ministry volunteers produced insights about preterm birth disparity issues. Project insights related to (1) the connection between faith and health, (2) the significance of family and congregational stories, and (3) the importance of praising assets in the context of disparity recognition.

  6. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  7. Collective Efficacy and Its Relationship with Leadership in a Computer-Mediated Project-Based Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yeol; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Lee, Dabae

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bandura's work, the four sources of efficacy shaping were examined in regard to frequency and students' perception of importance in a computer-mediated, project-based high school classroom. In a context of group work where there was no designated leader, groups' collective efficacy was examined if it has any relationship with individual's…

  8. 76 FR 14099 - Proposed Collection of Information for an Evaluation of the Young Parents Demonstration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments are... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Proposed Collection of Information for.../or continuing collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA...

  9. 75 FR 79008 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study of Substance Abuse doc.com Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... referral to treatment for patients who abuse substances. The overall goal of this project is to assess the... provide significant services directly to the public to survey customers to determine the kind and quality of services they want and their level of satisfaction with existing services. The project will...

  10. Teale Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  11. On the use of model-based microphysics-lightning relationships for constraining passive-microwave precipitation retrieval from space using lightning data: Application to case studies of the EU FLASH project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenton, Marco; Casella, Daniele; Dietrich, Stefano; di Paola, Francesco; Mugnai, Alberto; Sanò, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Within the FLASH project, we use the 1.5-dimensional Explicit Microphysics Thunderstorm Model (EMTM) to generate quantitative relationships between the microphysical and electrification properties of thunderstorms, that are then utilized as classification criteria within our Bayesian precipitation retrieval algorithm so as to help cloud profile selection by means of lightning data. In this paper, we describe the rationale of this approach and discuss the results of its application to some storms that occurred over central Italy during autumn 2008 and that have been considered within the FLASH project.

  12. A System Dynamics Approach to Modeling Future Climate Scenarios: Quantifying and Projecting Patterns of Evapotranspiration and Precipitation in the Salton Sea Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kjelland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved quantitative precipitation forecasts and realistic assessments of the regional impacts of natural climate variability and climate change has generated increased interest in regional (i.e., systems-scale climate simulation. The Salton Sea Stochastic Simulation Model (S4M was developed to assist planners and residents of the Salton Sea (SS transboundary watershed (USA and Mexico in making sound policy decisions regarding complex water-related issues. In order to develop the S4M with a higher degree of climate forecasting resolution, an in-depth analysis was conducted regarding precipitation and evapotranspiration for the semiarid region of the watershed. Weather station data were compiled for both precipitation and evapotranspiration from 1980 to 2004. Several logistic regression models were developed for determining the relationships among precipitation events, that is, duration and volume, and evapotranspiration levels. These data were then used to develop a stochastic weather generator for S4M. Analyses revealed that the cumulative effects and changes of ±10 percent in SS inflows can have significant effects on sea elevation and salinity. The aforementioned technique maintains the relationships between the historic frequency distributions of both precipitation and evapotranspiration, and not as separate unconnected and constrained variables.

  13. Recent developments in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility Waste Tracking System-automated data collection pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, B.; Montoya, A.; Klein, W.

    1999-01-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a pilot project for demonstrating the feasibility and utility of automated data collection as a solution for tracking waste containers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. This project, the Los Alamos Waste Tracking System (LAWTS), tracks waste containers during their lifecycle at the facility. LAWTS is a two-tiered system consisting of a server/workstation database and reporting engine and a hand-held data terminal-based client program for collecting data directly from tracked containers. New containers may be added to the system from either the client unit or from the server database. Once containers are in the system, they can be tracked through one of three primary transactions: Move, Inventory, and Shipment. Because LAWTS is a pilot project, it also serves as a learning experience for all parties involved. This paper will discuss many of the lessons learned in implementing a data collection system in the restricted environment. Specifically, the authors will discuss issues related to working with the PPT 4640 terminal system as the data collection unit. They will discuss problems with form factor (size, usability, etc.) as well as technical problems with wireless radio frequency functions. They will also discuss complications that arose from outdoor use of the terminal (barcode scanning failures, screen readability problems). The paper will conclude with a series of recommendations for proceeding with LAWTS based on experience to date

  14. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 1997 (NODC Accession 0037159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  15. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 2005 (NODC Accession 0057025)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  16. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 1998 (NODC Accession 0037160)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  17. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 1996 (NODC Accession 0015544)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  18. Digital collection of aerial photographs from the Common Murre Restoration Project, 2006 (NODC Accession 0058096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Common Murre Restoration Project is a comprehensive seabird restoration effort aimed at enhancing depleted seabird populations in central California,...

  19. Sensing and collecting radioactive materials as a project to teach engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, D.; Majdi, T.; Strack, J.

    2015-01-01

    The remote detection and isolation of radioactive materials is both a challenging engineering design project and a relevant issue given modern nuclear circumstances. This project is used in the undergraduate capstone class of the Engineering Physics Department at McMaster University to teach students engineering design. This paper discusses the course outline and learning outcomes of the students who took the course over the 2014-2015 academic year. (author)

  20. Sensing and collecting radioactive materials as a project to teach engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, D.; Majdi, T.; Strack, J., E-mail: draked2@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Hamiltion, ON (Canada); and others

    2015-07-01

    The remote detection and isolation of radioactive materials is both a challenging engineering design project and a relevant issue given modern nuclear circumstances. This project is used in the undergraduate capstone class of the Engineering Physics Department at McMaster University to teach students engineering design. This paper discusses the course outline and learning outcomes of the students who took the course over the 2014-2015 academic year. (author)

  1. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  2. Same-sex sexual relationships in the national social life, health and aging project: making a case for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports.

  3. Collaboration Across Professional Boundaries – The Emergence of Interpretation Drift and the Collective Creation of Project Jargon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2015-01-01

    research suggested a numbers of support systems that seek to diminish differences, understand others’ social worlds and achieve mutual understanding. However, interestingly, the cases introduced in this paper indicate that a key in such collaboration support resides in the collective creation process...... empirical collaborative design cases, we address the interpretation drift of common terms as an unavoidable integral aspect of the design process, and the ongoing collective creation of local languages or project jargon during the collaboration period as facilitators to enable collaborators to work beyond...

  4. The Palermo Capuchin Catacombs Project: a multidisciplinary approach to the study of a modern Mummy Collection (ca 1600-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sineo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multidisciplinary project for the study of the present conditions, history, bioanthropological features and conservation status of a large collection of modern human mummies, kept in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (Sicily, Italy. Due to the large amount of spontaneously and anthropogenically mummified human bodies, and to an abundant presence of associated artefacts, this collection provides a unique opportunity to carry out a large multidisciplinary survey useful for a thorough biocultural understanding of these remains, a conservation plan, and testing of new restoration protocols.

  5. 75 FR 44053 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: CDFI/CDE Project Profiles Web Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... provide loans, investments, financial services and technical assistance to underserved populations and... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Collection.... 3506(c)(2)(A). Currently, the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, Department of...

  6. Digital Collections Are a Sprint, Not a Marathon: Adapting Scrum Project Management Techniques to Library Digital Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dulock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a case study in which a small team from the digital initiatives group and metadata services department at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder Libraries conducted a pilot of the Scrum project management framework. The pilot team organized digital initiatives work into short, fixed intervals called sprints—a key component of Scrum. Over a year of working in the modified framework yielded significant improvements to digital collection work, including increased production of digital objects and surrogate records, accelerated publication of digital collections, and an increase in the number of concurrent projects. Adoption of sprints has improved communication and cooperation among participants, reinforced teamwork, and enhanced their ability to adapt to shifting priorities.

  7. Factors influencing the development of primary care data collection projects from electronic health records: a systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gentil, Marie-Line; Cuggia, Marc; Fiquet, Laure; Hagenbourger, Camille; Le Berre, Thomas; Banâtre, Agnès; Renault, Eric; Bouzille, Guillaume; Chapron, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary care data gathered from Electronic Health Records are of the utmost interest considering the essential role of general practitioners (GPs) as coordinators of patient care. These data represent the synthesis of the patient history and also give a comprehensive picture of the population health status. Nevertheless, discrepancies between countries exist concerning routine data collection projects. Therefore, we wanted to identify elements that influence the development and dur...

  8. Seasonal cycle of precipitation over major river basins in South and Southeast Asia: A review of the CMIP5 climate models data for present climate and future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    We review the skill of thirty coupled climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in terms of reproducing properties of the seasonal cycle of precipitation over the major river basins of South and Southeast Asia (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra and Mekong) for the historical period (1961-2000). We also present how these models represent the impact of climate change by the end of century (2061-2100) under the extreme scenario RCP8.5. First, we assess the models' ability to reproduce the observed timings of the monsoon onset and the rate of rapid fractional accumulation (RFA) slope — a measure of seasonality within the active monsoon period. Secondly, we apply a threshold-independent seasonality index (SI) — a multiplicative measure of precipitation (P) and extent of its concentration relative to uniform distribution (relative entropy — RE). We apply SI distinctly over the monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR), westerly precipitation regime (WPR) and annual precipitation. For the present climate, neither any single model nor the multi-model mean performs best in all chosen metrics. Models show overall a modest skill in suggesting right timings of the monsoon onset while the RFA slope is generally underestimated. One third of the models fail to capture the monsoon signal over the Indus basin. Mostly, the estimates for SI during WPR are higher than observed for all basins. When looking at MPR, the models typically simulate an SI higher (lower) than observed for the Ganges and Brahmaputra (Indus and Mekong) basins, following the pattern of overestimation (underestimation) of precipitation. Most of the models are biased negative (positive) for RE estimates over the Brahmaputra and Mekong (Indus and Ganges) basins, implying the extent of precipitation concentration for MPR and number of dry days within WPR lower (higher) than observed for these basins. Such skill of the CMIP5 models in representing the present-day monsoonal

  9. Beyond You and Me: Stories for Collective Action and Learning? Perspectives from an Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearty, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the combination of storytelling and reflective action research as a means to effect change and learning within and across communities and organizations. Taking the complex challenge of "pro-environmental behaviour change" as an example, the paper reflects on the experiences of a pilot project run for the UK government…

  10. Student Team Projects in Information Systems Development: Measuring Collective Creative Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Hua; Yang, Heng-Li

    2011-01-01

    For information systems development project student teams, learning how to improve software development processes is an important training. Software process improvement is an outcome of a number of creative behaviours. Social cognitive theory states that the efficacy of judgment influences behaviours. This study explores the impact of three types…

  11. CISP: Simulation Platform for Collective Instabilities in the BRing of HIAF project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Yin, D. Y.; Shen, G. D.; Li, P.; Zhao, H.; Ruan, S.; Wu, B.

    2018-02-01

    To simulate collective instabilities during the complicated beam manipulation in the BRing (Booster Ring) of HIAF (High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility) or other high intensity accelerators, a code, named CISP (Simulation Platform for Collective Instabilities), is designed and constructed in China's IMP (Institute of Modern Physics). The CISP is a scalable multi-macroparticle simulation platform that can perform longitudinal and transverse tracking when chromaticity, space charge effect, nonlinear magnets and wakes are included. And due to its well object-oriented design, the CISP is also a basic platform used to develop many other applications (like feedback). Several simulations, completed by the CISP in this paper, agree with analytical results very well, which shows that the CISP is fully functional now and it is a powerful platform for the further collective instability research in the BRing or other accelerators. In the future, the CISP can also be extended easily into a physics control system for HIAF or other facilities.

  12. Management of small digital collections with Omeka: the MoRE experience (A Museum of REfused and unrealised art projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salarelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main features of Omeka, a free and open source CMS (Content Management System for online digital collections developed by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. Omeka presents very interesting features: first, a remarkable ease of use that, however, does not affect its multiple functions; secondly, it provides tools to create, in an innovative way, virtual exhibitions for archives, libraries and museums in order to promote their collections on the web; thirdly, its extreme adaptability to collection size: in fact Omeka is used by large and celebrated institutions such as the New York Public Library and Europeana, but also by many small initiatives including MoRE (A Museum of REfused and unrealized art projects. Specifically, the second part of the article describes, in brief, the objectives and characteristics of this virtual museum dedicated to contemporary unrealized artworks; it is an experimental project, still under development, devised by a working group of the University of Parma (Italy, who found in Omeka the most suitable IT solution to collect and expose these unique museum materials.

  13. Addressing Common Student Technical Errors in Field Data Collection: An Analysis of a Citizen-Science Monitoring Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippoff, Joanna; Baumgartner, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai'i's Intertidal (OPIHI), have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. "Sloppiness" was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.

  14. Addressing Common Student Technical Errors in Field Data Collection: An Analysis of a Citizen-Science Monitoring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Philippoff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai‘i's Intertidal (OPIHI, have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. “Sloppiness” was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.

  15. The use of PDAs to collect baseline survey data: lessons learned from a pilot project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandon, I N; Searing, H; Goldberg, R; Duran, R; Arce, J Monterrey

    2008-01-01

    We compared the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) against the use of standard paper questionnaires for collecting survey data. The evaluation consisted of qualitative approaches to document the process of introducing PDAs. Fieldwork was carried out during June-July 2005 at 12 sites in Bolivia. Data collectors reacted positively to the use of the PDAs and noted the advantages and disadvantages of paper and PDA data collection. A number of difficulties encountered in the use of PDA technology serve as a warning for investigators planning its adoption. Problems included incompatible data files (which impeded the ability to interpret data), an inadequate back-up protocol, and lack of a good 'fit' between the technology and the study. Ensuring the existence of a back-end database, developing an appropriate and adequate back-up protocol, and assessing whether a technology 'fits' the project are important factors in weighing the decision to collect data using PDAs.

  16. 75 FR 57490 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Multifamily Project Monthly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by... Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503; fax... cash flow trends as well as occupancy and rent collection levels. DATES: Comments Due Date: October 21...

  17. 76 FR 43657 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Project 25 Compliance Assessment Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information... via the Internet at [email protected] ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The September 11... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice...

  18. Student Project and Curriculum Based on Light at Night Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Erin M.; DeBenedetti, Jennifer C.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing movement in the educational field to promote science, technology, engineering and math studies, stemming from a concern about waning understanding and interest among K-12 students in these topics. STEM Laboratory, Inc. (STEM) has developed a Sky Brightness Meter (SBM) that can be used with ease yet produces complex information relating to light at night monitoring. STEM sees the SBM and its corresponding data archive as a means to involve students in projects that relate to scientific method exploration, makes science more accessible, and encourages a life long appreciation and understanding of scientific endeavors. In this paper we present an example of a project template that could be used by students studying effects of artificial light on sky brightness. STEM has developed several outreach lessons aligned with the National Common Core Curriculum, Systems Thinking concepts and local standards to be implemented in classrooms or independent youth organizations.

  19. Collection of URL measurement data in 2010 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Daisuke; Sawada, Sumiyuki; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Amano, Yuki; Niinuma, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation' and 'Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities', over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations was planned. At the begining of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') and an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Drift Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' were published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the East Shaft and the drifts in 2010 fiscal year based on the Observational Construction Program. The report summarizes the measurements data for the purpose of acquisition the basic data for

  20. Collection of URL measurement data in 2011 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Daisuke; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Murakami, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation' and 'Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities', over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations was planned. At the beginning of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') and an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Drift Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' were published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the East Shaft and the drifts in 2011 fiscal year based on the Observational Construction Program. The report summarizes the measurements data for the purpose of acquisition the basic data for

  1. Collection of measurement data in 2012 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Daisuke

    2014-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation' and 'Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities', over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations was planned. At the begining of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') and an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Drift Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' were published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the East Shaft and the drifts in 2012 fiscal year based on the Observational Construction Program. The report summarizes the measurements data for the purpose of acquisition of the basic data

  2. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  3. A novel electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Minkang; Wang, Liqian; Lin, Zhigui

    2013-01-01

    ESP (Electrostatic Precipitation) has been widely used in the mining, building materials, metallurgy and power industries. Dust particles or other harmful particles from the airstream can be precipitated by ESP with great collecting efficiency. Because of its' large size, high cost and energy consumption, the scope of application of ESP has been limited to a certain extent. By means of the theory of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, a corona assembly with a self-cleaning function and a threshold voltage automatic tracking technology has been developed and used in ESP. It is indicated that compared with conventional ESP, the electric field length has been reduced to 1/10 of the original, the current density on the collecting electrode increased 3-5 times at the maximum, the approach speed of dust particles in the electric field towards the collecting electrode is 4 times that in conventional ESP and the electric field wind speed may be enhanced by 2-3 times the original. Under the premise of ESP having a high efficiency of dust removal, equipment volume may be actually reduced to 1/5 to 1/10 of the original volume and energy consumption may be reduced by more than 50%.

  4. Collection of URL measurement data in 2007 at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Masanao; Funaki, Hironori; Niinuma, Hiroaki; Fujikawa, Daisuke; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Hiraga, Naoto; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Yamaguchi, Takehiro

    2008-11-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was planned from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations was planned. At the beginning of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') was published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the East Shaft and the drifts in 2007 based on the Observational Construction Program. The report summarizes for the purpose of the following: sharing the investigation and measurements data, preventing the loss of them and acquisition the basic data for carrying out the Observational Construction Program. Two DVD-ROMs are attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  5. Collection of URL measurement data in 2006 at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Yasuhito; Funaki, Hironori; Yamasaki, Masanao; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hironobu; Orukawa, Go

    2008-07-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists two major research area, Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2005 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations was carried out. At the inception of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' (hereinafter referred to as Observational Construction Program') was published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes followings lessons learnt from the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety/reasonable construction, measurements for R and D on enhancement of shaft design/construction technology, and measurements for verification of the deep geological environment estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft (to approx. 50m depth) and the East Shaft (to approx. 40m depth) in 2006 based on the Observational Construction Program. CD-ROM and DVD-ROM are attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  6. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  7. Assessment of new radiation oncology technology and treatments in radiation oncology the ANROTAT project and collection of IMRT specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, A.; Corry, J.; Kron, T.; Duchesne, G.; Ng, M.; Burmeister, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical physicists (MP) are familiar with assessing new radiation oncology technology and treatments ( ROT A T) for their own departments but are not usually involved in providing advice to government for funding these technologies. This paper describes the role of the MP within the Commonwealth Government Department of Health and Aging initiative to develop a generic framework for assessment of ROTAT and the collection of data to support Med care Benefits Scheme (MBS) funding of IMRT. The clinical trials group TROG is developing a generic framework for the assessment of NROTAT. This will be tested and data collected to support applications for MBS funding of IMRT and IGRT. The tumour sites of nasopharynx, post-prostatectomy and anal canal have been selected to represent sites that are commonly, occasionally and rarely treated with IMRT respectively. Site selection for data collection will represent a broad range of clinical practices. Data quality is assured through TROG QA procedures and will include dosimetry audits. The final report will assess the clinical efficacy, cost effectiveness and safety of IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Existing clinical trial protocols form the basis for data collection and surrogate endpoints are being developed. Key publications have been identified that correlate specific dose-volume histogram parameters with clinical end-points, recognising limitations of these data in the 1MRT setting. Engagement of MPs within this project will help ensure collection of high quality data that ultimately aims to secure appropriate funding to ensure our patients receive best clinical care. (author)

  8. The international Genome sample resource (IGSR): A worldwide collection of genome variation incorporating the 1000 Genomes Project data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura; Fairley, Susan; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Streeter, Ian; Perry, Emily; Lowy, Ernesto; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Flicek, Paul

    2017-01-04

    The International Genome Sample Resource (IGSR; http://www.internationalgenome.org) expands in data type and population diversity the resources from the 1000 Genomes Project. IGSR represents the largest open collection of human variation data and provides easy access to these resources. IGSR was established in 2015 to maintain and extend the 1000 Genomes Project data, which has been widely used as a reference set of human variation and by researchers developing analysis methods. IGSR has mapped all of the 1000 Genomes sequence to the newest human reference (GRCh38), and will release updated variant calls to ensure maximal usefulness of the existing data. IGSR is collecting new structural variation data on the 1000 Genomes samples from long read sequencing and other technologies, and will collect relevant functional data into a single comprehensive resource. IGSR is extending coverage with new populations sequenced by collaborating groups. Here, we present the new data and analysis that IGSR has made available. We have also introduced a new data portal that increases discoverability of our data-previously only browseable through our FTP site-by focusing on particular samples, populations or data sets of interest. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. New development of the projected shell model and description of low-lying collective states in transitional nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F. Q.; Sun, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Description of the interplay between different nuclear shapes is an interesting but challenging problem. The original projected shell model (PSM) is applicable to nuclei with fixed shapes. We extend the PSM by superimposing (angular-momentum- and particle-number-) projected product wave functions in the spirit of the generate coordinate method. With this development, the Gd isotopes across the N = 90 region are studied, and the results indicate spectroscopic features of shape phase transition with varying neutron number. In order to illustrate the shape distribution in microscopic wave functions, we introduce a deformation representation and show that the collectively excited K π = 0 + states in the Gd isotopes have characters of shape vibration. (authors)

  10. Collection of measurement data in 2013 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kawate, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, “Geoscientific Research” and “R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies”, and proceeds in three overlapping phases, “Phase I: Surface-based investigations”, “Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation” and “Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities”, over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations were planned. At the beginning of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled “Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project” (hereinafter referred to as “Observational Construction Programs”) and an investigation report titled “Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Drift Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project” were published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the West Shaft and the drifts in 2013 fiscal year for the purpose of the basic data for carrying out the Observational Construction Program. A DVD-ROM is

  11. Collection of measurement data in 2014 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akitaka; Aoyagi, Kazuhei

    2016-07-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation' and 'Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities', over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations were planned. At the beginning of the Phase II investigations, investigation reports related to measurement plan and observational construction program on shaft and drift excavation were published. The observational construction program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. Currently, Phase III investigation related to geological disposal in underground facilities has been conducting. Also, measurement for consideration of long-term stability of the tunnel has been continued. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the West Shaft in 2014 fiscal year for the purpose of the basic data for carrying out the Observational Construction Program. A DVD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  12. The ORNL Basemapping and Imagery Project: Data collection, processing and dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Pace, P.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past three years, the GIS and Computer Modeling (GCM) Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been engaged in creating a very comprehensive geospatial data base for Department of Energy (DOE) installations managed by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). This effort encompasses topographic, planimetric, land use/land cover, flood plain, digital elevation, and digital imagery data for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding areas. The ORR covers approximately 34,800 acres and includes ORNL, the K-25 Site and the Y-12 Plant. The geographic extent of the Base Mapping and Imagery Project covers the ORR and surrounding area and two other DOE plants (Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky) for a total of 166,000 acres. The resulting data represent a major improvement in the spatial accuracy and currency of data which are used as a foundation for environmental restoration, facility studies, and other GIS data applications. A GIS data server was also created in order to store and disseminate the new basemapping data. This paper describes the history of the Base Mapping and Imagery Project with emphasis on the logistical aspects of data quality assessment. data tracking, and data product work flow for a large comprehensive spatial data base. The paper then describes the evolution of the GIS data server including its design from an FTP server to a NetScape-based World Wide Web interface. This combination of data and data access provides the ORR environmental community with a carefully configured and managed GIS dataset

  13. ICDE project report: collection and analysis of common-cause failures of motor operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This report documents a study performed on the set of common cause failures (CCF) of motor operated valves (MOV). The data studied here were derived from the International CCF Data Exchange (ICDE) database, to which several countries have submitted CCF event data. The purpose of the ICDE is to allow multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses that include CCF modeling. Because CCF events are typically rare events, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, yields sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. This report is the result of an in-depth review of the MOV events and presents several insights about them. The objective of this document is to look beyond the CCF parameter estimates that can be obtained from the CCF data, to gain further understanding of why CCF events occur and what measures may be taken to prevent, or at least mitigate the effect of MOV CCF events. The report presents details of the ICDE project, a quantitative presentation of the MOV events, and a discussion of some engineering aspects of the events. (authors)

  14. ICDE project report on collection and analysis of common-cause failures of emergency diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This report documents a study performed on the set of common cause failures (CCF) of emergency diesel generators (EDG). The data studied here were derived from the International CCF Data Exchange (ICDE) database, to which several countries have submitted CCF event data. The data span a period from 1982 through 1997. The purpose of the ICDE is to allow multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses that include CCF modeling. Because CCF events are typically rare events, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, yields sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. This report is the result of an in-depth review of the EDG events and presents several insights about them. The objective of this document is to look beyond the CCF parameter estimates that can be obtained from the CCF data, to gain further understanding of why CCF events occur and what measures may be taken to prevent, or at least mitigate the effect of, EDG CCF events. The report presents details of the ICDE project, a quantitative presentation of the EDG events, and a discussion of some engineering aspects of the events. (authors)

  15. Distributed Data Collection For Next Generation ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS EventIndex currently runs in production in order to build a complete catalogue of events for experiments with large amounts of data. The current approach is to index all final produced data files at CERN Tier0, and at hundreds of grid sites, with a distributed data collection architecture using Object Stores to temporary maintain the conveyed information, with references to them sent with a Messaging System. The final backend of all the indexed data is a central Hadoop infrastructure at CERN; an Oracle relational database is used for faster access to a subset of this information. In the future of ATLAS, instead of files, the event should be the atomic information unit for metadata. This motivation arises in order to accommodate future data processing and storage technologies. Files will no longer be static quantities, possibly dynamically aggregating data, and also allowing event-level granularity processing in heavily parallel computing environments. It also simplifies the handling of loss and or e...

  16. Mesoscale storm and dry period parameters from hourly precipitation data: program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Wet deposition of airborne chemical pollutants occurs primarily from precipitation. Precipitation rate, amount, duration, and location are important meteorological factors to be considered when attempting to understand the relationship of precipitation to pollutant deposition. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted studies and experiments in numerous locations to collect data that can be incorporated into theories and models that attempt to describe the complex relationship between precipitation occurrence and chemical wet desposition. Model development often requires the use of average rather than random condition as input. To provide mean values of storm parameters, the task, Climatological Analysis of Mesoscale Storms, was created as a facet of the Environmental Protection Agency's related-service project, Precipitation Scavenging Module Development. Within this task computer programs have been developed at PNL which incorporate hourly precipitation data from National Weather Service stations to calculate mean values and frequency distributions of precipitation periods and of the interspersed dry periods. These programs have been written with a degree of flexibiity that will allow user modification for applications to different, but similar, analyses. This report describes in detail the rationale and operation of the two computer programs which produce the tables of average and frequency distributions of storm and dry period parameters from the precipitation data. A listing of the programs and examples of the generated output are included in the appendices. 3 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radke, L.F.; Eltgroth, M.W.; Hobbs, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the results of precipitation scavenging measurements of particles in the atmosphere and in plumes which were obtained using an airborne measuring system. Attention is given to the so-called 'Greenfield gap' and collection efficiencies for submicron particles

  18. Comparison of past and future Mediterranean high and low extremes of precipitation and river flow projected using different statistical downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Quintana-Seguí

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The extremes of precipitation and river flow obtained using three different statistical downscaling methods applied to the same regional climate simulation have been compared. The methods compared are the anomaly method, quantile mapping and a weather typing. The hydrological model used in the study is distributed and it is applied to the Mediterranean basins of France. The study shows that both quantile mapping and weather typing methods are able to reproduce the high and low precipitation extremes in the region of interest. The study also shows that when the hydrological model is forced with these downscaled data, there are important differences in the outputs. This shows that the model amplifies the differences and that the downscaling of other atmospheric variables might be very relevant when simulating river discharges. In terms of river flow, the method of the anomalies, which is very simple, performs better than expected. The methods produce qualitatively similar future scenarios of the extremes of river flow. However, quantitatively, there are still significant differences between them for each individual gauging station. According to these scenarios, it is expected that in the middle of the 21st century (2035–2064, the monthly low flows will have diminished almost everywhere in the region of our study by as much as 20 %. Regarding high flows, there will be important increases in the area of the Cévennes, which is already seriously affected by flash-floods. For some gauging stations in this area, the frequency of what was a 10-yr return flood at the end of the 20th century is expected to increase, with such return floods then occurring every two years in the middle of the 21st century. Similarly, the 10-yr return floods at that time are expected to carry 100 % more water than the 10-yr return floods experienced at the end of the 20th century. In the northern part of the Rhône basin, these extremes will be reduced.

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) MANUAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENTS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Manual Precipitation Measurements GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  20. The Investigation of Isotopic Composition of Precipitation and water vapour by Using Air Mass Trajectories and Meteorological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirican, A.; Acar, Y.; Demircan, M.

    2002-01-01

    In last century there are so many studies were carried out about stable isotopes of precipitation. The Researchers, study in this field directed to examine origin and transport of water vapour. To investigate the conditions of precipitation formation parallel with climatic changes, stable isotopes using as a powerful tool. So that a project coordinated by IAEA. In this presentation we will give some parts of this project which was carried out in Turkey. First results were obtained for 2001 year. The one of the first result which was obtained in this project is the relation between air temperature and isotopic composition of precipitation collected in Ankara Antalya and Adana station. Second was the observation of temporal variation of stable isotope composition in precipitation and water vapour in relation with water vapour transport. δD and δ 18 O content of atmospheric water vapour examined for January - December 2001 time interval. 27 precipitation event had been examined, starting from endengered place and following to trajectories until to reach Turkey, by using ground level and 500mbar synoptic charts. The observed δD and δ 18 O variations of water vapour is related with the endengered place (Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, etc.) of water vapour. The isotopic composition of local precipitation forms by regional meteorological factors. In this study δD and δ 18 O relation of event, daily precipitation and water vapour were defined

  1. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I final report - Plant/site selection and data collection (Project I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, T.Y.

    1981-07-01

    Project I of Phase I of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) comprised two parts: the selection of a representative nuclear power plant/site for study in Phase I and the collection of data needed by the other SSMRP projects. Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in Zion, Illinois, was selected for the SSMRP Phase I studies. Unit 1 of the Zion plant has been validated as a good choice for the Phase I study plant. Although no single nuclear power plant can represent all such plants equally well, selection criteria were developed to maximize the generic implications of Phase I of the SSMRP. On the basis of the selection criteria, the Zion plant and its site were found to be reasonably representative of operating and future plants with regard to its nuclear steam supply system; the type of containment structure (prestressed concrete); its electrical capacity (1100 MWe); its location (the Midwest); the peak seismic acceleration used for design (0.17g); and the properties of the underlying soil (the low-strain shear-wave velocity is 1650 ft/s in a 50- to 100-ft-thick layer of soil overlying sedimentary bedrock). (author)

  2. Modelled Precipitation Over Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the annual total precipitation from 1985 to 1999 and monthly total precipitation from January 1985 to December 1999. The data is derived from...

  3. Proposal of a new model to improve the collection of small WEEE: a pilot project for the recovery and recycling of toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Miquel; Watson, Jenna; Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere

    2012-11-01

    A new collection model was designed and tested in Catalonia (Spain) to foster the separate collection and recycling of electrical and electronic toys, with the participation of selected primary and secondary schools, as well as waste collection points and municipalities. This project approach is very original and important because small household WEEE has low rates of collection (16-21% WEEE within the EU or 5-7% WEEE in Spain) and no research on new approaches to enhance the collection of small WEEE is found in the literature. The project was successful in achieving enhanced toys collection and recycling rates, which went up from the national Spanish average of 0.5% toys before the project to 1.9 and 6% toys during the two project years, respectively. The environmental benefits of the campaign were calculated through a life-cycle approach, accounting for the avoided impact afforded by the reuse of the toys and the recycling of the valuable materials contained therein (such as metals, batteries and circuit boards) and subtracting the additional environmental burdens associated with the establishment of the collection campaign.

  4. Inorganic nitrogen in precipitation and atmospheric sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheson, D H

    1951-01-01

    In an investigation covering 18 months, daily determinations were made of the inorganic nitrogen contained in precipitation and atmospheric sediments collected at Hamilton, Ont. The nitrogen fall for the whole period averaged 5.8 lb. N per acre per year. Sixty-one per cent of the total nitrogen was collected on 25% of the days when precipitation occurred. The balance, occurring on days without precipitation, is attributable solely to the sedimentation of dust. Ammonia nitrogen averaged 56% of the total, but the proportion for individual days varied widely.

  5. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  6. Alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe: the ARCAGE project: study samples and data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-02-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include those of the oral cavity, pharynx (other than nasopharynx), larynx, and esophagus. Tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages are established causes of UADT cancers, whereas reduced intake of vegetables and fruits are likely causes. The role of genetic predisposition and possible interactions of genetic with exogenous factors, however, have not been adequately studied. Moreover, the role of pattern of smoking and drinking, as well as the exact nature of the implicated dietary variables, has not been clarified. To address these issues, the International Agency for Research on Cancer initiated in 2002 the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility (ARCAGE) in Europe project, with the participation of 15 centers in 11 European countries. Information and biological data from a total of 2304 cases and 2227 controls have been collected and will be used in a series of analyses. A total of 166 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 76 genes are being studied for genetic associations with UADT cancers. We report here the methodology of the ARCAGE project, main demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the cases and controls, as well as the distribution of cases by histology and subsite. About 80% of cases were males and fewer than 20% of all cases occurred before the age of 50 years. Overall, the most common subsite was larynx, followed by oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus and hypopharynx. Close to 90% of UADT cancers were squamous cell carcinomas. A clear preponderance of smokers and alcohol drinkers among UADT cases compared with controls was observed.

  7. Precipitation variability increases in a warmer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G; Knutti, Reto; Lehner, Flavio; Deser, Clara; Sanderson, Benjamin M

    2017-12-21

    Understanding changes in precipitation variability is essential for a complete explanation of the hydrologic cycle's response to warming and its impacts. While changes in mean and extreme precipitation have been studied intensively, precipitation variability has received less attention, despite its theoretical and practical importance. Here, we show that precipitation variability in most climate models increases over a majority of global land area in response to warming (66% of land has a robust increase in variability of seasonal-mean precipitation). Comparing recent decades to RCP8.5 projections for the end of the 21 st century, we find that in the global, multi-model mean, precipitation variability increases 3-4% K -1 globally, 4-5% K -1 over land and 2-4% K -1 over ocean, and is remarkably robust on a range of timescales from daily to decadal. Precipitation variability increases by at least as much as mean precipitation and less than moisture and extreme precipitation for most models, regions, and timescales. We interpret this as being related to an increase in moisture which is partially mitigated by weakening circulation. We show that changes in observed daily variability in station data are consistent with increased variability.

  8. Acid precipitation; an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Denise A.; Evans, Margaret L.

    1984-01-01

    This collection of 1660 bibliographies references on the causes and environmental effects of acidic atmospheric deposition was compiled from computerized literature searches of earth-science and chemistry data bases. Categories of information are (1) atmospheric chemistry (gases and aerosols), (2) precipitation chemistry, (3) transport and deposition (wet and dry), (4) aquatic environments (biological and hydrological), (5) terrestrial environments, (6) effects on materials and structures, (7) air and precipitation monitoring and data collection, and (8) modeling studies. References date from the late 1800 's through December 1981. The bibliography includes short summaries of most documents. Omitted are unpublished manuscripts, publications in press, master 's theses and doctoral dissertations, newspaper articles, and book reviews. Coauthors and subject indexes are included. (USGS)

  9. Rheology of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, I.D.; Martin, H.D.; McLain, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obtained in this study was applied in the design of slurry pumps, transfer pumps, transfer lines, and vessel agitation for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and other High Level Waste treatment projects. The precipitate slurry behaves as a Bingham plastic. The yield stress is directly proportional to the concentration of insoluble solids over the range of concentrations studied. The consistency is also a linear function of insoluble solids over the same concentration range. Neither the yield stress nor the consistency was observed to be affected by the presence of the soluble solids. Temperature effects on flow properties of the slurry were also examined: the yield stress is inversely proportional to temperature, but the consistency of the slurry is independent of temperature. No significant time-dependent effects were found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. A precipitation database of station-based daily and monthly measurements for West Africa: Overview, quality control and harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliefernicht, Jan; Waongo, Moussa; Annor, Thompson; Laux, Patrick; Lorenz, Manuel; Salack, Seyni; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    West Africa is a data sparse region. High quality and long-term precipitation data are often not readily available for applications in hydrology, agriculture, meteorology and other needs. To close this gap, we use multiple data sources to develop a precipitation database with long-term daily and monthly time series. This database was compiled from 16 archives including global databases e.g. from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), databases from research projects (e.g. the AMMA database) and databases of the national meteorological services of some West African countries. The collection consists of more than 2000 precipitation gauges with measurements dating from 1850 to 2015. Due to erroneous measurements (e.g. temporal offsets, unit conversion errors), missing values and inconsistent meta-data, the merging of this precipitation dataset is not straightforward and requires a thorough quality control and harmonization. To this end, we developed geostatistical-based algorithms for quality control of individual databases and harmonization to a joint database. The algorithms are based on a pairwise comparison of the correspondence of precipitation time series in dependence to the distance between stations. They were tested for precipitation time series from gages located in a rectangular domain covering Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Togo. This harmonized and quality controlled precipitation database was recently used for several applications such as the validation of a high resolution regional climate model and the bias correction of precipitation projections provided the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). In this presentation, we will give an overview of the novel daily and monthly precipitation database and the algorithms used for quality control and harmonization. We will also highlight the quality of global and regional archives (e.g. GHCN, GSOD, AMMA database) in comparison to the precipitation databases provided by the

  11. The CEDICAE and the paper collections conservation and restoration Laboratory at CNEA : present and future organization and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Ana M.; Semino, Maria S.; Romero, Gregoria O.; Alfaro, Laura S.; Miranda, Maria V.; Chinen, Silvia P.

    2009-01-01

    In Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), there is a working group formed by staff members from a Documentation and Information Center known as 'Lic. Maria Isabel Gonzalez' (CEDICAE) and from the CNEA Paper Collections Conservation and Restoration Laboratory. New personnel were hired in 2007, which allowed the reorganization of tasks and gave way to the creation of new projects. By conducting weekly morning meetings, the working group decided to organize and plan the activities that had to be conducted. From the first moment, the main objective of the group was to offer a service of excellence, i.e. to provide a duly and timely response to the bibliographical requests made by users, to perform tasks in the laboratory, to train members in diverse subjects of preventive conservation, surveys and evaluations of archives and libraries, and tasks of restoration of our own material and material from third parties. Among the projects carried out by the CEDICAE, the following are included: Firstly, the continuous training and education of its personnel, training of users in topics dealing with the use of the MINCyT Library, participation in the Internal Network of Libraries (REDIN) in order to adopt a joint policy by CNEA libraries, participation in the Network RRIAN (Regional Network of Information for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Nuclear Field), participation in the Federal Network of Libraries and Information, with the National Commission of Public Libraries (CONABIP) and with the Documentation Center of the Ministry of Economy and so on. It has worked in training of personnel working at the institutions that submit requests to the Laboratory (SERPAJ, Monastery of San Francisco, Ministry of Economy, CONABIP, etc) regarding topics of preventive conservation. It has realised a mockup of bibliographical recovery of damaged material after any climate disasters and has conducted surveys and evaluations from the point of view of preventive conservation. In this sense and as an

  12. Tritium Level in Romanian Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Bogdan, D.; Soare, A. [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotope Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Duliu, O. G. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2013-07-15

    Romania is one of the countries that has no station included in GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) on its territory. This paper presents results regarding the tritium concentration in precipitation for the period 1999-2009. The precipitation fell at the Institute for cryogenic and Isotope technologies (geographical coordinates: altitude 237 m, latitude 45{sup o}02'07' N, longitude 24{sup o}17'03' E) an was collected both individually and as a composite average of each month. It was individually measured and the average was calculated and compared with the tritium concentration measured in the composite sample. tritium concentration levels ranged from 9.9 {+-} 2.1 TU for 2004 and 13.7 {+-} 2.2 TU for 2009. Comparing the arithmetic mean values with the weighted mean for the period of observation, it was noticed that the higher absolute values of the weighted means were constant. It was found that for the calculated monthly average for the period of observation (1999-2009), the months with the maximum tritium concentration are the same as the months with the maximum amount of precipitation. This behaviour is typical for the monitored location. (author)

  13. Measurement of precipitation using lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, Johann; Klammler, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    Austria's alpine foothill aquifers contain important drinking water resources, but are also used intensively for agricultural production. These groundwater bodies are generally recharged by infiltrating precipitation. A sustainable water resources management of these aquifers requires quantifying real evapotranspiration (ET), groundwater recharge (GR), precipitation (P) and soil water storage change (ΔS). While GR and ΔS can be directly measured by weighable lysimeters and P by separate precipitation gauges, ET is determined by solving the climatic water balance ET = P GR ± ΔS. According to WMO (2008) measurement of rainfall is strongly influenced by precipitation gauge errors. Most significant errors result from wind loss, wetting loss, evaporation loss, and due to in- and out-splashing of water. Measuring errors can be reduced by a larger area of the measuring gaugés surface and positioning the collecting vessel at ground level. Modern weighable lysimeters commonly have a surface of 1 m², are integrated into their typical surroundings of vegetation cover (to avoid oasis effects) and allow scaling the mass change of monolithic soil columns in high measuring accuracy (0.01 mm water equivalent) and high temporal resolution. Thus, also precipitation can be quantified by measuring the positive mass changes of the lysimeter. According to Meissner et al. (2007) also dew, fog and rime can be determined by means of highly precise weighable lysimeters. Furthermore, measuring precipitation using lysimeters avoid common measuring errors (WMO 2008) at point scale. Though, this method implicates external effects (background noise, influence of vegetation and wind) which affect the mass time series. While the background noise of the weighing is rather well known and can be filtered out of the mass time series, the influence of wind, which blows through the vegetation and affects measured lysimeter mass, cannot be corrected easily since there is no clear relation between

  14. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, M.; Desalmand, F.

    1994-01-01

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: 1) Paleoclimatology, 2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, 3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, 4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, 5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  15. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  16. PH of Hawaiian precipitation: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Yoshinaga, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Daily or biweekly precipitation samples have been collected at various sites on the island of Hawaii since 1974. The elevations of the sites ranged from sea level to 3400 m. Samples were analyzed on the day of collection for pH and conductivity. Detection of major anions, such as sulfate and nitrate, were made on selected samples during the period

  17. PRECIPITATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-07-15

    An lmprovement in the separation of protactinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. 1t covers the use of lead dioxide and tin dioxide as carrier precipitates for the protactinium. In carrying out the process, divalent lead or divalent tin is addcd to the solution and oxidized, causing formation of a carrier precipitate of lead dioxide or stannic oxide, respectively.

  18. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  19. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  20. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  1. The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies. Volume 1, Introduction and Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Erika; And Others

    Volume one of a multivolume catalog inventories 247 federal agency collections of wax cylinder recordings made by early ethnographers during 5 decades (1890-1941) of field work with Native American, traditional American, and world cultures. Native American music, chants, and linguistic samples comprise the majority of the collection. In addition…

  2. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project: I. Surgical phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Christian M.; Laufer, Marc R.; Stratton, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo standardize the recording of surgical phenotypic information on endometriosis and related sample collections obtained at laparoscopy, allowing large-scale collaborative research into the condition.......ObjectiveTo standardize the recording of surgical phenotypic information on endometriosis and related sample collections obtained at laparoscopy, allowing large-scale collaborative research into the condition....

  3. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and biobanking harmonization project: II. Clinical and covariate phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitonis, Allison F.; Vincent, Katy; Rahmioglu, Nilufer

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration.......ObjectiveTo harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration....

  4. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project: III. Fluid biospecimen collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Vitonis, Allison F.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis.......ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis....

  5. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project: IV. Tissue collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fassbender, Amelie; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Vitonis, Allison F.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of human tissues relevant to endometriosis.......ObjectiveTo harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of human tissues relevant to endometriosis....

  6. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, carbon, and other profile data collected worldwide as part of the CARINA project (NODC Accession 0057766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean) data synthesis project is an international collaborative effort of the EU IP CARBOOCEAN, and US partners. It has...

  7. The Relationship of the Collective Effectiveness with the Leadership in a Group Work: a Project in the Field of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Ben Nejmeddine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the work of Bandura, the four effectiveness training sources were examined with respect to the frequency and the perception of a hospital staff. In a context of a group work, where there is no assigned leader, the collective effectiveness of groups is not considered only in case there is a relationship with the individual features of leadership. In adddition to the relationship between the existence of an identified group leader and the collective effectiveness of the group, the relationship between collective effectiveness and the group performance result was also examined. The results of the investigation and the interview showed that the control experience was the most frequent and powerful source of effectiveness among the four sources. Moreover, groups with identified leader showed a greater collective effectiveness rtaher than groups without leaders. The level of groups’ collective efficeffectiveness also showed a positive correlation with the groups' performance result.

  8. Precipitates in irradiated Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitates in high-burnup (>20 MWd/kg U) Zircaloy spent-fuel cladding discharged from commercial boiling- and pressurized-water reactors have been characterized by TEM-HVEM. Three classes of primary precipitates were observed in the irradiated Zircaloys: Zr 3 O (2 to 6 nm), cubic-ZrO 2 (greater than or equal to 10 nm), and delta-hydride (35 to 100 nm). The former two precipitations appears to be irradiation induced in nature. Zr(Fe/sub x/Cr/sub 1-x/) 2 and Zr 2 (Fe/sub x/Ni/sub 1-x/) intermetallics, which are the primary precipitates in unirradiated Zircaloys, were largely dissolved after the high burnup. It seems, therefore, that the influence of the size and distribution of the intermetallics on the corrosion behavior may be quite different for the irradiated Zircaloys

  9. Design assessment for Melton Valley liquid low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This project is designed for collecting liquid low level waste (LLLW) from generating points inside the Radioisotope Engineering and Development Center (Buildings 7920 and 7930) facility and transferring this waste to the Collection Tank (F-1800) in the new Monitoring and Control Station (MCS) facility. The LLLW is transferred to the MCS in a new, underground, jacketed, stainless steel piping system. The LLLW will then be transferred from Tank F-1800 through a new, underground, jacketed, stainless steel piping system that connects the existing Bethel Valley LLLW Collection System and the Evaporator Facility Service Tanks. The interface for the two systems will be at the existing Interconnecting Pipe Line (ICPL) Valve Box adjacent to the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant. The project scope consists of the following systems: (1) Building 7920 LLLW Collection System; (2) Building 7930 LLLW Collection System; (3) LLLW Underground Transfer System to MCS; (4) MCS Building (including all equipment contained therein); (5) LLLW Underground Transfer System to ICPL Valve Box; and (6) Leak detection system for jacketed piping systems (3) and (5)

  10. The Effect of China’s New Circular Collective Forest Tenure Reform on Household Non-Timber Forest Product Production in Natural Forest Protection Project Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of China’s natural forest protection project (Protection Project in 1998 changed households’ forestry production modes in project regions, and China’s new circular collective forest tenure reform (Tenure Reform has been implemented since 2003 with the goal of motivating household forestry production and increasing household income from forests. Policymakers expect that Tenure Reform could also stimulate households to engage in non-timber forest products (NTFPs production in Protection Project regions. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of Tenure Reform on household NTFP production in Protection Project regions. To fill this gap, we built an integrative conceptual framework and estimated a corresponding structural equation model (SEM using survey data from 932 households in Protection Project regions in southwestern China. In our research framework, there are four factors, including household characteristics, labour and social capital, forestland characteristics, and the Tenure Reform, affecting household NTFP production. The results substantiate that Tenure Reform has had a significant positive effect on household NTFP production. Additionally, household and forestland characteristics have promoted household NTFP production, but quantitatively less than Tenure Reform. This report can be used to inform the government that future investment in Tenure Reform still needs to be enhanced, and policy enforcement still needs to be strengthened.

  11. Work plan for monitor well installation water and sediment sample collection aquifer testing and topographic surveying at the Riverton, Wyoming, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Investigations conducted during preparation of the site observational work plan (SOWP) at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site support a proposed natural flushing ground water compliance strategy, with institutional controls. However, additional site-specific data are needed to reduce uncertainties in order to confirm the applicability and feasibility of this proposed compliance strategy option. This proposed strategy will be analyzed in the site-specific environmental assessment. The purpose of this work plan is to summarize the data collection objectives to fill those data needs, describe the data collection activities that will be undertaken to meet those objectives, and elaborate on the data quality objectives which define the procedures that will be followed to ensure that the quality of these data meet UMTRA Project needs

  12. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  13. Project TN-030: hydrogeology - ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Continuation of an effort started in 1980, the water-level and precipitation data collected during the early years of the project were compiled into a series of five basic data reports. Technical advice on the design of piezometers in Burial Ground 5 was provided, and their construction has been monitored. Field work has continued, principally in Burial Grounds 5 and 6

  14. Focus groups as a tool to collect data in a community informatics project involving elderly rural women

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the extended project is to identify and investigate the aspects that will encourage elderly women in rural areas to use the ICT platform, and to determine what the physical design, content and applications should look like...

  15. The Beringian Coevolution Project: Holistic collections of mammals and associated parasites reveal novel perspectives on changing environments in the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Beringian Coevolution Project (BCP), a field program underway in the Arctic since 1999, has focused on building key scientific infrastructure for integrated specimen-based studies on mammals and their associated parasites. BCP has contributed new insights across temporal and spatial scales into...

  16. Centrifugal precipitation chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichiro; Lin, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal precipitation chromatography separates analytes according their solubility in ammonium sulfate (AS) solution and other precipitants. The separation column is made from a pair of long spiral channels partitioned with a semipermeable membrane. In a typical separation, concentrated ammonium sulfate is eluted through one channel while water is eluted through the other channel in the opposite direction. The countercurrent process forms an exponential AS concentration gradient through the water channel. Consequently, protein samples injected into the water channel is subjected to a steadily increasing AS concentration and at the critical AS concentration they are precipitated and deposited in the channel bed by the centrifugal force. Then the chromatographic separation is started by gradually reducing the AS concentration in the AS channel which lowers the AS gradient concentration in the water channel. This results in dissolution of deposited proteins which are again precipitated at an advanced critical point as they move through the channel. Consequently, proteins repeat precipitation and dissolution through a long channel and finally eluted out from the column in the order of their solubility in the AS solution. The present method has been successfully applied to a number of analytes including human serum proteins, recombinant ketosteroid isomerase, carotenoid cleavage enzymes, plasmid DNA, polysaccharide, polymerized pigments, PEG-protein conjugates, etc. The method is capable to single out the target species of proteins by affinity ligand or immunoaffinity separation. PMID:19541553

  17. Elimination of ammonium from waste water by means of chemical precipitation. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Schulze-Rettmer, R.

    1990-07-01

    In the course of this research project, a process for precipitating ammonium salts contained in waste water was developed. The precipitate can be used as fertilizer. The purification process was tested in a pilot plant. (EF) [de

  18. The Effect of Hurricanes on Annual Precipitation in Maryland and the Connection to Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jackie; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation is a vital aspect of our lives droughts, floods and other related disasters that involve precipitation can cause costly damage in the economic system and general society. Purpose of this project is to determine what, if any effect do hurricanes have on annual precipitation in Maryland Research will be conducted on Marylands terrain, climatology, annual precipitation, and precipitation contributed from hurricanes Possible connections to climate change

  19. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  20. Future changes of precipitation characteristics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Wu, Y.; Wen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Global warming has the potential to alter the hydrological cycle, with significant impacts on the human society, the environment and ecosystems. This study provides a detailed assessment of potential changes in precipitation characteristics in China using a suite of 12 high-resolution CMIP5 climate models under a medium and a high Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We examine future changes over the entire distribution of precipitation, and identify any shift in the shape and/or scale of the distribution. In addition, we use extreme-value theory to evaluate the change in probability and magnitude for extreme precipitation events. Overall, China is going to experience an increase in total precipitation (by 8% under RCP4.5 and 12% under RCP8.5). This increase is uneven spatially, with more increase in the west and less increase in the east. Precipitation frequency is projected to increase in the west and decrease in the east. Under RCP4.5, the overall precipitation frequency for the entire China remains largely unchanged (0.08%). However, RCP8.5 projects a more significant decrease in frequency for large part of China, resulting in an overall decrease of 2.08%. Precipitation intensity is likely increase more uniformly, with an overall increase of 11% for RCP4.5 and 19% for RCP8.5. Precipitation increases for all parts of the distribution, but the increase is more for higher quantiles, i.e. strong events. The relative contribution of small quantiles is likely to decrease, whereas contribution from heavy events is likely to increase. Extreme precipitation increase at much higher rates than average precipitation, and high rates of increase are expected for more extreme events. 1-year events are likely to increase by 15%, but 20-year events are going to increase by 21% under RCP4.5, 26% and 40% respectively under RCP8.5. The increase of extreme events is likely to be more spatially uniform.

  1. Collective commitment for local bio energy projects. Motives and experiences of the initiators: An interview study of German renewable energy projects; Kollektives Engagement fuer kommunale Bioenergieprojekte. Motive und Erfahrungen der Initiatoren: Eine Interviewstudie deutschlandweiter erneuerbarer Energieprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehatschek, Anja

    2009-07-01

    With the help of a sustainable power production, local bio energy projects connect ecological, economic and social solutions for the climate protection and the environment protection, for the support of the agriculture and forestry as well as for living together in the rural area. Past investigations concern primarily consider the collective commitment and the effects of such projects on the population. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration is occupied with the acting of the initiators of the bio energy projects during the management of their tasks: Which conditions and motives of the initiators affect the conversion process? Under which conditions do the initiators arrive their goal? Which cognitive abilities, strategies of motivation and experiences particularly are important? For the qualitative investigation of these questions, five initiators of German local bio energy projects were interviewed. The results of these interviews are presented by means of paradigm models. It could be shown that both the person of the initiator and the relation of the person to the environment crucially contribute to the conversion of local bio energy projects.

  2. Quadrupole collectivity of angular-momentum projected states of nucleons in the high-j intruder single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Elliott (Elliott J P 1958 London Series A 245 128, 562), quadrupole collectivity in deformed nuclei has been economically described in terms of SU 3 symmetry. Microscopic SU 3 symmetry is not present in the deformed intrinsic states of n nucleons in the abnormal-parity single-particle states j a . However, such (j a ) n states do possess some SU 3 -symmetry-like properties as shown in this work. (author)

  3. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  4. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  5. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  6. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St., Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  7. Continuity and innovation in the data collection protocols of the second Wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Angela; O'Doherty, Katie; Colicchia, Michael; Satorius, Jennifer; McPhillips, Jane; Czaplewski, Meredith; Imhof, Laurie; Smith, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The second Wave (W2) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of older adults now between the ages of 62 and 90, conducted approximately 3,400 interviews. Selected coresidential romantic partners as well as W1 panel nonrespondents were selected for W2. Data collection included in-person questionnaires, up to 15 biomeasures, and a post-interview questionnaire. A proxy questionnaire also collected data on respondents that were deceased or in too poor health to participate in W2. Biomeasure collection included height, weight, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, and preventricular contraction, timed walk and chair stands, smell, saliva collection using a Salivette (cortisol), saliva passive drool in a tube (dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone), dried blood spots (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein), whole blood in a microtainer (cytokines), urine (creatinine, vasopressin, oxytocin), Oragene (genotype), respondent-administered vaginal swabs (bacterial vaginosis,yeast, and vaginal cell cytology), and Actiwatch (sleep patterns and activity). Measures, such as response and cooperation rates, are also provided to evaluate design and implementation. This article describes both innovation in the development and implementation of W2 as well as fidelity to W1 study design and data collection procedures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PREC data set is an analysis of monthly precipitation constructed on a 2.5(o)lat/lon grid over the global for the period from 1948 to the present. The land...

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION AIRBORNE SECOND GENERATION PRECIPITATION RADAR (APR-2) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  10. Precipitation Frequency for Ohio River Basin, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Ohio River Basin and Surrounding states is based on precipitation data collected between...

  11. Precipitation Frequency for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is based on precipitation data collected between...

  12. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and biobanking harmonization project: II. Clinical and covariate phenotype data collection in endometriosis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitonis, Allison F.; Vincent, Katy; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hummelshoj, Lone; Giudice, Linda C.; Stratton, Pamela; Adamson, G. David; Becker, Christian M.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize the collection of nonsurgical clinical and epidemiologic data relevant to endometriosis research, allowing large-scale collaboration. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and three industry collaborators from 16 countries on five continents. Setting In 2013, two workshops followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research. Patients None. Intervention(s) Development of a self-administered endometriosis patient questionnaire (EPQ), based on [1] systematic comparison of questionnaires from eight centers that collect data from endometriosis cases (and controls/comparison women) on a medium to large scale (publication on >100 cases); [2] literature evidence; and [3] several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required questionnaires to capture detailed clinical and covariate data. Result(s) The standard recommended (EPHect EPQ-S) and minimum required (EPHect EPQ-M) questionnaires contain questions on pelvic pain, subfertility and menstrual/reproductive history, hormone/medication use, medical history, and personal information. Conclusion(s) The EPQ captures the basic set of patient characteristics and exposures considered by the WERF EPHect Working Group to be most critical for the advancement of endometriosis research, but is also relevant to other female conditions with similar risk factors and/or symptomatology. The instruments will be reviewed based on feedback from investigators, and–after a first review after 1 year–triannually through systematic follow-up surveys. Updated versions will be made available through http://endometriosisfoundation.org/ephect. PMID:25256930

  13. Mechanical and bulk properties of intact rock collected in the laboratory in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Boinott, G.N.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive laboratory investigation is determining the mechanical properties of tuffs for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Most recently, experiments have been performed on tuff samples from a series of drill holes along the planned alignment of the Exploratory Study Facilities (ESF) north ramp. Unconfined compression and indirect tension experiments were performed and the results are being analyzed with the help of bulk property information. The results on samples from eight of the drill holes are presented. In general, the properties vary widely, but are highly dependent on the sample porosity. The developed relationships between mechanical properties and porosity are powerful tools in the effort to model the rock mass response of Yucca Mountain to the emplacement of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository

  14. Caring communities as collective learning process: findings and lessons learned from a participatory research project in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegleitner, Klaus; Schuchter, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    By now, the public health end-of-life care approach is well established and has induced diverse initiatives-subsumed under the concept of compassionate or caring communities-to engage the community in supporting vulnerable, dying people and their beloved ones. In the light of a participatory research project our paper examines the question: what are the deeper ideas behind caring communities and what constitutes a caring community? A multi-level analysis based on (I) qualitative research with focus groups and interviews with community members within the project; (II) the reflection of the role of participatory research in caring community initiatives, and (III) the meta-analysis of an international expert workshop, which allowed to discuss our experiences and insights in the light of international caring community models and expertise. Our analysis of qualities ("ingredients") of a caring community, from the perspective of community members, highlighted the importance of the co-creation of supportive care relationships in the local care web, through everyday life solidarity in the neighbourhood, appreciating and exchanging the wisdom of care, and also marked the role of professionals as enablers. Participatory research in caring community developments has the potential to engage and empower citizens, and to interlink existential care-stories with questions about the structural and political environments of appropriate end-of-life care. The caring community movement and public health end-of-life care has to maintain their critical potential against the commercialization and fragmentation of care (services), but also without "romanticizing" communities. Prospective caring community progresses need (I) an ecological health-promotion framework for action and (II) social learning processes along the existential experiences and the wisdom of community members, complementing each other. Organizing existential-political care dialogues can contribute to an ethic of caring

  15. Filling gaps in biodiversity knowledge for macrofungi: contributions and assessment of an herbarium collection DNA barcode sequencing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Robert, Vincent A; Schoch, Conrad L; Baker, Lydia J; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1-2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa.

  16. Introduction to the special collection of papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Hopton, Matthew E

    2012-11-30

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, description of the region, overview of the methods, and summary of the results. Although there are a multitude of scientifically based sustainability metrics, many are data intensive, difficult to calculate, and fail to capture all aspects of a system. We wanted to see if we could develop an approach that decision-makers could use to understand if their system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The goal was to produce a scientifically defensible, but straightforward and inexpensive methodology to measure and monitor environmental quality within a regional system. We initiated an interdisciplinary pilot project in the San Luis Basin, south-central Colorado, to test the methodology. The objectives were: 1) determine the applicability of using existing datasets to estimate metrics of sustainability at a regional scale; 2) calculate metrics through time from 1980 to 2005; and 3) compare and contrast the results to determine if the system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The sustainability metrics, chosen to represent major components of the system, were: 1) Ecological Footprint to capture the impact and human burden on the system; 2) Green Net Regional Product to represent economic welfare; 3) Emergy to capture the quality-normalized flow of energy through the system; and 4) Fisher information to capture the overall dynamic order and to look for possible regime changes. The methodology, data, and results of each metric are presented in the remaining four papers of the special collection. Based on the results of each metric and our criteria for understanding the sustainability trends, we find that the San Luis Basin is moving away from sustainability. Although we understand

  17. Application of physical scaling towards downscaling climate model precipitation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Abhishek; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Physical scaling (SP) method downscales climate model data to local or regional scales taking into consideration physical characteristics of the area under analysis. In this study, multiple SP method based models are tested for their effectiveness towards downscaling North American regional reanalysis (NARR) daily precipitation data. Model performance is compared with two state-of-the-art downscaling methods: statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and generalized linear modeling (GLM). The downscaled precipitation is evaluated with reference to recorded precipitation at 57 gauging stations located within the study region. The spatial and temporal robustness of the downscaling methods is evaluated using seven precipitation based indices. Results indicate that SP method-based models perform best in downscaling precipitation followed by GLM, followed by the SDSM model. Best performing models are thereafter used to downscale future precipitations made by three global circulation models (GCMs) following two emission scenarios: representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6 and RCP 8.5 over the twenty-first century. The downscaled future precipitation projections indicate an increase in mean and maximum precipitation intensity as well as a decrease in the total number of dry days. Further an increase in the frequency of short (1-day), moderately long (2-4 day), and long (more than 5-day) precipitation events is projected.

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  19. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  1. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  5. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  7. ESTRUCTURAS DEL HABITAR. COLECTIVIDAD Y RESILIENCIA COMO ESTRATEGIAS DE PROYECTO / HABITATIONAL STRUCTURES. COLLECTIVITY AND RESILIENCE AS PROJECT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Peñín Llobell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el escenario social y urbano contemporáneo, el debate sobre la vivienda ocupa una posición central. Tras constatar algunas de las trazas más relevantes de este contexto, el artículo indaga en la constelación de las nuevas propuestas arquitectónicas que le dan respuesta proponiendo una agrupación que describe al menos dos instrumentos del proyecto arquitectónico. Uno se ocupa de su contenido, donde destacarán las experiencias de la vivienda compartida; el otro, en contraposición, se preocupa de definir sus mínimos elementos estructurantes, y que daremos en llamar la vivienda resiliente. Se manifestará de maneras diversas; vivienda progresiva, inacabada, rehabilitada, adaptable etc. En ambos casos no se trata sino de la sistematización de prácticas previas, en las que llama la atención una suerte de continuidad histórica entre el umbral de los siglos XIX y XX, los años 60 y el período contemporáneo, interrumpidos por momentos de un crecimiento acrítico. Estas nuevas estructuras del habitar, a diferencia de las épocas anteriores, se integran hoy de manera articulada en el proyecto contemporáneo poniendo en cuestión sus límites, legales y de autoría, y abriendo el campo a la investigación académica. En última instancia, el artículo propondrá algunos mecanismos proyectuales que permitirán caracterizar y fomentar estas nuevas estrategias. SUMMARY In the current social and urban scene, the discussion on housing plays a central role. After identifying some of the most relevant concepts in this context, the article explores the myriad of new architectural proposals that have emerged in response to this question, and suggests a grouping method that describes, at least, two different tools for the architectural project. The first of them is related to content, here we will highlight some shared housing experiences; the second, on the other hand, focuses on defining the minimum structuring elements; we have called

  8. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  9. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  10. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.

    2001-01-12

    The objective of this project was to identify conditions at which carbon dioxide induced precipitation occurred in crude oils. Establishing compositions of the relevant liquid and solid phases was planned. Other goals of the project were to determine if precipitation occurred in cores and to implement thermodynamic and compositional models to examine the phenomenon. Exploring kinetics of precipitation was also one of the project goals. Crude oil from the Rangely Field (eastern Colorado) was used as a prototype.

  11. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  12. Magnetite precipitation and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, A.; Garside, J.; Ivens, R.

    1988-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) precipitation was investigated as a possible alternative treatment process to the conventional ferric hydroxide for removal of actinides from radioactive effluents. This offered the possibility of improved dewatering of filtered residues. Whilst a poor quality magnetite could be produced from deoxygenated ferrous/ferric solutions, all attempts to prepare magnetite from effluent simulates were unsuccessful. The failure was attributed to the presence of high nitrate and other interfering ions. (author)

  13. Precipitation in partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the substructure of partially stabilized ZrO 2 (PSZ) samples, i.e., 2-phase systems containing both cubic and monoclinic modifications of zirconia, after various heat treatments. Monoclinic ZrO 2 exists as (1) isolated grains within the polycrystalline aggregate (a grain- boundary phase) and (2) small plate-like particles within cubic grains. These intragranular precipitates are believed to contribute to the useful properties of PSZ via a form of precipitation hardening. These precipitates initially form as tetragonal ZrO 2 , with a habit plane parallel to the brace 100 brace matrix planes. The orientation relations between the tetragonal precipitates and the cubic matrix are brace 100 brace/sub matrix/ 2 parallel brace 100 brace /sub precipitate/ or (001)/sub precipitate/ and broken bracket 100 broken bracket/sub matrix/ 2 parallel broken bracket 100 broken bracket/sub precipitate/ or [001]/sub precipitate/. (U.S.)

  14. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  15. Few multiyear precipitation-reduction experiments find a shift in the productivity-precipitation relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, Marc; Vicca, Sara; Peñuelas, Josep; Bahn, Michael; Beier, Claus; Emmett, Bridget A; Fay, Philip A; Hanson, Paul J; Hasibeder, Roland; Kigel, Jaime; Kröel-Dulay, Gyorgy; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Ogaya, Romà; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Reinsch, Sabine; Sala, Osvaldo E; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Sternberg, Marcelo; Tielbörger, Katja; Tietema, Albert; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-07-01

    Well-defined productivity-precipitation relationships of ecosystems are needed as benchmarks for the validation of land models used for future projections. The productivity-precipitation relationship may be studied in two ways: the spatial approach relates differences in productivity to those in precipitation among sites along a precipitation gradient (the spatial fit, with a steeper slope); the temporal approach relates interannual productivity changes to variation in precipitation within sites (the temporal fits, with flatter slopes). Precipitation-reduction experiments in natural ecosystems represent a complement to the fits, because they can reduce precipitation below the natural range and are thus well suited to study potential effects of climate drying. Here, we analyse the effects of dry treatments in eleven multiyear precipitation-manipulation experiments, focusing on changes in the temporal fit. We expected that structural changes in the dry treatments would occur in some experiments, thereby reducing the intercept of the temporal fit and displacing the productivity-precipitation relationship downward the spatial fit. The majority of experiments (72%) showed that dry treatments did not alter the temporal fit. This implies that current temporal fits are to be preferred over the spatial fit to benchmark land-model projections of productivity under future climate within the precipitation ranges covered by the experiments. Moreover, in two experiments, the intercept of the temporal fit unexpectedly increased due to mechanisms that reduced either water loss or nutrient loss. The expected decrease of the intercept was observed in only one experiment, and only when distinguishing between the late and the early phases of the experiment. This implies that we currently do not know at which precipitation-reduction level or at which experimental duration structural changes will start to alter ecosystem productivity. Our study highlights the need for experiments with

  16. Exploratory Project: Rigid nanostructured organic polymer monolith for in situ collection and analysis of plant metabolites from soil matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharayil, Nishanth [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-06-29

    -template imprinting approach for the selective capture of less abundant plant metabolites from a crowded soil/litter leachate. Our results suggests that i) the root exudate pattern of plants is highly dependent on the nutrient status of the plant, with greater specificity of root exudation occurring in growing medium with low available form of nutrients, ii) the chemical composition of root exudation is a function of the distance of sampling from the source-roots, with the composition of root exudation being more enriched in polar metabolites farther from the source-roots, iii) Further we demonstrated that the compounds present in real root exudates diffuse farther from the source roots than those in artificial root exudates that are traditionally used. Thus, our project highlights how the soil matrix is instrumental in modifying the chemical composition of root exudates, and highlights that, apart from the plant physiology, the specificity and function of root exudates is also modified by environmental factors.

  17. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  18. Vade mecum for managers of collective waste methanation projects; Vade-Mecum du porteur de projet de methanisation des dechets des collectivites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffontaine, P. [Vice-President Charge des Dechets Menagers, Lille Metropole Communaute Urbaine, 59 (France); Guillet, R. [Commission Dechets et Proprete de l' Astee, Conseil General des Mines (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document is the result of a collective work carried out by the 'biological treatment' working group of the 'wastes and cleanliness' commission of the French scientific and technical association for the water and the environment (ASTEE). It presents the different forms of implementation of the methanation or anaerobic digestion of organic fermentescible wastes. Each process has its advantages and drawbacks which are presented in this guidebook. It deals with the following points: when implementing methanation? (context of methanation and solid wastes, status of wastes methanation, biological mechanisms), upstream and inputs management (authorized wastes, typology, parameters to be considered, organization of wastes pre-collection and collection), processes implemented (parameters of the methanation process, operation of a methanation unit, technical status of some methanation facilities in operation, mass transfer status), valorization of methanation products (biogas, compost, liquid effluents), construction and operation (projects complexity and schedules, parameters to be considered, cost-benefit analysis), regulatory context (typology of sub-contexts, wastes management, legal aspects of facilities classified for environment protection, management of fertilizing matters, renewable energies), conclusion, glossary. (J.S.)

  19. Tritium in Precipitation, Surface and Groundwaters in the Zagreb Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope tritium (3H) and stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) were measured in Sava River, precipitation and groundwater at 3 monitoring wells (piezometers) and 1 production well of the Petrusevec aquifer, close to the Sava River. Samples were collected monthly during 2010. The investigation is included in the Regional IAEA Project RER/8/016 Using Environmental Isotopes for Evaluation of Streamwater/Groundwater Interactions in Selected Aquifers in the Danube Basin. Sava River is a tributary of Danube River and the aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of surface stream of Sava River to the groundwater of aquifer used for water exploitation. In this work only 3H results were presented. 3H was measured by liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220, using electrolytic enrichment for all samples. 3H activity in precipitation showed slight seasonal fluctuation between 4 TU and 14 TU, with higher values in summer. 3H activity of Sava River and groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer followed 3H of precipitation till May 2010. Significant increase of 3H in Sava River was observed in June, (199 @ 20) TU, and in the next month it fell down at 6 TU. Increase of 3H was also observed in groundwater but with damped response (maximum 60 TU) and with delay of 2 - 3 months related to Sava River. Different response of different piezometers and the well indicated the different infiltration times of surface water of Sava River to groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer. The increased 3H activity in surface and groundwaters was caused by release of tritiated water from the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, 30 km upstream from Zagreb. The results of 3H, 2H/1H and 18O/16O measurements will be used to determine the infiltration time of groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer using conceptual and mathematical models. (author)

  20. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_05_23_24_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  1. Ditches and Drainage Structures, Culverts - cross drains were collected using a GPS for drainage basin project. Ditches are planned for the future., Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Ditches and Drainage Structures dataset current as of 2005. Culverts - cross drains were collected using a GPS for drainage basin project. Ditches are planned for...

  2. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise EPamSh-2016 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  3. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_31_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  4. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_07_30_2013 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  5. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise SndPt_05_21_22_2012 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers...

  6. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project from 1978-07-25 to 1978-09-12 by France (NODC Accession 0070783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, and ashfree dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project in Jul - Sep 1978 by...

  7. Chirp subbottom profiler data collected in Pamlico Sound on cruise RVRiggs_05_20_22_2014 of RV Riggs for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Edgetech 216 chirp data (SEG-Y format) collected for the Coastal Hydrodynamics and Natural Geologic Evolution (CHaNGE) project, OCE-1130843. Survey area covers the...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-06-01 to 1977-06-08 (NODC Accession 8100135)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature project data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from June 1, 1977 to June 8, 1977. Data were...

  9. A global gridded dataset of daily precipitation going back to 1950, ideal for analysing precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, S.; Donat, M.; Alexander, L. V.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable observations of precipitation are necessary to determine past changes in precipitation and validate models, allowing for reliable future projections. Existing gauge based gridded datasets of daily precipitation and satellite based observations contain artefacts and have a short length of record, making them unsuitable to analyse precipitation extremes. The largest limiting factor for the gauge based datasets is a dense and reliable station network. Currently, there are two major data archives of global in situ daily rainfall data, first is Global Historical Station Network (GHCN-Daily) hosted by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the other by Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) part of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). We combine the two data archives and use automated quality control techniques to create a reliable long term network of raw station data, which we then interpolate using block kriging to create a global gridded dataset of daily precipitation going back to 1950. We compare our interpolated dataset with existing global gridded data of daily precipitation: NOAA Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Global V1.0 and GPCC Full Data Daily Version 1.0, as well as various regional datasets. We find that our raw station density is much higher than other datasets. To avoid artefacts due to station network variability, we provide multiple versions of our dataset based on various completeness criteria, as well as provide the standard deviation, kriging error and number of stations for each grid cell and timestep to encourage responsible use of our dataset. Despite our efforts to increase the raw data density, the in situ station network remains sparse in India after the 1960s and in Africa throughout the timespan of the dataset. Our dataset would allow for more reliable global analyses of rainfall including its extremes and pave the way for better global precipitation observations with lower and more transparent uncertainties.

  10. Analysis of precipitation teleconnections in CMIP models as a measure of model fidelity in simulating precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J.; Meyerson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The accurate representation of precipitation is a recurring issue in global climate models, especially in the tropics. Poor skill in modeling the variability and climate teleconnections associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) also persisted in the latest Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) campaigns. Observed ENSO precipitation teleconnections provide a standard by which we can judge a given model's ability to reproduce precipitation and dynamic feedback processes originating in the tropical Pacific. Using CMIP3 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) runs as a baseline, we compare precipitation teleconnections between models and observations, and we evaluate these results against available CMIP5 historical and AMIP runs. Using AMIP simulations restricts evaluation to the atmospheric response, as sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in AMIP are prescribed by observations. We use a rank correlation between ENSO SST indices and precipitation to define teleconnections, since this method is robust to outliers and appropriate for non-Gaussian data. Spatial correlations of the modeled and observed teleconnections are then evaluated. We look at these correlations in regions of strong precipitation teleconnections, including equatorial S. America, the "horseshoe" region in the western tropical Pacific, and southern N. America. For each region and season, we create a "normalized projection" of a given model's teleconnection pattern onto that of the observations, a metric that assesses the quality of regional pattern simulations while rewarding signals of correct sign over the region. Comparing this to an area-averaged (i.e., more generous) metric suggests models do better when restrictions on exact spatial dependence are loosened and conservation constraints apply. Model fidelity in regional measures remains far from perfect, suggesting intrinsic issues with the models' regional sensitivities in moist processes.

  11. Using GRACE to constrain precipitation amount over cold mountainous basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Ali; Gardner, Alex S.; Reager, John T.; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance for hydrology and climate-change studies, current quantitative knowledge on the amount and distribution of precipitation in mountainous and high-elevation regions is limited due to instrumental and retrieval shortcomings. Here by focusing on two large endorheic basins in High Mountain Asia, we show that satellite gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)) can be used to provide an independent estimate of monthly accumulated precipitation using mass balance equation. Results showed that the GRACE-based precipitation estimate has the highest agreement with most of the commonly used precipitation products in summer, but it deviates from them in cold months, when the other products are expected to have larger errors. It was found that most of the products capture about or less than 50% of the total precipitation estimated using GRACE in winter. Overall, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) showed better agreement with GRACE estimate than other products. Yet on average GRACE showed 30% more annual precipitation than GPCP in the study basins. In basins of appropriate size with an absence of dense ground measurements, as is a typical case in cold mountainous regions, we find GRACE can be a viable alternative to constrain monthly and seasonal precipitation estimates from other remotely sensed precipitation products that show large bias.

  12. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  13. Mechanisms and Attribution of Changes in Austral Summer Precipitation Related to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Marcia Terezinha

    weakening of the poleward winds along the eastern Brazilian coast that reduces the dynamic support necessary for convection along the equatorward margin of the SACZ. Additionally, this analysis also identifies a decrease in low-to-mid troposphere (700hPa) moisture over the tropical Atlantic in the recent decade that further reduces the moisture transported into the convective margin of the SACZ. Both mechanisms contribute to reducing precipitation over eastern tropical Brazil and characterize the poleward shift of the SACZ. The final chapter focuses on evaluating the contribution of natural variability and anthropogenic-related forcings to the poleward shift of the SACZ and drying conditions over eastern Brazil at the end of 20th century. Simulations from different scenarios of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMPI5) models capable of reproducing the SACZ climatology suggest significant contribution of anthropogenic forcing on the SACZ-related precipitation trends. Despite the large discrepancies in the simulated precipitation trends, similarities among the ensemble members provide compelling evidence that the poleward shift of the SACZ in the last three decades of the 20 th century is largely enhanced by anthropogenic forcing. Collectively, the three chapters of this dissertation characterize the recent changes in precipitation related to a poleward shift of the SACZ and give novel insights into the influence of anthropogenic-related forcing on these changes. These findings advance the scientific understanding of the consequences of recent climate variability and change over eastern tropical South America, particularly over the SACZ.

  14. Electrostatic Precipitation of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Implications for the Utilization of Resources During Future Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Clements, Judson S.; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Hogue, Michael D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.

    2011-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require the utilization of local resources for oxygen, fuel. and water. The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project is an active research endeavor at NASA to develop technologies that can enable cost effective ways to live off the land. The extraction of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. composed primarily of carbon dioxide, is one of the most important goals of the Mars ISRU project. The main obstacle is the relatively large amount of dust present in the Martian atmosphere. This dust must be efficiently removed from atmospheric gas intakes for ISRU processing chambers. A common technique to achieve this removal on earth is by electrostatic precipitation, where large electrostatic fields are established in a localized region to precipitate and collect previously charged dust particles. This technique is difficult to adapt to the Martian environment, with an atmospheric pressure of about one-hundredth of the terrestrial atmosphere. At these low pressures. the corona discharges required to implant an electrostatic charge to the particles to be collected is extremely difficult to sustain and the corona easily becomes biopolar. which is unsuitable for particle charging. In this paper, we report on our successful efforts to establish a stable corona under Martian simulated conditions. We also present results on dust collecting efficiencies with an electrostatic precipitator prototype that could be effectively used on a future mission to the red planet

  15. Considering a pedagogy of adress through the time image: a philosophical, curational and pedagogic project centered on artium’s collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Trafí-Prats

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foundations and research process of a curatorial-pedagogic project centered on reactivating ARTIUM’s Collection (Vitoria, Spain. In this process art and pedagogy are seen as scenes of address, or spaces of production of difference between the positions that the cultural, museum, curricular text offers, and the responses given by its interpreters, students, viewers. Different moments of this research process are discussed, including: 1 The reactivation of the expressive languages of ARTIUMartworks through a Deleuzian image theory and a pedagogy of address, 2 the production of a dilemmatic museum space centered on producing knowledge from visitors’ memories, experiences and subjectivities, 3 the activation of this space through a Laboratory of Logics of Vision, 4 the production of visual narratives experimenting with the concept of image-time by the participants in such Laboratory.

  16. Predicting Precipitation in Darwin: An Experiment with Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncek, John; Harden, Sig

    2009-01-01

    As teachers of first-year college mathematics and science students, the authors are constantly on the lookout for simple classroom exercises that improve their students' analytical and computational skills. In this article, the authors outline a project entitled "Predicting Precipitation in Darwin." In this project, students: (1) analyze…

  17. Pareto-Optimal Estimates of California Precipitation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David

    2017-12-01

    In seeking constraints on global climate model projections under global warming, one commonly finds that different subsets of models perform well under different objective functions, and these trade-offs are difficult to weigh. Here a multiobjective approach is applied to a large set of subensembles generated from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 ensemble. We use observations and reanalyses to constrain tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, upper level zonal winds in the midlatitude Pacific, and California precipitation. An evolutionary algorithm identifies the set of Pareto-optimal subensembles across these three measures, and these subensembles are used to constrain end-of-century California wet season precipitation change. This methodology narrows the range of projections throughout California, increasing confidence in estimates of positive mean precipitation change. Finally, we show how this technique complements and generalizes emergent constraint approaches for restricting uncertainty in end-of-century projections within multimodel ensembles using multiple criteria for observational constraints.

  18. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called 'waste' is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented

  19. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  20. Temporal variation of extreme precipitation events in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rimkus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation events in Lithuania for the period 1961-2008 were analysed. The spatial distribution and dynamics of precipitation extremes were investigated. Positive tendencies and in some cases statistically significant trends were determined for the whole of Lithuania. Atmospheric circulation processes were derived using Hess & Brezowski's classification of macrocirculation forms. More than one third of heavy precipitation events (37% were observed when the atmospheric circulation was zonal. The location of the central part of a cyclone (WZ weather condition subtype over Lithuania is the most common synoptic situation (27% during heavy precipitation events. Climatic projections according to outputs of the CCLM model are also presented in this research. The analysis shows that the recurrence of heavy precipitation events in the 21st century will increase significantly (by up to 22% in Lithuania.

  1. Optimization of precipitation conditions of thorium oxalate precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Thorium precipitation in the form of difficultly soluble oxalate has been investigated. The equation binding the concentration of metal with the nitric acid in the initial solution and quantity of a precipitator necessary for minimization of desired product losses is derived. The graphical solution of this equation for a case, when the oxalic acid with 0.78 mol/l concentration is the precipitator, is presented

  2. Acid precipitation literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  3. Microsphere formation in droplets using antisolvent vapour precipitation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Sean Jun Liang

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, the antisolvent vapour precipitation method has been proven to produce uniformly sized lactose microspheres (1.0 µm) from a single droplet (1.2 mm diameter) at atmospheric pressure. These types of particles have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry, especially due to their high dissolution rate. This project looked into the possibility of using antisolvent vapour precipitation to produce microspheres from finely atomised droplets. Microspheres in the sub-...

  4. Two-stage precipitation of plutonium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Plutonium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments identified the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which was based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter that can be used to control particle characteristics

  5. Stord Orographic Precipitation Experiment (STOPEX: an overview of phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sandvik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available STOPEX (Stord Orographic Precipitation Experiment is a research project of the Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Norway, dedicated to the investigation of orographic effects on fine scale precipitation patterns by a combination of numerical modelling and tailored measurement campaigns. Between 24 September and 16 November 2005 the first field campaign STOPEX I has been performed at and around the island of Stord at the west coast of Norway, about 50 km south of Bergen. 12 rain gauges and 3 autonomous weather stations have been installed to measure the variability of precipitation and the corresponding meteorological conditions. This paper gives an overview of the projects motivation, a description of the campaign and a presentation of the precipitation measurements performed. In addition, the extreme precipitation event around 14 November with precipitation amounts up to 240 mm in less than 24 h, is described and briefly discussed. In this context preliminary results of corresponding MM5 simulations are presented, that indicate the problems as well as potential improvement strategies with respect to modelling of fine scale orographic precipitation.

  6. Compatibility analysis of precipitation and runoff trends over the large Siberian watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Berezovskaya, Svetlana; Yang, Daqing; Kane, Douglas L.

    2004-01-01

    The consistency of long-term yearly precipitation and runoff trends over the largest Arctic watersheds (Ob, Yenisei and Lena Rivers) is examined. Three gridded precipitation datasets (Climatic Research Unit, University of Delaware, NCEP) are used for comparative analyses with runoff data collected at basin outlets. The results generally demonstrate inconsistency in long-term changes of basin precipitation and runoff. The Yenisei River runoff increases significantly, while precipitation data s...

  7. Reconstructing Hydrologic Variability in Southwestern North America Using Speleothem Proxies and Precipitation Isotopes from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe-Glynn, Staryl

    Precipitation in southwestern North America has exhibited significant natural variability over the past few thousand years. This variability has been attributed to sea surface temperature regimes in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and to the attendant shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns. In particular, decadal variability in the North Pacific has influenced precipitation in this region during the twentieth century, but links to earlier droughts and pluvials are unclear. Here I assess these links using delta18 O measurements from a speleothem from southern California that spans AD 854-- 2007. I show that variations in the oxygen isotopes of the speleothem correlate to sea surface temperatures in the Kuroshio Extension region of the North Pacific, which affect the atmospheric trajectory and isotopic composition of moisture reaching the study site. Interpreting our speleothem data as a record of sea surface temperatures in the Kuroshio Extension, I find a strong 22-year periodicity, suggesting a persistent solar influence on North Pacific decadal variability. A comparison with tree-ring records of precipitation during the past millennium shows that some droughts occurred during periods of warmth in the Kuroshio Extension, similar to the instrumental record. However, other droughts did not and instead were likely influenced by other factors. The carbon isotope record indicates drier conditions are associated with higher delta13C values and may be a suitable proxy for reconstructing past drought variability. More research is needed to determine the controls on trace element concentrations. Finally, I find a significant increase in sea surface temperature variability over the past 150 years, which may reflect an influence of greenhouse gas concentrations on variability in the North Pacific. While drought is a common feature of climate in this region, most climate models also project extreme precipitation events to increase in frequency and severity because the

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  9. Effective Assimilation of Global Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, G.; Kalnay, E.; Miyoshi, T.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Assimilating precipitation observations by modifying the moisture and sometimes temperature profiles has been shown successful in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed precipitation, but only while the assimilation is taking place. After the forecast start, the model tends to "forget" the assimilation changes and lose their extra skill after few forecast hours. This suggests that this approach is not an efficient way to modify the potential vorticity field, since this is the variable that the model would remember. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is used to effectively change the potential vorticity field by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights. In addition to using an EnKF, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are proposed to solve the problems related to the highly non-Gaussian nature of the precipitation variable: a) transform precipitation into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution, and b) only assimilate precipitation at the location where some ensemble members have positive precipitation. The idea is first tested by the observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using SPEEDY, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When the global precipitation is assimilated in addition to conventional rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium range forecasts are significantly improved as compared to only having rawinsonde observations. The improvement is much reduced when only modifying the moisture field with the same approach, which shows the importance of the error covariance between precipitation and all other model variables. The effect of precipitation assimilation is larger in the Southern Hemisphere than that in the Northern Hemisphere because the Northern Hemisphere analyses are already accurate as a result of denser rawinsonde stations. Assimilation of precipitation using a more comprehensive

  10. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  11. Access NASA Satellite Global Precipitation Data Visualization on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Su, J.; Acker, J. G.; Huffman, G. J.; Vollmer, B.; Wei, J.; Meyer, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Since the satellite era began, NASA has collected a large volume of Earth science observations for research and applications around the world. Satellite data at 12 NASA data centers can also be used for STEM activities such as disaster events, climate change, etc. However, accessing satellite data can be a daunting task for non-professional users such as teachers and students because of unfamiliarity of terminology, disciplines, data formats, data structures, computing resources, processing software, programing languages, etc. Over the years, many efforts have been developed to improve satellite data access, but barriers still exist for non-professionals. In this presentation, we will present our latest activity that uses the popular online video sharing web site, YouTube, to access visualization of global precipitation datasets at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC). With YouTube, users can access and visualize a large volume of satellite data without necessity to learn new software or download data. The dataset in this activity is the 3-hourly TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). The video consists of over 50,000 data files collected since 1998 onwards, covering a zone between 50°N-S. The YouTube video will last 36 minutes for the entire dataset record (over 19 years). Since the time stamp is on each frame of the video, users can begin at any time by dragging the time progress bar. This precipitation animation will allow viewing precipitation events and processes (e.g., hurricanes, fronts, atmospheric rivers, etc.) on a global scale. The next plan is to develop a similar animation for the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). The IMERG provides precipitation on a near-global (60°N-S) coverage at half-hourly time interval, showing more details on precipitation processes and development, compared to the 3

  12. Human health implications of extreme precipitation events and water quality in California, USA: a canonical correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gershunov, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogens and pollutants collect on the land surface or in infrastructure between strong rainfall episodes and are delivered via storm runoff to areas of human exposure, such as coastal recreational waters. In California, USA, precipitation events are projected to become more extreme and simultaneously decrease in frequency as storm tracks move poleward due to polar-amplified global warming. Precipitation extremes in California are dominated by atmospheric rivers, which carry more moisture in warmer climates. Thus, the physical driver of extreme precipitation events is expected to grow stronger with climate change, and pollutant accumulation and runoff-generated exposure to those pollutants are expected to increase, particularly after prolonged dry spells. Microbiological contamination of coastal waters during winter storms exposes human populations to elevated concentrations of microorganisms such as faecal bacteria, which could cause gastrointestinal and ear infections, and lead to exposure to pathogens causing life-threatening conditions, such as hepatitis A. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the effect of precipitation on coastal water quality in California. Methods: We used a recently published catalogue of atmospheric rivers, in combination with historical daily precipitation data and levels of three indicators of faecal bacteria (total and faecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli detected at roughly 500 monitoring locations in coastal waters along California's 840-mile coastline, to explore weekly associations between extreme precipitation events, particularly those related to atmospheric rivers, and the variability in water quality during 2003–09. We identified ten principal components (together explaining >90% of the variability in precipitation and faecal bacteria time-series to reduce the dimensionality of the datasets. We then performed canonical correlation analysis of the principal components to

  13. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  14. Seizure precipitants (triggering factors) in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlisi, Monica; Shorvon, Simon

    2014-04-01

    adult epilepsy clinic population: (a) to identify the frequency of seizure precipitants (triggering factors) and their relative frequency in those with psychiatric disorders, and in those in remission or with active epilepsy, differences in frequency with regard to gender, seizure duration, number of drugs taken; (b) to determine which precipitants patients most commonly report; and (c) to identify differences in the distribution of precipitants among generalized, temporal, and extratemporal epilepsies. Consecutive patients attending a tertiary-care epilepsy clinic were prospectively and an open personal interview to identify and characterize seizure precipitants. Information about the epilepsy and clinical characteristics of patients was collected during the interview and from medical records. Of 104 patients, 97% cited at least one precipitant. Stress, sleep deprivation, and fatigue were the most frequently reported precipitants. Patients with psychological comorbidities reported a greater percentage of seizures with seizure precipitants. Patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy seemed to be more sensitive to seizures during awakening and sleep deprivation, patients with extratemporal epilepsy reported more frequent seizures during sleep. There were no differences in frequency or type of seizure precipitants with regard to gender, seizure duration or frequency, and the number of antiepileptic drugs taken. The findings may have implications for the better management of epilepsy by increasing a focus on nonpharmacological therapy. The implications of the findings for nosology and causation of epilepsy are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the correlation between annual precipitation and potential evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Buchberger, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The interdependence between precipitation and potential evaporation is closely related to the classic Budyko framework. In this study, a systematic investigation of the correlation between precipitation and potential evaporation at the annual time step is conducted at both point scale and watershed scale. The point scale precipitation and potential evaporation data over the period of 1984-2015 are collected from 259 weather stations across the United States. The watershed scale precipitation data of 203 watersheds across the United States are obtained from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) dataset from 1983 to 2002; and potential evaporation data of these 203 watersheds in the same period are obtained from a remote-sensing algorithm. The results show that majority of the weather stations (77%) and watersheds (79%) exhibit a statistically significant negative correlation between annual precipitation and annual potential evaporation. The aggregated data cloud of precipitation versus potential evaporation follows a curve based on the combination of the Budyko-type equation and Bouchet's complementary relationship. Our result suggests that annual precipitation and potential evaporation are not independent when both Budyko's hypothesis and Bouchet's hypothesis are valid. Furthermore, we find that the wet surface evaporation, which is controlled primarily by short wave radiation as defined in Bouchet's hypothesis, exhibits less dependence on precipitation than the potential evaporation. As a result, we suggest that wet surface evaporation is a better representation of energy supply than potential evaporation in the Budyko framework.

  16. Improving precipitation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2004-09-01

    Although rainfall has been measured for centuries scientifically and in isolated brief episodes over millennia for agriculture, it is still not measured adequately even today for climatology, water resources, and other precise applications. This paper outlines the history of raingauges, their errors, and describes the field testing over 3 years of a first guess design for an aerodynamic rain collector proposed by Folland in 1988. Although shown to have aerodynamic advantage over a standard 5 gauge, the new rain collector was found to suffer from outsplash in heavy rain. To study this problem, and to derive general basic design rules for aerodynamic gauges, its performance was investigated in turbulent, real-world conditions rather than in the controlled and simplified environment of a wind tunnel or mathematical model as in the past. To do this, video records were made using thread tracers to indicate the path of the wind, giving new insight into the complex flow of natural wind around and within raingauges. A new design resulted, and 2 years of field testing have shown that the new gauge has good aerodynamic and evaporative characteristics and minimal outsplash, offering the potential for improved precipitation measurement.

  17. CEOS precipitation constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Oki, Riko

    2007-10-01

    The outcomes of the 19th Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Plenary held in London in November 2005, recognized that the CEOS Implementation Plan for Space-Based Observations for Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) should: - identify the supply of space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements expressed by the 10-year implementation plan for GEOSS; and - propose an innovative process whereby the many disparate types of Earth observing programs funded by CEOS Member agencies might contribute to the supply of the required observations. The CEOS Task Force charged with drafting the CEOS Implementation Plan for Space-Based Observations for GEOSS focused its early efforts on the creation of a 'new planning process' which would satisfy the various criteria demanded by member space agencies, and which would hopefully encourage a new phase of specificity and focus in the multi-lateral co-operation efforts undertaken by space agencies under the CEOS umbrella - resulting in improved engagement of all CEOS Members and real implementation results. The CEOS Constellations is the title given to this new process, and four pilot studies have been initiated in order to pioneer and test the concept. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were selected as the lead agencies for the study of the development of a CEOS Precipitation Constellation with the support of other CEOS space agency and user community participants. The goals, approach, and anticipated outcomes for the study will be discussed.

  18. Project report - an overview of the project and experiences with project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    1996-01-01

    A collection of the project planning and the experiences with project management from the Catering 2000 project.As appendieces articles etc. from journals, newspapers etc. about the project.......A collection of the project planning and the experiences with project management from the Catering 2000 project.As appendieces articles etc. from journals, newspapers etc. about the project....

  19. Precipitation in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  20. Pareto-optimal estimates that constrain mean California precipitation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate model (GCM) projections of greenhouse gas-induced precipitation change can exhibit notable uncertainty at the regional scale, particularly in regions where the mean change is small compared to internal variability. This is especially true for California, which is located in a transition zone between robust precipitation increases to the north and decreases to the south, and where GCMs from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive show no consensus on mean change (in either magnitude or sign) across the central and southern parts of the state. With the goal of constraining this uncertainty, we apply a multiobjective approach to a large set of subensembles (subsets of models from the full CMIP5 ensemble). These constraints are based on subensemble performance in three fields important to California precipitation: tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, upper-level zonal winds in the midlatitude Pacific, and precipitation over the state. An evolutionary algorithm is used to sort through and identify the set of Pareto-optimal subensembles across these three measures in the historical climatology, and we use this information to constrain end-of-century California wet season precipitation change. This technique narrows the range of projections throughout the state and increases confidence in estimates of positive mean change. Furthermore, these methods complement and generalize emergent constraint approaches that aim to restrict uncertainty in end-of-century projections, and they have applications to even broader aspects of uncertainty quantification, including parameter sensitivity and model calibration.

  1. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  2. River flooding due to intense precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, James C.

    2014-01-01

    River stage can rise and cause site flooding due to local intense precipitation (LIP), dam failures, snow melt in conjunction with precipitation or dam failures, etc. As part of the re-evaluation of the design basis as well as the PRA analysis of other external events, the likelihood and consequence of river flooding leading to the site flooding need to be examined more rigorously. To evaluate the effects of intense precipitation on site structures, the site watershed hydrology and pond storage are calculated. To determine if river flooding can cause damage to risk-significant systems, structures, and components (SSC), water surface elevations are analyzed. Typically, the amount and rate of the input water is determined first. For intense precipitation, the fraction of the rainfall in the watershed drainage area not infiltrated into the ground is collected in the river and contributes to the rise of river water elevation. For design basis analysis, the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) is evaluated using the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) based on the site topography/configuration. The peak runoff flow rate and water surface elevations resulting from the precipitation induced flooding can then be estimated. The runoff flow hydrograph and peak discharge flows can be developed using the synthetic hydrograph method. The standard step method can then be used to determine the water surface elevations along the river channel. Thus, the flood water from the local intense precipitation storm and excess runoff from the nearby river can be evaluated to calculate the water surface elevations, which can be compared with the station grade floor elevation to determine the effects of site flooding on risk-significant SSCs. The analysis needs to consider any possible diversion flow and the effects of changes to the site configurations. Typically, the analysis is performed based on conservative peak rainfall intensity and the assumptions of failure of the site drainage facilities

  3. Kinetics of cadmium hydroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.W.; Marani, D.; Luo, B.; Swenson, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results on the kinetics of Cd(OH)/sub 2/ precipitation, both in the absence and the presence of citric acid as an inhibiting agent. Batch and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) precipitation studies are performed by mixing equal volumes of NaOH and Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions, in order to avoid localized supersaturation conditions. The rate of metal removal from the soluble phase is calculated from the mass balance for the CSTR precipitation tests. In addition, precipitation kinetics are studied in terms of nucleation and crystal growth rates, by means of a particle counter that allows a population balance analysis for the precipitation reactor at steady state conditions

  4. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A + + B – → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

  5. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  6. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  7. Precipitation and Evaporation Trends in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. W.

    2009-05-01

    Texas is a large land area with at least three different climate types. As such it is expected that the results of climate change will not be homogenous. This paper presents results of a study of long trends in Texas precipitation and evaporation using data from the US Historical Climatology Network and the Texas Water Development Board. It shows that the long term trends of these variables is not homogenous and exhibits great variability in both spatial extent and magnitude. This variability must be considered in planning for future water supply or other mitigation projects.

  8. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  9. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant

  10. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-07-27

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant.

  11. Extreme Precipitation and Runoff under Changing Climate in Southern Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Eugene [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jared, Alissa [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahat, Vinod [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Picel, Mark [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moges, Edom M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Demissie, Yonas K. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Pierce, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The quantification of extreme precipitation events is vitally important for designing and engineering water and flood sensitive infrastructure. Since this kind of infrastructure is usually built to last much longer than 10, 50, or even 100 years, there is great need for statistically sound estimates of the intensity of 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year rainstorms and associated floods. The recent assessment indicated that the intensity of the most extreme precipitation events (or the heaviest 1% of all daily events) have increased in every region of the contiguous states since the 1950s (Melillo et al. 2014). The maximum change in precipitation intensity of extreme events occurred in the northeast region reaching 71%. The precipitation extremes can be characterized using intensity-duration-frequency analysis (IDF). However, the current IDFs in this region were developed around the assumption that climate condition remains stationary over the next 50 or 100 years. To better characterize the potential flood risk, this project will (1) develop precipitation IDFs on the basis of both historical observations and future climate projections from dynamic downscaling with Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) regional climate model and (2) develop runoff IDFs using precipitation IDFs for the Casco Bay Watershed. IDF development also considers non-stationary distribution models and snowmelt effects that are not incorporated in the current IDFs.

  12. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  13. Collective Success or Collective Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    study of soccer village project to learn how various attempts at facilitating joint CSR action in the Pakistani football manufacturing have consistently failed in addressing international CSR compliance demands. I conclude that this form of collective failure – along with technological changes, lack...... of innovation, and government failure - can partly explain why Sialkot has been marginalized in terms of its overall share of world football manufacturing in the last decade....

  14. Evaluation of satellite-retrieved extreme precipitation using gauge observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhoff, M.; Zolina, O.; Simmer, C.; Schulz, J.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation extremes have already been intensively studied employing rain gauge datasets. Their main advantage is that they represent a direct measurement with a relatively high temporal coverage. Their main limitation however is their poor spatial coverage and thus a low representativeness in many parts of the world. In contrast, satellites can provide global coverage and there are meanwhile data sets available that are on one hand long enough to be used for extreme value analysis and that have on the other hand the necessary spatial and temporal resolution to capture extremes. However, satellite observations provide only an indirect mean to determine precipitation and there are many potential observational and methodological weaknesses in particular over land surfaces that may constitute doubts concerning their usability for the analysis of precipitation extremes. By comparing basic climatological metrics of precipitation (totals, intensities, number of wet days) as well as respective characteristics of PDFs, absolute and relative extremes of satellite and observational data this paper aims at assessing to which extent satellite products are suitable for analysing extreme precipitation events. In a first step the assessment focuses on Europe taking into consideration various satellite products available, e.g. data sets provided by the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). First results indicate that satellite-based estimates do not only represent the monthly averaged precipitation very similar to rain gauge estimates but they also capture the day-to-day occurrence fairly well. Larger differences can be found though when looking at the corresponding intensities.

  15. Characterization and structure of precipitates in 6xxx Aluminium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmestad, Randi; Bjørge, Ruben; Ehlers, Flemming J H; Torsæter, Malin; Marioara, Calin D; Andersen, Sigmund J

    2012-01-01

    Solute atom nanoscale precipitates are responsible for the favourable mechanical properties of heat treatable aluminium alloys such as Al-Mg-Si (6xxx). The shape, structure and strengthening properties of age-hardening precipitates depend on alloy composition and thermo-mechanical history. We seek an improved understanding of the physics related to nucleation and precipitation on the atomistic level in these alloys. Once these mechanisms are sufficiently well described and understood, the hope is that 'alloy design' simulations can assist tailoring of materials with desired properties. In pure Al-Mg-Si we have determined the structure of nearly all the known metastable precipitate phases, by combining advanced TEM techniques (such as high resolution TEM and nano-beam diffraction) with atom probe tomography and density functional theory. We are now studying effects of additions /substitutions of Cu, Ag and/or Ge that promote formation of more disordered precipitates, employing aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning TEM. We find that all metastable precipitates contain variations of a widely spaced 'Si/Ge network'. In spite of disorder or defects, this network is surprisingly well ordered, with hexagonal projected sub-cell dimensions a = b ≅ 0.4 nm and c (along the fully coherent precipitate main growth direction) equal to 0.405 nm or a multiple of it.

  16. Connecting Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates to Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David T.; Nelkin, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Merged Precipitation Group at NASA Goddard has distributed gridded global precipitation products built by combining satellite and surface gauge data. This started with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), then the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), and recently the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). This 20+-year (and on-going) activity has yielded an important set of insights and lessons learned for making state-of-the-art precipitation data accessible to the diverse communities of users. Merged-data products critically depend on the input sensors and the retrieval algorithms providing accurate, reliable estimates, but it is also important to provide ancillary information that helps users determine suitability for their application. We typically provide fields of estimated random error, and recently reintroduced the quality index concept at user request. Also at user request we have added a (diagnostic) field of estimated precipitation phase. Over time, increasingly more ancillary fields have been introduced for intermediate products that give expert users insight into the detailed performance of the combination algorithm, such as individual merged microwave and microwave-calibrated infrared estimates, the contributing microwave sensor types, and the relative influence of the infrared estimate.

  17. Consultants' meeting on operational aspects of the global network ''isotopes in precipitation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Consultant's meeting on ''Operational Aspects of the Global Network - Isotopes in Precipitation'' was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Past Global Changes Project (PAGES) of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). It was agreed to transfer the responsibility of running the GNIP and the collection of isotope data in precipitation to a Steering Committee, which will consist of representatives of the following organizations: IAEA, WMO, IGBP-PAGES, WHO, UNESCO and IAHS. The responsibilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Steering Committee are as follows: Co-ordination of the sample analysis: Arrangements for and participation in the measuring programme. Monitoring analytical aspects of sample collection, storage, etc. Arrangements for interlaboratory comparison exercises; collection of isotope and meteorological data, maintenance of the GNIP database and data distribution to interested users; promotion of full use and wider application of GNIP data in practical hydrological applications. Figs, tabs

  18. On the Precipitation and Precipitation Change in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Wendler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alaska observes very large differences in precipitation throughout the state; southeast Alaska experiences consistently wet conditions, while northern Arctic Alaska observes very dry conditions. The maximum mean annual precipitation of 5727 mm is observed in the southeastern panhandle at Little Port Arthur, while the minimum of 92 mm occurs on the North Slope at Kuparuk. Besides explaining these large differences due to geographic and orographic location, we discuss the changes in precipitation with time. Analyzing the 18 first-order National Weather Service stations, we found that the total average precipitation in the state increased by 17% over the last 67 years. The observed changes in precipitation are furthermore discussed as a function of the observed temperature increase of 2.1 °C, the mean temperature change of the 18 stations over the same period. This observed warming of Alaska is about three times the magnitude of the mean global warming and allows the air to hold more water vapor. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, which has a strong influence on both the temperature and precipitation in Alaska.

  19. Reduction of collectivity at very high spins in 134Nd: Expanding the projected-shell-model basis up to 10-quasiparticle states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Jun; Sun, Yang; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Oi, Makito; Ghorui, Surja K.

    2016-03-01

    Background: The recently started physics campaign with the new generation of γ -ray spectrometers, "GRETINA" and "AGATA," will possibly produce many high-quality γ rays from very fast-rotating nuclei. Microscopic models are needed to understand these states. Purpose: It is a theoretical challenge to describe high-spin states in a shell-model framework by the concept of configuration mixing. To meet the current needs, one should overcome the present limitations and vigorously extend the quasiparticle (qp) basis of the projected shell model (PSM). Method: With the help of the recently proposed Pfaffian formulas, we apply the new algorithm and develop a new PSM code that extends the configuration space to include up to 10-qp states. The much-enlarged multi-qp space enables us to investigate the evolutional properties at very high spins in fast-rotating nuclei. Results: We take 134Nd as an example to demonstrate that the known experimental yrast and the several negative-parity side bands in this nucleus could be well described by the calculation. The variations in moment of inertia with spin are reproduced and explained in terms of successive band crossings among the 2-qp, 4-qp, 6-qp, 8-qp, and 10-qp states. Moreover, the electric quadrupole transitions in these bands are studied. Conclusions: A pronounced decrease in the high-spin B (E 2 ) of 134Nd is predicted, which suggests reduction of collectivity at very high spins because of increased level density and complex band mixing. The possibility for a potential application of the present development in the study of highly excited states in warm nuclei is mentioned.

  20. Study on effect of precipitation conditions on the properties of ammonium diuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Yacumpai, O.; Pruantonsai, P.

    1994-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to select the optimum conditions for ammonium diuranate (ADU) precipitation to obtain high density uranium dioxide. The data were collected for ADU precipitation reactor design. The precipitation temperature was controlled at 50 0 C. The stirrer speeds are 5.9 and 7.1 Hz. The properties namely : specific filtration resistance, initial settling rate and agglomerate size of ADU precipitates obtained at various pH were investigated. The results indicated that when the pH of precipitation increases, specific filtration resistance increases but ADU agglomerate size decreases and causing difficulty in filtration

  1. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  2. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  3. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  4. Hourly and Daily Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Precipitation reports submitted on many form types, including tabular and autographic charts. Reports are almost exclusively from the US Cooperative Observer Network.

  5. Evaluation of Coupled Precipitator Two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The offline testing of the Coupled Precipitator Two (CP-2) has been completed. The tests were conducted and are documented. The tests were conducted at an offline test rack near the Drain Tube Test Stand facility in 672-T

  6. Assessing changes in extreme convective precipitation from a damage perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Projected increases in high-intensity short-duration convective precipitation are expected even in regions that are likely to become more arid. Such high intensity precipitation events can trigger hazardous flash floods, debris flows and landslides that put people and local assets at risk. However, the assessment of local scale precipitation extremes is hampered by its high spatial and temporal variability. In addition to which, not only are extreme events rare, but such small scale events are likely to be underreported where they don't coincide with the observation network. Rather than focus solely on the convective precipitation, understanding the characteristics of these extremes which drive damage may be more effective to assess future risks. Two sources of data are used in this study. First, sub-daily precipitation observations over the Southern Alps enable an examination of seasonal and regional patterns in high-intensity convective precipitation and their relationship with weather types. Secondly, reports of private loss and damage on a household scale are used to identify which events are most damaging, or what conditions potentially enhance the vulnerability to these extremes.This study explores the potential added value from including recorded loss and damage data to understand the risks from summertime convective precipitation events. By relating precipitation generating weather types to the severity of damage we hope to develop a mechanism to assess future risks. A further benefit would be to identify from damage reports the likely occurrence of precipitation extremes where no direct observations are available and use this information to validate remotely sensed observations.

  7. Precipitation and cavity formation in austenitic stainless steels during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Mansur, L.K.

    1982-01-01

    Microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels subjected to displacement damage at high temperature is strongly influenced by the interaction between helium atoms and second phase particles. Cavity nucleation occurs by the trapping of helium at partially coherent particle-matrix interfaces. The recent precipitate point defect collector theory describes the more rapid growth of precipitate-attached cavities compared to matrix cavities where the precipitate-matrix interface collects point defects to augment the normal point deflect flux to the cavity. Data are presented which support these ideas. It is shown that during nickel ion irradiation of a titanium-modified stainless steel at 675 0 C the rate of injection of helium has a strong effect on the total swelling and also on the nature and distribution of precipitate phases. (orig.)

  8. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  9. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Development of precipitator of fluid film type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yupu

    1987-01-01

    The precipitator of fluid film type is developed for the determination of fuel element cladding failure of water-cooled reactor. It integrates the scrubber, precipitator and detector. The jet of element cooling water automatically circulates carrier gas and the flow water film transfers precipitates onto the surface of centre electrode. Three different types are designed. On the special test loop, the uranium sample pellets of simulating cladding failure is measured. The sensitivity of precipitators, saturated precipitation voltage, incremental speed of signal, speed of driving out precipitates and the contents of the precipitates are determined. The test shows that the precipitators are highly sensitive, reliable, cheap and easy to operate

  11. STAMMEX high resolution gridded daily precipitation dataset over Germany: a new potential for regional precipitation climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolina, Olga; Simmer, Clemens; Kapala, Alice; Mächel, Hermann; Gulev, Sergey; Groisman, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    We present new high resolution precipitation daily grids developed at Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn and German Weather Service (DWD) under the STAMMEX project (Spatial and Temporal Scales and Mechanisms of Extreme Precipitation Events over Central Europe). Daily precipitation grids have been developed from the daily-observing precipitation network of DWD, which runs one of the World's densest rain gauge networks comprising more than 7500 stations. Several quality-controlled daily gridded products with homogenized sampling were developed covering the periods 1931-onwards (with 0.5 degree resolution), 1951-onwards (0.25 degree and 0.5 degree), and 1971-2000 (0.1 degree). Different methods were tested to select the best gridding methodology that minimizes errors of integral grid estimates over hilly terrain. Besides daily precipitation values with uncertainty estimates (which include standard estimates of the kriging uncertainty as well as error estimates derived by a bootstrapping algorithm), the STAMMEX data sets include a variety of statistics that characterize temporal and spatial dynamics of the precipitation distribution (quantiles, extremes, wet/dry spells, etc.). Comparisons with existing continental-scale daily precipitation grids (e.g., CRU, ECA E-OBS, GCOS) which include considerably less observations compared to those used in STAMMEX, demonstrate the added value of high-resolution grids for extreme rainfall analyses. These data exhibit spatial variability pattern and trends in precipitation extremes, which are missed or incorrectly reproduced over Central Europe from coarser resolution grids based on sparser networks. The STAMMEX dataset can be used for high-quality climate diagnostics of precipitation variability, as a reference for reanalyses and remotely-sensed precipitation products (including the upcoming Global Precipitation Mission products), and for input into regional climate and operational weather forecast models. We will present

  12. Precipitation reconstruction for the Czech Lands, AD 1501-2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav; Kotyza, O.; Valášek, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : documentary evidence * instrumental data * precipitation * reconstruction * Czech Lands Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2015

  13. MOS BASED FORECAST OF 6-HOURLY AREA PRECIPITATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 105-120 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : precipitation forecast * regression * statistical postprocessing * MOS Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  14. future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over west africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    agriculture is the main source of economic livelihood in ... surface wind direction distinguishes the rainy season from the dry ... The model has a horizontal grid ... MESSAGE is Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impact ... Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis [18-19].

  15. Quantitative precipitation climatology over the Himalayas by using Precipitation Radar on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and a dense network of rain-gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, A.

    2010-09-01

    Quantified grid observation data at a reasonable resolution are indispensable for environmental monitoring as well as for predicting future change of mountain environment. However quantified datasets have not been available for the Himalayan region. Hence we evaluate climatological precipitation data around the Himalayas by using Precipitation Radar (PR) data acquired by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) over 10 years of observation. To validate and adjust these patterns, we used a dense network of rain gauges collected by the Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE Water Resources) project (http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/). We used more than 2600 stations which have more than 10-year monthly precipitation over the Himalayan region (75E-105E, 20-36N) including country data of Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, and China. The region we studied is so topographically complicated that horizontal patterns are not uniform. Therefore, every path data of PR2A25 (near-surface rain) was averaged in a 0.05-degree grid and a 10-year monthly average was computed (hereafter we call PR). On the other hand, for rain-gauge, we first computed cell averages if each 0.05-degree grid cell has 10 years observation or more. Here we refer to the 0.05-degree rain-gauge climatology data as RG data. On the basis of comparisons between the RG and PR composite values, we defined the parameters of the regressions to correct the monthly climatology value based on the rain gauge observations. Compared with the RG, the PR systematically underestimated precipitation by 28-38% in summer (July-September). Significant correlation between TRMM/PR and rain-gauge data was found for all months, but the correlation is relatively low in winter. The relationship is investigated for different elevation zones, and the PR was found to underestimate RG data in most zones, except for certain zones in

  16. Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Of the possible sources of precipitation data, those based on satellites provide the greatest spatial coverage. There is a wide selection of datasets, algorithms, and versions from which to choose, which can be confusing to non-specialists wishing to use the data. The International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG) maintains tables of the major publicly available, long-term, quasi-global precipitation data sets (http://www.isac.cnr.it/ ipwg/data/datasets.html), and this talk briefly reviews the various categories. As examples, NASA provides two sets of quasi-global precipitation data sets: the older Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and current Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG). Both provide near-real-time and post-real-time products that are uniformly gridded in space and time. The TMPA products are 3-hourly 0.25°x0.25° on the latitude band 50°N-S for about 16 years, while the IMERG products are half-hourly 0.1°x0.1° on 60°N-S for over 3 years (with plans to go to 16+ years in Spring 2018). In addition to the precipitation estimates, each data set provides fields of other variables, such as the satellite sensor providing estimates and estimated random error. The discussion concludes with advice about determining suitability for use, the necessity of being clear about product names and versions, and the need for continued support for satellite- and surface-based observation.

  17. A two-component generalized extreme value distribution for precipitation frequency analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulfová, Zuzana; Buishand, A.; Roth, M.; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 534, March (2016), s. 659-668 ISSN 0022-1694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18675S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation extremes * two-component extreme value distribution * regional frequency analysis * convective precipitation * stratiform precipitation * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416000500

  18. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  19. Subjetividade e projetos coletivos: mal-estar e governabilidade nas organizações de saúde Subjectivity and collective projects: discontents and governability in health organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene de Castilho Sá

    2001-01-01

    developing collective projects within health organizations, and ways to approach their cultural, subjective and unconscious dimensions. The consideration of these dimensions is an indispensable condition to learn about the limits (and the possibilities of governability of health organizations.

  20. Winter-to-Summer Precipitation Phasing in Southwestern North America: A Multi-Century Perspective from Paleoclimatic Model-Data Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Griffin, Daniel; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The phasing of winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the North American monsoon (NAM) region 2 (113.25 deg W-107.75 deg W, 30 deg N-35.25 deg N-NAM2) of southwestern North America is analyzed in fully coupled simulations of the Last Millennium and compared to tree ring reconstructed winter and summer precipitation variability. The models simulate periods with in-phase seasonal precipitation anomalies, but the strength of this relationship is variable on multidecadal time scales, behavior that is also exhibited by the reconstructions. The models, however, are unable to simulate periods with consistently out-of-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies as observed in the latter part of the instrumental interval. The periods with predominantly in-phase winter-to-summer precipitation anomalies in the models are significant against randomness, and while this result is suggestive of a potential for dual-season drought on interannual and longer time scales, models do not consistently exhibit the persistent dual-season drought seen in the dendroclimatic reconstructions. These collective findings indicate that model-derived drought risk assessments may underestimate the potential for dual-season drought in 21st century projections of hydroclimate in the American Southwest and parts of Mexico.

  1. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column

  2. Precipitation process for supernate decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    A precipitation and adsorption process has been developed to remove cesium, strontium, and plutonium from water-soluble, high-level radioactive waste. An existing waste tank serves as the reaction vessel and the process begins with the addition of a solution of sodium tetraphenylborate and a slurry of sodium titanate to the contained waste salt solution. Sodium tetraphenylborate precipitates the cesium and sodium titanate adsorbs the strontium and plutonium. The precipitate/adsorbate is then separated from the decontaminated salt solution by crossflow filtration. This new process offers significant capital savings over an earlier ion exchange process for salt decontamination. Chemical and small-scale engineering studies with actual waste are reported. The effect of many variables on the decontamination factors and filter performance are defined

  3. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Impacts of Arctic precipitation changes on the downwelling limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsman, C.A.; van der Sleen, N.; Bintanja, Richard; Selten, F.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2018-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC report, under the RCP 8.5 scenario precipitation in the Arctic region may increase by as much as 50%. The projected 21stcentury decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is attributed in part to this increase in precipitation and the associated

  5. Thermal behaviour of natural and synthetic iron precipitates from mine drainage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulišová, Petra; Máša, B.; Michalková, E.; Večerníková, Eva; Maříková, Monika; Bezdička, Petr; Murafa, Nataliya; Šubrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2014), s. 625-632 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12SK155 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Thermogravimetry * Differential thermal analysis * X-ray diffraction analysis * Acid mine drainage * Iron precipitates * Precipitation with urea Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014

  6. Comparison of precipitation nowcasting by extrapolation and statistical-advection methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Kitzmiller, D.; Pešice, Petr; Mejsnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, 1 April (2013), s. 17-30 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09033 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Precipitation forecast * Statistical models * Regression * Quantitative precipitation forecast * Extrapolation forecast Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512003390

  7. On the effects of wildfires on precipitation in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sales, Fernando; Okin, Gregory S.; Xue, Yongkang; Dintwe, Kebonye

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the impact of wildfire on the climate of Southern Africa. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer derived burned area fraction data was implemented in a set of simulations to assess primarily the role of wildfire-induced surface changes on monthly precipitation. Two post-fire scenarios are examined namely non-recovering and recovering vegetation scenarios. In the former, burned vegetation fraction remains burned until the end of the simulations, whereas in the latter it is allowed to regrow following a recovery period. Control simulations revealed that the model can dependably capture the monthly precipitation and surface temperature averages in Southern Africa thus providing a reasonable basis against which to assess the impacts of wildfire. In general, both wildfire scenarios have a negative impact on springtime precipitation. September and October were the only months with statistically significant precipitation changes. During these months, precipitation in the region decreases by approximately 13 and 9% in the non-recovering vegetation scenario, and by about 10 and 6% in the recovering vegetation wildfire scenario, respectively. The primary cause of precipitation deficit is the decrease in evapotranspiration resulting from a reduction in surface net radiation. Areas impacted by the precipitation reduction includes the Luanda, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville metropolitan areas, The Angolan Highlands, which are the source of the Okavango Rive, and the Okavango Delta region. This study suggests that a probable intensification in wildfire frequency and extent resulting from projected population increase and global warming in Southern Africa could potentially exacerbate the impacts of wildfires in the region's seasonal precipitation.

  8. Sources of uncertainty in future changes in local precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, David P. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study considers the large uncertainty in projected changes in local precipitation. It aims to map, and begin to understand, the relative roles of uncertain modelling and natural variability, using 20-year mean data from four perturbed physics or multi-model ensembles. The largest - 280-member - ensemble illustrates a rich pattern in the varying contribution of modelling uncertainty, with similar features found using a CMIP3 ensemble (despite its limited sample size, which restricts it value in this context). The contribution of modelling uncertainty to the total uncertainty in local precipitation change is found to be highest in the deep tropics, particularly over South America, Africa, the east and central Pacific, and the Atlantic. In the moist maritime tropics, the highly uncertain modelling of sea-surface temperature changes is transmitted to a large uncertain modelling of local rainfall changes. Over tropical land and summer mid-latitude continents (and to a lesser extent, the tropical oceans), uncertain modelling of atmospheric processes, land surface processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle all appear to play an additional substantial role in driving the uncertainty of local rainfall changes. In polar regions, inter-model variability of anomalous sea ice drives an uncertain precipitation response, particularly in winter. In all these regions, there is therefore the potential to reduce the uncertainty of local precipitation changes through targeted model improvements and observational constraints. In contrast, over much of the arid subtropical and mid-latitude oceans, over Australia, and over the Sahara in winter, internal atmospheric variability dominates the uncertainty in projected precipitation changes. Here, model improvements and observational constraints will have little impact on the uncertainty of time means shorter than at least 20 years. Last, a supplementary application of the metric developed here is that it can be interpreted as a measure

  9. Radar-Derived Quantitative Precipitation Estimation Based on Precipitation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. Tropical vertical profiles of reflectivity (VPRs are first determined from multiple VPRs. Upon identifying a tropical VPR, the event can be further classified as either tropical-stratiform or tropical-convective rainfall by a fuzzy logic (FL algorithm. Based on the precipitation-type fields, the reflectivity values are converted into rainfall rate using a Z-R relationship. In order to evaluate the performance of this rainfall classification scheme, three experiments were conducted using three months of data and two study cases. In Experiment I, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D default Z-R relationship was applied. In Experiment II, the precipitation regime was separated into convective and stratiform rainfall using the FL algorithm, and corresponding Z-R relationships were used. In Experiment III, the precipitation regime was separated into convective, stratiform, and tropical rainfall, and the corresponding Z-R relationships were applied. The results show that the rainfall rates obtained from all three experiments match closely with the gauge observations, although Experiment II could solve the underestimation, when compared to Experiment I. Experiment III significantly reduced this underestimation and generated the most accurate radar estimates of rain rate among the three experiments.

  10. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  11. The characterisation of precipitated magnetites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, D.F.; Segal, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite by precipitation from aqueous solutions of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The magnetites have been characterised by transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy has also been used to characterise precipitated magnetites and a comparison of the spectra has been made with those obtained from nickel ferrite and hydrated ferric oxides. The hydrothermal stability of magnetite at 573 K has also been investigated. This work is relevant to corrosion processes that can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  12. Treatment of alpha-contaminated effluents by magnetite precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, N.S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies of the magnetic filtration of precipitated magnetite have continued enabling data on the effect of magnetic field strength on collecting efficiency to be extended from 0.32 Tesla to 0.8 Tesla with some interesting observations. Tests have been carried out on the direct encapsulation of the magnetite loaded matrices from these runs. (U.K.)

  13. The use of simultaneous chemical precipitation in modified activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The IAWQ Activated Sludge Model (ASM) No. 2 is a kinetic-based model and incorporates two simple processes for chemical precipitation and redissolution that are readily integrated with biological processes for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. This model was applied to experimental data collected as part of this ...

  14. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  15. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  16. Arctic Freshwater Switchyard Project: Spring temperature and Salinity data collected by aircraft in the Arctic Ocean, May 2006 - May 2007 (NODC Accession 0057319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A program to study freshwater circulation (sea ice + upper ocean) in the "freshwater switchyard" between Alert (Ellesmere Island) and the North Pole. The project...

  17. Bayesian Inference of Nonstationary Precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Infrastructure Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    each IDF curve and subsequently used to force a calibrated and validated precipitation - runoff model. Probability-based, risk-informed hydrologic...ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-2 March 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bayesian Inference of Nonstationary Precipitation Intensity...based means by which to develop local precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves using historical rainfall time series data collected for

  18. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Are satellite products good proxies for gauge precipitation over Singapore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jina; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Nguyen, Ngoc Son; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2018-05-01

    model simulated future projections, when information on precipitation extremes need to be reliable as they are highly crucial for adaptation and mitigation.

  20. Assessment of global precipitation measurement satellite products over Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed T.; Al-Zahrani, Muhammad A.; Sharif, Hatim O.

    2018-04-01

    Most hydrological analysis and modeling studies require reliable and accurate precipitation data for successful simulations. However, precipitation measurements should be more representative of the true precipitation distribution. Many approaches and techniques are used to collect precipitation data. Recently, hydrometeorological and climatological applications of satellite precipitation products have experienced a significant improvement with the emergence of the latest satellite products, namely, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) products, which can be utilized to estimate and analyze precipitation data. This study focuses on the validation of the IMERG early, late and final run rainfall products using ground-based rain gauge observations throughout Saudi Arabia for the period from October 2015 to April 2016. The accuracy of each IMERG product is assessed using six statistical performance measures to conduct three main evaluations, namely, regional, event-based and station-based evaluations. The results indicate that the early run product performed well in the middle and eastern parts as well as some of the western parts of the country; meanwhile, the satellite estimates for the other parts fluctuated between an overestimation and an underestimation. The late run product showed an improved accuracy over the southern and western parts; however, over the northern and middle parts, it showed relatively high errors. The final run product revealed significantly improved precipitation estimations and successfully obtained higher accuracies over most parts of the country. This study provides an early assessment of the performance of the GPM satellite products over the Middle East. The study findings can be used as a beneficial reference for the future development of the IMERG algorithms.

  1. Precipitation kinetics of a continuous precipitator, with application to the precipitation of ammonium polyuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A mathematical model describing the kinetics of continuous precipitation was developed which accounts for crystal nucleation, crystal growth, primary coagulation, and secondary coagulation. Population density distributions, average particle sizes, dominant particle sizes, and suspension density fractions of the crystallites, primary agglomerates, and secondary agglomerates leaving the continuous precipitator can be determined. This kinetic model was applied to the continuous precipitation of ammonium polyuranate, which consists of: (1) elementary crystals, (2) clusters or primary coagulated particles, and (3) agglomerates or secondary coagulated particles. The crystallites are thin, submicron, hexagonal platelets. The clusters had an upper size limit of about 7 μ in diameter and contained numerous small voids (less than 0.3 μm) due to the packing of the crystallites. The agglomerates had an upper size limit of about 40 μm in diameter and contained large voids (approximately 1 μm). The particle size distribution and particle structure of the ammonium polyuranate precipitate can be controlled through proper regulation of the precipitation conditions. The ratio of clusters to agglomerates can be best controlled through the uranium concentration, and the cohesiveness or internal bonding strength of the particles can be controlled with the ammonium to uranium reacting feed mole ratio. These two conditions, in conjunction with the residence time, will determine the nucleation rates, growth rates, and size distributions of the particles leaving the continuous precipitator. With proper control of these physical particle characteristics, the use of pore formers, ball-milling, and powder blending can probably be eliminated from the nuclear fuel fabrication process, substantially reducing the cost

  2. Precipitation kinetics of a continuous precipitator, with application to the precipitation of ammonium polyuranate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A mathematical model describing the kinetics of continuous precipitation was developed which accounts for crystal nucleation, crystal growth, primary coagulation, and secondary coagulation. Population density distributions, average particle sizes, dominant particle sizes, and suspension density fractions of the crystallites, primary agglomerates, and secondary agglomerates leaving the continuous precipitator can be determined. This kinetic model was applied to the continuous precipitation of ammonium polyuranate, which consists of: (1) elementary crystals, (2) clusters or primary coagulated particles, and (3) agglomerates or secondary coagulated particles. The crystallites are thin, submicron, hexagonal platelets. The clusters had an upper size limit of about 7 ..mu.. in diameter and contained numerous small voids (less than 0.3 ..mu..m) due to the packing of the crystallites. The agglomerates had an upper size limit of about 40 ..mu..m in diameter and contained large voids (approximately 1 ..mu..m). The particle size distribution and particle structure of the ammonium polyuranate precipitate can be controlled through proper regulation of the precipitation conditions. The ratio of clusters to agglomerates can be best controlled through the uranium concentration, and the cohesiveness or internal bonding strength of the particles can be controlled with the ammonium to uranium reacting feed mole ratio. These two conditions, in conjunction with the residence time, will determine the nucleation rates, growth rates, and size distributions of the particles leaving the continuous precipitator. With proper control of these physical particle characteristics, the use of pore formers, ball-milling, and powder blending can probably be eliminated from the nuclear fuel fabrication process, substantially reducing the cost.

  3. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-01-01

    This project was undertaken to understand fundamental aspects of carbon dioxide (CO2) induced asphaltene precipitation. Oil and asphaltene samples from the Rangely field in Colorado were used for most of the project. The project consisted of pure component and high-pressure, thermodynamic experiments, thermodynamic modeling, kinetic experiments and modeling, targeted corefloods and compositional modeling

  4. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Citizen Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan is necessary for every project that collects or uses environmental data. It documents the project planning process and serves as a blueprint for how your project will run.

  5. Uranium precipitation with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Although hydrogen peroxide precipitation of uranium continues to be used primarily as means of producing a high purity yellowcake, it has also become an important process due to its superior physical properties. Processing costs such as filtering, drying and/or calcining and drumming, can be reduced. 5 refs

  6. Waste and Simulant Precipitation Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, W.V.

    2000-01-01

    As Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have studied methods of preparing high-level waste for vitrification in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), questions have arisen with regard to the formation of insoluble waste precipitates at inopportune times. One option for decontamination of the SRS waste streams employs the use of an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Testing of the process during FY 1999 identified problems associated with the formation of precipitates during cesium sorption tests using CST. These precipitates may, under some circumstances, obstruct the pores of the CST particles and, hence, interfere with the sorption process. In addition, earlier results from the DWPF recycle stream compatibility testing have shown that leaching occurs from the CST when it is stored at 80 C in a high-pH environment. Evidence was established that some level of components of the CST, such as silica, was leached from the CST. This report describes the results of equilibrium modeling and precipitation studies associated with the overall stability of the waste streams, CST component leaching, and the presence of minor components in the waste streams

  7. Chemistry and physics of fogwater collection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Enderle, K.H. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Increasing interest in the problems of air pollution and source receptor relationships has led to a significant expansion of knowledge in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In recent years the multiphase atmospheric chemistry was given great scholarly attention, and slogans like acid precipitation, dirty cloud or killer fog indicated these phenomena. The report describes results of collection and chemical analysis of fog water with emphasis or fog microphysics, of the heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry project in the Po-valley, of the development of the Great Dun Fell project, of the mountain cloud chemistry project in eastern U.S., of the design of fog water collectors and of the numerical study of the radiation fog event on October 10/11, 1982 in Albany, N.Y.

  8. Ecosystem monitoring information collected in Hanna Shoal in the Chukchi Sea for the COMIDA CAB project from August 2012 to August 2013 (NODC Accession 0123220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Hanna Shoal Ecosystem Study. The study occurred at 138...

  9. Ecosystem monitoring information collected from Norseman II in Beaufort Sea for the ANIMIDA III project from 2014-07-31 to 2015-08-12 (NCEI Accession 0162530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in Development Area...

  10. Physical profile data collected during the calendar year 2003 for the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environment Lab (NODC Accession 0001364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical profile data were collected using meteorological sensors and CTD casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA and NOAA Ship RONALD H....

  11. Chlorophyll and phaeophytin data collected in the Southern Oceans in support of the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics project, 2001-07 to 2001-08 (NODC Accession 0001102)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Underway meteorological data were collected during NBP01 04 to help document the surface weather conditions encountered during the cruise and to characterize the...

  12. Electrostatic precipitators for coal thermal power plants energized by means of narrow pulse voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinelli, G.; Mattachini, F.; Bogani, V.; Baldacci, A.; Tarli, R. (ENEL-CRTN, Direzione Studi e Ricerche, Milan (Italy) ENEL, VDT Settore Tecnico, Direzione Produzione e Trasmissione, Rome (Italy))

    1990-09-01

    The efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, widely used in thermal power plants to clean flue gases from solid particulate, is strongly dependent both on the way particles are electrically charged and on the characteristics of the electric field within the interelectrodic space of the precipitator. Such operating may become inadequate under varying particle characteristics and operating conditions of the thermal plant, therefore bringing to a reduction in the precipitator collection efficiency. An innovative technique, by generating a pulsed corona in the precipitator, allows a substantial improvement of both the particle charging and the collection processes and an increase in the operation flexibility of the electrostatic precipitator. The narrow pulse voltage energization has been extensively tested at a coal thermal unit having the electrostatic precipitators equipped with both conventional and pulse power sets. The long duration tests confirmed the following results: 1) high reliability of the pulse power sets and a considerable improvement in the precipitator collection efficiency; 2) a decrease in the particulate emissions, with coals whose ashes are of difficult collection, ranging between 75% and 85% of those with conventional energization; 3) a reduction by a factor of about 5 in the consumption of electric power by the electrostatic precipitation process.

  13. An Electrostatic Precipitator System for the Martian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Phillips, J. R., III; Clements, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions to Mars will require the development of technologies for the utilization of the planet's own resources for the production of commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains large amounts of dust. The extraction of commodities from this atmosphere requires prior removal of this dust. We report on our development of an electrostatic precipitator able to collect Martian simulated dust particles in atmospheric conditions approaching those of Mars. Extensive experiments with an initial prototype in a simulated Martian atmosphere showed efficiencies of 99%. The design of a second prototype with aerosolized Martian simulated dust in a flow-through is described. Keywords: Space applications, electrostatic precipitator, particle control, particle charging

  14. The efficiency of average linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm associated multi-scale bootstrap resampling in identifying homogeneous precipitation catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Zun Liang; Ismail, Noriszura; Shinyie, Wendy Ling; Lit Ken, Tan; Fam, Soo-Fen; Senawi, Azlyna; Yusoff, Wan Nur Syahidah Wan

    2018-04-01

    Due to the limited of historical precipitation records, agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithms widely used to extrapolate information from gauged to ungauged precipitation catchments in yielding a more reliable projection of extreme hydro-meteorological events such as extreme precipitation events. However, identifying the optimum number of homogeneous precipitation catchments accurately based on the dendrogram resulted using agglomerative hierarchical algorithms are very subjective. The main objective of this study is to propose an efficient regionalized algorithm to identify the homogeneous precipitation catchments for non-stationary precipitation time series. The homogeneous precipitation catchments are identified using average linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm associated multi-scale bootstrap resampling, while uncentered correlation coefficient as the similarity measure. The regionalized homogeneous precipitation is consolidated using K-sample Anderson Darling non-parametric test. The analysis result shows the proposed regionalized algorithm performed more better compared to the proposed agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm in previous studies.

  15. El Nino-like Teleconnection Increases California Precipitation in Response to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R.

    2017-12-01

    Future California (CA) precipitation projections, including those from the most recent Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), remain uncertain. This uncertainty is related to several factors, including relatively large internal climate variability, model shortcomings, and because CA lies within a transition zone, where mid-latitude regions are expected to become wetter and subtropical regions drier. Here, we use a multitude of models to show CA may receive more precipitation in the future under a business-as-usual scenario. The boreal winter season-when most of the CA precipitation increase occurs-is associated with robust changes in the mean circulation reminiscent of an El Nino teleconnection. Using idealized simulations with two different models, we further show that warming of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures accounts for these changes. Models that better simulate the observed El Nino-CA precipitation teleconnection yield larger, and more consistent increases in CA precipitation through the twenty-first century.

  16. El Niño-like teleconnection increases California precipitation in response to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.; Luptowitz, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Future California (CA) precipitation projections, including those from the most recent Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), remain uncertain. This uncertainty is related to several factors, including relatively large internal climate variability, model shortcomings, and because CA lies within a transition zone, where mid-latitude regions are expected to become wetter and subtropical regions drier. Here, we use a multitude of models to show CA may receive more precipitation in the future under a business-as-usual scenario. The boreal winter season-when most of the CA precipitation increase occurs-is associated with robust changes in the mean circulation reminiscent of an El Niño teleconnection. Using idealized simulations with two different models, we further show that warming of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures accounts for these changes. Models that better simulate the observed El Niño-CA precipitation teleconnection yield larger, and more consistent increases in CA precipitation through the twenty-first century.

  17. Establishment of a cervical cancer bio-bank for the Chinese population: from project-based sample collection to routine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Li, Xiong; Zhou, Hang; Jia, Yao; Zhou, Jin; Huang, Kecheng; Tang, Fangxu; Hu, Ting; Shen, Jian; Chen, Zhilan; Wang, Shaoshuai; Sun, Haiying; Guo, Lili; Wang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Ma, Ding; Li, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the establishment of a cervical cancer bio-bank that will facilitate both clinical and basic research. The cervical cancer bio-bank was first established in January 1999 and included two stages. First, a GWAS-based sample collection was conducted with special emphasis on the diagnosis and the retrieval of the corresponding bio-specimens, especially blood samples. Second, clinical data and their corresponding bio-specimens were routinely collected and handled. Notably, these bio-specimens also included samples from Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County, which has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in China. The specimens were collected from patients with cervical cancer and those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, while the control samples were collected from normal individuals. With special emphasis on clinical data and blood samples for the GWAS analysis, the collection of other bio-specimens was slow, and the pairing of specimens and clinical data was poor during the first stage. However, in the second stage, the pairing of the clinical data and its corresponding bio-specimens improved. At present, the samples procured and preserved in the bio-bank cover most regions of China and different ethnic groups for both the normal controls and cervical cancer patients of different pathological categories. This bio-bank of cervical cancer specimens from the Chinese population will greatly promote the studies of cervical cancer in China.

  18. CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING AN IODATE PRECIPITATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1960-02-23

    A method is given for separating plutonium from lanthanum in a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium values from an aqueous solution. The carrier precipitation process includes the steps of forming a lanthanum fluoride precipi- . tate, thereby carrying plutonium out of solution, metathesizing the fluoride precipitate to a hydroxide precipitate, and then dissolving the hydroxide precipitate in nitric acid. In accordance with the invention, the nitric acid solution, which contains plutonium and lanthanum, is made 0.05 to 0.15 molar in potassium iodate. thereby precipitating plutonium as plutonous iodate and the plutonous iodate is separated from the lanthanum- containing supernatant solution.

  19. Responses of Seasonal Precipitation Intensity to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-04-01

    Under global warming, the water vapor increases with rising temperature at the rate of 7%/K. Most previous studies focus on the spatial differences of precipitation and suggest that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier. Our recent studies show a temporal disparity of global precipitation, which the wet season becomes wetter and dry season becomes drier; therefore, the annual range increases. However, such changes in the annual range are not homogeneous globally, and in fact, the drier trend over the ocean is much larger than that over the land, where the dry season does not become drier. Such precipitation change over land is likely because of decreased omega at 500hPa (more upward motion) in the reanalysis datasets from 1980 to 2013. The trends of vertical velocity and moist static energy profile over the increased precipitation regions become more unstable. The instability is most likely attributed to the change in specific humility below 400hPa. Further, we will use Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archives to investigate whether the precipitation responses in dry season are different between the ocean and land under global warming.

  20. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  1. Implications of a decrease in the precipitation area for the past and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2018-04-01

    The total area with 24 hrs precipitation has shrunk by 7% between 50°S–50°N over the period 1998–2016, according to the satellite-based Tropical Rain Measurement Mission data. A decrease in the daily precipitation area is an indication of profound changes in the hydrological cycle, where the global rate of precipitation is balanced by the global rate of evaporation. This decrease was accompanied by increases in total precipitation, evaporation, and wet-day mean precipitation. If these trends are real, then they suggest increased drought frequencies and more intense rainfall. Satellite records, however, may be inhomogeneous because they are synthesised from a number of individual missions with improved technology over time. A linear dependency was also found between the global mean temperature and the 50°S–50°N daily precipitation area with a slope value of ‑17 × 106 km 2/°C. This dependency was used with climate model simulations to make future projections which suggested a continued decrease that will strengthen in the future. The precipitation area evolves differently when the precipitation is accumulated over short and long time scales, however, and there has been a slight increase in the monthly precipitation area while the daily precipitation area decreased. An increase on monthly scale may indicate more pronounced variations in the rainfall patterns due to migrating rain-producing phenomena.

  2. CMIP5 model simulations of Ethiopian Kiremt-season precipitation: current climate and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Laifang; Li, Wenhong; Ballard, Tristan; Sun, Ge; Jeuland, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Kiremt-season (June-September) precipitation provides a significant water supply for Ethiopia, particularly in the central and northern regions. The response of Kiremt-season precipitation to climate change is thus of great concern to water resource managers. However, the complex processes that control Kiremt-season precipitation challenge the capability of general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately simulate precipitation amount and variability. This in turn raises questions about their utility for predicting future changes. This study assesses the impact of climate change on Kiremt-season precipitation using state-of-the-art GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. Compared to models with a coarse resolution, high-resolution models (horizontal resolution <2°) can more accurately simulate precipitation, most likely due to their ability to capture precipitation induced by topography. Under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario, these high-resolution models project an increase in precipitation over central Highlands and northern Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia, but a decrease in precipitation over the southern part of the country. Such a dipole pattern is attributable to the intensification of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) in a warmer climate, which influences Ethiopian Kiremt-season precipitation mainly by modulating atmospheric vertical motion. Diagnosis of the omega equation demonstrates that an intensified NASH increases (decreases) the advection of warm air and positive vorticity into the central Highlands and northern Great Rift Valley (southern part of the country), enhancing upward motion over the northern Rift Valley but decreasing elsewhere. Under the RCP 4.5 scenario, the high-resolution models project an intensification of the NASH by 15 (3 × 105 m2 s-2) geopotential meters (stream function) at the 850-hPa level, contributing to the projected precipitation change over Ethiopia. The

  3. Isotopic composition of past precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation provides critical quantitative information about the global water cycle. The first PAGES/IAEA ISOMAP workshop was held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, 24-26 August 1998, which gathered 32 participants. The presentation and discussions demonstrated that a high level of sophistication already exists in the development of transfer functions between measured parameters and precipitation, as a result of the extensive use of water isotope tracers in paleo-environmental investigations, but a major challenge facing both producers and users of paleo-isotope data is the effective management of data and meta-data, to permit ready retrieval of raw and inferred data for comparison and reinterpretation. This will be in important goal of future ISOMAP activities. The critical need for more paleo-data from low latitudes was clearly recognized

  4. A long-term variation of chemical composition in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Okimura, Takashi; Okumura, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation samples are collected at the six localities in the southwestern Japan weekly or monthly over a long period of time (1978-1989) in order to estimate chemical weathering rates and amount of weathered materials through chemical composition in natural waters. Major chemical composition is determined for the precipitation samples. Together with the data available in the literature, the following characteristics are recognized : 1) Most pH values fall in the narrow range of 4.4 to 5.4, 2) Systematic variations in pH values are observed among the precipitation samples of different geologic environments, 3) pH values become almost constant from 1984 to 1989, 4) NO 3 - concentrations gradually decrease to an almost constant value with time, and 5) ΔSO 4 2- concentrations gradually have a tendency to decrease from 1978 to 1985. The mechanism of phenomena described above is also presented. (author)

  5. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  6. Precipitation processes in implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is a nonequilibrium process. It is possible to implant materials with impurities to concentration levels which exceed the solid solubilities. The return of the system to thermodynamic equilibrium is often accomplished by precipitation of the implanted species or a compound involving atoms of both the host and the implanted species. This may involve long time scales when taking place at room temperature or it may take place during the implantation

  7. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  8. Phase characterization of precipitated zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzov, S.; Ponahlo, J.; Lengauer, C.L.; Beran, A.

    1994-01-01

    The phase compositions of undoped and europium-doped zirconia samples, obtained by precipitation and thermal treatment from 350 to 1,000 C, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature stabilization of tetragonal zirconia is mainly controlled by the presence of anion additives, such as ammonium chloride. The influences of the crystallite size is less important. Cathodoluminescence spectra show a structural similarity between tetragonal and amorphous zirconia

  9. Attribution of changes in precipitation patterns in African rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Jones, Richard G.; Halladay, Kate; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforests in Africa are one of the most under-researched regions in the world, but research in the Amazonian rainforest suggests potential vulnerability to climate change. Using the large ensemble of Atmosphere-only general circulation model (AGCM) simulations within the weather@home project, statistics of precipitation in the dry season of the Congo Basin rainforest are analysed. By validating the model simulation against observations, we could identify a good model performance for the June, July, August (JJA) dry season, but this result does need to be taken with caution as observed data are of poor quality. Additional validation methods have been used to investigate the applicability of probabilistic event attribution analysis from large model ensembles to a tropical region, in this case the Congo Basin. These methods corroborate the confidence in the model, leading us to believe the attribution result to be robust. That is, that there are no significant changes in the risk of low precipitation extremes during this dry season (JJA) precipitation in the Congo Basin. Results for the December, January, February dry season are less clear. The study highlights that attribution analysis has the potential to provide valuable scientific evidence of recent or anticipated climatological changes, especially in regions with sparse observational data and unclear projections of future changes. However, the strong influence of sea surface temperature teleconnection patterns on tropical precipitation provides more challenges in the set up of attribution studies than midlatitude rainfall. PMID:23878330

  10. Coordinated Collection Development via CD-ROM. A Pilot Project Granted by LSCA Title III Funds to Crosby Library, Gonzaga University. Final Narrative Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Elaine; Carr, Mary M.

    Three colleges in the state of Washington--Gonzaga College (Crosby Library), Whitworth College, and Eastern Washington University--received grants from the Fred Meyer Charitable Trust and the Library Services and Construction Act to facilitate coordinated collection development in the areas of education and business/economics, so that their…

  11. CSNI collective statement on support facilities for existing and advanced reactors. The function of OECD/Nea joint projects Nea committee on the safety of nuclear installations (CSNI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has recently completed a study on the availability and utilisation of facilities supporting safety studies for current and advanced nuclear power reactors. The study showed that significant steps had been undertaken in the past several years in support of safety test facilities, mainly by conducting multinational joint projects centered on the capability of unique test facilities worldwide. Given the positive experience of the safety research projects, it has been recommended that efforts be made to prioritize technical issues associated with advanced (Generation IV) reactor designs and to develop options on how to efficiently obtain the necessary data through internationally co-ordinated research, preparing a gradual extension of safety research beyond the needs set by currently operating reactors. This statement constitutes a reference for future CSNI activities and for safety authorities, R and D centres and industry for internationally co-ordinated research initiatives in the nuclear safety research area. (author)

  12. The effect of scale in daily precipitation hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Egozcue

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily precipitation is recorded as the total amount of water collected by a rain-gauge in 24 h. Events are modelled as a Poisson process and the 24 h precipitation by a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD of excesses. Hazard assessment is complete when estimates of the Poisson rate and the distribution parameters, together with a measure of their uncertainty, are obtained. The shape parameter of the GPD determines the support of the variable: Weibull domain of attraction (DA corresponds to finite support variables as should be for natural phenomena. However, Fréchet DA has been reported for daily precipitation, which implies an infinite support and a heavy-tailed distribution. Bayesian techniques are used to estimate the parameters. The approach is illustrated with precipitation data from the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula affected by severe convective precipitation. The estimated GPD is mainly in the Fréchet DA, something incompatible with the common sense assumption of that precipitation is a bounded phenomenon. The bounded character of precipitation is then taken as a priori hypothesis. Consistency of this hypothesis with the data is checked in two cases: using the raw-data (in mm and using log-transformed data. As expected, a Bayesian model checking clearly rejects the model in the raw-data case. However, log-transformed data seem to be consistent with the model. This fact may be due to the adequacy of the log-scale to represent positive measurements for which differences are better relative than absolute.

  13. Hydrochemical controls on aragonite versus calcite precipitation in cave dripwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Lozano, Rafael P.

    2016-11-01

    favored from a solubility viewpoint. We also show that unaccounted CaCO3 precipitation in intermediate sampling containers and splash effects may in cases result in underestimating dripwater Ca concentration and alkalinity, potentially leading to incorrect conclusions regarding the role of fluid Mg/Ca ratio and supersaturation on CaCO3 mineralogy. A simple way to elude the first effect is by taking water samples directly from stalactites and by titrating alkalinity in the same containers used to collect dripwaters.

  14. Can benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups be used as indicators of paleomonsoonal precipitation?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Borole, D.V.

    A technique is proposed for the quick and easy assessment of paleomonsoonal precipitation through the study of morphological groups of foraminifera in a shallow water (20 m water depth) sediment core collected off Karwar, near Kali river mouth...

  15. Guidelines for the determination of selected trace metals in aerosols and in wet precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and analytical procedures suitable for the collection and analysis of representative samples of atmospheric aerosols and wet precipitation for selected trace metals. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Precipitation Sedimentation and Advection in GFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R.; Tallapragada, V.

    2016-12-01

    Zhao and Carr microphysics scheme as implemented in the NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS) predicts only the total cloud condensate (cloud water or ice). The precipitation generated in the column fall to the ground instantly. This mean precipitation sedimentation and advection are not considered. As resolution increases the lack of the two physical processes creates problems. The slowly falling precipitation (snow) falls to the wrong surface grid box, which may have led to the observed spotty-precipitation pattern. To solve the problem two prognositic variables, snow and rain, are added. Addition of the two precipitation variable allows their advection. The corresponding sedimentation process are also added. In this study we examine the effect of precipitation advection and sedimentation on the precipitation pattern, associated precipitation skills and clouds.

  17. U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data is digital data set DSI-3260, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is precipitation data. The primary source...

  18. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  19. Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The precipitation data is 0.2 degree gridded monthly precipitation data based upon monthly rain data from Peru and Bolivia and daily rain data from Brazil....

  20. Precipitating and relieving factors of migraine versus tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Badrul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the differences of precipitating and relieving factors between migraine and tension type headache. Methods This is a cross sectional study. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 migraine patients and 250 patients diagnosed as tension type headache from the specialized headache clinic in Dept. of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire containing information on age, sex, social status and a predetermined list of precipitating and relieving factors. Results In this study, the female patients predominated (67%. Most of the patients were within 21–30 years age group (58.6%. About 58% of them belonged to middle class families. The common precipitating factors like stress, anxiety, activity, journey, reading, cold and warm were well distributed among both the migraine and tension type headache (TTH patients. But significant difference was demonstrated for fatigue (p  Conclusion The most frequent precipitating factors for headache appear to be identical for both migraine and TTH patients. Even though some factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation, sunlight and food significantly precipitate migraine and drug, massage are effective maneuver for relieving pain among migrianeurs.