WorldWideScience

Sample records for project chalk point

  1. Combining Chalk Talk with PowerPoint to Increase In-class Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Betharia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In striving to attain a higher degree of in-class student engagement, and target a larger number of preferred student-learning styles, this case study describes a multimodal teaching approach. PowerPoint slides have gradually gained popularity over the more traditional chalk and talk lecture design. The student population in today’s age seeks more non-passive modes of information delivery. Numerous novel approaches to enhance active learning, such as flipped classroom and problem-based learning, have recently been explored. While working well for therapeutic and lab-based courses, these formats may not be best-suited for all basic science topics. The importance of basic science in a pharmacy curriculum is well emphasized in the 2016 ACPE Standards. To actively involve students in a pharmacology lecture on diuretics, a session was designed to combine the PowerPoint and chalk talk approaches. Students created 10 concept diagrams following an instructor, who explained each step in the process using a document camera. For visual learners, these diagrams provided a layered representation of the information, gradually increasing in complexity. For learners with a preference for the reading learning style, the information was also available in corresponding PowerPoint slides. Scores from pre- and post-session quizzes indicated a high level of concept understanding and recall (median 1 [IQR 0 – 2] vs 4 [IQR 3 – 5]; p<0.001. The student perception survey data reported higher in-class attention levels (76%, an appreciation for the utility of self-created concept diagrams (88%, and a call for additional sessions being presented in this format (73%. Targeting a variety of student learning styles by using the active development of concept diagrams, in addition to traditional PowerPoint slides, can promote student engagement and enhance content understanding.   Type: Case Study

  2. A light-water detritiation project at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, H.A.; Castillo, I.; Everatt, A.E.; Ryland, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The NRU reactor rod bays is a large, open pool of water that receives hundreds of fuel rods annually, each carrying a small amount of residual tritiated heavy water. The tritium concentration of the rod bays water has risen over the years, to a level that is of concern to the operations staff and to the environment. The proposed long-term solution is to reduce the rod bays tritium concentration by direct detritiation of the water. The Combined Electrolytic-Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is well suited to the light-water detritiation problem. With a tritium-protium separation factor greater than five, a CECE detritiation process can easily achieve the eight orders of magnitude separation required to split a tritiated light-water feed into an essentially tritium-free effluent stream and a tritiated heavy water product suitable for recycling through a heavy water upgrader. This paper describes a CECE light-water detritiation process specifically designed to reduce the tritium concentration in the NRU rod bays to an acceptable level. The conceptual design of a 600 Mg/a detritiation process has been developed and is now at the stage of project review and the beginning of detailed design. (author)

  3. PowerPoint or chalk and talk: Perceptions of medical students versus dental students in a medical college in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Vikas; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Moghe, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT) presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP). The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students. Methods Second year medical and dental undergraduates were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about their perceptions of the three lecture delivery methods. Following analysis of the questionnaire the students were interviewed further. The results were analyzed separately for medical and dental students to see if there was any difference in their perceptions. Results The majority of the medical students (65.33%) preferred PPT presentations, while 15.16% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard, and 19.51% preferred TOHP for teaching (P lectures (P lecture delivery method. It appears that in the hands of a trained teacher any teaching aid would be appropriate and effective. This highlights the need for formal training in teaching technologies to develop good presentation skills and thus motivate the students. PMID:23745057

  4. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-01-01

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect

  5. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL CHALK AND BOARD LECTURE SYSTEM VERSUS POWER POINT PRESENTATION AS A TEACHING TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING GROSS ANATOMY TO THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat; Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally and conventionally, gross anatomy is taught by lectures and cadaveric dissection and the lectures are taken with chalk and board (C&B) or chalk and talk method in, India. But there is always a debate over the most effective method of lecture delivery. AIM : The aim of this study was to compare the role and effecti...

  6. The fusion blanket program at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.

    1986-03-01

    Work on the Fusion Blanket Program commenced at Chalk River in 1984 June. Co-funded by Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, the Program utilizes Chalk River expertise in instrumented irradiation testing, ceramics, tritium technology, materials testing and compound chemistry. This paper gives highlights of studies to date on lithium-based ceramics, leading contenders for the fusion blanket

  7. SharePoint 2010 for Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sy, Dux

    2012-01-01

    If you were to analyze your team's performance on a typical project, you'd be surprised how much time is wasted on non-productive tasks. This hands-on guide shows you how to work more efficiently by organizing and managing projects with SharePoint 2010. You'll learn how to build a Project Management Information System (PMIS), customized to your project, that can effectively coordinate communication and collaboration among team members. Written by a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and Microsoft SharePoint MVP with 15 years of IT project management experience, each chapter incl

  8. Anesthesiology Point of Care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, John S; Noback, Carl R; Cheng, Drew; Lee, T K; Nenov, Val

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a dynamic prototype visual communication system for the operating room environs. This has classically been viewed as an isolated and impenetrable workplace. All medical experiences and all teaching remain in a one to one closed loop with no recall or subsequent sharing for the training and education of other colleagues. The "Anesthesia Point of Care" (APOC) concept embraces the sharing of, recording of, and presentation of various physiological and pharmacological events so that real time memory can be shared at a later time for the edification of other colleagues who were not present at the time of the primary learning event. In addition it also provides a remarkably rapid tool for fellow faculty to respond to obvious stress and crisis events that can be broadcast instantly at the time of happening. Finally, it also serves as an efficient and effective means of paging and general communication throughout the daily routines among various healthcare providers in anesthesiology who work as a team unit; these include the staff, residents, CRNAs, physician assistants, and technicians. This system offers a unique opportunity to eventually develop future advanced ideas that can include training exercises, presurgical evaluations, surgical scheduling and improvements in efficiency based upon earlier than expected case completion or conversely later than expected case completion and even as a unique window to development of improved billing itemization and coordination.

  9. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and thus...... basin, so stylolite formation in the chalk is controlled by effective burial stress. The stylolites are zones of calcite dissolution and probably are the source of calcite for porefilling cementation which is typical in water zone chalk and also affect the reservoirs to different extent. The relatively...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  10. Chalk: composition, diagenesis and physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    Chalk is a sedimentary rock of unusually high homogeneity on the scale where physical properties are measured, but the properties fall in wide ranges. Chalk may thus be seen as the ideal starting point for a physical understanding of rocks in general. Properties as porosity, permeability, capillary...... involving clay, silica, and calcite are interlinked, but progress differently in different localities. This partly depends on primary sediment composition, including organic content, which may induce the formation of concretions by microbial action. The diagenetic processes also depend on water depth, rate...

  11. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  12. Point to point multispectral light projection applied to cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, D.; Alvarez, A.; Canabal, H.; Garcia, A.; Mayorga, S.; Muro, C.; Galan, T.

    2017-09-01

    Use of new of light sources based on LED technology should allow the develop of systems that combine conservation and exhibition requirements and allow to make these art goods available to the next generations according to sustainability principles. The goal of this work is to develop light systems and sources with an optimized spectral distribution for each specific point of the art piece. This optimization process implies to maximize the color fidelity reproduction and the same time to minimize the photochemical damage. Perceived color under these sources will be similar (metameric) to technical requirements given by the restoration team uncharged of the conservation and exhibition of the goods of art. Depending of the fragility of the exposed art objects (i.e. spectral responsivity of the material) the irradiance must be kept under a critical level. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model that simulates with enough accuracy both the visual effect of the illumination and the photochemical impact of the radiation. Spectral reflectance of a reference painting The mathematical model is based on a merit function that optimized the individual intensity of the LED-light sources taking into account the damage function of the material and color space coordinates. Moreover the algorithm used weights for damage and color fidelity in order to adapt the model to a specific museal application. In this work we show a sample of this technology applied to a picture of Sorolla (1863-1923) an important Spanish painter title "woman walking at the beach".

  13. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  14. ChalkBoard: Mapping Functions to Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlage, Kevin; Gill, Andy

    ChalkBoard is a domain specific language for describing images. The ChalkBoard language is uncompromisingly functional and encourages the use of modern functional idioms. ChalkBoard uses off-the-shelf graphics cards to speed up rendering of functional descriptions. In this paper, we describe the design of the core ChalkBoard language, and the architecture of our static image generation accelerator.

  15. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    This change modifies accuracies of the water skid temperature indicators and controllers TIC-410. TI-412, TI-413, TIC-413, TIC-414, TIC-415. Acknowledges ability to calibrate PQIT-367 and modifies the accuracy of that instrument loop. Adjusts the allowable dilution dater temperature from 110-130F to 102-130F based on PCP Rev.2 and adjusts alarm and other points to reflect that change. Removes revision numbers for all references. Numerous additional changes (fixing typos, more detailed explanations etc.) throughout

  16. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruthi, Y. A.; Das, N. Lakshmana; Ramprasad, S.; Ram, S. S.; Sudarshan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk

  17. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruthi, Y. A., E-mail: ymjournal2014@gmail.com [Associate professor, Dept of Environmental Studies, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Das, N. Lakshmana, E-mail: nldas9@gmail.com [Professor, Dept of Physics, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Ramprasad, S., E-mail: ramprasadsurakala@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Dept of Environmental science, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Ram, S. S., E-mail: tracebio@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Dept of Trace element research, UGC-DAE Consortium Centre, Kolkata centre India (India); Sudarshan, M., E-mail: sude@alpha.iuc.res.in [Scientist-F, Dept of Trace element research, UGC-DAE Consortium Centre, Kolkata centre India (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk.

  18. The sedimentology of redeposited chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn; Gale, Andy

    Redeposited facies in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group constitute major hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea Central Graben. Existing facies models are largely based on publications from the early 1980's dealing with core material from the Norwegian sector. However, the recognition, interpreta...

  19. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. COMPUTER GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION, IN TREBLE ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION, OF A POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLONOVSCHI Andrei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the stages of understanding and study, by students, of descriptive geometry, the treble orthogonal projection of a point, creates problems in the situations in that one or more descriptive coordinates are zero. Starting from these considerations the authors have created an original computer program which offers to the students the possibility to easily understanding of the way in which a point is represented, in draught, in the treble orthogonal projection whatever which are its values of the descriptive coordinates.

  1. 3D reconstruction of laser projective point with projection invariant generated from five points on 2D target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiaotao; Su, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Vision measurement on the basis of structured light plays a significant role in the optical inspection research. The 2D target fixed with a line laser projector is designed to realize the transformations among the world coordinate system, the camera coordinate system and the image coordinate system. The laser projective point and five non-collinear points that are randomly selected from the target are adopted to construct a projection invariant. The closed form solutions of the 3D laser points are solved by the homogeneous linear equations generated from the projection invariants. The optimization function is created by the parameterized re-projection errors of the laser points and the target points in the image coordinate system. Furthermore, the nonlinear optimization solutions of the world coordinates of the projection points, the camera parameters and the lens distortion coefficients are contributed by minimizing the optimization function. The accuracy of the 3D reconstruction is evaluated by comparing the displacements of the reconstructed laser points with the actual displacements. The effects of the image quantity, the lens distortion and the noises are investigated in the experiments, which demonstrate that the reconstruction approach is effective to contribute the accurate test in the measurement system.

  2. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite...... = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts...... of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface....

  3. Slope failure of chalk channel margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.; Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    provide evidence for recurring margin collapse of a long-lived Campanian channel. Compressionally deformed and thrust chalk hardgrounds are correlated to thicker, non-cemented chalk beds that form a broad, gentle anticline. These chalks represent a slump complex with a roll-over anticline of expanded, non......-cemented chalk in the head region and a culmination of condensed hardgrounds in the toe region. Observations strongly suggest that the slumping represents collapse of a channel margin. Farther northwards, the contemporaneous succession shows evidence of small-scale penecontemporaneous normal faulting towards...

  4. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    /gas adsorption properties of synthetic calcium carbonate phases (calcite, vaterite and aragonite) with chalk, which is composed of biogenic calcite (>98%). In combination with data from nanotechniques, the results demonstrate the complexity of chalk behavior and the role of nanoscale clay particles. The results...

  5. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  6. Chalk and computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    highly connected to technological innovation that across the period has inspired hope as well as fear in teachers, pupils and parents. I take my starting point in the changing teaching aids of everyday school life to analyse how the technological development has been dealt with in the Danish school......Since 1970 school books have first been supplemented by photocopies and later PDF files and the use of Internet sites. Chalkboards have been replaced by Smart Boards and notebooks by laptops and IPADS. Digital media has made its way into the classroom and into everyday school life. This has been...... in the period 1970-2011. I wish to discuss how the analysis can benefit from a focus on the parallel introduction of thoughts concerning children’s culture, the competent child and the linkage of ‘Play & learn’. Looking at everyday life I also aim at discussing how the introduction of the new teaching aids has...

  7. Point Lepreau nuclear project unlocks power future of New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, E J [New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, Fredericton (Canada)

    1976-08-01

    Projects under development will increase the generating capacity of New Brunswick Electric Power Commission from 1.47 to 3.14 GW. Of these projects, the most significant is the 0.63 GW Point Lepreau CANDU reactor. Progress in the construction of the power reactor is summarized. The concrete reactor building was slipformed in April 1976. A second nuclear unit at Point Lepreau is being considered. Information is also provided on the new oil-fired station at Coleson Cove, a new oil- or coal-fired unit at Dalhousie and further hydro units at Mactaquac. A 0.16 GW pumped storage hydro unit at Green River is being considered. Information on transmission (Including the HVDC system), substations, and connection with Hydro Quebec is included.

  8. Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line project, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the project is to replace the existing 36-mile Fort Peck-Wolf Point transmission line which has reached the end of its useful service life. Presently, the overall condition of this existing section of the 47-year-old line is poor. Frequent repairs have been required because of the absence of overhead ground wires. The continued maintenance of the line will become more expensive and customer interruptions will persist because of the damage due to lightning. The expense of replacing shell rotted poles, and the concern for the safety of the maintenance personnel because of hazards caused by severe shell rot are also of primary importance. The operational and maintenance problems coupled with power system simulation studies, demonstrate the need for improvements to the Wolf Point area to serve area loads. Western's Wolf Point Substation is an important point of interconnection for the power output from the Fort Peck Dam to area loads as far away as Williston, North Dakota. The proposed transmission line replacement would assure that there will continue to be reliable transmission capacity available to serve area electrical loads, as well as provide a reliable second high-voltage transmission path from the Fort Peck generation to back-up a loss of the Fort Peck-Wolf Point 115-kV Line No. 1

  9. Reactor loops at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.

    1962-07-01

    This report describes broadly the nine in-reactor loops, and their components, located in and around the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River. First an introduction and general description is given of the loops and their function, supplemented with a table outlining some loop specifications and nine simplified flow sheets, one for each individual loop. The report then proceeds to classify each loop into two categories, the 'main loop circuit' and the 'auxiliary circuit', and descriptions are given of each circuit's components in turn. These components, in part, are comprised of the main loop pumps, the test section, loop heaters, loop coolers, delayed-neutron monitors, surge tank, Dowtherm coolers, loop piping. Here again photographs, drawings and tables are included to provide a clearer understanding of the descriptive literature and to include, in tables, some specifications of the more important components in each loop. (author)

  10. Fast and accurate computation of projected two-point functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasshorn Gebhardt, Henry S.; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    We present the two-point function from the fast and accurate spherical Bessel transformation (2-FAST) algorithm1Our code is available at https://github.com/hsgg/twoFAST. for a fast and accurate computation of integrals involving one or two spherical Bessel functions. These types of integrals occur when projecting the galaxy power spectrum P (k ) onto the configuration space, ξℓν(r ), or spherical harmonic space, Cℓ(χ ,χ'). First, we employ the FFTLog transformation of the power spectrum to divide the calculation into P (k )-dependent coefficients and P (k )-independent integrations of basis functions multiplied by spherical Bessel functions. We find analytical expressions for the latter integrals in terms of special functions, for which recursion provides a fast and accurate evaluation. The algorithm, therefore, circumvents direct integration of highly oscillating spherical Bessel functions.

  11. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  12. Chalk Formations as Natural Barriers towards Radionuclide Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Carlsen, Lars; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1985-01-01

    A series of chalk samples from the cretaceous formation overlying the Erslev salt dome have been studied in order to establish permeabilities, porosities, dispersion-, diffusion-, and sorption characteristics of the chalk. The chalk was found to be porous (∊≈0.4), however, of rather low...

  13. Compaction of microfossil and clay-rich chalk sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of microfossils and clay in the compaction of chalk facies sediments. To meet this aim, chalk sediments with varying micro texture were studied. The sediments have been tested uniaxially confined in a stainless-steel compaction cell. The sediments are......: 1) Pure carbonate chalk with mudstone texture from Stevns Klint (Denmark), 2) Relatively pure chalk sediments with varying content of microfossils from the Ontong Java Plateau (Western Pacific), 3) Clay-rich chalk and mixed sediments from the Caribbean. The tested samples were characterised...

  14. Pointing the Way to the Future of Project Management: How the Past and Present Point Towards Project Management's Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballister, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... The lessons learned from those projects, coupled with a look at project management history in general, will be checked against a current project management theory to determine if the focus of today's...

  15. The End of "Chalk and Talk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "Chalk and talk" had been the staple pedagogical approach of my Science teaching practice since entering the profession. I felt that there was a great deal of information that I must impart to my students. My tried and tested way to deliver information to my students had always been simply to stand in front of them and tell it to them... So what…

  16. Process for treating oil-chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-10-20

    A process for treating oil-chalk or similar oil-containing minerals is characterized in that the material is treated in a stream of air diluted with indifferent gases at a temperature of about 150/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/C.

  17. The Missing Point Of Knowledge Management in PFI Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipli Kumalasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Private Finance Initiative (PFI procurement model is a complex system which includes long-term commitment; customers’ satisfaction and through-life collaborative working. The projects based on this type of procurement has start from the year 1992 in the UK and year 2006 in Malaysia. Along the process, the PFI projects face few problems despite its advantages. These problem has effected the projects performance such as delay and cost overruns. It seems that the problems occurred are repeatable despite many types of research delved into solving the issues. This paper seeks, to find out the most common problems occur in PFI projects and highlights the best solution to tackle the problems. It also looks at whether similar problems occur in Malaysian construction industry. This research has summarised and critically review the literature on the repeated issues and problem in PFI projects which effect the performance of the projects in term of time, quality and money. It was found that similar problems occur and that similar suggestions were proposed. This shows that the proposed solutions have weaknesses somewhat and hence need to enhance further. This research highlighted the potential of incorporating knowledge management concept through its elements to address the problems. Finally, the paper proposes recommendations to improve the performance of PFI projects with the enhancement of knowledge management especially at the initial and planning stage up to bidding stage where the problem reviewed in the literature always occurred

  18. Elevation - Survey Points - Minnesota River Watershed Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Topograhic and hydrographic field located survey grade points collected using a Trimble GPS unit, Trimble robotic total stations, and/or Hydrolite-TM eco-sounder....

  19. Environmental Assessment: Gulf Power Company Military Point Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-12

    1500.4. 1.4. 1 Geology No geological hazards, seismic risks, or unstable slopes occur in the vicinity of Military Point on Tyndall AFB. Therefore, the...with sand grout to fill any voids within the casing and provide thermal insulation for the electric cable. Lengths greater than 3,000 feet would be...devices designed to either insulate or isolate potential contact points have. been recommended to minimize the risk of eagle electrocution, which are

  20. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Effective stress coefficient is a measure of how chalk grains are connected with each other. The stiffness of chalk may decrease if the amount of contact cements between the grains decreases, which may lead to an increase of the effective stress coefficient. We performed CO2 injection in chal...... precise failure strength of chalk during changed stress state and under the influence of chemically reactive fluids during production of hydrocarbon and geological storage CO2....

  1. Effect of Fluid Dynamic Viscosity on the Strength of Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, K.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    The mechanical strength of high porosity and weakly cemented chalk is affected by the fluid in the pores. In this study, the effect of the dynamic viscosity of non-polar fluids has been measured on outcrop chalk from Sigerslev Quarry, Stevns, Denmark. The outcome is that the measured strength...... of the chalk decreases with increasing dynamic viscosity. The proposed qualitative explanation is that pressure difference supports and enhances the generation of microscopic shear and tensile failures....

  2. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth

    2004-01-01

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  3. Atmospherically dispersed radiocarbon at the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, G.M.; Brown, R.M.; Repta, C.J.W.; Selkirk, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    A small percentage of the total radiocarbon produced by the NRX and NRU experimental reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories has been vented from the main reactor stack and atmospherically dispersed across the site. Surveys conducted in 1982-83 and 1993-94 have shown that atmospheric levels more than 50 m from the stack are never greater than 600 Bq.kg -1 carbon above the natural background level, falling to near-global atmospheric levels at the site boundaries roughly 7 km away. A dispersion factor > 1.2 x 10 6 m 3 .s -1 at ∼ 0.75 km distance from the point of emission is calculated on the basis of recent in-stack monitoring. Analysis of growth rings in on-site trees has provided an opportunity to search for correlations of 14 C output summer power production and/or moderator losses. (author). 16 refs., 14 tabs., 11 figs

  4. Integrated waste plan for Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, P.; Bainbridge, I.

    2011-01-01

    The core missions for Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) will involve a complex suite of activities for decades to come, many of these activities resulting in production of some amount of wastes. In order to support the business of the Nuclear Laboratories there is a requirement to responsibly manage the wastes arising from these activities. Capability to develop waste stream pathway scenarios and be able to make informed strategic decisions regarding the various options for waste processing, storage and long-term management (i.e. e nabling facilities ) is necessary to discharge this responsibility in the most cost effective and sustainable manner. A holistic waste management plan integrated with the decommissioning, environmental remediation and operations programs is the desired result such that: - Waste inputs and timings are identified; - Timing of key decisions regarding enabling facilities is clearly identified; and - A defensible decision-making framework for enabling facilities is established, thereby ensuring value for Canadians. The quantities of wastes that require managing as part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program and AECL operations activities is in the range of 200,000 to 300,000 m 3 , with a yearly increase of several thousand m 3 . This volume can be classified into over thirty distinct waste streams having differing life cycle waste management pathways from generation to disposition. The time phasing of the waste management activities required for these wastes spans several decades and involves a complex array of processes and facilities. Several factors typical of wastes from the development of nuclear technology further complicate the situation. For example, there is considerable variation in the level of detail and format of waste records generated over several decades. Also, wastes were put into storage over several decades without knowledge or consideration of what the final disposition path will be. Prior to proceeding with any major new

  5. BIPM project: Intercomparison of water triple-point cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattle, M. V.; Butler, J.

    1994-12-01

    The paper presents the results of an intercomparison between 3 triple point of water cells circulated by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM), and a cell which is one of those used as a reference cell at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). All 4 cells were prepared, stored and measured in the manner normally adopted at NPL. The results of the intercomparison show that over the course of about 6 weeks the temperatures of the 3 circulated cells generally agreed within 0.20 mK, with a maximum difference of 0.27(7) mK. Over the same period, the total variations of temperature measured in the 3 individual cells were 0.04 mK, 0.08 mK and 0.18 mK, respectively; the NPL cell varied by 0.10 mK. Gallium point measurements made over a similar period confirmed that these differences were partly due to small drifts in the thermometer resistance or in the measuring system.

  6. New insight into the microtexture of chalks from NMR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faÿ-Gomord, Ophélie; Soete, Jeroen; Katika, Konstantina

    2016-01-01

    An integrated petrographical and petrophysical study was carried out on a set of 35 outcrop chalk samples, covering a wide range of lithologies and textures. In this study various chalk rock-types have been characterized, in terms of microtextures and porous network, by integrating both geologica...

  7. Dissection of genetic architecture of grain chalk using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk is a major quality characteristic that causes grain breakage during milling and loss of crop value. In this study, we sought to elucidate the quantitatively inherited grain chalk trait in rice and to conduct genome-wide association mapping to identify SNPs and candidate genes associated with ...

  8. The CAREM-25 project from the risk point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The future use of the nuclear energy for electricity production is considered a possible alternative, mainly taking into account the high environmental impact of the fossil fuel alternatives (greenhouse effect, acid rain). In a worldwide context, however, it is desirable for the new nuclear power plants to be safer than the present ones. To demonstrate the safety level of a nuclear installation, the Risk Analysis (in fact, Probabilistic Safety Analysis) is an adequate tool, as it allows for the risk level quantification. The risk itself is composed of two factors, the first takes into account the probability associated with accidental sequences that release radioactive materials, the second takes into account the amount and consequences of such a release. In the present work, the reduction of both factors is faced, the probability by using simpler safety systems (inherently safe systems), and the consequence by using small power production units, that have, besides, passive mitigation systems and long response times. The work is illustrated with a risk comparison for electricity production via CAREM-25 units, against via a classic design unit (Atucha II). The results are base in Probabilistic Safety Studies performed for both installations. The conclusions show an effective risk reduction (both in probability and in consequence), reaching the point where in no case acute irradiation effects are predicted in the vicinity of the accidented plant. (author) [es

  9. Chalk effect on PVC cross-linking under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, V.V.; Guzeev, V.V.; Mozzhukhin, V.B.; Pomerantseva, Eh.G.; Nozrina, F.D.; Zhil'tsov, V.V.; Zubov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of nonmodified and modified chalk on curing degree of polymer matrix was studied under-irradiation of PVC-compositions. Films of the compositions (100 mass part 7 PVC, 0-100 mas.part of chalk, 2.5 - lead sulfate, 1.5 - lead stearate and 0.3 - glycerin) were irradiated up to absorbed dose 0.1 MGy in an inert medium. Content of gel-fraction after boiling in THF was determined with use of IR spectroscopy. It was established, that intensive dehydrochlorination and polymer curing took place on chalk particle surface. Network fixed strongly chalk particles. However, chalk inhibited processes of dehydrochlorination and PVC curing, increasing amount of noncured PVC in polymer matrix

  10. Controls on Cementation in a Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meireles, Leonardo Teixeira Pinto; Hussein, A.; Welch, M.J.

    In this study, we identify different controls on cementation in a chalk reservoir. Biot’s coefficient, a measure of cementation, stiffness and strength in porous rocks, is calculated from logging data (bulk density and sonic Pwave velocity). We show that Biot’s coefficient is correlated...... to the water saturation of the Kraka reservoir and is partly controlled by its stratigraphic sub-units. While the direct causal relationship between Biot’s coefficient and water saturation cannot be extended for Biot’s coefficient and porosity, a correlation is also identified between the two, implying...

  11. Controls on Cementation in a Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meireles, Leonardo Teixeira Pinto; Hussein, A.; Welch, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identify different controls on cementation in a chalk reservoir. Biot’s coefficient, a measure of cementation, stiffness and strength in porous rocks, is calculated from logging data (bulk density and sonic Pwave velocity). We show that Biot’s coefficient is correlated...... that some degree of pore filling cementation occurred in Kraka (Alam, 2010). Lack of correlation between Biot’s coefficient and Gamma Ray (GR) indicates that the small amount of clay present is generally located in the pore space, thus not contributing to frame stiffness. While there was no compositional...... control on cementation via clay, we could infer that stratigraphy impacts on the diagenetic process....

  12. Change of Static and Dynamic Elastic Properties due to CO² Injection in North Sea Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, M.L.; Christensen, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    important in enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) in chalk as, chalk reservoirs are vulnerable to compaction under changed stress and pore fluid. From South Arne field, North Sea, we used Ekofisk Formation chalk having approximately 20% non-carbonate and Tor Formation chalk having less than 5...

  13. Acidity of sphagnum and its relation to chalk and mineral salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skene, M

    1915-01-01

    In addition to the criticism and elucidation of various other points, the chief conclusions which may be drawn from the preceding pages are: (1) There is a variation in acidity and in sensitiveness to chalk between the different species of sphagnum. (2) There is a correlation between degree of acidity and degree of sensitiveness. (3) The connection between the two is indirect, not direct. (4) The sphagna thrive in acid solutions: the injurious effect of chalk, and of alkalies in general, is due to the substitution of an alkaline for an acid reaction. (5) Mineral solutions are generally physiologically harmless, but may be ecologically harmful. (6) The sphagna do actually utilize in growth bases held absorbed by the acid compounds of the cell-walls.

  14. Chalk Catchment Transit Time: Unresolved Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, W. G.; Gooddy, D. C. [British Geological Survey, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Barker, J. A. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Robinson, M. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    The mean transit time (MTT) of a catchment is the average residence time of water from rainfall to river outflow at the foot of the catchment. As such, MTT has important water quality as well as resource implications. Many catchments worldwide have been measured for MTT using environmental isotopes, yet the Chalk, an important aquifer in NW Europe, has received little attention in this regard. The catchment of the River Lambourn in southern England has been intermittently studied since the 1960s using isotopic methods. A tritium peak measured in the river during the 1970s indicates an apparent MTT of {approx}15 years, but the thick unsaturated zone (average {approx}50 m) of the catchment suggests that the MTT should be much greater because of the average downward movement through the Chalk of {approx}1 m/a consistently indicated by tritium and other tracers. Recent work in the catchment using SF{sub 6} as a residence time indicator has given groundwater ages in the narrow range 11-18 yrs, apparently supporting the river tritium data but in conflict with the unsaturated zone data even allowing for a moderate proportion of rapid bypass flow. The MTT of the catchment remains unresolved for the time being. (author)

  15. 77 FR 23740 - Sears Point Wetland and Watershed Restoration Project, Sonoma County, CA; Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...-FF08RSFC00] Sears Point Wetland and Watershed Restoration Project, Sonoma County, CA; Final Environmental... environmental impact report and environmental impact statement (EIR/EIS) for the Sears Point Wetland and..., while providing public access and recreational and educational opportunities compatible with ecological...

  16. Measurements with the Chalk River Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, A.W.

    1970-01-01

    The Chalk River calorimeters were designed to measure the absorbed dose rate in reactors in materials such as graphite, polyethylene and beryllium in the range 0.01-1 Wg -1 . To eliminate heaters in the sample they were made to operate adiabatically, or more accurately quasi-adiabatically since there is no heater on the jacket. Both the sample and jacket temperatures are recorded from the time of insertion in the reactor flux and the absorbed dose rate is calculated from these data. The advantages of this type of calorimeter are the ease of construction and the absence of a sample heater. The disadvantage is that dose rates below ~ 10 mWg -1 cannot be determined accurately

  17. Stability analysis of chalk sea cliffs using UAV photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John; Gilham, Jamie

    2017-04-01

    Cliff erosion and instability poses a significant hazard to communities and infrastructure located is coastal areas. We use point cloud and spectral data derived from close range digital photogrammetry to assess the stability of chalk sea cliffs located at Telscombe, UK. Data captured from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were used to generate dense point clouds for a 712 m section of cliff face which ranges from 20 to 49 m in height. Generated models fitted our ground control network within a standard error of 0.03 m. Structural features such as joints, bedding planes, and faults were manually mapped and are consistent with results from other studies that have been conducted using direct measurement in the field. Kinematic analysis of these data was used to identify the primary modes of failure at the site. Our results indicate that wedge failure is by far the most likely mode of slope instability. An analysis of sequential surveys taken from the summer of 2016 to the winter of 2017 indicate several large failures have occurred at the site. We establish the volume of failure through change detection between sequential data sets and use back analysis to determine the strength of shear surfaces for each failure. Our results show that data capture through UAV photogrammetry can provide useful information for slope stability analysis over long sections of cliff. The use of this technology offers significant benefits in equipment costs and field time over existing methods.

  18. To What Degree Thermal Cycles Affect Chalk Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livada, Tijana; Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar Inger

    triaxial cell experiments. For dry rock, no significant effects of temperature cycling was found on average tensile strength, however the range of the tensile failure stress is doubled for the samples exposed to 50 temperature cycles, as opposed to those to none. For water saturated cores, the temperature......Chalk reservoirs could potentially undergo destabilization as the result of repeated cold water injection into a hot reservoir during water flooding. Preliminary results of an ongoing study are presented in this paper, which compare the impact of temperature cycling on mechanical behavior on dry...... and water saturated chalk. Sixty disks of dry Kansas chalk exposed to different number of temperature cycles were tested for tensile strength using a Brazilian test. Changes in elastic properties as function of number of temperature cycles of the same chalk, but now saturated in water, were studied using...

  19. Kolmanda aastatuhande piraadid / kommenteerinud Peter Chalk ja Gordan Van Hook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Piraatlusest Somaalia piirkonnas ja rahvusvahelistest dokumentidest piraatluse vastu võitlemiseks 21. sajandil. Kommenteerivad uurimiskeskuse RAND Corporation vanempoliitanalüütik Peter Chalk ja transpordikompanii Maersk Line innovatsiooni ja arenduse vanemdirektor Gordan Van Hook

  20. Radar sounding of bedrock and water table at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annan, A.P.; Davis, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    When a spill of radioactive waste occurs, one of the main concerns is the flow pattern of ground water in the area of the spill. Ground probing radar is a relatively new geophysical technique which can provide high resolution data on the surficial geology and water distribution. The results of some preliminary radar experiments conducted at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River, Ontario are presented. (auth)

  1. Application of point system in the project control of Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie ahai

    2005-01-01

    Schedule control and cost control are very complicated issues even we set up the detail schedules and engineering measurements requirements for erection of a nuclear power project. In order to solve these problems, a Point System is used in Ling Ao (LA) Nuclear Power Project. This paper introduces the method. The Point System is a measurement system of workload. The measurement unit of any erection works is a Point only. A Point of workload is defined as the equivalent measurement quantities, which could be completed by a relevant skill worker within an hour. A set of procedure manuals for different installations has been set up. The calculation models of equipment installation, piping, cabling are addressed for example in the paper. The application of the Point System in the schedule control is shown in the paper. The following issues are highlighted: to define the duration of a piping activity in the Project Level 2 Schedule, to draught the curves of Point Schedules for different erection fields, to analyze the productive efficiency, to define erection quota of each month for different erection teams, to follow up the erection progress on site. The application of the Point System in the payment of erection contract is outlined. The calculation formula of a monthly payment is given. The advantage of the payment calculation method is discussed, for example, more accurate, very easy and clearly to check the measurement quantities completed on site, to control lump-sum cost. (authors)

  2. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    with the seismic stratigraphy. Several seismic facies are identified in the Chalk Group: the 'transparent' (white chalk), the stratified (marl-chalk alternations), the crudely stratified (flint-rich chalk) and the hummocky (bryozoan mounds). The units notably vary in thickness at a relatively small scale...... of the deformations appear to be restricted to the white chalk, whereas the stratified seismic facies are comparatively less disturbed. The origin of the structures observed in the white chalk can either be associated with the regional stress field or with differential diagenetic evolution between strata inducing...

  3. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  4. VERTICAL PROJECTION EFFICIENCY OF PIVOT POINTS USING ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER DURING CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterenok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that functional limitation of zenith devices and introduction of modern high-accuracy electronic tacheometers should lead to substitution of the mentioned devices for tacheometers in geodesic works concerning vertical projection of pivot points of the constructed buildings and structures. However the electronic tacheometer has not been considered in the function of a zenith device in ТКП 45-1.03-26-2006.Special experiemnts and practical works executed by UE “Geokart” has proved that in accordance with its design the electronic tacheometer equipped with a compensator for small inclinations and zenith prism attachment for ocular can be applied as a vertical projection device while setting sighting line of a telescope in a fixed vertical position. Corresponding experiments have been carried out for multi-storied building of business centre located in the M. Tank Street in Minsk in order to obtain comparative characteristics of vertical projection accuracy with the help of tacheometer TOPCON GPT 7501 and zenith device PZL-100. An initial point of the staked grid has been situated at the elevation ±0,0 м, standard graph elevation has been equal to +49,5 м (concrete slab of the 14th floor, projection height referred to the device has been equal to Н = 47,8 м. Both devices have been set on the same stand using a purpose made adaptive device in order to exclude centering errors. Deviation in position of final projection points on the standard graph which were obtained with the help of two devices has been equal to 1.2 mm, that testifies practical equal accuracy of the zenith device and tacheometer for vertical projection function.Additional advantage of the electronic tacheometer in comparison with special vertical projection devi ces lies in the fact that in the case of a certain misalignment of geodesic openings in intermediate floors ta- cheometer deviating from the vertical makes it possible to carry out initial point

  5. Re-framing the use and influence of indicators in the POINT project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    applied to problem solving) towards the recognition of for example symbolic, tactical or more broadly ‘enlightening functions. ‘Indicators’ is a particular knowledge type with high pretence of relevance and usability for policy. The paper will be written in the context of the research project POINT, which...

  6. On a Use Case Points Measurement Tool for Effective Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Katsuro; Kusumoto, Shinji; Tsuda, Michio

    2007-01-01

    Use case point (UCP) method has been proposed to estimate software development effort in early phase of software project and used in a lot of software organizations. This paper briefly describes an automatic use case measurement tool, called U-EST.

  7. An overview of the waste characterization program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; Hardy, D.G.

    1990-05-01

    A comprehensive Waste Characterization Program (WCP) is in place at Chalk River Laboratories to support disposal projects. The WCP is responsible for: 1) specifying the manifests for waste shipments; 2) developing and maintaining central databases for waste inventories and analytical data; and 3) developing the technologies and procedures to characterize the radiological and the physical/chemical properties of wastes. WCP work is being performed under the umbrella of a newly developed waste management Quality Assurance (QA) program. This paper gives an overview of the WCP with an emphasis on the requirements for determining radionuclide inventories in wastes, for implementing record-keeping systems, and for maintaining a QA program for disposal operations

  8. The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Harrison, T.E.; Spagnolo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant for removal of tritium from heavy water is described. Tritium is present in the heavy water from research reactors in the form of DTO at a concentration in the range of 1-35 Ci/kg. It is removed by a combination of catalytic exchange to transfer the tritium from DTO to DT, followed by cryogenic distillation to separate and concentrate the tritium to T 2 . The tritium product is reacted with titanium and packaged for transportation and storage as titanium tritide. The plant processes heavy water at a rate of 25 kg/h and removes 80% of the tritium and 90% of the protium per pass. Catalytic exchange is carried out in the liquid phase using a proprietary wetproofed catalyst. The plant serves two roles in the Canadian fusion program: it produces pure tritium for use in fusion research and development, and it demonstrates on an industrial scale many of the tritium technologies that are common to the tritium systems in fusion reactors (author)

  9. The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtslander, W J; Harrison, T E; Spagnolo, D A

    1990-07-01

    The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant for removal of tritium from heavy water is described. Tritium is present in the heavy water from research reactors in the form of DTO at a concentration in the range of 1-35 Ci/kg. It is removed by a combination of catalytic exchange to transfer the tritium from DTO to DT, followed by cryogenic distillation to separate and concentrate the tritium to T{sub 2}. The tritium product is reacted with titanium and packaged for transportation and storage as titanium tritide. The plant processes heavy water at a rate of 25 kg/h and removes 80% of the tritium and 90% of the protium per pass. Catalytic exchange is carried out in the liquid phase using a proprietary wetproofed catalyst. The plant serves two roles in the Canadian fusion program: it produces pure tritium for use in fusion research and development, and it demonstrates on an industrial scale many of the tritium technologies that are common to the tritium systems in fusion reactors (author)

  10. Big rock point restoration project BWR major component removal, packaging and shipping - planning and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, T.; Dam, S.; Papp, M.; Slade, J.; Slimp, B.; Nurden, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Big Rock Point boiling water reactor (BWR) at Charlevoix, MI was permanently shut down on August 29th 1997. In 1999 BNFL Inc.'s Reactor Decommissioning Group (RDG) was awarded a contract by Consumers Energy (CECo) for the Big Rock Point (BRP) Major Component Removal (MCR) project. BNFL Inc. RDG has teamed with MOTA, Sargent and Lundy and MDM Services to plan and execute MCR in support of the facility restoration project. The facility restoration project will be completed by 2005. Key to the success of the project has been the integration of best available demonstrated technology into a robust and responsive project management approach, which places emphasis on safety and quality assurance in achieving project milestones linked to time and cost. To support decommissioning of the BRP MCR activities, a reactor vessel (RV) shipping container is required. Discussed in this paper is the design and fabrication of a 10 CFR Part 71 Type B container necessary to ship the BRP RV. The container to be used for transportation of the RV to the burial site was designed as an Exclusive Use Type B package for shipment and burial at the Barnwell, South Carolina (SC) disposal facility. (author)

  11. ANALYSIS OF FORECASTING METHODS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EARLY WARNING CONCEPT IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin POPESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early warning system (EWS based on a reliable forecasting process has become a critical component of the management of large complex industrial projects in the globalized transnational environment. The purpose of this research is to critically analyze the forecasting methods from the point of view of early warning, choosing those useful for the construction of EWS. This research addresses complementary techniques, using Bayesian Networks, which addresses both uncertainties and causality in project planning and execution, with the goal of generating early warning signals for project managers. Even though Bayesian networks have been widely used in a range of decision-support applications, their application as early warning systems for project management is still new.

  12. Human Prolactin Point Mutations and Their Projected Effect on Vasoinhibin Generation and Vasoinhibin-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Triebel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA dysregulation of the generation of vasoinhibin hormones by proteolytic cleavage of prolactin (PRL has been brought into context with diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Factors governing vasoinhibin generation are incompletely characterized, and the composition of vasoinhibin isoforms in human tissues or compartments, such as the circulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the possible contribution of PRL point mutations to the generation of vasoinhibins as well as to project their role in vasoinhibin-related diseases.MethodsProlactin sequences, point mutations, and substrate specificity information about the PRL cleaving enzymes cathepsin D, matrix metalloproteinases 8 and 13, and bone-morphogenetic protein 1 were retrieved from public databases. The consequences of point mutations in regard to their possible effect on vasoinhibin levels were projected on the basis of a score indicating the suitability of a particular sequence for enzymatic cleavage that result in vasoinhibin generation. The relative abundance and type of vasoinhibin isoforms were estimated by comparing the relative cleavage efficiency of vasoinhibin-generating enzymes.ResultsSix point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions in vasoinhibin-generating cleavage sites were found and projected to either facilitate or inhibit vasoinhibin generation. Four mutations affecting vasoinhibin generation in cancer tissues were found. The most likely composition of the relative abundance of vasoinhibin isoforms is projected to be 15 > 17.2 > 16.8 > 17.7 > 18 kDa vasoinhibin.ConclusionProlactin point mutations are likely to influence vasoinhibin levels by affecting the proteolysis efficiency of vasoinhibin-generating enzymes and should be monitored in patients with vasoinhibin-related diseases. Attempts to characterize vasoinhibin-related diseases

  13. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Bell

    Full Text Available The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1 hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  14. Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Sandersen, Sara Bülow; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recove...... of a microemulsion phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration, which has been reported in most previous studies.......Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recovery...

  15. Summary of discussion points and further deliberations in the special committee on the ITER project in the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion points and further deliberations in the Special Committee, which was established in December 1996 on the ITER Project were: 'Global environment problem and energy problem', 'Promotion of the fusion energy development' and 'ITER Project'

  16. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan part V - Chalk River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    The aim of Part 5 of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan is to describe the measures that shall be undertaken to deal with a nuclear emergency caused by the Chalk River Laboratories. This plan deals mainly with actions at the Provincial level and shall by supplemented by the appropriate Municipal Plan. The Townships of Rolph, Buchanan, Wylie, and McKay, the Town of Deep River and the Village of Chalk River are the designated municipalities with respect to CRL. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan part V - Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The aim of Part 5 of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan is to describe the measures that shall be undertaken to deal with a nuclear emergency caused by the Chalk River Laboratories. This plan deals mainly with actions at the Provincial level and shall by supplemented by the appropriate Municipal Plan. The Townships of Rolph, Buchanan, Wylie, and McKay, the Town of Deep River and the Village of Chalk River are the designated municipalities with respect to CRL. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Spherical Projection Based Straight Line Segment Extraction for Single Station Terrestrial Laser Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Fan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the discrete distribution computing errors and lack of adaptability are ubiquitous in the current straight line extraction for TLS data methods. A 3D straight line segment extraction method is proposed based on spherical projection for single station terrestrial laser point clouds. Firstly, horizontal and vertical angles of each laser point are calculated by means of spherical coordinates, intensity panoramic image according to the two angles is generated. Secondly, edges which include straight line features are detected from intensity panoramic image by using of edge detection algorithm. Thirdly, great circles are detected from edges of panoramic image using spherical Hough transform. According to the axiom that a straight line segment in 3D space is a spherical great circle after spherical projection, detecting great circles from spherical projected data sets is essentially detecting straight line segments from 3D data sets without spherical projection. Finally, a robust 3D straight line fitting method is employed to fitting the straight lines and calculating parameters of the straight line segments. Experiments using different data sets and comparison with other methods show the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method.

  19. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  20. Initial field measurements on the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, J.H.; Chan, K.C.; Hill, J.H.

    1980-12-01

    The midplane magnetic field of the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron has been mapped in detail over the full operating range of 2.5 to 5 tesla. The field measuring apparatus is described and results given include measurements of the field stability, reproducibility and harmonic content. (author)

  1. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  2. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Lone; Hassenkam, Tue; Makovicky, Emil

    2012-01-01

    that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs...

  3. Groundwater conversion areas in chalk in the southern Frankish Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaff, T.

    1987-01-01

    In order to collect hydro-geological data, chalk water marking was done and/or interpreted, water balances were produced, the contents tritium, oxygen 18, calcium, magnesium and the groundwater temperatures and electrolytic conductivity of the groundwater were examined and the dry weather drainage of individual sources was analysed. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Ekofisk chalk: core measurements, stochastic reconstruction, network modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Saifullah

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation deals with (1) experimental measurements on petrophysical, reservoir engineering and morphological properties of Ekofisk chalk, (2) numerical simulation of core flood experiments to analyze and improve relative permeability data, (3) stochastic reconstruction of chalk samples from limited morphological information, (4) extraction of pore space parameters from the reconstructed samples, development of network model using pore space information, and computation of petrophysical and reservoir engineering properties from network model, and (5) development of 2D and 3D idealized fractured reservoir models and verification of the applicability of several widely used conventional up scaling techniques in fractured reservoir simulation. Experiments have been conducted on eight Ekofisk chalk samples and porosity, absolute permeability, formation factor, and oil-water relative permeability, capillary pressure and resistivity index are measured at laboratory conditions. Mercury porosimetry data and backscatter scanning electron microscope images have also been acquired for the samples. A numerical simulation technique involving history matching of the production profiles is employed to improve the relative permeability curves and to analyze hysteresis of the Ekofisk chalk samples. The technique was found to be a powerful tool to supplement the uncertainties in experimental measurements. Porosity and correlation statistics obtained from backscatter scanning electron microscope images are used to reconstruct microstructures of chalk and particulate media. The reconstruction technique involves a simulated annealing algorithm, which can be constrained by an arbitrary number of morphological parameters. This flexibility of the algorithm is exploited to successfully reconstruct particulate media and chalk samples using more than one correlation functions. A technique based on conditional simulated annealing has been introduced for exact reproduction of vuggy

  5. Field and numerical descriptions of fracture geometries and terminations in chalk containing chert layers and inclusions; implications for groundwater flow in Danish chalk aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyum, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study is a description of the fracture distribution in laterally discontinuous chalk and chert layers, with an investigation on how fracture lengths and apertures vary as a function of applied stresses, material properties, and interface properties. Natural fractures intersect laterally extensive, discontinuous, chalk-chert material interfaces in 62 million-year old to 72 million-year old Chalk Group formations exposed at Stevns Klint, Denmark. Approximately one-third of Denmark's fresh water use is from chalk and limestone regional aquifers of the Chalk Group formations, where rock permeability is dominantly a function of open fracture connectivities. Fractured, centimeter- to decimeter-thick chert layers and inclusions (101 GPa elastic stiffness) are interlayered with fractured, meter-thick chalk layers (100 GPa elastic stiffness). Fractures are observed to terminate against and cross chalk-chert interfaces, affecting the vertical flow of water and pollutants between aquifers. The discontinuous and variably thin nature of chert layers at Stevns Klint effectively merges adjacent fracture-confining layers of chalk along discrete position intervals, resulting in lateral variability of fracture spacing. Finite element numerical models are designed to describe fracture interactions with stiff, chert inclusions of various shapes, thicknesses, widths, orientations, and interface friction and fracture toughness values. The models are two-dimensional with isotropic, continuous material in plane strain and uniformly applied remote principal stresses. These characteristics are chosen based on interpretations of the petrophysics of chalk and chert, the burial history of the rock, and the scale of investigation near fracture tips relative to grain sizes. The result are value ranges for relative stiffness contrasts, applied stresses, and material interface conditions that would cause fractures to cross, terminate at, or form along chalk-chert interfaces, with emphasis on

  6. Evolution and experience with the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389536; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Kouba, Tomas; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander; Lee, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The Simulation at Point1 project is successfully running standard ATLAS simulation jobs on the TDAQ HLT resources. The pool of available resources changes dynamically, therefore we need to be very effective in exploiting the available computing cycles. We present our experience with using the Event Service that provides the event-level granularity of computations. We show the design decisions and overhead time related to the usage of the Event Service. The improved utilization of the resources is also presented with the recent development in monitoring, automatic alerting, deployment and GUI.

  7. Evolution and experience with the ATLAS simulation at Point1 project

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Kouba, Tomas; Lee, Christopher; Scannicchio, Diana; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Simulation at Point1 project is successfully running traditional ATLAS simulation jobs on the TDAQ HLT resources. The pool of available resources changes dynamically, therefore we need to be very effective in exploiting the available computing cycles. We will present our experience with using the Event Service that provides the event-level granularity of computations. We will show the design decisions and overhead time related to the usage of the Event Service. The improved utilization of the resources will also be presented with the recent development in monitoring, automatic alerting, deployment and GUI.

  8. Using SharePoint to manage and disseminate fusion project information: An ITER case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Barry; Downing, James; Di Maio, Marco; How, John

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Organization, in common with many other fusion laboratories, has an authenticated-access website devoted to the communication of information to all its staff and remote collaborators. In 2007 and 2008, the number of registered users of this site increased by more than a factor of ten, to over 3000 at present, and with approximately 900 unique users using the website per month. In parallel, the project management of the organisation has been put in place. A decision was taken to move the web platform from simple HTML to Microsoft SharePoint and to web-enable the many applications and databases used for ITER management. This decision has been well justified by the power and extensive flexibility provided by SharePoint, for example it permits different groups to publish their own information and to collaborate, and to consolidate disparate spreadsheet data in linked SharePoint lists to improve quality and maintainability. This paper examines the use of SharePoint at ITER: why it was selected and what benefits it brings to both the local and remote ITER community. Some active case studies are presented. The paper also looks ahead at what future benefits to ITER this platform offers, and reviews the type of information that the site can profitably publish. The paper also highlights some of the limitations of the platform, the problems of integration with other ITER systems, and discusses its potential for adaptability in other scientific organisations.

  9. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    number of B. licheniformis was detected on the effluent compared with P. putida. However, in the experiment with B. licheniformis mainly spores were detected in the effluent. The core permeability decreased rapidly during injection of bacteria and a starvation period of 12 days did not allow......Bacteria selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery. Bacteria can plug the water-bearing zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. It is known that the bacteria can penetrate deeply...... into reservoirs, however, a complete understanding of the penetration behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where the pore throat sizes are almost comparable with the sizes of bacteria vegetative cells. This study investigates the penetration of bacteria into chalk. Two bacteria types...

  10. Reactor safety research and development in Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitheanandan, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories provides three different services to stakeholders and customers. The first service provided by the laboratory is the implementation of Research and Development (R&D) programs to provide the underlying technological basis of safe nuclear power reactor designs. A significant portion of the Canadian R&D capability in reactor safety resides at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories, and this capability was instrumental in providing the science and technology required to aid in the safety design of CANDU power reactors. The second role of the laboratory has been in supporting nuclear facility licensees to ensure the continued safe operation of nuclear facilities, and to develop safety cases to justify continued operation. The licensing of plant life extension is a key industry objective, requiring extensive research on degradation mechanisms, such that safety cases are based on the original safety design data and valid and realistic assumptions regarding the effect of ageing and management of plant life. Recently, Chalk River Laboratories has been engaged in a third role in research to provide the technical basis and improved understanding for decision making by regulatory bodies. The state-of-the-art test facilities in Chalk River Laboratories have been contributing to the R&D needs of all three roles, not only in Canada but also in the international community, thorough Canada's participation in cooperative programs lead by International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. (author)

  11. The transport and behaviour of isoproturon in unsaturated chalk cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besien, T. J.; Williams, R. J.; Johnson, A. C.

    2000-04-01

    A batch sorption study, a microcosm degradation study, and two separate column leaching studies were used to investigate the transport and fate of isoproturon in unsaturated chalk. The column leaching studies used undisturbed core material obtained from the field by dry percussion drilling. Each column leaching study used 25 cm long, 10 cm wide unsaturated chalk cores through which a pulse of isoproturon and bromide was eluted. The cores were set-up to simulate conditions in the unsaturated zone of the UK Chalk aquifer by applying a suction of 1 kPa (0.1 m H 2O) to the base of each column, and eluting at a rate corresponding to an average recharge rate through the unsaturated Chalk. A dye tracer indicated that the flow was through the matrix under these conditions. The results from the first column study showed high recovery rates for both isoproturon (73-92%) and bromide (93-96%), and that isoproturon was retarded by a factor of about 1.23 relative to bromide. In the second column study, two of the four columns were eluted with non-sterile groundwater in place of the sterile groundwater used on all other columns, and this study showed high recovery rates for bromide (85-92%) and lower recovery rates for isoproturon (66-79% — sterile groundwater, 48-61% — non-sterile groundwater). The enhanced degradation in the columns eluted with non-sterile groundwater indicated that groundwater microorganisms had increased the degradation rate within these columns. Overall, the reduced isoproturon recovery in the second column study was attributed to increased microbial degradation as a result of the longer study duration (162 vs. 105 days). The breakthrough curves (BTCs) for bromide had a characteristic convection-dispersion shape and were accurately simulated with the minimum of calibration using a simple convection-dispersion model (LEACHP). However, the isoproturon BTCs had an unusual shape and could not be accurately simulated.

  12. The CNEN, Flamanville 3 and the English project of Hinkley Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The CNEN is the National Centre of Nuclear Equipment. It's an engineering unit of EDF. After a brief presentation of this department which is one of the six engineering departments of EDF, the CNEN manager presents the Flamanville EPR, its design characteristics and objectives (notably in terms of safety and availability). He comments the status of the construction, gives some explanations to the difficulties faced during this construction. He outlines the greater importance given to safety with respect to reactors of previous generations. Then, he addresses the British Hinkley Point project, its context, the requirements expressed by the British nuclear safety authority. As studies must be performed in the host country, the British nuclear engineering organisation is indicated. The content of the contract between EDF and the British is summarized

  13. Lessons Learned about Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure from The EV Project and ChargePoint America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes key findings in two national plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstrations: The EV Project and ChargePoint America. It will be published to the INL/AVTA website for the general public.

  14. Low field NMR surface relaxivity studies of chalk and argillaceous sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Fordsmand, Henrik; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    the accuracy of predictions of petrophysical properties of various rocks with the use of NMR spectrometry. We perform laboratory transverse relaxation (T2) measurements on water saturated Gorm field chalk, Stevns Klint chalk, Solsort field greensand and Berea sandstone. These rocks are of particular interest...... field chalk and Solsort field greensand have higher ρ at higher Larmor frequency. By contrast, ρ of the purely calcitic Stevns chalk and quartzitic Berea sandstone proved not to be affected by the changes in frequency. T2 distributions at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 60 °C provided comparison...

  15. Point Lepreau refurbishment project programmable digital comparator (PDC) replacement for SDS1 and SDS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyen, N.M.; Chan, D.; Thompson, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    NB Power is tentatively planning to conduct an 18-month maintenance outage of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) starting in April 2007. The scope of the outage was determined from the outcome of a two year study (Phase 1) involving a detailed condition assessment of the station which examined issues relating to ageing and obsolescence, along with a detailed review of Safety and Licensing issues associated with extended operation. In order to minimize schedule and regulatory risk for the Refurbishment project, pre-project work was initiated in early 2002. This program is called Phase 2 ESA (Early Start Activities). As part of the Phase 1 assessments it was concluded that replacement of the PDCs (Programmable Digital Comparators) for both shutdown systems was required in order to ensure operation of the plant for a further 25-30 years. Critical tasks were identified related to PDC replacement as part of the Phase 2 ESA program. This paper describes the activities that have taken place in the Phase 2 ESA program as well as the plan for future work for the PDC replacement for SDS 1 (Shutdown System Number One) and SDS2 (Shutdown System Number Two). (author)

  16. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)377840; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia Maria; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 period (LS1), that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) Project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 virtual machines (VMs) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 22000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 Project; operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities. The design aspects a...

  17. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS simulation in Point1 project.

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC long shutdown period (LS1), that started in 2013, the simulation in Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage in an opportunistic way of the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) farm of the ATLAS experiment. The farm provides more than 1500 computer nodes, and they are particularly suitable for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2500 virtual machines (VM) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 20000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a thorough review of the design, the results and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project operating a large scale Openstack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive GRID sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities within the ATLAS collaboration. The particular design ...

  18. Strong convergence with a modified iterative projection method for hierarchical fixed point problems and variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Karahan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let {T_{n}}:C›H be a sequence of nearly nonexpansive mappings such that F:=?_{i=1}^{?}F(T_{i}?Ø. Let V:C›H be a ?-Lipschitzian mapping and F:C›H be a L-Lipschitzian and ?-strongly monotone operator. This paper deals with a modified iterative projection method for approximating a solution of the hierarchical fixed point problem. It is shown that under certain approximate assumptions on the operators and parameters, the modified iterative sequence {x_{n}} converges strongly to x^{*}?F which is also the unique solution of the following variational inequality: ?0, ?x?F. As a special case, this projection method can be used to find the minimum norm solution of above variational inequality; namely, the unique solution x^{*} to the quadratic minimization problem: x^{*}=argmin_{x?F}?x?². The results here improve and extend some recent corresponding results of other authors.

  19. Importance of point-by-point back projection correction for isocentric motion in digital breast tomosynthesis: Relevance to morphology of structures such as microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Lo, Joseph Y.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2007-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique that provides an arbitrary set of reconstruction planes in the breast from a limited-angle series of projection images acquired while the x-ray tube moves. Traditional shift-and-add (SAA) tomosynthesis reconstruction is a common mathematical method to line up each projection image based on its shifting amount to generate reconstruction slices. With parallel-path geometry of tube motion, the path of the tube lies in a plane parallel to the plane of the detector. The traditional SAA algorithm gives shift amounts for each projection image calculated only along the direction of x-ray tube movement. However, with the partial isocentric motion of the x-ray tube in breast tomosynthesis, small objects such as microcalcifications appear blurred (for instance, about 1-4 pixels in blur for a microcalcification in a human breast) in traditional SAA images in the direction perpendicular to the direction of tube motion. Some digital breast tomosynthesis algorithms reported in the literature utilize a traditional one-dimensional SAA method that is not wholly suitable for isocentric motion. In this paper, a point-by-point back projection (BP) method is described and compared with traditional SAA for the important clinical task of evaluating morphology of small objects such as microcalcifications. Impulse responses at different three-dimensional locations with five different combinations of imaging acquisition parameters were investigated. Reconstruction images of microcalcifications in a human subject were also evaluated. Results showed that with traditional SAA and 45 deg. view angle of tube movement with respect to the detector, at the same height above the detector, the in-plane blur artifacts were obvious for objects farther away from x-ray source. In a human subject, the appearance of calcifications was blurred in the direction orthogonal to the tube motion with traditional SAA. With point-by-point BP, the

  20. Regional hardening of Upper Cretaceous Chalk in eastern England, UK: trace element and stable isotope patterns in the Upper Cenomanian and Turonian Chalk and their significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Christopher V.; Long, Dee; Hu, Xiu-Fang; Mortimore, Rory N.

    2014-12-01

    The regional hardening of the Late Cenomanian to Early Turonian Chalk of the Northern Province of eastern England has been investigated by examining the pattern of trace elements and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the bulk calcite of two extensive and stratigraphically adjacent units each 4 to 5 m thick of hard chalk in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. These units are separated by a sequence, 0.3-1.3 m thick, of variegated marls and clayey marls. Modelling of the geochemistry of the hard chalk by comparison with the Standard Louth Chalk, combined with associated petrographic and geological evidence, indicates that (1) the hardening is due to the precipitation of a calcite cement, and (2) the regional and stratigraphical patterns of geochemical variation in the cement are largely independent of each other and have been maintained by the impermeable nature of the thin sequence of the clay-rich marls that separate them. Two phases of calcite cementation are recognised. The first phase was microbially influenced and did not lithify the chalk. It took place predominantly in oxic and suboxic conditions under considerable overpressure in which the Chalk pore fluids circulated within the units, driven by variations in compaction, temperature, pore fluid pressure and local tectonics. There is evidence in central and southern Lincolnshire of the loss of Sr and Mgenriched pore fluids to the south during an early part of this phase. The second phase of calcite precipitation was associated with the loss of overpressure in probably Late Cretaceous and in Cenozoic times as the result of fault movement in the basement penetrating the overlying Chalk and damaging the seal between the two chalk units. This greatly enhanced grain pressures, resulting in grain welding and pressure dissolution, causing lithification with the development of stylolites, marl seams, and brittle fractures. Associated with this loss of overpressure was the penetration of the chalk units by allochthonous

  1. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Brasolin, F.; Contescu, C.; Fazio, D.; Di Girolamo, A.; Lee, C. J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Sedov, A.; Twomey, M. S.; Wang, F.; Zaytsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LSI) period, that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High-Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 Virtual Machines (VMs) each with 8 CPU cores, for a total of up to 22000 parallel jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project, operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 33 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.1 billion Monte Carlo events. The design aspects are presented: the virtualization platform exploited by Sim@P1 avoids interferences with TDAQ operations and it guarantees the security and the usability of the ATLAS private network. The cloud mechanism allows the separation of the needed support on both infrastructural (hardware, virtualization layer) and logical (Grid site support) levels. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of such a large system during the upcoming LHC Run 2 period: simple, reliable, and efficient tools are needed to quickly switch from Sim@P1 to TDAQ mode and back, to exploit the resources when they are not used for the data acquisition, even for short periods. The evolution of the central OpenStack infrastructure is described, as it was upgraded from Folsom to the Icehouse release, including the scalability issues addressed.

  2. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy of suspended graphene, the ultimate 'microscope slide'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutus, J Y; Livadaru, L; Urban, R; Salomons, M H; Cloutier, M; Wolkow, R A; Robinson, J T

    2011-01-01

    Point projection microscopy (PPM) is used to image suspended graphene by using low-energy electrons (100-205 eV). Because of the low energies used, the graphene is neither damaged nor contaminated by the electron beam for doses of the order of 10 7 electrons per nm 2 . The transparency of graphene is measured to be 74%, equivalent to electron transmission through a sheet twice as thick as the covalent radius of sp 2 -bonded carbon. Also observed is rippling in the structure of the suspended graphene, with a wavelength of approximately 26 nm. The interference of the electron beam due to diffraction off the edge of a graphene knife edge is observed and is used to calculate a virtual source size of 4.7±0.6 A for the electron emitter. It is demonstrated that graphene can serve as both the anode and the substrate in PPM, thereby avoiding distortions due to strong field gradients around nanoscale objects. Graphene can be used to image objects suspended on the sheet using PPM and, in the future, electron holography.

  3. Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formatio...

  4. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    -particle connections and less altered particle shapes. The non-carbonate mineralogy of outcrop chalks is dominated by quartz, occasionally opal-CT and clinoptilolite, and the clay mineral smectite. In offshore chalks quartz still dominates, opal-CT has recrystallized into submicron-size quartz crystals and smectite...

  5. Dual hydraulic behaviour of the Chalk in the Netherlands North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Information on the sedimentary development, seismic stratigraphy and burial compaction of the Chalk Group in the Netherlands North Sea was combined with pressure data and basin modelling to investigate the hydraulic behaviour of the Chalk Group in the Central Graben and Schill Grund High. The

  6. Impact of supercritical CO2 injection on petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk: an experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chalk due to EOR by injecting supercritical CO2 (CO2-EOR) can ideally be predicted by applying geophysical methods designed from laboratory-determined petrophysical and rock mechanics properties. A series of petrophysical and rock mechanics tests were performed on Ekofisk Formation...... and Tor Formation chalk of the South Arne field to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk due to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. An increase in porosity and decrease in specific surface was observed due to injection of supercritical CO2. This indicates...... as indicated by NMR T2 relaxation time was observed. Rock mechanics testing indicates that in 30% porosity chalk from the South Arne field, injection of supercritical CO2 has no significant effect on shear strength and compaction properties, while there is probably a slight decrease in stiffness properties...

  7. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Skovbjerg, Lone Lindbæk; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    been drilled in a water-bearing formation. At this site, the chalk has never seen oil, though at other locations, the same stratigraphic horizon with the same rock properties is known to be a productive oil reservoir. Thus the properties of the investigated particle surfaces are inherent to the chalk......Ultimate Oil recovery from chalk reservoirs is limited by many factors - including the grain size and the surface properties of the small mainly biogenic calcite particles that chalk is made off . Wettability, the tendency for water or oil to spread over a surface, of the particle surfaces is one...... of the controlling factors for the effectiveness of water flooding, one of the most common methods to improve oil recovery in Chalk reservoirs. Understanding surface wetting and its variability at scales smaller than the pore dimension will potentially provide clues for more effective oil production methods. We used...

  8. Uranium traps in the phosphate bearing sudr chalk, in northeastern sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.A.; El-Aassy, I.E.; Mahdy, M.A.; Dabbour, G.A.; Mansour, M.Gh.; Morsy, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The maastrichtian sudr formation in northeastern sinai is composed of three members, the lower chalk, the middle phosphate and chart-bearing and the upper chalk members. Lemon yellow secondary uranium mineralization, distributed in the lower chalk member and in some phosphate beds from the middle phosphate member are observed. The XRD analyses of some samples from the uranium bearing chalk and the phosphate beds showed the presence of the secondary uranium minerals carnotite, bergenite and upalite. The mode of uranium occurrences could be interpreted as a result of the phosphatic beds decomposition and their subjection to later diagenetic processes. Uranium leaching circulation from phosphate rocks led to the liberation of uranium from the phosphates, and vanadium from the bituminous material and clay minerals. These migrated and were deposited locally and within the underlying chalk beds which acted as a lithologic trap

  9. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Chalk effect on PVC cross-linking under irradiation; Vliyanie mela na sshivanie PVKh pri obluchenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudinova, V V; Guzeev, V V; Mozzhukhin, V B; Pomerantseva, Eh G; Nozrina, F D; Zhil` tsov, V V; Zubov, V P

    1994-12-31

    Effect of nonmodified and modified chalk on curing degree of polymer matrix was studied under-irradiation of PVC-compositions. Films of the compositions (100 mass part 7 PVC, 0-100 mas.part of chalk, 2.5 - lead sulfate, 1.5 - lead stearate and 0.3 - glycerin) were irradiated up to absorbed dose 0.1 MGy in an inert medium. Content of gel-fraction after boiling in THF was determined with use of IR spectroscopy. It was established, that intensive dehydrochlorination and polymer curing took place on chalk particle surface. Network fixed strongly chalk particles. However, chalk inhibited processes of dehydrochlorination and PVC curing, increasing amount of noncured PVC in polymer matrix.

  11. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach

    2017-04-01

    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  12. Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.

  13. Geochemical criteria for reservoir quality variations in chalk from the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Soerensen, P.

    1989-12-01

    The influence of chalk geochemistry on petrophysical parameters determining porosity and permeability is investigated. The central well TWB-8 and eastern marginal well E-lx of the North Sea Tyra gas field were chosen. Drill core sections of Upper Maastrichtian and Danian chalk were selected. Chemical data on chalk samples were gathered by using X-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation. Geochemical data are compared with the well-logging results. Geophysical logging suggests that there is reduced porosity in the Danian reservoir units LDP and UDT in both wells. The chalk drill core samples from the section with reduced porosity also show a lower Ca content. A high Si content is observed in these samples and a number of trace elements in chalk show a similar distribution with depth. Reservoir porosity may be estimated from the Si content of chalk. Chalk permeability may also be elements Al, Fe and Sc show the same trends as that for Si. Diagenetic changes in chalk also include clay minerals. The gas zone in TWB-8 is characterized by low contents of Na and Cl, i.e. lower water saturation is indicated. Low concentrations of rare earths in all chalk samples show a shale-normalized pattern that is characteristic of marine sediments laid down under oxic conditions. Some changes that occur with depth in the Ce anomaly may indicate a slight change in the depositional environment. The content of manganese continuously decreases with depth, from Danian (about 2000 ppm) to Maastrichtian strata (less than 200 ppm). In this respect, no other chemical element in chalk correlates with Mn. There is no indication as to which mineral or mineral phase one is likely to find in the element. (AB) 14 tabs., 49 ills., 147 refs

  14. Cancer and workers' compensation at Chalk River nuclear laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the circumstances leading to the notification to the Worker's Compensation Board of Ontario of two cases of cancer, both involving the lymphatic and haematoporetic systems, in employees at Chalk River Nulcear Laboratories. Twenty of these neoplasms are known to have occurred in the CRNL population between 1966 and 1983. The leukemia/lymphoma ratio observed in the twenty neoplasms is similar to that found in populations not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The possible relationship between asbestos exposure and lymphoid neoplasms was discussed. 5 refs

  15. The dynamic analysis facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.S.; Howatt, W.T.

    1979-10-01

    The Dynamic Analysis Facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) comprises a Hybrid Computer, consisting of two Applied Dynamic International AD/FIVE analog computers and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/55 digital computer, and a Program Development System based on a DEC PDP-11/45 digital computer. This report describes the functions of the various hardware components of the Dynamic Analysis Facility and the interactions between them. A brief description of the software available to the user is also given. (auth)

  16. Mortality among long-term Chalk River employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.M.; Myers, D.K.

    1986-12-01

    Mortality among Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory (CRNL) employees who died during employment or after retirement has been updated to 1985 December 31. Data in tabular form are presented for overall mortality for male and female employees, for the participants in the clean-up for the NRX and NRU reactor accidents and for a group of CRNL staff with lifetime accumulative doses in excess of 0.2 Sv. Data are also presented on the different types of cancer causing death among male employees. No statistically significant increases in cancer deaths were found in any of the groups analyzed. 25 refs

  17. Fluid substitution studies for North Sea chalk logging data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Mavko, G.; Mukerji, T.

    2002-01-01

    We have tested the application of respectively the Kuster-Toksöz and the Gassmann theory as a tool for predicting pore fluid from the elastic properties of brine-saturated North Sea reservoir chalk. We confirm that the Kuster-Toksöz model predicts a larger fluid effect thant the Gassmann model......, and show that the Kuster-Toksöz model fails to predict the presence of hydrocarbons. The Gassmann prediction for the near and potentially invaded zone corresponds more closely to logging data, than the Gassmann prediction for the far, virgin zone. We hereby conclude that the Gassmann theory predicts...

  18. Field studies of radionuclide transport at the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors summarize the results of: in situ field column experiments to study the transport behaviour of several long-lived radionuclides, 4 natural gradient non-reactive radiotracer injection experiments at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) Twin Lake Tracer Test Site, and a model validation study that used data for 90 Sr from two well-defined contaminated groundwater flow systems at CRL. The paper also describes a current re-evaluation of radionuclide release and transport from a 1960 experimental burial (in a CRL sand aquifer) of glass blocks containing fission and activation products. (J.P.N.)

  19. Femtosecond few- to single-electron point-projection microscopy for nanoscale dynamic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bainbridge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond electron microscopy produces real-space images of matter in a series of ultrafast snapshots. Pulses of electrons self-disperse under space-charge broadening, so without compression, the ideal operation mode is a single electron per pulse. Here, we demonstrate femtosecond single-electron point projection microscopy (fs-ePPM in a laser-pump fs-e-probe configuration. The electrons have an energy of only 150 eV and take tens of picoseconds to propagate to the object under study. Nonetheless, we achieve a temporal resolution with a standard deviation of 114 fs (equivalent to a full-width at half-maximum of 269 ± 40 fs combined with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, applied to a localized region of charge at the apex of a nanoscale metal tip induced by 30 fs 800 nm laser pulses at 50 kHz. These observations demonstrate real-space imaging of reversible processes, such as tracking charge distributions, is feasible whilst maintaining femtosecond resolution. Our findings could find application as a characterization method, which, depending on geometry, could resolve tens of femtoseconds and tens of nanometres. Dynamically imaging electric and magnetic fields and charge distributions on sub-micron length scales opens new avenues of ultrafast dynamics. Furthermore, through the use of active compression, such pulses are an ideal seed for few-femtosecond to attosecond imaging applications which will access sub-optical cycle processes in nanoplasmonics.

  20. Point-of-Care Child Psychiatry Expertise: The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Le, Thuy-Tien; Perrin, James M

    2015-05-01

    Since 2005, after a pilot program, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP) has provided point-of-care psychiatry expertise and referral assistance by telephone to primary care providers. We examined its adoption and use and the practice characteristics associated with different adoption timelines and use patterns. We merged data on calls to MCPAP in 2005 to 2011 with practice data (enrollment year, panel size, regional team assignment). We categorized practices' days from enrollment to first call (adoption) (0-100, 101-365, > 365 days) and quartile of call frequency (use) (annual highest, middle, and lowest quartiles of number of calls per 1000 empanelled patients). We determined associations between adoption and use and practice characteristics using multivariate models. Among 285 practices, adoption and use varied: 55% called 0 to 100 days from enrollment and 16% called >365 days from enrollment. Practices in the highest quartile of use made a mean 15.5 calls/year per 1000 patients, whereas the lowest quartile made 0.4 calls/year per 1000 patients. Adoption within 100 days was associated with enrollment during or after 2007 (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-7.49) and assignment to the team at the pilot site (OR 4.42, 95% CI 2.16-9.04 for central Massachusetts). Highest-quartile use was associated with team assignment (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.86-6.87 for central Massachusetts) and panel size (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.31 for ≥ 10,000 vs < 2000 patients). Adoption and use of MCPAP varied widely. Timing of enrollment, assignment to the team from the program's pilot site, and panel size were associated with patterns of adoption and use. Findings may help other programs design effective implementation strategies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Assessment of methods for computing the closest point projection, penetration, and gap functions in contact searching problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopačka, Ján; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří; Ulbin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 11 (2016), s. 803-833 ISSN 0029-5981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10114 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : closest point projection * local contact search * quadratic elements * Newtons methods * geometric iteration methods * simplex method Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nme.4994/abstract

  2. Process-based modelling to evaluate simulated groundwater levels and frequencies in a Chalk catchment in south-western England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Simon; Coxon, Gemma; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Freer, Jim; Hartmann, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Chalk aquifers are an important source of drinking water in the UK. Due to their properties, they are particularly vulnerable to groundwater-related hazards like floods and droughts. Understanding and predicting groundwater levels is therefore important for effective and safe water management. Chalk is known for its high porosity and, due to its dissolvability, exposed to karstification and strong subsurface heterogeneity. To cope with the karstic heterogeneity and limited data availability, specialised modelling approaches are required that balance model complexity and data availability. In this study, we present a novel approach to evaluate simulated groundwater level frequencies derived from a semi-distributed karst model that represents subsurface heterogeneity by distribution functions. Simulated groundwater storages are transferred into groundwater levels using evidence from different observations wells. Using a percentile approach we can assess the number of days exceeding or falling below selected groundwater level percentiles. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of the model when simulating groundwater level time series using a spilt sample test and parameter identifiability analysis. Secondly, we apply a split sample test to the simulated groundwater level percentiles to explore the performance in predicting groundwater level exceedances. We show that the model provides robust simulations of discharge and groundwater levels at three observation wells at a test site in a chalk-dominated catchment in south-western England. The second split sample test also indicates that the percentile approach is able to reliably predict groundwater level exceedances across all considered timescales up to their 75th percentile. However, when looking at the 90th percentile, it only provides acceptable predictions for long time periods and it fails when the 95th percentile of groundwater exceedance levels is considered. By modifying the historic forcings of our model

  3. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show th...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval.......Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...... that porosity and sonic velocity follow the most consistent depth trends when fluid pressure and pore-volume compressibility are considered. Quartz content up to 10% has no marked effect, but more than 5% clay causes lower porosity and velocity. The mineralogical effect differs between P-wave and shear velocity...

  4. Event-based stochastic point rainfall resampling for statistical replication and climate projection of historical rainfall series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Korup Andersen, Aske; Larsen, Anders Badsberg

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and long rainfall series are a necessity in rural and urban hydrology for analysis and design purposes. Local historical point rainfall series often cover several decades, which makes it possible to estimate rainfall means at different timescales, and to assess return periods of extreme...... includes climate changes projected to a specific future period. This paper presents a framework for resampling of historical point rainfall series in order to generate synthetic rainfall series, which has the same statistical properties as an original series. Using a number of key target predictions...... for the future climate, such as winter and summer precipitation, and representation of extreme events, the resampled historical series are projected to represent rainfall properties in a future climate. Climate-projected rainfall series are simulated by brute force randomization of model parameters, which leads...

  5. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars

    processes operating in the chalk sediments at widely different scales into a single diagenetic model: At Stevns the chalk is affected by an extensive polygonal fault system which is expressed in onshore and offshore seismic profiles. Smaller scale contractional features like deformation bands (hairline...... strongly affect reservoir properties of the chalk both by establishing compartments and vertical connections. A better understanding of these reservoir modifications will be critical for improving the predictive capability of models describing the behaviour of drinking water and hydrocarbons hosted...

  6. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  7. Status of the Chalk River superconducting heavy-ion cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, J.H.; Bigham, C.B.; Heighway, E.A.; Hoffmann, C.R.; Hulbert, J.A.; Schneider, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Chalk River four-sector K=520 superconducting cyclotron is designed to accelerate all ions from lithium (to 50 MeV/u) to uranium (to 10 MeV/u) using a 13 MV tandem Van de Graaff as injector. After an extended shutdown the magnet has been reassembled and field measurements resumed. During the shutdown a ground fault between the superconducting coil and its container was removed, the flutter poles were shimmed and the remaining trim rod holes were bored in them, the 104 trim rods with their holders were installed and the cryostat inner wall was modified to accept the radiofrequency accelerating structure. Experiments on the radiofrequency accelerating system, cryopumps, electrostatic deflector and superconducting windings for the magnetic channel are done in separate test chambers. Recent results and the status of all subsystems are given

  8. Stylolites, porosity, depositional texture, and silicates in chalk facies sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Borre, Mai K.

    2007-01-01

    dissolution around 490 m below sea floor (bsf) corresponds to an interval of waning porosity-decline, and even the occurrence of proper stylolites from 830 m bsf is accompanied by only minor porosity reduction. Because opal is present, the pore-water is relatively rich in Si which through the formation of Ca......-silica complexes causes an apparent super-saturation of Ca and retards cementation. The onset of massive pore-filling cementation at 1100 m bsf may be controlled by the temperature-dependent transition from opal-CT to quartz. In the stylolite-bearing chalk of two wells in the Gorm and Tyra fields, the nannofossil...... matrix shows recrystallization but only minor pore-filling cement, whereas microfossils are cemented. Cementation in Gorm and Tyra is thus partial and has apparently not been retarded by opal-controlled pore-water. A possible explanation is that, due to the relatively high temperature, silica has...

  9. Trial coring in LLRW trenches at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, R.E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Franklin, K.J.; Strobel, G.S.

    1996-11-01

    As part of a program to better characterize the low-hazard radioactive waste managed by AECL at Chalk River Laboratories, coring techniques in waste trenches are being assessed. Trial coring has demonstrated that sampling in waste regions is possible, and that boreholes can be placed through the waste trenches. Such coring provides a valuable information-gathering technique. Information available from trench coring includes: trench cover depth, waste region depth, waste compaction level, and detailed stratigraphic data; soil moisture content and facility drainage performance; borehole gamma logs that indicate radiation levels in the region of the borehole; biochemical conditions in the waste regions, vadose zone, and groundwater; site specific information relevant to contaminant migration modelling or remedial actions; information on contaminant releases and inventories. Boreholes through the trenches can also provide a means for early detection of potential contaminant releases. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Radiocarbon dating with the Chalk River MP Tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, G.C.; Andrews, H.R.; Brown, R.M.; Burn, N.; Davies, W.G.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J.C.D.

    1981-01-01

    During the past three years an automated radiocarbon dating system based on the MP Tandem accelerator has been developed for the analysis of 14 C in groundwater samples from the nuclear waste disposal research program and other small samples of scientific interest. At the present time 14 C/ 12 C ratio measurements can be determined with an accuracy of about 5% and the system background levels (approx. 35000 to 45000 years) are totally determined by sample and/or ion source contamination. Our goal has been to develop a dedicated reliable system for routine analysis that will produce accurate results with a minimum expenditure of human resources and accelerator beam time. Improvements required to operate the tandem accelerator as a quantitative tool have also benefited the rest of the experimental nuclear physics program. The early evolution of the dating facility was described previously. This paper is a brief report of the current status at Chalk River

  11. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  12. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  13. THE STUDY OF DYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF THE ABSCISSA AND ORDINATE OF THE POINT AT THE FAR MERIDIAN SIX DEGREE ZONE IN THE PROJECTION GAUSS-KRUGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Mamedbekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the dynamics of the abscissa and ordinate points in the far zone meridian six degree conformal Gauss-Kruger projection. Performed calculations and graphical representation of the classic formulas of conformal projection

  14. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  15. Thermal Power Systems, Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project. Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 1978. Volume II. Detailed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-15

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. This Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change it to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs. Accomplishments on point-focusing technology in FY 1978 are detailed.

  16. Imaging the Danish Chalk Group with high resolution, 3-component seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, J.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Nielsen, L.; Malehmir, A.; Stemmerik, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Chalk Group in the Danish Basin forms important reservoirs to hydrocarbons as well as water resources, and it has been subject to several seismic studies to determine e.g. structural elements, deposition and burial history. This study focuses on the high quality seismic response of a survey acquired with an accelerated 45 kg weight drop and 3-component MEMS-based sensors and additional wireless vertical-type sensors. The 500 m long profile was acquired during one day close to a chalk quarry and chalk cliffs of the Stevns peninsula in eastern Denmark where the well-known K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary and different chalk lithologies are well-exposed. With this simple and fast procedure we were able to achieve deep P-wave penetration to the base of the Chalk Group at about 900 m depth. Additionally, the CMP-processed seismic image of the vertical component stands out by its high resolution. Sedimentary features are imaged in the near-surface Danian, as well as in the deeper Maastrichtian and Upper Campanian parts of the Chalk Group. Integration with borehole data suggests that changes in composition, in particular clay content, correlate with changes in reflectivity of the seismic data set. While the pure chalk in the Maastrichtian deposits shows rather low reflectivity, succession enriched in clay appear to be more reflective. The integration of the mentioned methods gives the opportunity to connect changes in facies to the elastic response of the Chalk Group in its natural environmental conditions.

  17. Grade Point Average: Report of the GPA Pilot Project 2013-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Academy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report is published as the result of a range of investigations and debates involving many universities and colleges and a series of meetings, presentations, discussions and consultations. Interest in a grade point average (GPA) system was originally initiated by a group of interested universities, progressing to the systematic investigation…

  18. The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.

  19. Reactive transport modelling of groundwater chemistry in a chalk aquifer at the watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeret, A; De Windt, L; Crançon, P

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates thermodynamics and kinetics of water-rock interactions in a carbonate aquifer at the watershed scale. A reactive transport model is applied to the unconfined chalk aquifer of the Champagne Mounts (France), by considering both the chalk matrix and the interconnected fracture network. Major element concentrations and main chemical parameters calculated in groundwater and their evolution along flow lines are in fair agreement with field data. A relative homogeneity of the aquifer baseline chemistry is rapidly reached in terms of pH, alkalinity and Ca concentration since calcite equilibrium is achieved over the first metres of the vadose zone. However, incongruent chalk dissolution slowly releases Ba, Mg and Sr in groundwater. Introducing dilution effect by rainwater infiltration and a local occurrence of dolomite improves the agreement between modelling and field data. The dissolution of illite and opal-CT, controlling K and SiO(2) concentrations in the model, can be approximately tackled by classical kinetic rate laws, but not the incongruent chalk dissolution. An apparent kinetic rate has therefore been fitted on field data by inverse modelling: 1.5×10(-5) mol(chalk)L (-1) water year (-1). Sensitivity analysis indicates that the CO(2) partial pressure of the unsaturated zone is a critical parameter for modelling the baseline chemistry over the whole chalk aquifer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n = 16), pesticides (n = 14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n = 12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings. - Highlights: • Broad range of microorganics detected in Chalk groundwater in England and France. • Plasticisers, pesticides, BPA and THM detected at the highest concentrations. • Pesticides higher in outcrop Chalk, caffeine and BPA at concealed sites. • Occurrences show some relationship to land use, borehole depth and water level. - Broad screening reveals for the first time the extent of emerging microorganic pollution in Chalk groundwater sources across England and France

  1. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  2. Teaching Molecular Symmetry of Dihedral Point Groups by Drawing Useful 2D Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Sun, Hongwei; Lai, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    There are two main difficulties in studying molecular symmetry of dihedral point groups. One is locating the C[subscript 2] axes perpendicular to the C[subscript n] axis, while the other is finding the s[subscript]d planes which pass through the C[subscript n] axis and bisect the angles formed by adjacent C[subscript 2] axes. In this paper, a…

  3. Biot Critical Frequency Applied to Description of Failure and Yield of Highly Porous Chalk with Different Pore Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has led to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. In case of water-saturated samples, the concentration...... is controlled by solid-fluid friction. The reference frequency is thus a measure of this friction, and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of chalk may be the result of liquid-solid friction. We reviewed 622 published experiments on mechanical properties of porous chalk. The data include...... chalk samples that were tested at temperatures from 20 °C to 130 °C with the following pore fluids: fresh water, synthetic seawater, glycol, and oil of varying viscosity. The critical frequency is calculated for each experiment. For each specimen, we calculate the thickness to the slipping plane outside...

  4. Structural and Lithological Controls upon Fluid Migration within the Chalk and Upper Greensand Aquifers in the Chilterns and Lambourn Downs

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    The influence of lithological heterogeneities, structural discontinuities and discontinuity surface mineralisation upon groundwater migration within the Chalk and the Upper Greensand of southern England has been investigated. Lithological heterogeneities in the Chalk succession include marl seams, hardgrounds, tabular flints and nodular flints. Each of these heterogeneities has a lower intrinsic porosity and permeability than in the calcite rich chalk. The influence that each of these ...

  5. Development of an Integrated Waste Plan for Chalk River Laboratories - 13376

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.

    2013-01-01

    To further its Strategic Planning, the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) required an effective approach to developing a fully integrated waste plan for its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Production of the first Integrated Waste Plan (IWP) for Chalk River was a substantial task involving representatives from each of the major internal stakeholders. Since then, a second revision has been produced and a third is underway. The IWP remains an Interim IWP until all gaps have been resolved and all pathways are at an acceptable level of detail. Full completion will involve a number of iterations, typically annually for up to six years. The end result of completing this process is a comprehensive document and supporting information that includes: - An Integrated Waste Plan document summarizing the entire waste management picture in one place; - Details of all the wastes required to be managed, including volume and timings by waste stream; - Detailed waste stream pathway maps for the whole life-cycle for each waste stream to be managed from pre-generation planning through to final disposition; and - Critical decision points, i.e. decisions that need to be made and timings by when they need to be made. A waste inventory has been constructed that serves as the master reference inventory of all waste that has been or is committed to be managed at CRL. In the past, only the waste that is in storage has been effectively captured, and future predictions of wastes requiring to be managed were not available in one place. The IWP has also provided a detailed baseline plan at the current level of refinement. Waste flow maps for all identified waste streams, for the full waste life cycle complete to disposition have been constructed. The maps identify areas requiring further development, and show the complexities and inter-relationships between waste streams. Knowledge of these inter-dependencies is necessary in order to perform effective options studies for enabling

  6. Edibility of sport fishes in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.R.; Chaput, T.; Miller, A.; Wills, C.A., E-mail: leed@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    To address the question of edibility of fish in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), 123 game fish were collected for analysis from four locations: Mackey and Rolphton (45 km and 35 km upstream of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), respectively), the Sandspit (Pointe au Bapteme) and Cotnam Island (1.6 km and 45 km downstream of CRL, respectively). Twenty-six to thirty-six game fish were collected at each location in 2007 and samples of flesh or bone were analyzed. Trap nets were used to collect only the fish required, allowing release of management-sensitive species. The focus was on walleye (Sander vitreus) because they are abundant and popular among anglers. A few northern pike (Esox lucius) and a smaller number of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) were also collected at three of the four sites. Samples of the fish were analyzed for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), mercury (Hg), and selected organo-chlorine compounds. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the flesh and {sup 90}Sr in the bones of sport fish were low and similar at all four locations and appear to reflect the global residuals from nuclear weapons testing (primarily in the 1960's) as opposed to releases from CRL. Possible explanations are: 1) Reductions in radionuclide releases from CRL in recent decades and 2) Relatively large foraging ranges of sport fish. Mercury concentrations were elevated in fishes in the Ottawa River and were significantly higher at the Sandspit and Rolphton than at Mackey and Cotnam Island (p<0.001). Mercury concentrations from the four sites are comparable to concentrations in other Ontario and Quebec lakes. It is advisable therefore, that consumers follow the fish consumption guidelines issued by provincial authorities when eating fish from the Ottawa River. Organo-chlorine compounds were not detected in walleye; however, they were detected in all eight of the pike collected at Cotnam Island. The highest organo

  7. Edibility of sport fishes in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; Chaput, T.; Miller, A.; Wills, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    To address the question of edibility of fish in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), 123 game fish were collected for analysis from four locations: Mackey and Rolphton (45 km and 35 km upstream of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), respectively), the Sandspit (Pointe au Bapteme) and Cotnam Island (1.6 km and 45 km downstream of CRL, respectively). Twenty-six to thirty-six game fish were collected at each location in 2007 and samples of flesh or bone were analyzed. Trap nets were used to collect only the fish required, allowing release of management-sensitive species. The focus was on walleye (Sander vitreus) because they are abundant and popular among anglers. A few northern pike (Esox lucius) and a smaller number of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) were also collected at three of the four sites. Samples of the fish were analyzed for cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), mercury (Hg), and selected organo-chlorine compounds. Concentrations of 137 Cs in the flesh and 90 Sr in the bones of sport fish were low and similar at all four locations and appear to reflect the global residuals from nuclear weapons testing (primarily in the 1960's) as opposed to releases from CRL. Possible explanations are: 1) Reductions in radionuclide releases from CRL in recent decades and 2) Relatively large foraging ranges of sport fish. Mercury concentrations were elevated in fishes in the Ottawa River and were significantly higher at the Sandspit and Rolphton than at Mackey and Cotnam Island (p<0.001). Mercury concentrations from the four sites are comparable to concentrations in other Ontario and Quebec lakes. It is advisable therefore, that consumers follow the fish consumption guidelines issued by provincial authorities when eating fish from the Ottawa River. Organo-chlorine compounds were not detected in walleye; however, they were detected in all eight of the pike collected at Cotnam Island. The highest organo-chlorine concentrations were measured in two

  8. Buhne Point Shoreline Erosion Demonstration Project. Volume 1. Appendices A-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    discussion, ;rojected costs are based on S.C rcr hour for latrers an’ S17 per hour for supervisors. These firures arc assumed to cover on!y waces and...in Phase Two, and simple " " economies of scale for the larger planting. The average dune grass planting labor in the Phase One project was 38 to 64...attributed to economies of scale, but may be attributed to greater crew efficiency. Other planting-related activities such as orientation, tool and

  9. Environmental Assessment. Proposed Air Force Space Division Housing Project, White Point, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    render any potential impactsnegligible. 5 E. Diking, Dredging and Shoreline Structures The project would have no effect on these areas of concern; see3...San Juan Capistrano Indians of Southern California [1812-1826]") and Hugo Reid’s letters I printed in the Los Angeles Star in the 1800’s ( Heizer 1968...California5 n.d. A Brief History of Fort MacArthur. Heizer , R. F. (ed.) 1968 The Indians of Los Angeles County: Hugo Reid’s Letters of 1852

  10. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... not show or at least it is difficult to define a clear pore-stiffening contact cementation trend as the Ontong Java Plateau chalk. Mechanical compaction is the principal cause of porosity reduction (at shallow depths) in the studied Eocene chalk, at least down to about 5MPa Terzaghi׳s effective stress...

  11. An overview of the waste characterization program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; Hardy, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    In the last five years, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) placed 17,000 m 3 of wastes into storage (excluding contaminated soil and fill). Almost half of the waste was generated off-site. CRNL is now developing IRUS, an Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure, and the IST, an Improved Sand Trench, to replace storage with safe, permanent disposal. IRUS will be used to dispose of wastes with radiologically hazardous lifetimes between 150 and 500 years duration and the IST will be used for wastes with radiologically hazardous lifetimes of less than 150 years. A comprehensive Waste Characterization Program (WCP) is in place to support disposal projects. The WCP is responsible for (1) specifying the manifests for waste shipments; (2) developing and maintaining central databases for waste inventories and analytical data; and (3) developing the technologies and procedures to characterize the radiological and the physical/chemical properties of wastes. WCP work is being performed under the umbrella of a newly developed waste management quality assurance (QA) program. This paper gives an overview of the WCP with an emphasis on the requirements for determining radionuclide inventories in wastes, for implementing record-keeping systems and for maintaining a QA program for disposal operations

  12. Current oil and gas production from North American Upper Cretaceous chalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1977-01-01

    Production of oil and natural gas from North American chalks has increased significantly during the past five years, spurred by the prolific production from North Sea chalks, as well as by higher prices and improved production technology. Chalk reservoirs have been discovered in the Gulf Coast in the Austin Group, Saratoga and Annona Chalks, Ozan Formation, Selma Group, Monroe gas rock (an informal unit of Navarro age), and other Upper Cretaceous units. In the Western Interior, production has been obtained from the Cretaceous Niobrara and Greenhorn Formations. Significant, though subcommercial, discoveries of natural gas and gas condensate also have been made in the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation on the Scotian Shelf of eastern Canada. All North American chalk units share a similar depositional and diagenetic history. The chalks consist primarily of whole and fragmented coccoliths with subordinate planktonic and benthonic Foraminifera, inoceramid prisms, oysters, and other skeletal grains. Most have between 10 and 35 percent HCl-insoluble residue, predominantly clay. Deposition was principally below wave base in tens to hundreds of meters of water. The diagenetic history of a chalk is critical in determining its reservoir potential. All chalk has a stable composition (low-Mg calcite) and very high primary porosity. With subsequent burial, mechanical and chemical (solution-transfer) compaction can reduce or completely eliminate pore space. The degree of loss of primary porosity in chalk sections is normally a direct function of the maximum depth to which it has been buried. Pore-water chemistry, pore-fluid pressures, and tectonic stresses also influence rates of cementation. Oil or gas reservoirs of North American chalk fall into three main groups: 1. Areas with thin overburden and significant primary porosity retention (for example, Niobrara Formation of Kansas and eastern Colorado). 2. Areas with thicker overburden but considerable fracturing. Here primary

  13. THE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTISOLS BASED EMULSION PVC FILLED WITH CHALK GIDROFOBIZIROVANNYM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baby toys are made using the centrifugal molding plastisol based emulsion of polyvinyl chloride plasticized with dioctylphthalate. To reduce cost and decrease biotelemetry the dioctylphthalate on the surface of the product domestic toys than toys produced in China, there was a necessity of introduction of the filler is chalk from different manufacturers. By using a Brookfield vis-cometer PV-D was studied rheology of filled hydrophobized chalk PVC plastisols in storage conditions for up to 72 hours at temperatures of 14-20°C. It was found that the flow plastisols consistent with pseudo-plastic fluids. Given the flow rates of emulsion PVC plastisols filled to 35 % of the mass. hydrophobized chalk. The influence of the content of the plasticizer dioctylphthalate in a narrow interval (37,0 - 41,4 % of the mass. on the viscosity of polymer pastes and the kinetics of its changes during storage. Revealed a linear dependence of the viscosity of the filled hydrophobized chalk plastisols on the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer and during storage. Given the rate of expansion changes the viscosity of the plastisols of the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer, the rate of change in viscosity and calculation of the initial viscosity. Determined the stability of the dispersion hydrophobized chalk in a colloidal solution of PVC in dioctylphthalate during storage. We determined the variation of the content of chalk (ash with top and bottom layers plastisols height 8 cm after 24 hours storage. It is proved that the temperature of the preparation and storage of polymer pastes were determining factors in the regulation of such technological properties of PVC plastisols in the presence hydrophobized chalkas viscosity, stability of the dispersion of chalk and, consequently, the efficiency of distribution plastisols in the form of a centrifugal molding.

  14. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  15. Foil changer for the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Kilborn, R.I.; Mouris, J.E.; Proulx, D.R.; Weaver, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Capture of an injected beam in the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron requires that a carbon stripping foil be accurately placed in a dee to intercept the incoming beam. Foil radial position must be precisely adjustable and foils must be easily replaced. A foil changing apparatus has been designed, built and tested to meet these requirements. The main components are a supply magazine, a transport system, and unloading and loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the cyclotron. It holds 300 foils and can be isolated from machine vacuum for refilling. Each foil is mounted on a stainless steel frame. A stainless steel roller chain fitted with 33 copper sleeves (shrouds) carries foils, one per shroud, down a dee stem to the midplane. A 12-bit absolute optical shaft encoder senses foil position. To replace a foil a shroud is positioned at the top of the cyclotron, a foil is removed, and another is transferred from the magazine to the empty shroud. Three stepping motors and associated electronics provide mechanical drive and are interfaced with a CAMAC control system

  16. Electrostatic deflector development at the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, W.T.; Mitchel, G.R.; Almeida, J.; Schmeing, H.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector is used to extract heavy-ion beans from the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron. Deflector voltages up to 100 kV across a 7 m gap (143 kV/cm) are needed to extract the full range of beams that the cyclotron is designed to accelerate. This goal remains a challenge, but substantial progress has been made over the past year. Voltages over 90 kV have been reliably maintained over a 7.5 mm gap with a magnetic field of 3 T. Voltages of 74 kV have been used with a reduced gap of 4.75 mm (corresponding to a field greater than 150 kV/cm) to extract beams with magnetic fields up to 4.25 T. Major progress was achieved when the authors introduced a water-cooled, negative high-voltage electrode, and changed the sparking plates and the thin septum from molybdenum to stainless steel. Efforts are continuing to attain a field of at least 143 kV/cm over a gap of at least 6 mm width

  17. Foil changer for the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Kilborn, R.I.; Mouris, J.F.; Proulx, D.R.; Weaver, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Capture of an injected beam in the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron requires that a carbon stripping foil be accurately placed in a dee to intercept the incoming beam. Foil radial position must be precisely adjustable and foils must be easily replaced. A foil changing apparatus has been designed, built and tested to meet these requirements. The main components are a supply magazine, a transport system, and unloading and loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the cyclotron. It holds 300 foils and can be isolated from machine vacuum for refilling. Each foil is mounted on a stainless steel frame. A stainless steel roller chain fitted with 33 copper sleeves (shrouds) carries foils, one per shroud, down a dee stem to the midplane. A 12-bit absolute optical shaft encoder senses foil position. To replace a foil a shroud is positioned at the top of the cyclotron, a foil is removed, and another is transferred from the magazine to the empty shroud. Three stepping motors and associated electronics provide mechanical drive and are interfaced with a CAMAC control system

  18. The Chalk River helium jet and skimmer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeing, H.; Koslowsky, V.; Wightman, M.; Hardy, J.C.; MacDonald, J.A.; Faestermann, T.; Andrews, H.R.; Geiger, J.S.; Graham, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A helium jet and skimmer system intended as an interface between a target location at the Chalk River tandem accelerator and the ion source of an on-line separator presently under construction has been developed. The system consists of a target chamber, a 125 cm long capillary, and a one stage skimmer chamber. The designs of the target and skimmer chambers allow one to vary a large number of independent flow and geometrical parameters with accurate reproducibility. Experiments with the β-delayed proton emitter 25 Si (tsub(1/2)=218 ms) produced in the reaction 24 Mg( 3 He,2n) 25 Si show that under optimized conditions about 75% of the reaction products leaving the target are transported to the skimmer. Of those, more than 90% pass through the skimmer orifice, which separates off 97.5% of the transport gas, helium. By introducing an additional helium flow across the skimming orifice the amount of helium separated off the transport jet can be increased to beyond 99.85%, leaving the high throughput of recoils unaffected. (Auth.)

  19. Compaction monitoring in the Ekofisk area Chalk Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghini, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    In late Nov. 1984, the subsidence phenomenon was recognized in the Ekofisk field. To determine the magnitude and areal extent of the formation compaction, a program for measuring compaction with electric logging tools was initiated. Initial time-lapse surveys performed with cased-hole neutron tools indicated that reservoir compaction was occurring, but the accuracy of the determination of compaction rate was low. In addition to the cased-hole neutron survey, radioactive markers and a gamma ray (GR) detection tool were used to determine compaction rate in the reservoir more accurately and to determine whether compaction was occurring in the overburden. A program for implanting radioactive-marker bullets and subsequent monitoring with a four-detector GR tool was implemented. There are currently 13 wells equipped with radioactive markers in the compaction monitoring program. Compaction monitoring accuracy using the four-detector GR tool was found to depend on wellbore geometry, completion design, and radioactive-marker placement. This paper gives the results of the program to date and describes the operational procedures and analysis techniques used for compaction monitoring in the greater Ekofisk area chalk fields

  20. Benthic macrofauna variations and community structure in Cenomanian cyclic chalk-marl from Southerham Grey Pit, SE England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Gale, A. S.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Cenomanian chalk-marl couplets from England represent the 20 ka Milankovitch precession cycle. Fossil communities from both chalk and marl are identified to test if the orbital fluctuations and the associated changes in substrate lithology and climate exerted any control on the benthic macrofauna...

  1. Twelve tips for the production of digital chalk-talk videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Jasmine; Besche, Henrike; Cockrill, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Increasingly over the past decade, faculty in medical and graduate schools have received requests from digital millennial learners for concise faculty-made educational videos. At our institution, over the past couple of years alone, several hundred educational videos have been created by faculty who teach in a flipped-classroom setting of the pre-clinical medical school curriculum. Despite the appeal and potential learning benefits of digital chalk-talk videos first popularized by Khan Academy, we have observed that the conceptual and technological barriers for creating chalk-talk videos can be high for faculty. To this end, this tips article offers an easy-to-follow 12-step conceptual framework to guide at-home production of chalk-talk educational videos.

  2. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    of the temperature dependence of the oil recovery indicated that the interaction of the ions contained in brine with the rock cannot be the only determining mechanism of enhanced recovery. We observed no substitution of Ca2+ ions with Mg2+ ions at high temperatures for both rocks. Not only the injection brine......In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...

  3. Permeability, porosity, dispersion-, diffusion-, and sorption characteristics of chalk samples from Erslev, Mors, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.; Batsberg, W.; Skytte Jensen, B.; Bo, P.

    1981-08-01

    A series of chalk samples from the cretaceous formation overlying the Erslev salt dome have been studied in order to establish permeabilities, porosities, dispersion-, diffusion-, and sorption characteristics of the chalk, Predominantly the investigations have been carried out by application of a liquid chromatographic technique. The chalk was found to be porous (epsilon approximately 0.4), however, of rather low permeability (k approximately 10 -7 cm/sec). It was found that the material exhibits a retarding effect on the migration of cationic species as Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , and Eu 3+ , whereas anionic species as Cl - and TcO - 4 move with the water front. The geochemical implications are discussed. (author)

  4. Seismic geomorphology and origin of diagenetic geobodies in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of the North Sea Basin (Danish Central Graben)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, F. W. H.; van Buchem, F.S.P.; Holst, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    that the geobodies are of an open-system diagenetic origin caused by ascending basin fluids guided by faults and stratigraphic heterogeneities. Increased amounts of porosity-occluding cementation, contact cement and/or high-density/-velocity minerals caused an impedance contrast that can be mapped in seismic data...... failure, followed by local mechanical compaction of high-porous chalks, paired with 2) ascension of basinal diagenetic fluids along fault systems that locally triggered cementation of calcite and dolomite within the chalk, causing increased contact cements and/or reducing porosity. The migration pathway...... of the fluids is marked by the SCRs, which are the outlines of high-density bodies of chalk nested in highly porous chalks. This study thus provides new insights into the 3D relationship between fault systems, fluid migration and diagenesis in chalks, and has important applications for basin modeling...

  5. Potential for isoproturon, atrazine and mecoprop to be degraded within a chalk aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C.; White, Craig; Lal Bhardwaj, C.

    2000-06-01

    The potential for herbicide degradation in an unconfined chalk aquifer was examined by collecting and spiking fresh samples and incubating them in the laboratory. The microcosms were incubated at 20°C under aerobic conditions and spiked with either isoproturon, atrazine or mecoprop at a concentration of 100 μg/l. The samples were obtained from a single fieldsite within the Upper Chalk aquifer in Hampshire, UK. Groundwater samples required the presence of sterile chalk in a ratio of at least 1:13 to promote isoproturon degradation. An isoproturon degradation potential existed in the soil, and the chalk unsaturated and saturated zones. However, no degradation of isoproturon in the unsaturated zone was observed when a more appropriate simulation of in-situ moisture conditions was carried out. Apart from the soil, no potential for atrazine or mecoprop degradation could be detected in the same samples over a 200-day incubation. In a series of groundwater samples taken from different boreholes, 10-300 m apart, large differences in isoproturon degradation potential were observed. Removal rates for 100 μg/l isoproturon varied from 83-425 ng/day, but in some samples no degradation potential could be detected. The primary metabolite which could be distinguished from isoproturon degradation in chalk and groundwater was monodesmethyl-isoproturon. When a chalk groundwater sample was spiked with isoproturon at 0.9 μg/l, this was not degraded over a 300-day incubation period. Further experiments with fresh groundwater from a Triassic Sandstone site illustrated that groundwater bacteria could degrade isoproturon at the more realistic temperature of 10°C as well as at 20°C.

  6. Effluent and environmental monitoring of Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, T.; De Waele, C.; Gallagher, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Environmental Protection Program has been gathering environmental monitoring data at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for over 60 years. The comprehensive effluent and environmental monitoring program at CRL consists of more than 600 sampling locations, including the Ottawa River, with approximately 60,000 analyses performed on air and liquid effluent parameters each year. Monitoring for a variety of radiological and non-radiological parameters is regularly conducted on various media, including ambient air, foodstuff (e.g. milk, fish, garden produce, large game, and farm animals), groundwater, Ottawa River water and other surface water on and off-site. The purpose of the monitoring program is to verify that past and current radiological and non-radiological emissions derived from AECL operations and activities, such as process water effluent into the Ottawa River, are below regulatory limits and demonstrate that CRL operations do not negatively affect the quality of water on or leaving the site. In fact, ongoing program reports demonstrate that radiological emissions are well below regulatory limits and have been declining for the past five years, and that non-radiological contaminants do not negatively affect the quality of water on and off the site. Two updated Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for Effluent and Environmental monitoring have come into effect and have resulted in some changes to the AECL Program. This presentation will discuss effluent and surface water monitoring results, the observed trends, the changes triggered by the CSA standards, and a path forward for the future. (author)

  7. Wettability of Chalk and Argillaceous Sandstones Assessed from T1/T2 Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Saidian, M.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    ratio can quantify the affinity between the rock and wetting pore fluid. The affinity is a measure directly linked to wettability. In order to investigate the T2-shortening, we performed T1-T2 NMR experiments on different samples of chalk, Berea sandstone, and chloritic greensand, saturated either...... with water, oil or oil/water at irreducible water saturation. The T1/T2 ratio obtained from T1-T2 maps reflects the T2-shortening. We compare the T1/T2 ratio for the same type of rock, saturated with different fluids. The chalk shows high affinity for water, Berea sandstone has no clear preference for oil...

  8. The surface reactivity of chalk (biogenic calcite) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimenko, D. V.; Dalby, K. N.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Bovet, N.; Christensen, J. H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-03-01

    The surface properties of calcium carbonate minerals play an important role in a number of industrial and biological processes. Properties such as wettability and adsorption control liquid-solid interface behaviour and thus have a strong influence on processes such as biomineralisation, remediation of aquifers and oil recovery. We investigated how two model molecules of different polarity, namely water and ethanol, interact with reservoir and outcrop chalk samples and we compared their behaviour with that of pure, inorganically precipitated calcite. Thermodynamic quantities, such as the work of wetting, surface energy and isosteric adsorption enthalpy, were determined from vapour adsorption isotherms. The chalks were studied fresh and after extraction of organic residues that were originally present in these samples. The work of wetting correlates with the amount of organic matter present in the chalk samples but we observed a fundamental difference between the adsorption properties of chalk and pure, inorganically precipitated calcite toward the less polar, ethanol molecule. Further analysis of the chemical composition of the organic matter extracted from the chalk samples was made by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Monitoring surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after extraction of the organic material, and with atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that nanometer sized clay crystals observed on the chalk particle surfaces could be an important part of the reason for the differences. Removal of the extractable portion of the hydrocarbons liberates adsorption sites that have different wetting properties than the rest of the chalk and these have an energy distribution that is similar to clays. Thus, the results exemplify the complexity of biogenic calcite adsorption behaviour and demonstrate that chalk wetting in drinking water aquifers as well as oil reservoirs is controlled partly by the nanoparticles of clay that have grown on the

  9. Marine macrofossil communities in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non-erosive bo......Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non...

  10. Capillary fringe and tritium and nitrogen tracing history in the Senonian chalk of Champagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballif, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In the middle of Champagne-Ardenne area, a chalky zone is located, directly on top of which lies the soil and in which the water table is relatively close the soil; which allows for capillary direction to the surface horizons and the renewal of water reserve. After the presentation of the hydrological characteristics, the total porosity of chalk, the pores distribution, the capillary attraction is shown by the hydrological comportment of the soil and the upper part of the unsaturated zone of chalk. In the homogeneous rock, the tritium and nitrogen transfers reveal the historical tracks. (authors)

  11. Point Lepreau Refurbishment Project. Programmable digital comparator (PDC) replacement for SDS1 and SDS2 - update 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.G.; Ichiyen, N.M.; Condor, A.E.; Thompson, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    NB Power is tentatively planning to conduct an 18-month maintenance outage of the Point Lepreau Generating Station starting in April 2008. The scope of the outage was determined from the outcome of a two year study (Phase 1) involving a detailed condition assessment of the station which examined issues relating to ageing and obsolescence, along with a detailed review of Safety and Licensing issues associated with extended operation. In order to minimize schedule and regulatory risk for the Refurbishment project, pre-project work was initiated in early 2002. This program is called Phase 2 ESA (Early Start Activities). As part of the Phase 1 assessments it was concluded that replacement of the Programmable Digital Comparators for both shutdown systems was required in order to ensure operation of the plant for a further 25-30 years. Critical tasks were identified related to PDC replacement as part of the Phase 2 ESA program. This paper describes the progress of the Phase 2 ESA program as well as the planned future (Phase 2) work for the PDC replacement for both shutdown systems. (author)

  12. High performance multichannel photonic biochip sensors for future point of care diagnostics: an overview on two EU-sponsored projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Domenico; Kazmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Vivien, Laurent; Sohlström, Hans

    2010-04-01

    We present here research work on two optical biosensors which have been developed within two separate European projects (6th and 7th EU Framework Programmes). The biosensors are based on the idea of a disposable biochip, integrating photonics and microfluidics, optically interrogated by a multichannel interrogation platform. The objective is to develop versatile tools, suitable for performing screening tests at Point of Care or for example, at schools or in the field. The two projects explore different options in terms of optical design and different materials. While SABIO used Si3N4/SiO2 ring resonators structures, P3SENS aims at the use of photonic crystal devices based on polymers, potentially a much more economical option. We discuss both approaches to show how they enable high sensitivity and multiple channel detection. The medium term objective is to develop a new detection system that has low cost and is portable but at the same time offering high sensitivity, selectivity and multiparametric detection from a sample containing various components (e.g. blood, serum, saliva, etc.). Most biological sensing devices already present on the market suffer from limitations in multichannel operation capability (either the detection of multiple analytes indicating a given pathology or the simultaneous detection of multiple pathologies). In other words, the number of different analytes that can be detected on a single chip is very limited. This limitation is a main issue addressed by the two projects. The excessive cost per test of conventional bio sensing devices is a second issue that is addressed.

  13. Rock physical aspects of CO{sub 2} injection in chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.M.

    2011-04-15

    Impact of supercritical CO{sub 2} on the petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties of Ekofisk Formation and Tor Formation chalk from South Arne field, Danish North Sea, chalk was investigated. A series of laboratory experiments was performed on core material collected from the reservoir zone of the South Arne field in order to reveal the changes with respect to porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical failure. In addition, a theoretical rock physical background was also established in order to be able to make sensible interpretation of laboratory data. Sound wave velocity was used as the central tool to study any change in petrophysical and rock mechanical properties. The main focus was to achieve a better understanding of effective stress coefficient (also known as Biot's coefficient); by means of which effective stress can be predicted more accurately. Independent theoretical studies were made on diagenesis, surface properties and stiffness of chalk and their relation with sonic velocity (or Biot's coefficient calculated from sonic velocity). The knowledge and experience from these studies was combined to achieve the main research objective of monitoring changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk due to CO{sub 2} injection. In order to understand the development of chalk from calcareous ooze and achieving pore stiffness, the diagenesis process of a sedimentary sequence from Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean was studied. The principal objective of the study was to explore how different porosity reduction mechanisms change the strength of these deep sea carbonate-rich sediments and how these mechanisms can be traced from the change in Biot's coefficient, alpha. In calcareous ooze, alpha was found close to one. Mechanical compaction reduces porosity, but only leads to a minor decrease in alpha. Recrystallization process renders particles smoother, but do not lead to reduction in alpha unless it gives

  14. Current status of the waste identification program at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; Edwards, N.W.; TerHuurne, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The management of routine operating waste by Waste Management and Decommissioning (WM and D) at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) is supported by the Waste Identification (WI) Program. The principal purpose of the WI Program is to minimize the cost and the effort associated with waste characterization and waste tracking, which are needed to optimize waste handling, storage and disposal. The major steps in the WI Program are: (1) identify and characterize the processes that generate the routine radioactive wastes accepted by WM and D - radioisotope production, radioisotope use, reactor operation, fuel fabrication, et cetera (2) identify and characterize the routine blocks of waste generated by each process or activity - the initial characterization is based on inference (process knowledge) (3) prepare customized, template data sheets for each routine waste block - templates contain information such as package type, waste material, waste type, solidifying agent, the average non-radiological contaminant inventory, the average radiological contaminant inventory, and the waste class (4) ensure generators 'use the right piece of paper with the right waste' when they transfer waste to WM and D - that is they use the correct template data sheets to transfer routine wastes, by: identifying and marking waste collection points in the generator's facility; ensuring that generators implement effective waste collection/segregation procedures; implementing standard procedures to transfer waste to WM and D; and, auditing waste collection and segregation within a generator's facility (5) determine any additional waste block characterization requirements (is anything needed beyond the original characterization by process knowledge?) This paper describes the WI Program, it provides an example of its implementation, and it summarizes the current status of its implementation for both CRL and non-CRL waste generators. (author)

  15. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT OF USE REVERSE OSMOSIS. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the point of use arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate t...

  16. Cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point as a reliable landmark to place the corticectomy and reach the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frigeri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish preoperatively the localization of the cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point (ICP and use it as a reliable landmark when approaching the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus access. To review relevant anatomical features regarding selective amigdalohippocampectomy (AH for treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. Method The cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point was used in more than 300 surgeries by one authors as a reliable landmark to reach the temporal horn. In the laboratory, forty cerebral hemispheres were examined. Conclusion The cortical projection of the ICP is a reliable landmark for reaching the temporal horn.

  17. Cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point as a reliable landmark to place the corticectomy and reach the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Rhoton, Albert; Paglioli, Eliseu; Azambuja, Ney

    2014-10-01

    To establish preoperatively the localization of the cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point (ICP) and use it as a reliable landmark when approaching the temporal horn through a middle temporal gyrus access. To review relevant anatomical features regarding selective amigdalohippocampectomy (AH) for treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The cortical projection of the inferior choroidal point was used in more than 300 surgeries by one authors as a reliable landmark to reach the temporal horn. In the laboratory, forty cerebral hemispheres were examined. The cortical projection of the ICP is a reliable landmark for reaching the temporal horn.

  18. Effect of fluid-solid friction on the stiffness of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Nguh Akam, Hosea; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Chalks behave weaker at water saturated condition. We studied this softening effect as a function of Biot’s frequency ratio, which is a ratio between measured ultrasonic wave frequency and Biot critical frequency, fc. Kinematic viscosity of fluid and permeability of rock determines fc. We observe...

  19. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro...

  20. Using Raman spectroscopic imaging for non-destructive analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boros, Evelin; Porse, Peter Bak; Nielsen, Inga

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples with concentr...

  1. WIMS-CRNL: A user's manual for the Chalk River version of WIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the preparation of the input for WIMS-CRNL, the Chalk River version of the WIMS lattice code. Also included are notes on the operation of the code, contents of the associated libraries, and the relation of WIMS-CRNL to other versions of the code

  2. Waveform analysis of crosshole GPR data collected in heterogeneous chalk deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Lars; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2014-01-01

    Chalks are important reservoirs for groundwater production onshore Denmark and for hydrocarbons in the North Sea Basin. Therefore this rock type is studied extensively with geological and geophysical methods. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is used to characterize fine-scale reservoir...

  3. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    2006-01-01

    and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  4. ACE - an algebraic compiler and encoder for the Chalk River datatron computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.M.; Okazaki, E.A.; Millican, M.

    1960-03-01

    ACE is a program written for the Chalk River Datatron (Burroughs 205) Computer to enable the machine to compile a program for solving a problem from instructions supplied by the user in a notation related much more closely to algebra than to the machine's own code. (author)

  5. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Gardner, T.L. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); Fairbanks, T.D.; Miller, M.E.; Schuessler, B.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of five between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  6. Heating- and growing-degree days at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, P.C.; Wildsmith, D.P.

    1981-05-01

    An update of the report, Heating- and Growing-Degree-Days at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (AECL-5547) is presented along with various other meteorological variables which were not included in the previous publication. Also included, and shown in graph form, are the monthly degree-day frequencies. (author)

  7. Can we get a better knowledge on dissolution processes in chalk by using microfluidic chips?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Amélie; Minde, Mona; Renaud, Louis; Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Hiorth, Aksel

    2017-04-01

    This work has been initiated in the context of research on improving the oil recovery in chalk bedrocks. One of the methods to improve the oil recovery is to inject "smart water" (acidic water/brines). Experiments on core scale and field tests that have been carried out the last decade have clearly shown that water chemistry affects the final oil recovery. However, there is generally no consensus in the scientific community of why additional oil is released, and it is also still not understood what are the mineralogical and structural changes. Direct in situ observation of the structural changes that occur when chalk is flooded with brines could resolve many of the open questions that remain. One of the highlights of this work is thus the development of an innovative methodology where fluid/rock interactions are observed in-situ by microscopy. To do so, we create several types of custom-made microfluidic systems that embeds reactive materials like chalk and calcite. The methodology we develop can be applied to other reactive materials. We will present an experiment where a calcite window dissolves with a fluid, where we observe in-situ the topography features of the calcite window, as well as the dissolution rate [1]. The injected fluid circulates at controlled flowrates in a channel which is obtained by xurography: double sided tape is cut out with a cutter plotter and placed between the reactive window and a non-reactive support. While the calcite window reacts, its topography is measured in situ every 10 s using an interference microscope, with a pixel resolution of 4.9 μm and a vertical resolution of 50 nm. These experiments are also compared with reactive flow simulations done with Lattice Boltzmann methods. Then, we will present a dissolution experiment done with a microfluidic system that embeds chalk. In this experiment, the main flow takes place at the chalk surface, in contact with fluid flowing in a channel above the chalk sample. Thus the reaction

  8. Analysis of fine-dispersed chalk usage as mineral additive in the composition of sand aggrerate concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Николаевна Чепурная

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research results of fine-disperse chalk addition on physical and mechanical properties of the cement stone and concrete are shown. It is determined that fine-disperse chalk addition in the binder composition increases the content of ultrafine particles. The chalk particles fill the pore space between the cement particles, increasing the packing density, which leads to a density increase, which consequently leads to improved physical and mechanical properties of the concrete: water tightness, cold resistance, corrosion resistance, crack resistance and other properties

  9. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  10. Likely-clean concrete disposition at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The vast majority of wastes produced at nuclear licensed sites are no different from wastes produced from other traditional industrial activities. Radiation and contamination control practices ensure that the small amounts of waste materials that contain a radiation and or contamination hazard are segregated and managed appropriately according to the level of hazard. Part of the segregation process involves additional clearance checks of wastes generated in areas where the potential to become radioactively contaminated exists, but is very small and contamination control practices are such that the wastes are believed to be 'likely-clean'. This important clearance step helps to ensure that radioactive contamination is not inadvertently released during disposition of inactive waste materials. Clearance methods for bagged likely-clean wastes (i.e. small volumes of low density wastes) or discreet non-bagged items are well advanced. Clearance of bagged likely-clean wastes involves measuring small volumes of bagged material within purpose built highly sensitive bag monitors. For non-bagged items the outer surfaces are scanned to check for surface contamination using traditional hand-held contamination instrumentation. For certain very bulky and porous materials (such as waste concrete), these traditional clearance methods are impractical or not fully effective. As a somewhat porous (and dense) material, surface scanning cannot always be demonstrated to be conclusive. In order to effectively disposition likely-clean concrete, both the method of clearance (i.e. conversion from likely-clean to clean) and method of disposition have to be considered. Likely-clean concrete wastes have been produced at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) from demolitions of buildings and structures, as well as small amounts from site maintenance activities. A final disposition method for this material that includes the secondary clearance check that changes the classification of this

  11. Likely-clean concrete disposition at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of wastes produced at nuclear licensed sites are no different from wastes produced from other traditional industrial activities. Radiation and contamination control practices ensure that the small amounts of waste materials that contain a radiation and or contamination hazard are segregated and managed appropriately according to the level of hazard. Part of the segregation process involves additional clearance checks of wastes generated in areas where the potential to become radioactively contaminated exists, but is very small and contamination control practices are such that the wastes are believed to be 'likely-clean'. This important clearance step helps to ensure that radioactive contamination is not inadvertently released during disposition of inactive waste materials. Clearance methods for bagged likely-clean wastes (i.e. small volumes of low density wastes) or discreet non-bagged items are well advanced. Clearance of bagged likely-clean wastes involves measuring small volumes of bagged material within purpose built highly sensitive bag monitors. For non-bagged items the outer surfaces are scanned to check for surface contamination using traditional hand-held contamination instrumentation. For certain very bulky and porous materials (such as waste concrete), these traditional clearance methods are impractical or not fully effective. As a somewhat porous (and dense) material, surface scanning cannot always be demonstrated to be conclusive. In order to effectively disposition likely-clean concrete, both the method of clearance (i.e. conversion from likely-clean to clean) and method of disposition have to be considered. Likely-clean concrete wastes have been produced at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) from demolitions of buildings and structures, as well as small amounts from site maintenance activities. A final disposition method for this material that includes the secondary clearance check that changes the classification of this

  12. Management of legacy spent nuclear fuel wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: operating experience and progress towards waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.S.; Bainbridge, I.B.; Greenfield, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    AECL has been managing and storing a diversity of spent nuclear fuel, arising from operations at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site over more than 50 years. A subset of about 22 tonnes of research reactor fuels, primarily metallic uranium, have been identified as a high priority for remediation, based on monitoring and inspection that has determined that these fuels and their storage containers are corroding. This paper describes the Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) project, which AECL has launched to retrieve these fuels from current storage, and to emplace them in a new above-ground dry storage system, as a prerequisite step to decommissioning some of the early-design waste storage structures at CRL. The retrieved fuels will be packaged in a new storage container, and subjected to a cold vacuum drying process that will remove moisture, and thereby reduce the extent of future corrosion and degradation. The FPS project will enable improved interim storage to be implemented for legacy fuels at CRL, until a decision is made on the ultimate disposition of legacy fuels in Canada. (author)

  13. Influence of clay and silica on permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Birte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2002-01-01

    specific surface area. Fifty-nine Tor and Ekofisk Formation chalk samples from five North Sea chalk reservoirs were investigated. All contain quartz and clay minerals, most commonly kaolinite and smectite, with trace amounts of illite. The contents of calcite and quartz are inversely correlated and both......)): calcite between 0.5 and 3.5, quartz about 5, kaolinite about 15, and smectite about 60....

  14. Stylolites, porosity, depositional texture, and silicates in chalk facies sediments:Ontong Java Plateau - Gorm and Tyra fields, North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Borre, Mai K.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of chalk on the Ontong Java Plateau and chalk in the Central North Sea indicates that, whereas pressure dissolution is controlled by effective burial stress, pore-filling cementation is controlled by temperature. Effective burial stress is caused by the weight of all overlying water and sediments as counteracted by the pressure in the pore fluid, so the regional overpressure in the Central North Sea is one reason why the two localities have different relationships between temperatu...

  15. The new Chalk River AMS ion source, sample changer and external sample magazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslowsky, V.T.; Bray, N.; Imahori, Y.; Andrews, H.R.; Davies, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A new sample magazine, sample changer and ion source have been developed and are in routine use at Chalk River. The system features a readily accessible 40-sample magazine at ground potential that is external to the ion source and high-voltage cage. The samples are held in an inert atmosphere and can be individually examined or removed; they can be exchanged en masse as a complete magazine concurrent with an AMS measurement. On-line sample changing is done with a pneumatic rabbit transfer system employing two stages of differential pumping. At Chalk River this is routinely performed across a 200 kV potential. Sample positioning is precise, and hundreds of 36 Cl and 129 I samples have been measured over a period of several days without interruption or alteration of ion source operating conditions. (author)

  16. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...... behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where characteristic pore throat sizes are comparable with the sizes of bacterial cells. In this study, two bacterial strains, Bacillus licheniformis 421 (spore-forming) and Pseudomonas putida K12 (non-spore forming) were used to investigate...... the penetration of bacteria into chalk and its effect on permeability reduction. The core plugs were produced from Stevns Klint outcrop with low permeability (2–4 mD) and with pore sizes comparable to bacterial sizes. Both types of bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the cores to some...

  17. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focuses on core flooding experiments designed to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacteria...... Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...... saturation state, was able to produce additionally 1.0-2.3% original oil in place (OOIP) in homogeneous cores and 6.9-8.8% OOIP in heterogeneous cores. In addition, the pressure gradient was much higher in the heterogeneous cores, which confirms that bacterial selective plugging plays an important role...

  18. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.K.; Kristensen, I.V.; Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A. [Dept. of Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells for 4 different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material. Casagrande's coefficients for the three materials where determined at different water contents. In the electroosmotic experiments shown in this work chalk can be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM. The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved. (orig.)

  19. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...... on particles apparently is low and not correlated with porosity, probably because the pore-filling cementation in this interval causes Biot's coefficient to decline as burial increases. Limestone from the water zone of the North sea Chalk Group follows the same stress trend as deep sea limestone. These results...

  20. Strength and Biot's coefficient for high-porosity oil- or water-saturated chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    . The Biot coefficient states the degree of cementation or how the pore pressure contributes to the strain resulting from an external load for a porous material. It is here calculated from dynamic measurements and correlated with the strength of outcrop chalk characterized by the onset of pore collapse...... during hydrostatic loading. The hypothesis is that the Biot coefficient and the theory of poroelasticity may cover the fluid effect by including the increased fluid bulk modulus from oil to water. A high number of test results for both oil- and water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk show correlation......In the petroleum industry it is relevant to know the Biot coefficient for establishing the effective stresses present in both the overburden and for the reservoir interval. When depleting a reservoir it is important to estimate the settlement through the strain imposed by the effective stress. Also...

  1. Elasticity and electrical resistivity of chalk and greensand during water flooding with selective ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Alexeev, Artem

    2018-01-01

    is water-wet after flooding. Greensand remained mixed wet throughout the experiments. Electrical resistivity data are in agreement with this interpretation. The electrical resistivity data during flooding revealed that the formation brine is not fully replaced by the injected water in both chalk......Water flooding with selective ions has in some cases lead to increased oil recovery. We investigate the physical processes on a pore scale that are responsible for changes in petrophysical and mechanical properties of four oil-bearing chalk and four oil-bearing greensand samples caused by flooding...... with brines containing varying amounts of dissolved NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4. Ultrasonic P-wave velocity and AC resistivity measurements were performed prior to, during and after flow through experiments in order to identify and quantify the processes related to water flooding with selective ions. Low...

  2. Origin of channel systems in the Upper Cretaceous chalk group of the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmerode, E. V.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    the presence of at least two distinct intra-chalk discordant reflections: a Top Santonian and a Mid-Campanian reflection. These reflections are in places associated with up to 120-m-deep channel-like structures trending preferentially N-S and NW-SE. The Mid-Campanian reflection is also sporadically associated...... with a massive secondary dolomite layer, the thicknesses of which may reach 110 m. Diagenesis does not seem to account for the formation of the discordant reflections, as there is neither a one-to-one relationship between the dolomite and discordant reflections, nor are there signs of systematic collapse...... is suggested due to the uninterrupted deep-marine chalk facies below and above both unconformities, and the unrealistically large sea-level drop of more than 200 m, which would be necessary for subaerial exposure of the central Paris Basin during the Campanian. The channels are oriented parallel to the margins...

  3. Regional transport of radioxenon released from the Chalk River Laboratories medical isotope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine Johnson; Steven Biegalski

    2015-01-01

    An examination of proposed sampling sites near Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada is performed by considering the regional transport of radioxenon using atmospheric dispersion modeling. The local geography is considered, as are the local meteorological conditions during the summer months. In particular the impacts of predicted conditions on the imprinting of atmospheric radioxenon into the subsurface are considered and weighed against site proximity, geography, and geology. (author)

  4. Investigated Miscible CO2 Flooding for Enhancing Oil Recovery in Wettability Altered Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizy, Vahid Alipour

    2012-07-01

    The thesis addresses oil recovery by miscible CO2 flooding from modified sandstone and chalk rocks. Calcite mineral surface is modified with stearic acid (SA) and asphaltene, and the silicate mineral surfaces are modified with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (NN-DMDA) and asphaltene. The stability of adsorbed polar components in presence of SO4 2- and Mg2 + ions is also investigated. Recovery from sandstone cores is consistently lower than that from chalk cores saturated with the same oil and flooded with CO2 at all miscible flooding conditions. This may be due to the larger permeability contrasts in sandstone cores, which promote the fingering phenomenon. Miscible CO2 flooding for chalk and sandstone cores with distilled water, as initial water saturation, shows also lower oil recovery than cores saturated with different ions. At higher miscible flooding conditions, higher oil recovery is obtained. However, presence of light components (such as C1 or C3) in oil reduced the recovery. Oil recovery in presence of methane (C1) is lower than that in presence of methane and propane (C1/C3). A ternary diagram was constructed in order to understand the CO2 flooding mechanism(s) at the different flooding conditions and in presence of light components. The side effect of the flooding with CO2 is the probability for asphaltene deposition. An approach based on solubility parameter in the liquid, is used to assess the risk for asphaltene deposition during CO2 miscible flooding. The light components (C1/C3) and higher flooding conditions enhanced the risk for asphaltene instability. It is also shown higher amount of asphaltene deposition in chalk cores than that in sandstone cores at similar miscibility conditions.(au)

  5. Overview of research in physics and health sciences at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, J.C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Toxicology research was a logical extension of existing program at Chalk River. Research in radiotoxicology has been going on there since the early forties. An overview of the existing physics and health sciences research programs operating at the Research Company of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was presented. Programs in nuclear physics, heavy ion nuclear physics, astrophysical neutrino physics, condensed matter physics, fusion, biology, dosimetry, and environmental sciences were briefly described. In addition, a description of the research company organization was provided

  6. Analysis of the Pelletron charging chain break in the Chalk River MP tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, N.; Greiner, B.F.; Coleman, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    On February 7, 1980 one of the three Pelletron charging chains in the Low Energy end of the Chalk River MP Tandem Accelerator broke during normal operation. The chains had been in use for 38 000 h at the time of the break. Tensile tests were carried out on pieces of the broken chain as well as unused pieces of chain. Several possible reasons for the chain break are suggested; ways of improving performance and reliability are proposed. (auth)

  7. A review of geophysical investigations at the site of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.D.; Hayles, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The site of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories was one of the first research areas located on crystalline rocks to be extensively investigated under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. A large contribution to meeting the geoscientific objectives of the program has been made using a suite of geophysical techniques. Many of them are standard, though sometimes modified in terms of instrumentation and/or experimental and/or analytical procedures, to meet the particular needs of the waste management program. Relatively new techniques have also been employed. Much of the early evaluation and development of the various techniques took place at the Chalk River site. Standard methods such as gravity, magnetics and seismic sounding have been used to investigate bedrock structure, and the seismic method has also been used to estimate overburden thickness. Standard geophysical borehole logging has been used to obtain in situ estimates of physical properties, to locate fracture zones and to make hole to hole correlations that have helped define local structure. Several standard electrical (e.g. resitivity) and electromagnetic (e.g. VLF-EM) techniques have proven successful in identifying water-filled fractures and faults. Relatively new techniques introduced into the geophysics at Chalk River were: ground probing radar; to investigate overburden; borehole TV and acoustic televiewer and VLF-EM, to locate fractures; studies of seismic tube-waves, well tides and temperature logs, to investigate fracture location and permeability. Most of these methods have been successful and are now routinely employed at other research sites

  8. A summary of the Chalk River valve packing evaluation program 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Doubt, G.L.; Lade, C.R.

    1990-12-01

    The move away from asbestos-based valve packing products has generated concern among valve manufacturers, packing manufacturers and user groups about the reliability and safety of non-asbestos based products for long-term use. AECL Research, Chalk River, has been actively evaluating these new valve packing products since 1985. This report describes the work done at Chalk River from 1985 to 1990. The report includes both Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and CANDU Owners Group (COG) funded studies. A description of the test programs and a brief summary of the functional performance of the more successful materials (die-formed graphite, braided asbestos and braided non-asbestos) on friction, stem leakage and consolidation are provided. At this time, Chalk River and Ontario Hydro have approved the following packing arrangements: for non-live-loaded valves, the recommended replacements packing for braided asbestos is combination flexible graphite packing sets; and, for heavy water valves originally designed with JC187I, the recommended replacement packing is approved braided-asbestos products

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE INQUIRY-BASED PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION UPON STUDENTS’ POINTS OF VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan AKINOGLU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to assess how students in 6th, 7th and 8th grades of primary education see the project works made in science education and their implementation processes. The study was fulfilled upon the descriptive survey model to collect data. Participants of the research were 100 students who had project implementation experiences in science education, and they were from 24 primary schools in 7 districts randomly chosen in the city of Istanbul in Turkey. Data of the study were collected by using a semi-constructed interview form offered to students during the 2005-2006 teaching year. In the research, following items were examined: The extent to which students are inspired from the previously made projects during their own project selection process, the level of scientific document survey and the effects of contemporary events, science and technology class topics and students’ interest areas. It was seen that internet is the mostly used source to obtain information. For students, one of the most problematic issues faced during the project implementation is the time limits set out by teacher. It was found that the most obvious benefit obtained by students from the project works is their increasing interest towards science and technology class. The most significant change seen by students regarding project preparation is their increasing grades in exams during and following the project works.

  10. Assessment of highway infrastructure projects in Latin America and Perú from the competences point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zevallos Germán Gallardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is stressed that Latin America and Peru should become more competitive. Under the actual development scenarios, attention to competences of programme managers and project managers related to public transportation infrastructure projects has risen substantially. An inefficient bureaucratic system is related with deficiencies of people skills and competences. On the other hand, an excellent system demands quality of the system and quality of people working in it. Thus, it is important to have excellence in administration and excellent administrators in the public sector. Three main lacking elements have been identified: i lack of good education; ii absence of fair salaries in the public sector; and iii lack of incentives. Many misconceptions and disputed consequences have been observed and analyzed. It is clear that there is lack of competence among infrastructure transport project managers and teams, which causes trouble with the main goal of Peru getting benefits from these investments and achieving sustainable development. Furthermore, the right way to achieve these benefits is through a new model of education for project managers and programme managers in Peru. This education should be based more on competences than on qualifications. Thus, the International Project Management Association (IPMA competence baseline, which is the standard that best fits to these needs, needs to be implemented to achieve the real contribution and benefits of these projects to society.

  11. Caoxite-hydroxyapatite composition as consolidating material for the chalk stone from Basarabi-Murfatlar churches ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Turcanu-Caruţiu, Daniela; Fierăscu, Radu-Claudiu; Fierăscu, Irina; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia; Teodorescu, Sofia; Vasilievici, Gabriel; Rădiţoiu, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    The development of new composition for surface conservation of some architectural monuments represents now an important research topic. The Basarabi-Murfatlar Ensemble, recognized as the first religious monument from mediaeval Dobrogea (Romania) (from 9th to 11th century), is one of the most impressive archaeological sites of Europe. This ensemble is built from amorphous calcium carbonate, very sensitive to humidity, frost, salts, etc. The aim of this paper is to test on chalk stone samples a new consolidant - hydroxyapatite (HAp) mixed with calcium oxalate trihydrate (caoxite) (COT). Some specific techniques for evaluation its impact on chalk stone surface are used, as follows: petrographical and physical-chemical techniques: SEM, OM, ICP-AES, TGA, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, chromatic parameters changes, the accelerated weathering tests: heating, freeze-thaw, and their effects on porosity and capillary water uptake by the chalk surface. All these have been evaluated before and after treatment with COT-HAp, putting into evidence the effect of the new composition on the chalk stone surface. HAp induces COT stabilization, and their joint composition can bind weathered stone blocks providing a substantial reinforcement of chalk surface.

  12. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010) better discriminate fibromyalgia symptomatology. A total of 488 women with fibromyalgia and 200 non-fibromyalgia (control) women participated. All participants underwent both the 1990 and the modified 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (hereinafter 1990c and m-2010c, respectively). We used fitness cut-off points (Senior Fitness Tests Battery plus handgrip strength test) to discriminate between presence and absence of fibromyalgia. Additionally, we employed several instruments to assess fibromyalgia symptoms. Fitness cut-off points discriminated between high and low levels of the main symptoms the disease in all age groups (P from fibromyalgia diagnosis and monitoring. Moreover, the effect size of the differences in symptoms between women with fibromyalgia and controls were overall larger using the m-2010c compared with the 1990c, except for the tender points count, reflecting better the polysymptomatic distress condition of fibromyalgia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The SmartBioPhone (TM), a point of care vision under development through two European projects: OPTOLABCARD and LABONFOIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruano-Lopez, J.M.; Agirregabiria, M.; Olabarria, G.

    2009-01-01

    LOCs are big enough to include all the sample preparation subcomponents at a low price. These LOCs will be used in four point of care applications: environment, food, cancer and drug monitoring. The user will obtain the results of the tests by connecting the Labcard/Skinpatch reader to a very popular...... equipment where LOCs will be fabricated at a low cost....

  14. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010)

  15. Full-waveform inversion of cross-hole GPR data collected in a strongly heterogeneous chalk reservoir analogue with sharp permittivity and conductivity contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chalk sediments form an important reservoir for groundwater onshore and for hydrocarbons in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Cross-hole Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is an efficient method to investigate subtle porosity variations in the chalk. Traditional ray-based inversion...

  16. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  17. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R.; Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R.

    2005-01-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  18. Texas Clean Energy Project: Decision Point Application, Section 2: Topical Report - Phase 1, February 2010-October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (STCE) is developing the Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP or the Project) to be located near Penwell, Texas. The TCEP will include an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with a nameplate capacity of 400 megawatts electric (MWe), combined with the production of urea fertilizer and the capture, utilization and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) sold commercially for regional use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Permian Basin of west Texas. The TCEP will utilize coal gasification technology to convert Powder River Basin subbituminous coal delivered by rail from Wyoming into a synthetic gas (syngas) that will be cleaned and further treated so that at least 90 percent of the overall carbon entering the IGCC facility will be captured. The clean syngas will then be divided into two highhydrogen (H2) concentration streams, one of which will be combusted as a fuel in a combined cycle power block for power generation and the other converted into urea fertilizer for commercial sale. The captured CO2 will be divided into two streams: one will be used in producing the urea fertilizer and the other will be compressed for transport by pipeline for offsite use in EOR and permanent underground sequestration. The TCEP was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) for cost-shared co-funded financial assistance under Round 3 of its Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). A portion of this financial assistance was budgeted and provided for initial development, permitting and design activities. STCE and the DOE executed a Cooperative Agreement dated January 29, 2010, which defined the objectives of the Project for all phases. During Phase 1, STCE conducted and completed all objectives defined in the initial development, permitting and design portions of the Cooperative Agreement. This topical report summarizes all work associated with the project objectives, and

  19. Response of invertebrates from the hyporheic zone of chalk rivers to eutrophication and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioglu, Octavian; Moldovan, Oana Teodora

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the response of lotic benthic macroinvertebrates to different environmental stressors is a widespread practice nowadays in assessing the water and habitat quality, the use of hyporheic zone invertebrates is still in its infancy. In this study, classification and regression trees analysis were employed in order to assess the ecological requirements and the potential as bioindicators for the hyporheic zone invertebrates inhabiting four lowland chalk rivers (south England) with contrasting eutrophication levels (based on surface nitrate concentrations) and magnitude of land use (based on percentage of fine sediments load and median interstitial space). Samples of fauna, water and sediment were sampled twice, during low (summer) and high (winter) groundwater level, at depths of 20 and 35 cm. Certain groups of invertebrates (Glossosomatidae and Psychomyiidae caddisflies, and riffle beetles) proved to be good indicators of rural catchments, moderately eutrophic and with high fine sediment load. A diverse community dominated by microcrustaceans (copepods and ostracods) were found as good indicators of highly eutrophic urban streams, with moderate-high fine sediment load. However, the use of other taxonomic groups (e.g. chironomids, oligochaetes, nematodes, water mites and the amphipod Gammarus pulex), very widespread in the hyporheic zone of all sampled rivers, is of limited use because of their high tolerance to the analysed stressors. We recommend the use of certain taxonomic groups (comprising both meiofauna and macroinvertebrates) dwelling in the chalk hyporheic zone as indicators of eutrophication and colmation and, along with routine benthic sampling protocols, for a more comprehensive water and habitat quality assessment of chalk rivers.

  20. Understanding Fluid Flow during Tectonic Reactivation: An Example from the Flamborough Head Chalk Outcrop (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Faÿ-Gomord

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flamborough Head chalks are located at the extremities of E-W and N-S trending fault systems along the Yorkshire coast (UK. Rock deformation is expressed in Selwicks Bay where a normal fault is exposed along with a high density of calcite veins. The fault mineralization is tested using geochemistry. Crosscutting relationships are used to differentiate between three vein generations: a network of parallel veins that are oriented perpendicular to stratigraphy (Group I, hydraulic breccia with typical jigsaw puzzle structure (Group II, and a third generation of calcite veins crosscutting the two previous generations (Group III. Geochemical analyses revealed that all three generations possess the same chemical signature and must reflect successive pulses from the same mineralizing fluid source. Strontium isotope analyses showed that the veins have elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios, that is, up to 7.110, while ratios of the chalk matrix equal 7.707. The latter value is in agreement with the signature of Late Cretaceous seawater. Consequently, the source of the fluid is external, reflecting an open system. The radiogenic Sr-isotope ratios, combined with low iron concentration, suggest that fluids migrated through sandy deposits. Fluid inclusion salinities range from 0 to 12 eq. wt% NaCl equiv. with a dominance of very low salinity inclusions, reflecting a meteoric signal. This leads to a model where meteoric fluids stored in an underlying confined sandstone aquifer were remobilized. The wide range of salinities could result from mixing of the meteoric fluid with some more saline fluids present in the rock sequence or from the dissolution of salts in the subsurface. In addition to the understanding of the local paragenetic evolution of the veining in Flamborough Head chalks, this study offers an insight into the way how fluid flows and mineralizes along fault zones.

  1. Tracking selenium in the Chalk aquifer of northern France: Sr isotope constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, L.; Benabderraziq, H.; Elkhattabi, J.; Gourcy, L.; Parmentier, M.; Picot, J.; Khaska, M.; Laurent, A.; Négrel, Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the chemistry of the Chalk groundwater affected by Se contamination. • Strontium isotopes were used to identify the groundwater bodies and their mixings. • The spatial and temporal Se variability is mainly linked to the presence of Se-rich clays. • Saturation or desaturation of Se-rich clays control Se mobility. - Abstract: Groundwater at the southern and eastern edges of France’s Paris Basin has a selenium content that at times exceeds the European Framework Directive’s drinking-water limit value of 10 μg/L. To better understand the dynamics of the Chalk groundwater being tapped to supply the city of Lille and the Se origins, we used a combination of geochemical and isotopic tools. Strontium isotopes, coupled with Ca/Sr, Mg/Sr and Se/Sr ratios, were used to identify the main groundwater bodies and their mixings, with the Mg/Sr and Se/Sr ratios constraining a ternary system. Groundwater in the agricultural aquifer-recharge zone represents a first end-member and displays the youngest water ages of the catchment along with the highest Sr isotopic signature (0.70842) and low Se contents. Anaerobic groundwater constitutes a second major end-member affected by water-rock interactions over a long residence time, with the lowest Sr isotopic signature (0.70789) and the lowest Se content, its low SF6 content confirming the contribution of old water. Se-rich groundwater containing up to 30 μg/L of Se represents a third major end-member, with an intermediate Sr isotopic ratio (0.70826), and is mainly constrained by the clayey Se-rich formation overlying the Chalk aquifer. The spatial and temporal Se variability in the groundwater is clearly linked to the presence of this formation identified as Tertiary and also to the hydrological conditions; saturation of the Se-rich clays by oxygenated groundwater enhances Se mobility and also Sr adsorption onto the clays. This multi-tool study including Sr isotopes successfully identified the Se

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance and sound velocity measurements of chalk saturated with magnesium rich brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The use of low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to determine petrophysical properties of reservoirs has proved to be a good technique. Together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, NMR can contribute to illustrate the changes on chalk elasticity due to different pore water...... solutions of the same ionic strength. Saturation with a solution that contained divalent ions caused a major shift on the distribution of the relaxation time. The changes were probably due to precipitats forming extra internal surface in the sample. Sonic velocities were relatively low in the MgCl2 solution...

  3. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    . Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis....... The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved by electroosmosis. It was possible to relate Casagrande's coefficient directly to the electroosmotic coefficient obtained by dewatering experiments....

  4. Field burial results and SIMS analysis of the Chalk River glass blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Hocking, W.H.; Betteridge, J.S.; Bart, G.

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, 25 2-kg hemispherical blocks of aluminosilicate glass, each containing ∼90 MBq/g of mixed fission products, were buried in a sandy soil aquifer in the waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. A second set of blocks, containing ∼260 MBq/g mixed fission products, was buried in 1960. One block from each test was retrieved in 1978 to undergo chemical and surface analysis. This report reviews the migration of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs plume in the soil and presents the results of SIMS depth profiling of the surface of a glass block. (author)

  5. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    .2-3.8 cm) during bacteria injection. Further seawater flooding after three days shut in period showed that permeability gradually increased in the first two sections of the core and started to decrease in the third section of the core (3.8-6.3 cm). Complete plugging was never observed in our experiments.......Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...

  6. Investigation of Lecturer's Chalk by x-ray Florescence and Fast Neutron Activation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Different samples of lecturer's chalk were studied, using X-ray florescence (XRF) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) techniques to ensure the safety of its use. The K (X-rays) and the gamma-rays were measured, using Si(Li) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers to detect and determine qualitatively and quantitatively the constituents of the studied samples. The concentrations of the elements (Ca and small traces of Al, Fe, Mg and Si) were measured and their presence was confirmed by gamma-ray, lifetime and/or XRF measurements.

  7. Uranium-phosphate relationship in phosphated chalks of the Mons and Picardie Bassins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinif, Y; Charlet, J M; Dupuis, C; Robaszynski, F [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons (Belgium)

    1981-11-30

    The lithological and geochemical conditions relative to the ''Senonian'' phosphatic chalks are relatively simple in the Basins of Mons (Belgium) and of Picardy (France). Their characteristics permit us to study chiefly the uranium-phosphate relation. It appears a very good linear correlation between the phosphate and the uranium. The coefficient U/P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ remains a constant from the bottom to the top of the same section, but changes in space for synchronic formations (lateral variation of geochemical facies) and in time for two separated basins.

  8. Facilities for post-irradiation examination of experimental fuel elements at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizzan, E.; Chenier, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Expansion of post-irradiation facilities at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories and steady improvement in hot-cell techniques and equipment are providing more support to Canada's reactor fuel development program. The hot-cell facility primarily used for examination of experimental fuels averages a quarterly throughput of 40 elements and 110 metallographic specimens. New developments in ultrasonic testing, metallographic sample preparation, active storage, active waste filtration, and fissile accountability are coming into use to increase the efficiency and safety of hot-cell operations. (author)

  9. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    , including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab­sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites...... slump packages (14–18 in total) are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in slumping. The vertical succession of facies records an earliest Cenomanian facies shift from dominantly siliciclastic to chalk deposition...

  10. Quick, Easy, and Economic Mineralogical Studies of Flooded Chalk for EOR Experiments Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Borromeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the chalk-fluid interactions and the associated mineralogical and mechanical alterations on a sub-micron scale are major goals in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Mechanical strength, porosity, and permeability of chalk are linked to mineral dissolution that occurs during brine injections, and affect the reservoir potential. This paper presents a novel “single grain” methodology to recognize the varieties of carbonates in rocks and loose sediments: Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive, quick, and user-friendly technique representing a powerful tool to identify minerals down to 1 µm. An innovative working technique for oil exploration is proposed, as the mineralogy of micron-sized crystals grown in two flooded chalk samples (Liége, Belgium was successfully investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The drilled chalk cores were flooded with MgCl2 for ca. 1.5 (Long Term Test and 3 years (Ultra Long Term Test under North Sea reservoir conditions (Long Term Test: 130 °C, 1 PV/day, 9.3 MPa effective stress; Ultra Long Term Test: 130 °C, varying between 1–3 PV/day, 10.4 MPa effective stress. Raman spectroscopy was able to identify the presence of recrystallized magnesite along the core of the Long Term Test up to 4 cm from the injection surface, down to the crystal size of 1–2 µm. In the Ultra Long Term Test core, the growth of MgCO3 affected nearly the entire core (7 cm. In both samples, no dolomite or high-magnesium calcite secondary growth could be detected when analysing 557 and 90 Raman spectra on the Long and Ultra Long Term Test, respectively. This study can offer Raman spectroscopy as a breakthrough tool in petroleum exploration of unconventional reservoirs, due to its quickness, spatial resolution, and non-destructive acquisition of data. These characteristics would encourage its use coupled with electron microscopes and energy dispersive systems or even electron microprobe studies.

  11. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...... works have been performed with astronomical calibration based on stable isotope stratigraphy, wireline logs as well as several palaeontological proxies and detailed sedimentological analysis. Since a couple of decades, a specific kind of fractures has been described in the Chalk of Denmark, the so...

  12. Environmental isotope studies related to groundwater flow and saline encroachment in the chalk aquifer of Lincolnshire, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.W.; Howard, K.W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The isotopes of tritium and carbon are used to study part of the North Lincolnshire Chalk aquifer in England. The tritium data support the view that the aquifer is a thin fissure system and indicate that some changes in flow direction have occurred due to recent abstraction. The data are also consistent with other chemical data in elucidating groundwater entering the Chalk from deeper aquifers. Carbon isotopes are used to distinguish between saline water bodies and suggest that saline water was entrapped within the aquifer in the Eemian and Flandrian stages of the Pleistocene. (orig.) [de

  13. The constructive solution of the Greifswald linear accelerator 'Neptun 10 p' project from the point of view of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Waag, V.; Nadrowitz, R.; Wendorff, W.

    1981-01-01

    In 1981 the linear accelerator 'Neptun 10 p' will be mounted at the Radiological Clinic of the University of Greifswald. Its place will be an irradiation room which is equipped for a radiation of 1.33 MeV. The strengthening of walls and celling, which is necessary for 9 MeV bremsstrahlung and 10 MeV electron radiation, can only be realized by a self-supporting lead-steel construction for reasons of the distance to the neighbouring house and of the connected conditions of foundation as well as of the load capacity of the existing construction of the roof. As in the eighties similar problems are to be expected in other radiological hospitals of the GDR the constructive solution of the Greifswald linear accelerator project and connected problems of the radiation protection are represented. (author)

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on geophysical and related geoscientific research at Chalk River, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.D.; Dixon, D.F.

    1989-10-01

    A large part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is geoscience research and development aimed at obtaining information to quantify the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere and at determining the geotechnical properties required for disposal vault design. The geosphere at potential disposal sites is characterized in part by the use of remote sensing (geophysical) methods. In 1977 public concern about the disposal of radioactive waste resulted in field work being restricted to the site of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, which was used to develop, evaluate and compare various techniques in order to optimize the methods for obtaining geoscience information. Methods tested at Chalk River are to be applied at other research sites. Most investigations have been carried out around Maskinonge Lake, using about thirty boreholes sink into bedrock. The boreholes provide subsurface geological information that can be used as a reference to compare the responses of various geophysical methods and equipment. Regional studies, including airborne geophysical surveys, have also been conducted. The 25 papers presented at this workshop provide comprehensive documentation of the most significant results of geophysical studies. The workshop also provided an evaluation of geophysical techniques and their utility to the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  15. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related to the pro......Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related.......1 or higher. Upon burial, the sediments lose porosity by mechanical compaction, and concurrently, the calcite particles recrystallize into progressively more equant shapes. High compaction rates may keep the particles in relative motion, whereas low compaction rates allow the formation of contact cement...... this process testifies to the absence of chemical compaction by calcite-calcite pressure dissolution, as well as to the porosity-preserving effect of contact cementation. At sufficient burial stress, the presence of stylolites indicates that pressure dissolution takes place between calcite., and silicates...

  16. Energy Deposition and DPA in the Superconducting Links for the HILUMI LHC Project at the LHC Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092158; Broggi, Francesco; Santini, C; Ballarino, Amalia; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the LHC machine, the powering of the LHC magnets foresees the removal of the power converters and distribution feedboxes from the tunnel and its location at the surface[1]. The Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) connecting lines in the tunnel will be exposed to the debris from 7+7 TeV p-p interaction. The Superconducting (SC) Links will arrive from the surface to the tunnel near the separation dipole, at about 80 m from the Interaction Point at IP1 and IP5. The Connection Box (where the cables of the SC Links are connected to the NbTi bus bar) will be close to the beam pipe. The debris and its effect on the MgB2 SC links in the connection box (energy deposition and displacement per atom) are presented. The effect of thermal neutrons on the Boron consumption and the contribution of the lithium nucleus and the alpha particle on the DPA are evaluated. The results are normalized to an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, value that represents the LHC High Luminosity lifetime. The dose de...

  17. FEASIBILITY COMPARISON OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AND 3D-POINT CLOUDS FORMED FROM UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV-BASED IMAGERY USED FOR 3D PROJECTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rilskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New, innovative methods of aerial surveys have changed the approaches to information provision of projecting dramatically for the last 15 years. Nowadays there are at least two methods that claim to be the most efficient way for collecting geospatial data intended for projecting – the airborne laser scanning (LIDAR data and photogrammetrically processed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based aerial imagery, forming 3D point clouds. But these materials are not identical to each other neither in precision, nor in completeness.Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR is normally being performed using manned aircrafts. LIDAR data are very precise, they allow us to achieve data about relief even overgrown with vegetation, or to collect laser reflections from wires, metal constructions and poles. UAV surveys are normally being performed using frame digital cameras (lightweight, full-frame, or mid-size. These cameras form images that are being processed using 3D photogrammetric software in automatic mode that allows one to generate 3D point cloud, which is used for building digital elevation models, surfaces, orthomosaics, etc.All these materials are traditionally being used for making maps and GIS data. LIDAR data have been popular in design work. Also there have been some attempts to use for the same purpose 3D-point clouds, formed by photogrammetric software from images acquired from UAVs.After comparison of the datasets from these two different types of surveying (surveys were made simultaneously on the same territory, it became possible to define some specific, typical for LIDAR or imagery-based 3D data. It can be mentioned that imagery-based 3D data (3D point clouds, formed in automatic mode using photogrammetry, are much worse than LIDAR data – both in terms of precision and completeness.The article highlights these differences and makes attempts at explaining the origin of these differences. 

  18. Life-history strategies as a tool to identify conservation constraints: A case-study on ants in chalk grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, C.G.E.; Boer, P.; Mabelis, A.A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Siepel, H.

    2012-01-01

    Species’ life-history traits underlie species–environment relationships. Therefore, analysis of species traits, combined into life-history strategies, can be used to identify key factors shaping the local species composition. This is demonstrated in a case-study on ants in chalk grasslands. We

  19. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth-trend...... inequilibriumin the aquifer following tectonic tilting....

  20. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the chalk group in the Netherlands North Sea area - A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to Maastrichtian Ommelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphic subdivision for

  1. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Chalk Group in the Netherlands North Sea area – A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to MaastrichtianOmmelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphicsubdivision for

  2. Deep saltwater in Chalk of North-West Europe: origin, interface characteristics and development over geological time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Ellen Prip; Larsen, F.; Sonnenborg, T.O.

    2009-01-01

    High-concentration saltwaters occur in many places in the regional Chalk aquifers of North-West Europe; to investigate deep occurrences, profiles of interstitial porewater chemistry have been studied from three 250-450m deep cores drilled in the eastern parts of Zealand, Denmark. At the studied...

  3. Programme of research into the management and storage of radioactive waste. Single fracture experiment at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at Chalk river to measure the transport of bromine and strontium through a fracture in granite. Retardation of strontium transport by sorption onto the rock was also measured. Data was obtained for bromine but no useful data was obtained for strontium due to failure of the hydraulic equipment. (U.K.)

  4. Independent Peer Review of Communications, Navigation, and Networking re-Configurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) Project Antenna Pointing Subsystem (APS) Integrated Gimbal Assembly (IGA) Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Larsen, Curtis E.; Pellicciotti, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center Chief Engineer's Office requested an independent review of the structural analysis and modeling of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking re-Configurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) Project Antenna Pointing Subsystem (APS) Integrated Gimbal Assembly (IGA) to be conducted by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). At this time, the IGA had completed its critical design review (CDR). The assessment was to be a peer review of the NEi-NASTRAN1 model of the APS Antenna, and not a peer review of the design and the analysis that had been completed by the GRC team for CDR. Thus, only a limited amount of information was provided on the structural analysis. However, the NESC team had difficulty separating analysis concerns from modeling issues. The team studied the NASTRAN model, but did not fully investigate how the model was used by the CoNNeCT Project and how the Project was interpreting the results. The team's findings, observations, and NESC recommendations are contained in this report.

  5. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  6. Estimation of groundwater recharge to chalk and sandstone aquifers using simple soil models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, R.; Finch, J.; Harding, R.

    1997-03-01

    On the assumption that the water draining below the root zone is potentially available for groundwater recharge, two current UK methods for estimating annual groundwater recharge have been compared with a new soil model using data from four sites under permanent grass in the UK: two sites representative of the Chalk aquifer at Bridgest Farm (Hampshire) and Fleam Dyke (Cambridgeshire), and two sites on the Triassic sandstone at Bicton College (Devon) and Bacon Hall (Shropshire). A Four Root Layers Model (FRLM), the Penman-Grindley model and the UK Meteorological Office Rainfall and Evaporation Calculation System (MORECS) were used. The new soil model was run with potential evaporation as input both from the MORECS and from the Penman-Monteith equation. The models were run for the Chalk sites both with and without a bypass flow of 15% of rainfall. Bypass was not considered for the sandstone sites. The performance of the models was tested against neutron probes measurements of soil moisture deficits. In addition, the annual groundwater recharge estimated from the models was compared with the published values obtained from the 'zero flux plane' method. Generally, the Penman-Grindley model was more successful in predicting the time for soil to return to its field capacity than in predicting the magnitude of the soil moisture deficit. The annual groundwater recharge was predicted with reasonable accuracy. The MORECS relatively tended to overestimate the soil moisture deficits and to delay the time at which the soil returns to its field capacity. The consequences were underestimates of annual groundwater recharge, owing either to the higher values of potential evaporation calculated from the MORECS or tothe high available water capacity values associated with the soils under consideration. The new soil model (FRLM) predicts the soil moisture deficits successfully and hence is reliable in estimating the annual groundwater recharge. The model is capable of doing this with

  7. The decision on the application to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    European Council Directive 85/337/EEC, as amended by Council Directive 97/1 I/EC, sets out a framework on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. The Directive is implemented in Great Britain for decommissioning nuclear reactor projects by the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999. The intention of the Directive and Regulations is to involve the public through consultation in considering the potential environmental impacts of a decommissioning project, and to make the decision-making process on granting consent open and transparent. The Regulations require the licensee to undertake an environmental impact assessment, prepare an environmental statement that summarises the environmental effects of the project, and apply to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for consent to carry out a decommissioning project. There is an optional stage where the licensee may request from HSE an opinion on what the environmental statement should contain (called a pre-application opinion). The licensee of Hinkley Point A Power Station, Magnox Electric pie, requested a pre-application opinion and provided information in a scoping report in December 2000. HSE undertook a public consultation on the scoping report and provided its pre- application opinion in April 2001. The licensee applied to HSE for consent to carry out a decommissioning project and provided an environmental statement in December 2001. Following a public consultation on the environmental statement, HSE requested further information that was subsequently provided by the licensee. A further public consultation was undertaken on the further information that ended in March 2003. All these public consultations involved around 60 organisations. HSE granted consent to carry out a decommissioning project at Hinkley Point A Power Station under the Regulations in July 2003, and attached conditions to the Consent. HSE took relevant

  8. Diagenesis of silica-rich mounded chalk, the Coniacian Arnager Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus Madsen, Heine; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The Coniacian Arnager Limestone Formation is exposed on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. It is composed of mound-bedded siliceous chalk, and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate a content of 30-70% insoluble minerals, including authigenic opal-CT, quartz......, clinoptilolite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, and barite. Opal-CT and clinoptilolite are the most common and constitute 16-53% and 2-9%, respectively. The content of insoluble minerals varies laterally bothwithinthemounds and inplanar beds, and the opal-CT content varies by up to 10% vertically. Themounds...... precipitation of opal-CT. The opal-CT formed at temperatures around 17°C, the precipitation lowered the silica activity and the Si/Al ratio of the pore water, resulting in precipitation of clinoptilolite, feldspar and smectite. Calcite formed synchronouslywith the latest clinoptilolite.Minoramounts of quartz...

  9. Controls on upper Campanian-Maastrichtian chalk deposition in the eastern Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2017-01-01

    % of the sediment. Sedimentation took place in deep water, below the photic zone and storm-wave base, and is characterized by decimetre to metre-scale variations in facies and trace fossil assemblages indicating repeated shifts in depositional environment. Integration of facies with published data on sea...... of accumulation rates and sea temperatures and is interpreted to represent a very broad set of deep water environmental conditions with an ample supply of calcareous nannofossil debris and intense bioturbation. Longer term shifts in deposition are best expressed by distribution of clay, flint and bioturbated...... micro-wackestone, bioturbated wackestone and laminated mudstone chalk facies, whereas the trace fossil assemblages appear less useful. The data set indicates overall shallowing over time with two distinctive events of clay influx to the basin during the late Campanian-earliest Maastrichtian and late...

  10. Determination of naturally radioactive elements in chalk sticks by means of gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Magda; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2010-04-01

    The radiation hazards due to ingestion of chalkboard dust were investigated. Sixteen samples from three different origin fabricates were used. The estimation of radiation hazard indices were based on the evaluation of the concentration activities of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index and the annual dose equivalent associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with international recommended values to assess the radiation hazard. The values of internal and external radiation hazard indices were found to be less than unity. The annual effective dose rate obtained, E eff, and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) are found to be less than the limit of the doses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the general public. The analytical results show that besides the main calcium content, some toxic elements, S, Mo and Pb and Ni and Pb, in the Egyptian and imported chalk stocks, respectively, existed.

  11. Change in Biot's effective stress coefficient of chalk during pore collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    the grains could also change during elastic deformation of the grains in a rock mechanics test. Diagenetic change in grain contact cement of chalk can be compared with stress-induced change in the laboratory. The change in porosity is studied with reference to the change in effective stress on grain contacts...... and porosity reduces at a slower rate. We noticed that presence of non carbonates and hydrocarbon could increase σ'm. During rock mechanics test in the lab, with increased applied stress, σ'm increases, Biot's effective stress coefficient shows a decreasing trend, while a minor porosity reduction was observed......Biot's effective stress coefficient (α) is a measure of how well grains in the rocks are connected with each other. The amount of contact cements between the grains determines the stiffness of rocks. Change in grain contact occurs during natural diagenesis of sedimentary rock. Contact between...

  12. Causes of death among long-term employees of Chalk River Laboratories, 1966-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.M.; Myers, D.K.

    1990-11-01

    Data on mortality among long-term employees of Chalk River Laboratories to 1989 December 31 are reported. The 1988 Hare report, entitled The Safety of Ontario's Nuclear Power Reactors, noted that there had been a steady rise in standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for cancer among these employees in the last three successive five-year periods from 1971-75 to 1981-85. None of the SMRs was significantly different from unity; however, the apparent trend could be indicative of the development of latent cancers. The present report was prepared to see if that increasing trend in cancer SMRs continued. In the years 1986-89, the SMR for cancer among long-term male employees was exceptionally low. The wide fluctuations seen in our data over time are likely anomalies arising from the small size of the study group rather than problems arising from radiation exposures on site

  13. Full-waveform Inversion of Crosshole GPR Data Collected in Strongly Heterogeneous Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Chalk is an important reservoir rock for hydrocarbons and for groundwater resources for many major cities. Therefore, this rock type has been extensively investigated using both geological and geophysical methods. Many applications of crosshole GPR tomography rely on the ray approximation...... and corresponding inversions of first break traveltimes and/or maximum first-cycle amplitudes. Due to the inherent limitations associated with such approaches, the resulting models tend to be overly smooth and cannot adequately capture the small-scale heterogeneities. In contrast, the full-waveform inversion uses...... address the importance of (i) adequate starting models, both in terms of the dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, (ii) the estimation of the source wavelet, (iii) and the effects of data sampling density when imaging this rock type. Moreover, we discuss the resolution of the bedding...

  14. Magnetic field related mechanical tolerances for the proposed Chalk River superconducting heavy-ion cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heighway, E.A.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1977-11-01

    A four sector azimuthally varying field cyclotron with superconducting main coils has been proposed as a heavy-ion post-accelerator for the Chalk River MP Tandem van de Graaff. The radial profile of the average axial field will be variable using movable steel trim rods. The field errors due to coil, trim rod and flutter pole imperfections are calculated. Those considered are errors in the axial field, first and second azimuthal harmonic axial fields, transverse field and first azimuthal harmonic transverse field. Such fields induce phase slip, axial or radial coherent oscillations and can result in axial or radial beam instability. The allowed imperfections (tolerances) required to retain stability and maintain acceptably small coherent oscillation amplitudes are calculated. (author)

  15. Stochastic modelling of porosity using seismic impedances on a volume of chalk in the Dan Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejbaek, O.V.

    1995-12-31

    Seismic impedances calculated from logs show very good correlation to log porosities in wells penetrating the chalk reservoir in the Dan Field, Danish North Sea. This is the basis for an attempt to use seismic impedances derived from inversion as soft data for geostatistical reservoir characterization. The study focusses on porosity description of the Maastrichtian chalk reservoir unit, laterally restricted to an area covered by a subset of a 3D seismic survey. This seismic volume was inverted using the ISIS software producing a volume of seismic impedances. Spatial porosity realizations are produced using a gaussian collocated co-simulation algorithm, where well log porosities constitute the hard data input and seismic impedances are the soft data input. The simulated volume measures 1400 m x 1525 m x 102 m and is oriented parallel to lines and cross lines in the seismic dataset. Simulated blocks measures 25 m x 25 m x 6 m equivalent to twice the line and trace spacing, and approximately equivalent to the seismic sample rate. The correlation coefficient between log porosities and impedances calculated from logs alone are shown to be misleading since they suggest unrealistic high coefficients. However, the actual data used, namely inversion derived impedances and log porosities, still show correlation coefficients in the order of -0,45, which is quite sufficient to make the inversion results very useful. It is remarkable that the calculated correlation coefficient is based on 15 wells, and the inversion is based on only one well. The negative correlation coefficient indicate that high impedances correspond to low porosities and vice-versa. The impedance data indicate the level of average porosities at locations between wells. The fine structure is produced by the geostatistic process, with averages constrained by seismic impedances. The seismic impedances derived from the inversion process are thus shown to constitute useful primary data to constrain reservoir

  16. Vertical distribution of radioactive particles in Ottawa River sediment near the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.R.; Hartwig, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we described an area of above-background levels of radioactivity in the bed of the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories. The area was about 200 m wide by 400 m long and in water 8 to 30 m deep. The source of the radioactivity was associated with the location of cooling-water discharge. Particles of radioactive material were later recovered from the upper 10-15 cm of sediment and were determined to be sand-sized grains of nuclear fuel and corrosion products. This report provides an examination of the vertical distribution of radioactive particles in the riverbed. Twenty-three dredge samples (representing 1.2 m 2 of riverbed) were collected near the Process Outfall. Each dredge sample was dissected in horizontal intervals 1-cm-thick. Each interval provided a 524 cm 3 sample of sediment that was carefully examined for particulate radioactivity. Approximately 80% of the radioactivity appeared to be associated with discrete particles. Although the natural sediment in the general area is cohesive, silty clay and contains less than 10% sand, the sediment near the Outfall was found to be rich in natural sand, presumably from sources such as winter sanding of roads at the laboratories. The radioactive particles were almost entirely contained in the top-most 10 cm of the river bed. The majority of the particles were found several centimetres beneath the sediment surface and the numbers of particles and the radioactivity of the particles peaked 3 to 7 cm below the sediment surface. Based on the sediment profile, there appeared to have been a marked decrease in the deposition of particulate radioactivity in recent decades. The vertical distribution of radioactive particles indicated that sedimentation is resulting in burial and that the deposition of most of the particulate radioactivity coincided with the operation of Chalk River's NRX reactor from 1947 to 1992. (author)

  17. 30 March 2009 - Representatives of the Danish Council for Independent Research Natural Sciences visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Former Spokesperson P. Jenni and Transition Radiation Tracker Project Leader C. Rembser.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    30 March 2009 - Representatives of the Danish Council for Independent Research Natural Sciences visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Former Spokesperson P. Jenni and Transition Radiation Tracker Project Leader C. Rembser.

  18. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  19. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  20. Decision Point 3 of Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) “Recovery Act: Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2012-03-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under Phase 5 of the ITM Oxygen Cooperative Agreement to design, build, and operate a ceramic membrane fabrication facility (the -CerFabII) to enable production of membrane modules to supply a conceptual 2000 ton per day (TPD) ITM Oxygen facility (the -ITM Oxygen Development FacilityII), and to perform supporting development tasks in materials development and engineering development toward industrial, carbon capture and sequestration applications. Air Products is executing this project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) with the objective to accelerate the adoption of ITM Oxygen technology to help meet the country’s goals for deploying clean power plants. The objective of this Topical Report is to address the requirements of Decision Point 3 (DP3), which pertains to the status of all Tasks within Phase 5 and most notably the project status of the CerFab (Task 30) prior to authorization of funds for equipment purchase and construction of the facility. The intent of the DP3 is to provide the opportunity for DOE-NETL to review the status of these tasks and to make recommendations on forward project direction, including a recommendation to pass into Budget Period 8. In the area of Materials Development, Air Products has specified a high pressure dilatometer system which will enable measurements of material expansion of ITM ceramic compounds at very high oxygen partial pressures consistent with CCS applications. Under Task 28.2, subcontractor Ceramatec has made significant progress since DP2 in materials selection and process development and improvement for advanced architecture module fabrication. Ceramatec has determined a materials specification, and has selected a process for making the material. Ceramatec has further developed and selected the process for applying the membrane to unsintered advanced architecture wafers with a Two Step process. Ceramatec has built submodules meeting leak rate

  1. Capacity building of nurses providing neonatal care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: methods for the POINTS of care project to enhance nursing education and reduce adverse neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlow Brian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of preterm infants in developing countries has often been accompanied by increased morbidity. A previous study found rates of severe retinopathy of prematurity varied widely between different neonatal units in Rio de Janeiro. Nurses have a key role in the care of high-risk infants but often do not have access to ongoing education programmes. We set out to design a quality improvement project that would provide nurses with the training and tools to decrease neonatal mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this report is to describe the methods and make the teaching package (POINTS of care--six modules addressing Pain control; optimal Oxygenation; Infection control; Nutrition interventions; Temperature control; Supportive care available to others. Methods/Design Six neonatal units, caring for 40% of preterm infants in Rio de Janeiro were invited to participate. In Phase 1 of the study multidisciplinary workshops were held in each neonatal unit to identify the neonatal morbidities of interest and to plan for data collection. In Phase 2 the teaching package was developed and tested. Phase 3 consisted of 12 months data collection utilizing a simple tick-sheet for recording. In Phase 4 (the Intervention all nurses were asked to complete all six modules of the POINTS of care package, which was supplemented by practical demonstrations. Phase 5 consisted of a further 12 months data collection. In Phase 1 it was agreed to include inborn infants with birthweight ≤ 1500 g or gestational age of ≤ 34 weeks. The primary outcome was death before discharge and secondary outcomes included retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Assuming 400-450 infants in both pre- and post-intervention periods the study had 80% power at p = Discussion The results of the POINTS of Care intervention will be presented in a separate publication. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN83110114

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT-OF-USE (POU) REVERSE OSMOSIS. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of a point of use (POU) re...

  3. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Point of Entry/Point of Use Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Oregon Institute of Technology at Klamath Falls, OR - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) at Klamath Falls, OR. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness...

  4. Derived release limits (DRL's) for airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories during normal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    Derived release limits (DRL's), based on regulatory dose limits, have been calculated for routine discharges of radioactivity in airborne and liquid effluents from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Three types of sources of airborne effluents were considered: the NRX/NRU stack, the 61 m stack connected to the 99 Mo production facility, and a roof vent typical of those installed on several buildings on the site. Sources of liquid effluents to the Ottawa River were treated as a single source from the site as a whole. Various exposure pathways to workers on the site and to members of the public outside the site boundary were considered in the calculations. The DRL's represent upper limits for routine emissions of radioactivity from the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the surrounding environment. Actual releases are regulated by Administrative Levels, set lower than the DRL's, and are confirmed by monitoring. (author)

  5. Temporal variability of micro-organic contaminants in lowland chalk catchments: New insights into contaminant sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, K; Lapworth, D J; Stuart, M E

    2016-10-15

    This paper explores the temporal variation of a broad suite of micro organic (MO) compounds within hydrologically linked compartments of a lowland Chalk catchment, the most important drinking water aquifer in the UK. It presents an assessment of results from relatively high frequency monitoring at a well-characterised site, including the type and concentrations of compounds detected and how they change under different hydrological conditions including exceptionally high groundwater levels and river flow conditions during 2014 and subsequent recovery. This study shows for the first time that within the Chalk groundwater there can be a greater diversity of the MOs compared to surface waters. Within the Chalk 26 different compounds were detected over the duration of the study compared to 17 in the surface water. Plasticisers (0.06-39μg/L) were found to dominate in the Chalk groundwater on 5 visits (38.4%) accounting for 14.5% of detections but contributing highest concentrations whilst other compounds dominated in the surface water. Trichloroethene and atrazine were among the most frequently detected compounds. The limit for the total pesticide concentration detected did not exceed EU/UK prescribed concentration values for drinking water. Emerging organic compounds such as caffeine, which currently do not have water quality limits, were also detected. The low numbers of compounds found within the hyporheic zone highlight the role of this transient interface in the attenuation and breakdown of the MOs, and provision of an important ecosystem service. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of small fishes and invasive crayfish in otter Lutra lutra diet in an English chalk stream

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, J.R.; Berry, M.; Sewell, S.; Lees, C.; Reading, P.

    2017-01-01

    The diet composition of the European otter Lutra lutra was assessed using spraint analysis in the Hampshire Avon, a lowland chalk stream in Southern England, over an 18-month period. Small cyprinid fishes were the main prey item taken in all seasons, with bullhead Cottus gobio and stone loach Barbatula barbatula also important; there were relatively few larger fishes of interest to fisheries found. There were significant seasonal differences in diet composition by season, with signal crayfish...

  7. Geologic models and evaluation of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources: Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Krystal

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk forms a low-permeability, onshore Gulf of Mexico reservoir that produces oil and gas from major fractures oriented parallel to the underlying Lower Cretaceous shelf edge. Horizontal drilling links these fracture systems to create an interconnected network that drains the reservoir. Field and well locations along the production trend are controlled by fracture networks. Highly fractured chalk is present along both regional and local fault zones. Fractures are also genetically linked to movement of the underlying Jurassic Louann Salt with tensile fractures forming downdip of salt-related structures creating the most effective reservoirs. Undiscovered accumulations should also be associated with structure-controlled fracture systems because much of the Austin that overlies the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge remains unexplored. The Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale is the primary source rock for Austin Chalk hydrocarbons. This transgressive marine shale varies in thickness and lithology across the study area and contains both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. The Eagle Ford began generating oil and gas in the early Miocene, and vertical migration through fractures was sufficient to charge the Austin reservoirs.

  8. Water movements in the unsaturated zone and recharge of the aquifer in the Champagne Chalk (France): Isotopic and chemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachier, P.; Dever, L.; Fontes, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Water from the unsaturated zone in the chalk, obtained from porous plugs, was subjected to chemical and isotope analyses over a three-year period. Tensiometric and volumetric water content measurements were carried out at the same time. The results obtained make it possible to establish an outline of the hydrodynamics of this porous, fissured chalk medium. Matrix porosity was 0.42 while fissure porosity was in the region of 0.01. The tritium and nitrate concentrations in the water fix the mean residence time in the 20-metre unsaturated zone at about 30 years. The isotope profiles ( 18 O and 3 H) and their downward displacements make it possible to estimate the mean annual recharge into the unconfined groundwater in the chalk (200 to 300 mm, depending on plant cover). The vertical movement of the solution in the porous matrix is dominated by the piston effect. Variations in 18 O concentration can be correlated with local climatic fluctuations. The recharge period runs from November to March, with summer rainfall playing no part. A comparison of 2 H and 18 O concentrations shows that even winter rainfall is partially removed by evaporation. (author). 17 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  9. Identifying evidence of climate change impact on extreme events in permeable chalk catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Nubert, S.

    2009-12-01

    The permeable chalk catchments of southern England are vital for the economy and well being of the UK. Not only important as a water resource, their freely draining soils support intensive agricultural production, and the rolling downs and chalk streams provide important habitants for many protected plant and animal species. Consequently, there are concerns about the potential impact of climate change on such catchments, particularly in relation to groundwater recharge. Of major concern are possible changes in extreme events, such as groundwater floods and droughts, as any increase in the frequency and/or severity of these has important consequences for water resources, ecological systems and local infrastructure. Studies of climate change impact on extreme events for such catchments have indicated that, under medium and high emissions scenarios, droughts are likely to become more severe whilst floods less so. However, given the uncertainties in such predictions and the inherent variability in historic data, producing definitive evidence of changes in flood/drought frequency/severity poses a significant challenge. Thus, there is a need for specific extreme event statistics that can be used as indicators of actual climate change in streamflow and groundwater level observations. Identifying such indicators that are sufficiently robust requires catchments with long historic time series data. One such catchment is the River Lavant, an intermittent chalk stream in West Sussex, UK. Located within this catchment is Chilgrove House, the site of the UK’s longest groundwater monitoring well (with a continuous record of water level observations of varying frequency dating back to 1836). Using a variety of meteorological datasets, the behaviour of the catchment has been modelled, from 1855 to present, using a 'leaky aquifer' conceptual model. Model calibration was based on observed daily streamflow, at a gauging station just outside the town of Chichester, from 1970. Long

  10. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  11. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  12. Projections onto Convex Sets Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Point Spread Function Estimation of Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem on inaccuracy when estimating the point spread function (PSF of the ideal original image in traditional projection onto convex set (POCS super-resolution (SR reconstruction, this paper presents an improved POCS SR algorithm based on PSF estimation of low-resolution (LR remote sensing images. The proposed algorithm can improve the spatial resolution of the image and benefit agricultural crop visual interpolation. The PSF of the highresolution (HR image is unknown in reality. Therefore, analysis of the relationship between the PSF of the HR image and the PSF of the LR image is important to estimate the PSF of the HR image by using multiple LR images. In this study, the linear relationship between the PSFs of the HR and LR images can be proven. In addition, the novel slant knife-edge method is employed, which can improve the accuracy of the PSF estimation of LR images. Finally, the proposed method is applied to reconstruct airborne digital sensor 40 (ADS40 three-line array images and the overlapped areas of two adjacent GF-2 images by embedding the estimated PSF of the HR image to the original POCS SR algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields higher quality of reconstructed images than that produced by the blind SR method and the bicubic interpolation method.

  13. Elastic-Plastic Numerical Analysis of Tunnel Stability Based on the Closest Point Projection Method Considering the Effect of Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-ping Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tunnel stability at various static water pressures and determine the mechanical properties and deformation behavior of surrounding rock, a modified effective stress formula was introduced into a numerical integration algorithm of elastic-plastic constitutive equation, that is, closest point projection method (CPPM. Taking the effects of water pressure and seepage into account, a CPPM-based formula was derived and a CPPM algorithm based on Drucker-Prager yield criterion considering the effect of pore water pressure was provided. On this basis, a CPPM-based elastic-plastic numerical analysis program considering pore water pressure was developed, which can be applied in the engineering of tunnels and other underground structures. The algorithm can accurately take the effects of groundwater on stability of surrounding rock mass into account and it can show the more pronounced effect of pore water pressure on stress, deformation, and the plastic zone in a tunnel. The stability of water flooding in Fusong tunnel was systematically analyzed using the developed program. The analysis results showed that the existence of groundwater seepage under tunnel construction will give rise to stress redistribution in the surrounding rock mass. Pore water pressure has a significant effect on the surrounding rock mass.

  14. Proposed approach for bedrock characterization at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Dixon, D.F.

    1985-07-01

    Low- and intermediate-level wastes (L AND ILW) are produced at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) by the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development and by the production of radioisotopes. CRNL also manages L and ILW produced by Canadian research laboratories, universities, hospitals and some industries. An option that is being considered for the disposal of some of these wastes is to emplace them in a shallow rock cavity in fractured crystalline bedrock on the CRNL property. To design such a disposal facility and to evalute its long-term performance, data must be obtained on the geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site. Over the past several years, a variety of airborne, ground surface and borehole geological, geophysical and/or hydrogeological methods have been used to acquire data on some rock mass discontinuities at CRNL. The techniques which are apparently more useful for acquiring these data are described and a proposed approach to site characterization for a shallow rock cavity at CRNL is outlined

  15. Source and persistence of pesticides in a semi-confined chalk aquifer of southeast England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Gooddy, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticide contamination in groundwater is an increasing problem that poses a significant long-term threat to water quality. Following the detection of elevated concentrations of diuron in boreholes in a semi-confined chalk aquifer from southeast England, a sampling programme was undertaken. Between 2003 and 2004 diuron was observed in 90% of groundwaters analysed. In 60% of groundwater samples metabolites of diuron were more prevalent than the parent compound. Longer-term (1989-2005) monitoring shows that pollution of the aquifer by atrazine, simazine, and more recently diuron, shows a positive correlation with periods of high groundwater levels. Results from groundwater residence time indicators suggest that the highest diuron concentrations are associated with waters containing the greatest proportion of recent recharge. There is some evidence to indicate that diuron occurrence can be spatially related to areas of urban and industrial development and is probably correlated with amenity usage. - Pesticides and their metabolites from amenity use pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality

  16. Source and persistence of pesticides in a semi-confined chalk aquifer of southeast England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapworth, D.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Gooddy, D.C. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dcg@bgs.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    Pesticide contamination in groundwater is an increasing problem that poses a significant long-term threat to water quality. Following the detection of elevated concentrations of diuron in boreholes in a semi-confined chalk aquifer from southeast England, a sampling programme was undertaken. Between 2003 and 2004 diuron was observed in 90% of groundwaters analysed. In 60% of groundwater samples metabolites of diuron were more prevalent than the parent compound. Longer-term (1989-2005) monitoring shows that pollution of the aquifer by atrazine, simazine, and more recently diuron, shows a positive correlation with periods of high groundwater levels. Results from groundwater residence time indicators suggest that the highest diuron concentrations are associated with waters containing the greatest proportion of recent recharge. There is some evidence to indicate that diuron occurrence can be spatially related to areas of urban and industrial development and is probably correlated with amenity usage. - Pesticides and their metabolites from amenity use pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality.

  17. AECL'S approach to managing long term liabilities at Chalk River Laboratories. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) is a large nuclear research and development/ industrial site operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Construction of the site started in 1944, and it now includes over 100 buildings/facilities operating in various nuclear fields. A well developed decommissioning programme exists at CRL, with progress being made on decommissioning older redundant buildings, in parallel with ongoing site operations and development. The decommissioning programme is predicated on the assumption that the current nuclear operations will continue over a 100 year operating period, but with a decline towards the end of the period. Although decommissioning and remediation work will be carried out throughout the operational period, residual levels of activity remaining in a few areas will require institutional control (IC) for an assumed period of 300 years. The intention is to complete all necessary active remediation work before the start of the IC period and thereafter rely only on passive means to reduce residual contamination to levels that do not require IC measures. The latter include environmental monitoring, active and passive controls to prevent intrusion, and management controls to prohibit access or development. A formal information and records management programme at CRL has been initiated. (author)

  18. Tritium behavior on a cultivated plot in the 1994 chronic HT release experiment at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Kinouchi, N.; Murata, M.; Amano, H.; Atarashi, M.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of HT and HTO in air and surface soil has been studied extensively in the chronic HT release experiment carried out at Chalk River during the summer of 1994. HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water collected in a cultivated plot showed similar time-variations, increasing rapidly during the first and second days and becoming gradual after the first 3-4 days. The air HTO concentration decreased during and following rainfall but recovered within a day. The rainfall reduced the HTO concentrations in ridge soil water but little in furrows. Time histories of HTO concentrations in air moisture and soil water suggest that the system was near steady-state within a continuous HT release period of 12 days, in spite of the presence of rain during the period. The air HTO concentrations on clear days showed diurnal cycles that were higher during daytime than at night. The experimental field had a very complex soil regime with respect to HT deposits. The deposits to soil surface varied depending on soil conditions. 12 refs., 5 figs

  19. Impact of microstructure evolution on the difference between geometric and reactive surface areas in natural chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Bruns, S.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Sørensen, H. O.

    2018-05-01

    The coupling between flow and mineral dissolution drives the evolution of many natural and engineered flow systems. Pore surface changes as microstructure evolves but this transient behaviour has traditionally been difficult to model. We combined a reactor network model with experimental, greyscale tomography data to establish the morphological grounds for differences among geometric, reactive and apparent surface areas in dissolving chalk. This approach allowed us to study the effects of initial geometry and macroscopic flow rate independently. The simulations showed that geometric surface, which represents a form of local transport heterogeneity, increases in an imposed flow field, even when the porous structure is chemically homogeneous. Hence, the fluid-reaction coupling leads to solid channelisation, which further results in fluid focusing and an increase in geometric surface area. Fluid focusing decreases the area of reactive surface and the residence time of reactant, both contribute to the over-normalisation of reaction rate. In addition, the growing and merging of microchannels, near the fluid entrance, contribute to the macroscopic, fast initial dissolution rate of rocks.

  20. Geologic feasibility of selected chalk-bearing sequences within the conterminous United States with regard to siting of radioactive-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.

    1975-11-01

    Various geologic and hydrologic parameters are evaluated in relation to assessing the potential for repository storage of high-level radioactive wastes within several stratigraphic sequences dominated by chalks and chalky limestones. The former lithology is defined as a carbonate rock consisting mainly of very fine-grained particles of micritic calcite. Although chalks also contain coarser-grained particles such as shells of fossil foraminifera and non-calcitic minerals like quartz, most contain more than 90 percent micritic material. The latter represents broken fossil coccolith plates. The chalk-dominated formations discussed are exposed and underlie two different physiographic provinces which nevertheless display a general similarity in both being regions of extensive plains. The Niobrara Formation occurs mainly within the Great Plains province, while the Austin Chalk of Texas and the Selma Group of Alabama and Mississippi are located in the western and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, respectively. The preliminary assessment is that chalk-bearing sequences show some promise and are deserving of added consideration and evaluation. Containment for hundreds of thousands of years would seem possible given certain assumptions. The most promising units from the three studied are the Niobrara Formation and Selma Group. Regional and local conditions make the Austin more suspect

  1. Preliminary preview for a geographic and monitoring program project; a review of point source-nonpoint source effluent trading/offset systems in watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander Warren; Bernknopf, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Watershed-based trading and offset systems are being developed to improve policy-maker?s and regulator?s ability to assess nonpoint source impacts in watersheds and to evaluate the efficacy of using market-incentive programs for preserving environmental quality. An overview of the history of successful and failed trading programs throughout the United States suggests that certain political, economic, and scientific conditions within a temporal and spatial setting help meet water quality standards. The current lack of spontaneous trading among dischargers does not mean that a marketable permit trading system is an inherently inefficient regulatory approach. Rather, its infrequent use is the result of institutional and informational barriers. Improving and refining the earth science information and technologies may help determine whether trading is a suitable policy for improving water quality. However, it is debatable whether or not environmental information is the limiting factor. This paper reviews additional factors affecting the potential for instituting a trading policy. The motivation for investigating and reviewing the history of offsets and trading was inspired by a project in the preliminary stages being developed by U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center and the Environmental Protection Agency Region IX. An offset feasibility study will be an integrated, map-based approach that incorporates environmental, economic, and statistical information to investigate the potential for using offsets to meet mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Sacramento River watershed. A regional water-quality offset program is being studied that may help known point sources reduce mercury loading more cost effectively by the remediation of abandoned mines or other diffuse sources as opposed to more costly treatment at their own sites. An efficient offset program requires both a scientific basis and methods to translate that science into a regulatory decision

  2. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin in the preoperative multimodality treatment of rectal cancer: surgical end points from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Michael J; Colangelo, Linda H; Beart, Robert W; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Allegra, Carmen J; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C; Shields, Anthony F; Landry, Jerome C; Ryan, David P; Parda, David S; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M; Moore, Dennis F; Mullane, Michael R; Marchello, Benjamin T; Ward, Patrick J; Wozniak, Timothy F; Roh, Mark S; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-06-20

    The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m(2), 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Progress and Failure of Repository Projects for Radioactive Waste - a Comparative Analysis of Turning Points, Deadlock and Ways to get out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate (Environmental Law and Nuclear Engineering and Governance Div., Facility Safety Div., Oeko-Institut e.V. Darmstadt (Germany)), e-mail: r.barth@oeko.de

    2009-12-15

    The examples of factors that may support or obstruct a disposal process give an overview of results from empirical studies with regard to the selected issues in site selection and approval procedure and public participation. They reveal how experience from disposal projects in different countries and from other large infrastructure projects may contribute to the shaping of national disposal projects. As was to be expected project specific features limit the level of detail with which factors of success or failure can be described. On the other hand a relatively large number of factors on a generic level can be identified. They give a clear indication as to which issues are important for the successful implementation of a disposal project for high active waste. The project specific implementation of generic success factors on the national level requires an additional step of analysis. In that step a detailed adaption under consideration of the specific situation and circumstances of a project can be performed

  4. Progress and Failure of Repository Projects for Radioactive Waste - a Comparative Analysis of Turning Points, Deadlock and Ways to get out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2009-12-01

    The examples of factors that may support or obstruct a disposal process give an overview of results from empirical studies with regard to the selected issues in site selection and approval procedure and public participation. They reveal how experience from disposal projects in different countries and from other large infrastructure projects may contribute to the shaping of national disposal projects. As was to be expected project specific features limit the level of detail with which factors of success or failure can be described. On the other hand a relatively large number of factors on a generic level can be identified. They give a clear indication as to which issues are important for the successful implementation of a disposal project for high active waste. The project specific implementation of generic success factors on the national level requires an additional step of analysis. In that step a detailed adaption under consideration of the specific situation and circumstances of a project can be performed

  5. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Labrie, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  6. Pitfalls in velocity analysis for strongly contrasting, layered media - Example from the Chalk Group, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mahboubeh; Uldall, Anette; Moreau, Julien; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about the velocity structure of the subsurface is critical in key seismic processing sequences, for instance, migration, depth conversion, and construction of initial P- and S-wave velocity models for full-waveform inversion. Therefore, the quality of subsurface imaging is highly dependent upon the quality of the seismic velocity analysis. Based on a case study from the Danish part of the North Sea, we show how interference caused by multiples, converted waves, and thin-layer effects may lead to incorrect velocity estimation, if such effects are not accounted for. Seismic wave propagation inside finely layered reservoir rocks dominated by chalk is described by two-dimensional finite-difference wave field simulation. The rock physical properties used for the modeling are based on an exploration well from the Halfdan field in the Danish sector of the North Sea. The modeling results are compared to seismic data from the study area. The modeling shows that interference of primaries with multiples, converted waves and thin-bed effects can give rise to strong anomalies in standard velocity analysis plots. Consequently, root-mean-square (RMS) velocity profiles may be erroneously picked. In our study area, such mis-picking can introduce errors in, for example, the thickness estimation of the layers near the base of the studied sedimentary strata by 11% to 26%. Tests show that front muting and bandpass filtering cannot significantly improve the quality of velocity analysis in our study. However, we notice that spiking deconvolution applied before velocity analysis may to some extent reduce the impact of interference and, therefore, reduce the risk of erroneous picking of the velocity function.

  7. Modelling flow and heat transfer through unsaturated chalk - Validation with experimental data from the ground surface to the aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, Dominique; Amraoui, Nadia; Noyer, Marie-Luce

    2018-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 2000-2001, large floods occurred in northern France (Somme River Basin) and southern England (Patcham area of Brighton) in valleys that are developed on Chalk outcrops. The floods durations were particularly long (more than 3 months in the Somme Basin) and caused significant damage in both countries. To improve the understanding of groundwater flooding in Chalk catchments, an experimental site was set up in the Hallue basin, which is located in the Somme River Basin (France). Unsaturated fractured chalk formation overlying the Chalk aquifer was monitored to understand its reaction to long and heavy rainfall events when it reaches a near saturation state. The water content and soil temperature were monitored to a depth of 8 m, and the matrix pressure was monitored down to the water table, 26.5 m below ground level. The monitoring extended over a 2.5-year period (2006-2008) under natural conditions and during two periods when heavy, artificial infiltration was induced. The objective of the paper is to describe a vertical numerical flow model based on Richards' equation using these data that was developed to simulate infiltrating rainwater flow from the ground surface to the saturated aquifer. The MARTHE computer code, which models the unsaturated-saturated continuum, was adapted to reproduce the monitored high saturation periods. Composite constitutive functions (hydraulic conductivity-saturation and pressure-saturation) that integrate the increase in hydraulic conductivity near saturation and extra available porosity resulting from fractures were introduced into the code. Using these composite constitutive functions, the model was able to accurately simulate the water contents and pressures at all depths over the entire monitored period, including the infiltration tests. The soil temperature was also accurately simulated at all depths, except during the infiltrations tests, which contributes to the model validation. The model was used

  8. Changes in Specific Surface as observed by NMR, caused by saturation of Chalk with porewater bearing divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry has proved to be a good technique for determining the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks; such as porosity and pore size distribution. We investigated how pore water rich in divalent ions affect the NMR signal from chalk with two different de......-to-volume ratio of the pore space. The results of this work could benefit the ongoing study on the optimization of the water composition for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods and shed light on how it can affect the mechanical and physical properties of the rock....

  9. Trace fossils of a cyclic chalk-marl succession; the upper Maastrichtian Rørdal Member, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Surlyk, Finn; Bromley, Richard Granville

    2011-01-01

    Trace fossils from an upper Maastrichtian cyclic chalk–marl succession, the Rørdal Member, exposed in the Rørdal quarry, Denmark, are analysed in order to test whether the changes in substrate lithology exerted any control over the ichnodiversity, tiering complexity, and density of the infauna...... in the visibility of traces between chalk and marl and not due to differences in ecological stress upon the endobenthic community of the two lithologies. The study thus provides an excellent example of how the effect of taphonomic factors may give a misleading and biased impression of apparent differences...

  10. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Coupled with Dual Plumbing Distribution - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Carmel Elementary School in Carmel, ME -Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic and antimony removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Carmel Elementary School (CES) in Carmel, ME. An innovative approach of employing point of entry (POE) reverse osmo...

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  12. The permissibility of power plants and other large-scale projects outside densely populated areas from the point of view of planning legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the licensing of power plants, nuclear power plants and other industrial large projects, the question of the building law admissibility gains more and more importance in the licensing procedure. According to paragraph 6 of the Fed. Immission Protection, it is not only necessary that immission protection duties of the operator of plants which are subject to licensing are fulfilled, but other public law regulations must be in correspondance with the construction and operation of the plant. In this connection, the planning law admissibility of the project must also be examined. This is also valid for nuclear power plants. In the practical application of licensing such plants are treated in different ways, as far as terms of building planning are concerned. Some licensing authorities regard them as priviledged outskirts projects, others demand a zoning plan of the community. The author pleads for such large projects to be licensed only on the basis of a zoning plan set up by the community. (orig.) [de

  13. NOAA Point Shapefile- Benthic Habitat Classifications from Minibat ROV Underwater Video, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-04-06, 2004, UTM 20N WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a point shapefile with benthic habitat classifications of vertical relief, geomorphological structure, substrate, and biological cover for...

  14. Gender preference between traditional and PowerPoint methods of teaching gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Saleh; Adamu, Lawan Hassan; Buba, Mohammed Alhaji; Garba, Sani Hyedima; Dalori, Babagana Mohammed; Yusuf, Ashiru Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Teaching and learning process is increasingly metamorphosing from the traditional chalk and talk to the modern dynamism in the information and communication technology. Medical education is no exception to this dynamism more especially in the teaching of gross anatomy, which serves as one of the bases of understanding the human structure. This study was conducted to determine the gender preference of preclinical medical students on the use of traditional (chalk and talk) and PowerPoint presentation in the teaching of gross anatomy. This was cross-sectional and prospective study, which was conducted among preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Using simple random techniques, a questionnaire was circulated among 280 medical students, where 247 students filled the questionnaire appropriately. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) to find the method preferred by the students among other things. Majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri preferred PowerPoint method in the teaching of gross anatomy over the conventional methods. The Cronbach alpha value of 0.76 was obtained which is an acceptable level of internal consistency. A statistically significant association was found between gender and preferred method of lecture delivery on the clarity of lecture content where females prefer the conventional method of lecture delivery whereas males prefer the PowerPoint method, On the reproducibility of text and diagram, females prefer PowerPoint method of teaching gross anatomy while males prefer the conventional method of teaching gross anatomy. There are gender preferences with regard to clarity of lecture contents and reproducibility of text and diagram. It was also revealed from this study that majority of the preclinical medical students in the University of Maiduguri prefer PowerPoint presentation over the traditional chalk and talk method in most of the

  15. Radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain. Development and analysis of distributional and causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Ian Richmond

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the range, distribution and causes of high radon levels in dwellings in the Brighton area of Southeast England. Indoor radon levels were measured in more than 1000 homes. The results show that high radon levels can arise in an area previously considered to offer low radon potential from local geological sources. Climate and building-related factors were found to affect significantly the radon levels in dwellings. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of the various factors on indoor radon levels and an empirical model develop to predict indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by adjusting the radon measurement to that expected on the ground floor of a 'model' dwelling. This standardised set of radon levels was entered into a geographical information system (GIS) and related to surface geology. The geometric mean radon level for each lithological unit was plotted to produce a radon hazard map for the area. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk Formations, particularly where they meet overlying Tertiary deposits, and with Clay-with-Flints Quaternary deposits in the area. The results were also converted to the radon activity equivalent to that expected from the NRPB's standard dual-detector dwelling survey method and analysed by lognormal modelling to estimate the proportion of dwellings likely to exceed the UK Action Level of 200 Bq/m 3 for each lithological unit. The likely percentages of dwellings affected by radon thus obtained were mapped to lithological boundaries to produce a radon potential map. The radon hazard map and the empirical radon model facilitate the prediction of radon levels in dwellings of comparable construction and above similar geology and should further the understanding of the behaviour of radon gas in buildings to allow indoor radon concentrations to be controlled. The radon

  16. Acoustic and Petrophysical Evolution of Organic-Rich Chalk Following Maturation Induced by Unconfined Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitrit, Omri; Hatzor, Yossef H.; Feinstein, Shimon; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal maturation is known to influence the rock physics of organic-rich rocks. While most studies were performed on low-porosity organic-rich shales, here we examine the effect of thermal maturation on a high-porosity organic-rich chalk. We compare the physical properties of native state immature rock with the properties at two pyrolysis-simulated maturity levels: early-mature and over-mature. We further evaluate the applicability of results from unconfined pyrolysis experiments to naturally matured rock properties. Special attention is dedicated to the elastic properties of the organic phase and the influence of bitumen and kerogen contents. Rock physics is studied based on confined petrophysical measurements of porosity, density and permeability, and measurements of bedding-normal acoustic velocities at estimated field stresses. Geochemical parameters like total organic carbon (TOC), bitumen content and thermal maturation indicators are used to monitor variations in density and volume fraction of each phase. We find that porosity increases significantly upon pyrolysis and that P wave velocity decreases in accordance. Solids density versus TOC relationships indicate that the kerogen increases its density from 1.43 to 1.49 g/cc at the immature and early-mature stages to 2.98 g/cc at the over-mature stage. This density value is unusually high, although increase in S wave velocity and backscatter SEM images of the over-mature samples verify that the over-mature kerogen is significantly denser and stiffer. Using the petrophysical and acoustic properties, the elastic moduli of the rock are estimated by two Hashin-Shtrikman (HS)-based models: "HS + BAM" and "HS kerogen." The "HS + BAM" model is calibrated to the post-pyrolysis measurements to describe the mechanical effect of the unconfined pyrolysis on the rock. The absence of compaction in the pyrolysis process causes the post-pyrolysis samples to be extremely porous. The "HS kerogen" model, which simulates a

  17. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; King-Sharp, K.J.; Carr, J.; Robertson, E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of 14 C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives 14 C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in 14 C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum 14 C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west 14 C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on 14 C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated 14 C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated 14 C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, 14 C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower 14 C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of 14 C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. - Highlights: • Groundwater represents an important source of volatile radionuclides to wetlands. • Habitat type influenced 14 C transport from sub-surface to surface environments. • C-14 specific

  18. Microbial Fluid-Rock Interactions in Chalk Samples and Salinity Factor in Divalent Ca2+ ions Release for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were performed on chalk samples from Danish sector of the North Sea to study microbial fluid-rock interactions with carbonate rock and to evaluate the dissolution of rock matrix (CaCO3). Result showed that the average concentration of Ca2+ ions after microbia...

  19. Sedimentology of the Upper Maastrichtian chalk, Danish Central Graben. M-10X (Dan Field), E-5X (Tyra SE Field) facies and core logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.R.

    2004-07-01

    Based on detailed logs presented here at 1:10, the cored Upper Maastrichtian succession of the M-10X (Dan Field) and E-5X (Tyra SE Field) wells in the southern Danish Central Graben is subdivided into eight lithofacies and five ichnofabrics. The dominant bioturbated or laminated chalk mudstones and subordinate sparse skeletal wackestones are largely the result of pelagic carbonate production, sedimented by suspension settling and small volume, low density turbidity currents. Evidence of winnowing/reduced sedimentation rates is yielded by rare incipient hardgrounds; a well-developed mature hardground profile is developed at the Cretaceous-Danian boundary (the ''Maastrichtian hardground''). Rare marl laminae are recorded and a discrete marly chalk bed associated with an interval of finegrained skeletal chalk wackestones near the top of the Maastrichtian is recognised in both wells. Comparison between the two wells demonstrates that the m-scale laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles described from the Dan Field area are both stratigraphically and areally restricted; this has implications for both cyclostratigraphic correlation and reconstruction of depositional environments and Late Maastrichtian evolution of the Danish Central Graben. (au)

  20. An investigation of the suitability of the Chalk River site to host a geologic waste management facility for CRL's low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.; Baumgartner, P.; Chan, T.; Kitson, C.; Kozak, E.; Man, A.; Martino, J.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Beaton, D.; Sharp, K.; Thivierge, R.

    2011-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is investigating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site for hosting a Geologic Waste Management Facility (GWMF) as part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) funded through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). The GWMF is envisioned to be an underground engineered-geological repository consisting of shafts, access tunnels and emplacement caverns located at a nominal depth of 500 to 1000 m in the bedrock at the CRL site. A 5-year-long pre-project study was started in 2006 to assess the feasibility of the bedrock at the CRL site to host a GWMF. The pre-project feasibility study began with a review of various previous geological investigations performed in the bedrock at the CRL site. The 2006-2010 pre-project feasibility study involved exploring the geoscience and engineering characteristics of the bedrock to depths of over one kilometre at the CRL site through surface investigations and the drilling and testing of seven new deep characterization boreholes into the CRL bedrock. The collected information and interpretations were used to construct three-dimensional (3D) deterministic computer models of the geology of the bedrock at the CRL site and surrounding area and of the associated groundwater-flow regime. In order to technically assess the suitability of the CRL site, the GWMF feasibility study has conservatively assumed that all of the legacy and forecast Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) at CRL would report to it. The 3D deterministic models were used within a preliminary performance and safety assessment model to assess the long-term safety of a hypothetical GWMF at the CRL site on the basis of future radionuclide and toxic substance releases. Other items important to a preliminary performance and safety assessment include an inventory of CRL's radioactive wastes and other contaminants that could be placed in the GWMF, the creation of the engineered waste emplacement rooms and

  1. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  3. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  4. The project of documentary space 'ExploRe' Opened pluri-disciplinary exploration of reversibility: multiple-point of view access to exploratory works of Andra on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahier, Jean-Pierre; Desfriches, Orelie; Zacklad, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a digital space (a web site - 'ExploRe') which would allows a community to share a set of pluri-disciplinary information items concerning reversibility, and in which the community members describe the items by using attributes and themes belonging to different points of view

  5. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Methodology and Projections for Joint Analysis of Galaxy Clustering, Galaxy Lensing, and CMB Lensing Two-point Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannantonio, T.; et al.

    2018-02-14

    Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.

  6. In search of income reference points for SLCA using a country level sustainability benchmark (part 2): fair minimum wage. A contribution to the Oiconomy project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Pim R.; Vermeulen, Walter J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is part 2 of our twin articles on income reference points for social life cycle assessment (SLCA). The purpose of this article is to provide a well-founded fair minimum wage standard, which enables the determination of the preventative costs for the impact category of unfair

  7. In search of income reference points for SLCA using a country level sustainability benchmark (part 2): fair minimum wage. A contribution to the Oiconomy project

    OpenAIRE

    Croes, Pim R.; Vermeulen, Walter J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is part 2 of our twin articles on income reference points for social life cycle assessment (SLCA). The purpose of this article is to provide a well-founded fair minimum wage standard, which enables the determination of the preventative costs for the impact category of unfair prices for labour in preventative costs-based SLCA. Methods: A five-step procedure was followed, comprising of (1) definition of the impact category and characterization factor, (2) a literature survey...

  8. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  9. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  10. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  14. Assessing inventories of past radioactive waste arisings at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.; TerHuurne, M.A.; Miller, M.T.; Edwards, N.W.; Hulley, V.R.; McCann, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Internationally, a great deal of progress has been made in improving the management of currently accumulating and anticipated future radioactive wastes. Progress includes improved waste collection, segregation, characterization and documentation in support of disposal facility licensing and operation. These improvements are not often very helpful for assessing the hazards of wastes collected prior to their implementation, since, internationally, historic radioactive wastes were not managed and documented according to today's methods. This paper provides an overview of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) unique approach to managing its currently accumulating, low-level radioactive wastes at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and it describes the novel method AECL-CRL has developed to assess its historic radioactive wastes. Instead of estimating the characteristics of current radioactive wastes on a package-by-package basis, process knowledge is used to infer the average characteristics of most wastes. This approach defers, and potentially avoids, the use of expensive analytical technologies to characterize wastes until a reasonable certainty is gained about their ultimate disposition (Canada does not yet have a licensed radioactive waste disposal facility). Once the ultimate disposition is decided, performance assessments determine if inference characterization is adequate or if additional characterization is required. This process should result in significant cost savings to AECL since expensive, resource-intensive, up-front characterization may not be required for low-impact wastes. In addition, as technological improvements take place, the unit cost of characterization usually declines, making it less expensive to perform any additional characterization for current radioactive wastes. The WIP-III data management system is used at CRL to 'warehouse' the average characteristics of current radioactive wastes. This paper describes how this 'warehouse of information

  15. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J.; Mansy, J.L.; Piwakowski, B.

    2005-01-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  16. Drivers of abundance and community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates in Ottawa River sediment near Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.J.; Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: bondm@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The Ottawa River has received effluent from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for more than 60 years. Some radionuclides and contaminants released in effluents are bound rapidly to particles and deposited in bottom sediments where they may be biologically available to benthic invertebrates and other aquatic biota. As part of a larger ecological assessment, we assess the potential impact of contaminated sediments in the vicinity of CRL on local benthic community structure. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we demonstrate that CRL operations have had little impact on the local benthic community. Despite elevated anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in sediment near CRL's process outfall, the benthic community is no less abundant or diverse than what is observed upstream at background levels. The Ottawa River benthic invertebrate community is structured predominantly by natural physical and biological conditions in the sediment, specifically sediment water content and organic content. These natural habitat conditions have a stronger influence on macroinvertebrate communities than sediment contamination. (author)

  17. Importance of small fishes and invasive crayfish in otter Lutra lutra diet in an English chalk stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton J. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the European otter Lutra lutra was assessed using spraint analysis in the Hampshire Avon, a lowland chalk stream in Southern England, over an 18-month period. Small cyprinid fishes were the main prey item taken in all seasons, with bullhead Cottus gobio and stone loach Barbatula barbatula also important; there were relatively few larger fishes of interest to fisheries found. There were significant seasonal differences in diet composition by season, with signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus only being prominent prey items in warmer months and amphibians in winter, revealing that non-fish resources were seasonally important dietary components. Reconstructed body lengths of prey revealed the only species present in diet >350 mm was pike Esox lucius. These dietary data thus provide important information for informing conservation conflicts between otters and fishery interests.

  18. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  19. Cliff stability assessment using electrical resistivity tomography at the historic WWII D-Day invasion site, Pointe du Hoc, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Udphuay, S.; Warden, R.

    2007-05-01

    The 1944 D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France is an important WWII battlefield and cultural resource but is at risk from chalk cliff collapse. The American Battle Monuments Commission tasked us to evaluate the geohazard to the observation post and other cliff-side buildings of historical significance. Geophysical multi-electrode resistivity profiling is used to study cliff stability and the condition of the observation- post foundations. Preliminary 2-D geological interpretations are provided of individual profiles. The copious steel, concrete and void spaces at the site renders hydrogeological interpretation challenging but tractable. The cliff face appears to be relatively intact and well-drained. Several routes taken by groundwater into fractures within the chalk were identified mainly on the western side of the site. The eastern side is drier and somewhat sheltered from the Atlantic storms but may contain large void spaces that could efficiently transmit groundwater flow during heavy precipitation events, thereby imperiling the major antiaircraft gun emplacement occupied by Col. Rudder in the early days of the Allied invasion. The forward German observation post perched close to the sea stack, which now hosts the U.S. Ranger memorial, may be moving with the soil and not securely anchored to bedrock. A complex failure mechanism is identified as a combination of groundwater dissolution of the fractured chalk and sea wave attack at the cliff base.

  20. Shielding calculations and collective dose estimations with the point-kernel-code VISIPLAN registered for the example of the project ZENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlke, S.; Niegoth, H.

    2012-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant Leibstadt (KKL) during the next year large components will be dismantled and stored for final disposal within the interim storage facility ZENT at the NPP site. Before construction of ZENT appropriate estimations of the local dose rate inside and outside the building and the collective dose for the normal operation have to be performed. The shielding calculations are based on the properties of the stored components and radiation sources and on the concepts for working place requirements. The installation of control and monitoring areas will depend on these calculations. For the determination of the shielding potential of concrete walls and steel doors with the defined boundary conditions point-kernel codes like MICROSHIELd registered are used. Complex problems cannot be modeled with this code. Therefore the point-kernel code VISIPLAN registered was developed for the determination of the local dose distribution functions in 3D models. The possibility of motion sequence inputs allows an optimization of collective dose estimations for the operational phases of a nuclear facility.

  1. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  2. The effect of divalent ions on the elasticity and pore collapse of chalk evaluated from compressional wave velocity and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2015-01-01

    The effects of divalent ions on the elasticity and the pore collapse of chalk were studied through rock-mechanical testing and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. Chalk samples saturated with deionized water and brines containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and sulfate ions were...... subjected to petrophysical experiments, rock mechanical testing and low-field NMR spectroscopy. Petrophysical characterization involving ultrasonic elastic wave velocities in unconfined conditions, porosity and permeability measurements, specific surface and carbonate content determination and backscatter...... electron microscopy of the materials were conducted prior to the experiments. The iso-frame model was used to predict the bulk moduli in dry and saturated conditions from the compressional modulus of water-saturated rocks. The effective stress coefficient, as introduced by Biot, was also determined from...

  3. Thousands and thousands of kilowatt-hours saved: Results from The Energy Efficiency McDonalds (TEEM) demonstration project in Bay Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.; Young, R.; Spata, T.; Smith, V.

    1998-07-01

    Food service operations use more energy per square foot than any other commercial buildings and yet, the opportunity to build energy efficient restaurants is often overlooked due to a lack of information and education within the industry. To meet this challenge and stimulate energy-efficient restaurant design, McDonald's Corporation, the nation's largest restaurant chain, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E), one of the largest combined fuel utilities, are working together in a program called The Energy Efficient McDonald's, or TEEM. TEEM will identify, demonstrate and evaluate energy-saving technologies with the goal of integrating cost-effective energy-efficient technologies into McDonalds universal building specification and giving existing store operators the opportunity to improve their operations. Technologies installed at the TEEM store in Bay Point include: direct evaporative cooler, evaporative precooler, high-efficiency air conditioners, high-efficiency and two-speed exhaust fans, advanced glazing systems, tubular skylights, low-cost dimming controller and electronic ballasts, T-8 fluorescent fixtures. low-temperature occupance sensors for walking cooler/freezer, and an energy management system. An extensive data collection system has been collecting data since the store opened in June 1996. This paper will present the performance results of the energy efficient measures installed using measured data analysis techniques.

  4. Severe accident analysis of a steam generator tube rupture accident using MAAP-CANDU to support level 2 PSA for the Point Lepreau Generating Station Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoukhov, S.M.; Brown, M.J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    A Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment was performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station. The MAAP-CANDU code was used to simulate the progression of postulated severe core damage accidents and fission product releases. This paper discusses the results for the reference case of the Steam Generator Tube Rupture initiating event. The reference case, dictated by the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment, was extreme and assumed most safety-related plant systems were not available: all steam generator feedwater; the emergency water supply; the moderator, shield and shutdown cooling systems; and all stages of emergency core cooling. The reference case also did not credit any post Fukushima lessons or any emergency mitigating equipment. The reference simulation predicted severe core damage beginning at 3.7 h, containment failure at 6.4 h, moderator boil off by 8.2 h, and calandria vessel failure at 42 h. A total release of 5.3% of the initial inventory of radioactive isotopes of Cs, Rb and I was predicted by the end of the simulation (139 h). Almost all noble gas fission products were released to the environment, primarily after the containment failure. No hydrogen/carbon monoxide burning was predicted. (author)

  5. The Use of Hydrograph Analysis and Impulse Response Functions to Improve Understanding of Groundwater Flooding: A Case Study from the Chalk Aquifer, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Macdonald, D.; Marchant, B.; McKenzie, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous Chalk, the most important aquifer in the United Kingdom (UK) for public water supply, underlies many large cities in southern and eastern England including parts of London, however, it is prone to groundwater flooding. We have developed a new approach to analyse the spatio-temporal extent of groundwater flooding using statistical analysis of groundwater level hydrographs and impulse response functions (IRFs) applied to a major Chalk groundwater flooding event in the UK during winter 2013/14. Using monthly groundwater levels for 26 boreholes in the Chalk and a new standardised index for groundwater flooding, we have: estimated standardised series; grouped them using k-means cluster analysis; and, cross-correlated the cluster centroids with the Standardised Precipitation Index accumulated over time intervals between 1 and 60 months. This analysis reveals two spatially coherent groups of standardised hydrographs which respond to precipitation over different timescales. We estimate IRF models of the groundwater level response to effective precipitation for three boreholes in each group. The IRF models support the SPI analysis showing different response functions between the two groups. If we apply identical effective precipitation inputs to each of the IRF models we see differences between the hydrographs from each group. It is proposed that these differences are due to the intrinsic, hydrogeological properties of the Chalk and of overlying relatively low permeability superficial deposits. Consequently, it is concluded that the overarching controls on groundwater flood response are a complex combination of antecedent conditions, rainfall and catchment hydrogeological properties. These controls should be taken into consideration when anticipating and managing future groundwater flood events.

  6. Glacier mass variations from recent ITSG-Grace solutions: Experiences with the point-mass modeling technique in the framework of project SPICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimond, S.; Klinger, B.; Krauss, S.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Eicker, A.; Zemp, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, remotely sensed observations have become one of the most ubiquitous and valuable sources of information for glacier monitoring. In addition to altimetry and interferometry data (as observed, e.g., by the CryoSat-2 and TanDEM-X satellites), time-variable gravity field data from the GRACE satellite mission has been used by several authors to assess mass changes in glacier systems. The main challenges in this context are i) the limited spatial resolution of GRACE, ii) the gravity signal attenuation in space and iii) the problem of isolating the glaciological signal from the gravitational signatures as detected by GRACE.In order to tackle the challenges i) and ii), we thoroughly investigate the point-mass modeling technique to represent the local gravity field. Instead of simply evaluating global spherical harmonics, we operate on the normal equation level and make use of GRACE K-band ranging data (available since April 2002) processed at the Graz University of Technology. Assessing such small-scale mass changes from space-borne gravimetric data is an ill-posed problem, which we aim to stabilize by utilizing a Genetic Algorithm based Tikhonov regularization. Concerning issue iii), we evaluate three different hydrology models (i.e. GLDAS, LSDM and WGHM) for validation purposes and the derivation of error bounds. The non-glaciological signal is calculated for each region of interest and reduced from the GRACE results.We present mass variations of several alpine glacier systems (e.g. the European Alps, Svalbard or Iceland) and compare our results to glaciological observations provided by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) and alternative inversion methods (surface density modeling).

  7. Integrated seismic analysis of the Chalk Group in eastern Denmark—Implications for estimates of maximum palaeo-burial in southwest Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Hansen, Thomas Mejer

    2011-01-01

    Group. The sonic velocities are consistent with the overall seismic layering, although they show additional fine-scale layering. Integration of gamma and sonic log with porosity data shows that seismic velocity is sensitive to clay content. In intervals near boundaries of the refraction model, moderate......The origin of the topography of southwest Scandinavia is subject to discussion. Analysis of borehole seismic velocity has formed the basis for interpretation of several hundred metres of Neogene uplift in parts of Denmark.Here, refraction seismic data constrain a 7.5km long P-wave velocity model...... of the Chalk Group below the Stevns peninsula, eastern part of the Danish Basin. The model contains four layers in the ~860m thick Chalk Group with mean velocities of 2.2km/s, 2.4km/s, 3.1km/s, and 3.9–4.3km/s. Sonic and gamma wireline log data from two cored boreholes represent the upper ~450m of the Chalk...

  8. PIRATE project: point-of-care, informatics-based randomised controlled trial for decreasing overuse of antibiotic therapy in Gram-negative bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Angela; Albrich, Werner C; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Rossel, Anne; Dach, Elodie von; Harbarth, Stephan; Kaiser, Laurent

    2017-07-13

    Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a common community and hospital-associated infection, remains unknown and unstudied via randomised controlled trials (RCTs). This investigator-initiated, multicentre, non-inferiority, informatics-based point-of-care RCT will randomly assign adult hospitalised patients receiving microbiologically efficacious antibiotic(s) for GNB to (1) 14 days of antibiotic therapy, (2) 7 days of therapy or (3) an individualised duration determined by clinical response and 75% reduction in peak C reactive protein (CRP) values. The randomisation will occur in equal proportions (1:1:1) on day 5 (±1) of efficacious antibiotic therapy as determined by antibiogram; patients, their physicians and study investigators will be blind to treatment duration allocation until the day of antibiotic discontinuation. Immunosuppressed patients and those with GNB due to complicated infections (endocarditis, osteomyelitis, etc) and/or non-fermenting bacilli ( Acinetobacter spp, Burkholderia spp, Pseudomonas spp) Brucella spp, Fusobacterium spp or polymicrobial growth with Gram-positive organisms will be ineligible. The primary outcome is incidence of clinical failure at day 30; secondary outcomes include clinical failure, all-cause mortality and incidence of Clostridiumdifficile infection in the 90-day study period. An interim safety analysis will be performed after the first 150 patients have been followed for ≤30 days. Given a chosen margin of 10%, the required sample size to determine non-inferiority is roughly 500 patients. Analyses will be performed on both intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. Ethics approval was obtained from the cantonal ethics committees of all three participating sites. Results of the main trial and each of the secondary endpoints will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. This trial is registered at www

  9. Training Midwives to Perform Basic Obstetric Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Rural Areas Using a Tablet Platform and Mobile Phone Transmission Technology-A WFUMB COE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak, Sudhir; Sande, Joyce; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Nolsøe, Christian Pállson

    2017-10-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become a topical subject and can be applied in a variety of ways with differing outcomes. The cost of all diagnostic procedures including obstetric ultrasound examinations is a major factor in the developing world and POCUS is only useful if it can be equated to good outcomes at a lower cost than a routine obstetric examination. The aim of this study was to assess a number of processes including accuracy of images and reports generated by midwives, performance of a tablet-sized ultrasound scanner, training of midwives to complete ultrasounds, teleradiology solution transmissions of images via internet, review of images by a radiologist, communication between midwife and radiologist, use of this technique to identify high-risk patients and improvement of the education and teleradiology model components. The midwives had no previous experience in ultrasound. They were stationed in rural locations where POCUS was available for the first time. After scanning the patients, an interim report was generated by the midwives and sent electronically together with all images to the main hospital for validation. Unique software was used to send lossless images by mobile phone using a modem. Transmission times were short and quality of images transmitted was excellent. All reports were validated by two experienced radiologists in our department and returned to the centers using the same transmission software. The transmission times, quality of scans, quality of reports and other parameters were recorded and monitored. Analysis showed excellent correlation between provisional and validated reports. Reporting accuracy of scans performed by the midwives was 99.63%. Overall flow turnaround time (from patient presentation to validated report) was initially 35 min but reduced to 25 min. The unique mobile phone transmission was faultless and there was no degradation of image quality. We found excellent correlation between final outcomes of the

  10. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  11. Projet Télétandem Brésil, trois années d'échanges franco-brésiliens en ligne : le point de vue des étudiants français Teletandem Brazil project, three years of Franco-Brazilian online interactions: the point of view of French students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Le projet Télétandem Brésil (Unesp, 2006 met en relation des étudiants de portugais de l'université de Lille 3 (France et des étudiants de français de l'université de l'État de São Paulo (Brésil, pour, selon les principes du tandem, qu'ils s'engagent dans un processus d'apprentissage collaboratif dans leur langue et culture respectives fondé sur l'autonomie et la réciprocité. L'analyse des carnets de bord tenus par les étudiants tout au long de la formation, des rapports de fin de semestre, et des messages échangés entre partenaires permettra de dégager le point de vue des étudiants sur le fonctionnement du projet et du partenariat, ainsi que sur les thèmes traités avec leurs partenaires. Cela nous permettra en outre de faire quelques propositions concernant les conditions d'un partenariat réussi tant du point de vue matériel et culturel que de la relation entre les individus impliqués dans un tel projet.The telecollaborative project Teletandem Brazil (Unesp, 2006, gathering the University of Lille 3 (France and the State University of São Paulo (Brazil, enables students to take part in online exchanges. Based on the principles of autonomy and reciprocity, the project engages pairs of students in a collaborative learning of their respective languages and cultures. We analyze the students' opinions on the project, the partnership and the topics covered in the sessions in order to identify elements for a successful partnership, in terms of resources, cultural competence, and relationship between individuals.

  12. Hydrogeochemical processes affecting the migration of radionuclides in a fluvial sand aquifer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Inch, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the mid-1950's two experimental disposals of liquid radioactive waste containing about 700 curries of strontium-90 and cesium-137 were made into pits in sandy ground at one of the disposal areas at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Since then, the wastes have migrated into two nearby aquifers and have chromatographically separated into strontium-90 and cesium-137 plumes moving at velocities less than that of the transporting groundwater. Analysis of radioactively contaminated aquifer sediments showed that most of the strontium-90 is exchangeably adsorbed, primarily to feldspars and layer silicates (mainly biotite); the rest is either specifically adsorbed to iron (III) and perhaps manganese (IV) oxhydroxides or fixed to unknown sinks. Less than one half of adsorbed cesium-137 is exchangeable with 0.5 m calcium chloride; the high levels of cesium-137 adsorption and fixation are probably due to its reaction with micaceous minerals. Complexation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 does not appear to be an important factor affecting their transport or adsorption. In studies of groundwater quality or pollution, dissolved oxygen and sulfide should be measured in addition to the redox potential since it allows independent assessment of the redox levels. The latter were found to affect the mobility of multivalent transition metals and nonmetals. (DN)

  13. Pre-operational HTO/HT surveys in the vicinity of the Chalk River Laboratories tritium extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, W.J.G.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-08-01

    Surveys of the concentrations of HT and HTO in the atmosphere downwind of the Chalk River Laboratories reactor facilities were carried out in 1986 November, and in 1989 March, April and September under different conditions of air temperature, wind direction, and snow or vegetative cover. HT usually amounted to 1-5% of total tritium, but values up to 20% were observed, probably resulting from preferential removal of HTO. In all of the surveys, the greater persistence in the atmosphere of HT than of HTO was evident. The existing levels of HT are such that they will not be augmented significantly by chronic releases from the Tritium Extraction Plant (TEP) when it comes into operation. Hence, operation of the TEP will not facilitate studies of the environmental behaviour of chronically released HT. However, longer term studies of the distribution of HT from the existing facilities would be worthwhile. Soil and vegetation HTO levels in the study area are reported. Further studies of the distribution of tritium between the air, soil and vegetation in areas subjected to chronic exposure would be valuable

  14. US team measurements during the June 1987 experimental HT release at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.; Murphy, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    In June 1987, an experiment was performed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Ontario, Canada, to study the oxidation of HT in the environment. The experiment involved a 30-minute release of 100 Ci of HT to the atmosphere at an elevation of one meter. The HTOHT ratios were shown to slowly increase downwind (/approximately/4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ at 50 meters to almost 10/sup /minus/3 at 400 meters) as conversion of HT takes place. For several days after the release, HTO concentrations in the atmosphere remained elevated. Freeze-dried water from vegetation samples was found to be very low in HTO immediately after the release suggesting a very low direct uptake of HTO in air by vegetation. The tritiated water concentration increased during the first day, peaking during the second day (about 400 to 600 pCiml of water at 50 meters from the source) and decreasing by the end of the second day. The organically bound tritium continued to accumulate during the period following exposure (about 10 pCigm dry weight at 50 meters after two days). 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. U.S. team measurements during the June 1987 experimental HT release at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.; Murphy, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    In June 1987, an experiment was performed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Ontario, Canada, to study the oxidation of HT in the environment. The experiment involved a 30-minute release of 3.54 TBq (95.7 Ci) of HT to the atmosphere at an elevation of one meter. The HTO/HT ratios were shown to slowly increase downwind (-- 4 x 10/sup -5/ at 50 meters to almost 10/sup -3/ at 400 meters) as conversion of HT takes place. For several days after the release, HTO concentrations in the atmosphere remained elevated. Freeze-dried water from vegetation samples was found to be very low in HTO immediately after the release suggesting a very low direct uptake of HTO in air by vegetation. The free-HTO concentration in vegetation increased during the first day, peaking during the second day (about 1.5 - 3.0 x 10/sup 4/ Bq/L at 50 meters from the source) and decreasing by the end of the second day. The organically bound tritium continued to accumulate during the period following exposure (about 400 Bq/kg dry weight at 50 meters after two days)

  16. HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil at the historical atmospheric HT release site (Chalk River Laboratories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Bredlaw, M.; Korolevych, V.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is routinely released by the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear facilities. Three International HT release experiments have been conducted at the CRL site in the past. The site has not been disturbed since the last historical atmospheric testing in 1994 and presents an opportunity to assess the retention of tritium in soil. This study is devoted to the measurement of HTO and OBT activity concentration profiles in the subsurface 25 cm of soil. In terms of soil HTO, there is no evidence from the past HT release experiments that HTO was retained. The HTO activity concentration in the soil pore water appears similar to concentrations found in background areas in Ontario. In contrast, OBT activity concentrations in soil at the same site were significantly higher than HTO activity concentrations in soil. Elevated OBT appears to reside in the top layer of the soil (0–5 cm). In addition, OBT activity concentrations in the top soil layer did not fluctuate much with season, again, quite in contrast with soil HTO. This result suggests that OBT activity concentrations retained the signature of the historical tritium releases. Highlights: ► At the historical HT release site, HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil depths were investigated. ► Most organically bound tritium exists in the top layer of the soil. ► The results indicated that OBT activity concentrations can be reflective of historical tritium releases into the environment.

  17. Agricultural diffuse pollution in a chalk aquifer (Trois Fontaines, France): Influence of pesticide properties and hydrodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, N.; Lepiller, M.; Mouvet, C.

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe characterization of the transfer of pesticides to and in groundwater is essential for effective water resource management. Intensive monitoring, from October 1989 to May 2006, of a weakly karstified chalk aquifer system in a 50 km 2 agricultural catchment, enabled the characterization of the temporal variability of pesticide concentrations in the groundwater of the main outlet. Atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine were quantified 394 and 393 times in 476 samples with concentrations ranging from the quantification limit (0.025 μg L -1) to 5.3 and 1.86 μg L -1, respectively. This common presence, compared to the rare detections of isoproturon (in 108 of 476 samples), the pesticide most widely used in the catchment during at least the past decade, highlighted the significant effect of pesticide properties in the time series of concentrations observed in the groundwater. The use of geochemical tracers (nitrate, chloride) analysed in the groundwater and the hydrodynamic monitoring of the system (discharge, water levels) enabled identification of various infiltration mechanisms governing the functioning of the system. The hydrodynamic study showing that the relative contribution of the infiltration mechanisms varies with time, made it possible to explain major variations observed in the pesticide-concentration time series recorded at the spring.

  18. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, A.

    2005-09-01

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ( 234 U et 238 U), thorium ( 230 Th et 232 Th), 226 Ra and 222 Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during α-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and α-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  19. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  20. Uncertainty of climate change impact on groundwater reserves - Application to a chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goderniaux, Pascal; Brouyère, Serge; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Therrien, René; Dassargues, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have evaluated the impact of climate change on groundwater resources for different geographical and climatic contexts. However, most studies have either not estimated the uncertainty around projected impacts or have limited the analysis to the uncertainty related to climate models. In this study, the uncertainties around impact projections from several sources (climate models, natural variability of the weather, hydrological model calibration) are calculated and compared for the Geer catchment (465 km2) in Belgium. We use a surface-subsurface integrated model implemented using the finite element code HydroGeoSphere, coupled with climate change scenarios (2010-2085) and the UCODE_2005 inverse model, to assess the uncertainty related to the calibration of the hydrological model. This integrated model provides a more realistic representation of the water exchanges between surface and subsurface domains and constrains more the calibration with the use of both surface and subsurface observed data. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed on predictions. The linear uncertainty analysis is approximate for this nonlinear system, but it provides some measure of uncertainty for computationally demanding models. Results show that, for the Geer catchment, the most important uncertainty is related to calibration of the hydrological model. The total uncertainty associated with the prediction of groundwater levels remains large. By the end of the century, however, the uncertainty becomes smaller than the predicted decline in groundwater levels.

  1. Capital projects coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.

  2. Origin of nickel in water solution of the chalk aquifer in the north of France and influence of geochemical factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Daniel; El Khattabi, Jamal; Lefevre, Emilie; Serhal, Hani; Bastin-Lacherez, Sabine; Shahrour, Isam

    2008-01-01

    In the north of France, high registers of nickel are sometimes recorded within the chalk aquifer. In a confined context, the presence of pyrite in the covering clays or in the marcasite nodules encrusted in the clay may constitute a natural source of trace metals. With an objective of sanitary control, the limits of chemical contents regulating the quality of water destined for human consumption have been lowered by the European Framework Directive in the field of water policy (2000/60/EC). As a result, nickel limits have been reduced from 50 to 20 μg/l. The analyses, carried out on three water catchment fields in our area of study, were centred on variable parameters (Eh, O2(d), pH, Conductivity, T°), major elements (SO4, NO3) and metals (Fe, Ni, Mn, Co). The acquired data enabled us to identify from one hand, the conditions which are presented within the site, special thanks to the evolution of nitrate and iron contents and on the other hand, the natural origin (geological) of nickel for two of the three sites studied based essentially on the evaluation of the Nickel/Cobalt ratio. Thus, on the first site, the evolution of nickel content and nitrate content showed the influence of the phenomenon of denitrification on the re-mobilisation of the nickel. Whereas on the second site, a high variation of total iron content and oxygen dissolved in solution highlighted a particular phenomenon of oxidation of the pyrite through molecular oxygen. Finally, the correlation with the sulphates clearly showed behaviour of the nickel, once released, that was entirely dependent on the phenomenon of adsorption on the iron and manganese hydroxides.

  3. Use of X-ray computed tomography in core analysis of tight North Sea Chalk. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, K.; Stenby, E.H.

    1997-12-01

    This EFP-95 final report summarizes work performed at the Engineering Research Center (IVC-SEP) on the use of CT scanning in core analysis of tight core material from the North Sea. In this work, CT scanning has been applied to chalk material from Danish North Sea oil reservoirs. Results indicate that CT is fast and reliable for prediction of porosity. Typical errors lie within 2-3%. Calculation of fluid saturations requires considerable care from the experimentalists. Saturating a core ought to be performed by pulling vacuum to avoid trapped air bubbles. These bubbles may be produced after subsequent water and gas flooding, thereby ruining the mass balance calculations. Results performed at Stanford University show that if these simple precautions are taken, fluid saturations calculated from CT scanning are generally very accurate. Moreover, it appears that contrast agents need not be added to either phase. Regarding three-phase measurements the results are somewhat disappointing. Previous work using the dual-energy technique has indicated that the accuracy is less than satisfactory, due to an increased noise level at the low-energy setting. More work needs to be done in the future to develop the necessary expertise. The image analysis of the residual oil saturation after a gas flood can be simplified if water is assumed to be immobile during the injection. In that case, the resulting prediction of residual oil saturation is in excellent agreement with measured values. The general conclusion is that CT scanning holds a great potential as an assisting tool in modern core analysis, despite its limitations and the numerous implementation-related problems encountered during this work. (au) EFP-95. 57 refs.

  4. Savannah River Laboratory contribution to the Chalk River experimental HT release of June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen years ago, a series of experiments were conducted at Bruyeres-Le-Chatel by French scientists interested in atmospheric diffusion. The scientists used tritium as a tracer in these tests. The results showed nearly complete oxidation of the gas by the time the released material had been carried 10 kilometers from the source. It became clear that if the results were general, the doses projected for fusion reactors would be greatly increased over what had been expected from earlier experience with HT gas. For this reason, the Next European Torus (NET) fusion program funded a series of experiments to look further at tritium oxidation in the environment. SRL participation in the tests provided an opportunity to make field comparisons of the SRL design tritium gas samplers and also provided vegetation that had been exposed under controlled conditions which could be used to study the incorporation of tritium into vegetation organics, the subject of ongoing SRL research. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  6. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  7. Delineating chalk sand distribution of Ekofisk formation using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and stepwise regression (SWR): Case study Danish North Sea field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Nafian, M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Danish North Sea Fields consist of several formations (Ekofisk, Tor, and Cromer Knoll) that was started from the age of Paleocene to Miocene. In this study, the integration of seismic and well log data set is carried out to determine the chalk sand distribution in the Danish North Sea field. The integration of seismic and well log data set is performed by using the seismic inversion analysis and seismic multi-attribute. The seismic inversion algorithm, which is used to derive acoustic impedance (AI), is model-based technique. The derived AI is then used as external attributes for the input of multi-attribute analysis. Moreover, the multi-attribute analysis is used to generate the linear and non-linear transformation of among well log properties. In the case of the linear model, selected transformation is conducted by weighting step-wise linear regression (SWR), while for the non-linear model is performed by using probabilistic neural networks (PNN). The estimated porosity, which is resulted by PNN shows better suited to the well log data compared with the results of SWR. This result can be understood since PNN perform non-linear regression so that the relationship between the attribute data and predicted log data can be optimized. The distribution of chalk sand has been successfully identified and characterized by porosity value ranging from 23% up to 30%.

  8. Implementing floating-point DSP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří; Chappel, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2006), s. 12-14 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750406; GA MŠk 1M0567 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 027611 - AETHER Program:FP6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : PicoBlaze * floating point * FPGA Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://www.xilinx.com/publications/ magazines /emb_03/xc_pdf/p12-14_3emb-point.pdf

  9. Some remarks on farthest points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montesinos, V.; Zizler, P.; Zizler, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2011), s. 119-131 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : farthest points * strongly exposed points * generic differentiability * convex functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-011-0012-z

  10. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  11. Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Gröcke, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ‰ ∂13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ∂13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore

  12. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2012-01-01

    In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...... in urban design at Aalborg University, where urban design consists of both an analytical and an interventionist field of operation. Furthermore, the content of the CPC concept links to research in mobilities, the network city, and urban design. These are among the core pillars of both the masters programme...

  13. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  14. The UK contribution to the CEC PACOMA Project: far-field modelling of radioactive waste disposal in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, K.H.; Jackson, C.P.; Clark, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    PACOMA (Performance Assessment of Confinement for Medium-active and Alpha-bearing wastes) is a multinational project supported as part of the Commission of the European Community's R and D programme on radioactive waste management and storage. The aim of the project is to assess the radiological impact of deep geological disposal of intermediate level waste in three different types of geological formation: clay, granite and salt. The contribution of AEA Technology is a study of the groundwater flow and radionuclide migration in the far field. This report describes the far-field modelling. The three-stratum model used in previous hydrogeological studies of the Harwell region is used as a basis for the far-field two-dimensional section through the chalk, clay and Corallian strata underlying Harwell. Each of the three layers is represented as a continuous porous medium with an assumed best-estimate value of permeability, and the groundwater flow is predicted by solving the Darcy equations over the complete section using the NAMMU finite-element code. Two-dimensional transport equations describing the migration of radionuclides in the groundwater are solved, also using NAMMU. The fluxes of radionuclides normal to the surface of the water table are calculated as a function of space and time. The most significant result of the calculations of radionuclide transport through the geosphere is the prediction of multiple pathways for radionuclide movement in the geological strata, and hence multiple release points into the biosphere. Particular attention is paid in the study to the performance and appropriation of the numerical methods and the physical models used for the far-field calculations. (author)

  15. Permeability prediction in chalks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Prasad, Manika

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of elastic waves is the primary datum available for acquiring information about subsurface characteristics such as lithology and porosity. Cheap and quick (spatial coverage, ease of measurement) information of permeability can be achieved, if sonic velocity is used for permeability p...... significantly using the effective specific surface as the fluid-flow concept. The FZI unit is appropriate for highly permeable sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones that have small surface areas....

  16. Reassessing Function Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Finnie

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.

  17. Mortality study of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation: atomic test blasts and Chalk River nuclear reactor clean-ups, 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Dulberg, C.S.; Spasoff, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes a historical cohort study of the group of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation in the 1950s at atomic bomb test blasts in the U.S. and Australia, and at clean-up operations at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Overall and cause-specific mortality in the exposed group was compared to that of the control cohort of unexposed military personnel, matched on age, service, rank and trade. Analyses indicated no elevation in the exposed cohort, in overall or cause-specific mortality due to diseases associated with radiation. Since this study was restricted to an investigation of mortality, we must stress that we cannot generalize these results or conclusions to current morbidity experienced by the exposed cohort

  18. 5 June 2013 - European Union Ambassador to Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein R. Jones in the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler, in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Head of the EU Projects Office S. Stavrev present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    5 June 2013 - European Union Ambassador to Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein R. Jones in the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson T. Wengler, in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer. Head of the EU Projects Office S. Stavrev present.

  19. A review on the Cigeo project, the industrial centre of geological storage of the most radioactive wastes; Le point sur le projet Cigeo, centre industriel de stockage geologique pour les dechets les plus radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document briefly presents the Cigeo project which is designed for the underground geological storage of the most radioactive wastes. Requirements comprise safety after closure and without any human intervention, and a reversible operation during at least 100 years. The storage principle is briefly described. A brief history of this research project is reported

  20. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  1. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    proposed as a prime meridian that was based on: (1) the new prime meridian (72º W == 0º) was parallel to the Andes and its projection the meridian (108° E == 180º) intersects the Tibetan plate (Asia). (2) On earth these two areas present the greatest thickness of the crust with an average depth of 70 kilometers. The aim was to synchronize the earth sciences phenomena (e.g. geology, geophysics, etc.). During the Holocene the vernal point retrograde 12,000 years and enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. That date was proposed as the beginning of the Anthropocene because on that date proposed the vernal point passes from the Pisces constellation to Aquarius constellation, besides that event around the date proposed, the Second World War begun. This event was a global change in the earth. The base of the Anthropocene was defined by the passage of the vernal point from the Pisces Constellation to the Aquarius constellation.

  2. NOAA Point Shapefile- Benthic Habitat Classifications from Phantom S2 ROV Underwater Video, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20N WGS84 (NCEI Accession (0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a point shapefile with benthic habitat classifications of vertical relief, geomorphological structure, substrate, and biological cover for...

  3. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  4. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  5. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  6. Vague project start makes project success of outsourced software development projects uncertain

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen, Paula

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed A definition of a project success includes at least three criteria: 1) meeting planning goals, 2) customer benefits, and 3) supplier benefits. This study aims to point out the importance of the definition of the project start, the project start date, and what work should be included in the project effort in order to ensure the supplier's benefits. The ambiguity of the project start risks the profitability of the project and therefore makes project success at least from suppli...

  7. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    for initiation. Most of the research on project selection is normative, suggesting new methods, but available empirical studies indicate that many methods are seldom used in practice. This paper addresses the issue by providing increased understanding of IT project selection practice, thereby facilitating...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project......-selection methods, and these findings point to new areas for developing new methodological support for IT project selection....

  8. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  9. Demerit points systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In 2012, 21 of the 27 EU Member States had some form of demerit points system. In theory, demerit points systems contribute to road safety through three mechanisms: 1) prevention of unsafe behaviour through the risk of receiving penalty points, 2) selection and suspension of the most frequent

  10. Model description of CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code); results of testing with post-Chernobyl data from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S-R.

    1994-07-01

    CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code), a time-dependent code for assessing doses from accidental and routine releases of radionuclides, has been under development since 1987. A complete model description is provide here with equations, parameter values, assumptions and information on parameter distributions for uncertainty analysis. Concurrently, CHERPAC has been used to participate in the two internal model validation exercises BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) and VAMP (VAlidation of Assessment Model Predictions, a co-ordinated research program of the International Atomic Energy Agency). CHERPAC has been tested for predictions of concentrations of 137 Cs in foodstuffs, body burden and dose over time using data collected after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 April. CHERPAC's results for the recent VAMP scenario for southern Finland are particularly accurate and should represent what the code can do under Canadian conditions. CHERPAC's predictions are compared with the observations from Finland for four and one-half years after the accident as well as with the results of the other participating models from nine countries. (author). 18 refs., 23 figs., 2 appendices

  11. Model description of CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code); results of testing with post-Chernobyl data from Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S-R

    1994-07-01

    CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code), a time-dependent code for assessing doses from accidental and routine releases of radionuclides, has been under development since 1987. A complete model description is provide here with equations, parameter values, assumptions and information on parameter distributions for uncertainty analysis. Concurrently, CHERPAC has been used to participate in the two internal model validation exercises BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) and VAMP (VAlidation of Assessment Model Predictions, a co-ordinated research program of the International Atomic Energy Agency). CHERPAC has been tested for predictions of concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in foodstuffs, body burden and dose over time using data collected after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 April. CHERPAC`s results for the recent VAMP scenario for southern Finland are particularly accurate and should represent what the code can do under Canadian conditions. CHERPAC`s predictions are compared with the observations from Finland for four and one-half years after the accident as well as with the results of the other participating models from nine countries. (author). 18 refs., 23 figs., 2 appendices.

  12. An integrated modelling and multicriteria analysis approach to managing nitrate diffuse pollution: 2. A case study for a chalk catchment in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B K; O'Connell, P E

    2006-04-01

    The site-specific land use optimisation methodology, suggested by the authors in the first part of this two-part paper, has been applied to the River Kennet catchment at Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, for a case study. The Marlborough catchment (143 km(2)) is an agriculture-dominated rural area over a deep chalk aquifer that is vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural diffuse sources. For evaluation purposes, the catchment was discretised into a network of 1 kmx1 km grid cells. For each of the arable-land grid cells, seven land use alternatives (four arable-land alternatives and three grassland alternatives) were evaluated for their environmental and economic potential. For environmental evaluation, nitrate leaching rates of land use alternatives were estimated using SHETRAN simulations and groundwater pollution potential was evaluated using the DRASTIC index. For economic evaluation, economic gross margins were estimated using a simple agronomic model based on nitrogen response functions and agricultural land classification grades. In order to see whether the site-specific optimisation is efficient at the catchment scale, land use optimisation was carried out for four optimisation schemes (i.e. using four sets of criterion weights). Consequently, four land use scenarios were generated and the site-specifically optimised land use scenario was evaluated as the best compromise solution between long term nitrate pollution and agronomy at the catchment scale.

  13. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  14. Experimental study and mechanical modelling of the effects of water-driving in an oil saturated chalk. Application to the petroleum industry; Etude experimentale et modelisation mecanique des effets du balayage a l'eau dans une craie saturee d'huile. Application a l'industrie petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, C.

    2001-01-01

    The production of hydrocarbons may sometimes lead to compaction of the oil-reservoir layers with substantial collapse of the soil surface; this mechanism is usually mentioned as Subsidence. Classical remedy to this problem is to sustain the fluid pressure with the help of water injection. However, in presence of high porosity chalk (porosity > 30%), this technique does not give effective results: the subsidence rate at North Sea reservoirs (Ekofisk field), after injection, has remained unchanged. Some justify the subsistence in the chalk as caused by phenomena of dissolution of the carbonates; others think it is connected to the destruction of capillary menisci. In this research, we follow this second approach. This study is finalized to a better understanding of the compaction mechanisms in pure carbonates when water is injected. This is done by proposing -in micro-scale first and in macro-scale after- a physical model that agrees with empirical observations. In order to meet this target, IFP skills and experience in physical and chemical measurements (taken before, after and during mechanical tests) have proficiently joined ENPC laboratory (CERMMO) knowledge of micro and macro modelling. The soft rock studied is a Paris basin's white chalk (Craie de Guerville). Its physical and chemical characterisation (i.e.: silica content, porosity, permeability) is very similar to North Sea chalk, but Guerville chalk has never been in contact with oil and generally it crops out of the ground surface. Strength parameters of this rock have been first determined by standard triaxial tests. Three different saturation configurations have been examined: dry, fully oil-saturated and fully water-saturated. As literature clearly state, dry chalk is stronger than oil saturated chalk and the first two are largely stronger than water saturated chalk. Therefore uniaxial strain water injection tests have been performed on oil saturated samples. Results, coupled with previous physical

  15. Development and validation of HELLAZ1 detector, contribution to the project HELLAZ concerning the detection of solar neutrinos; Developpement et mise au point du detecteur HELLAZ1: elaboration du projet HELLAZ pour la detection des neutrinos solaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, N

    2001-09-01

    The HELLAZ project is dedicated to the measurement of low energy solar neutrinos, this neutrino detection is based on the measurement of the characteristics of all the ionization electrons produced by the recoil of the electron with which the solar neutrino has collided. The detector is made of a tank full of gaseous helium whose conditions of temperature and pressure (77 K and 5 bar) are important to assure a sufficient statistic. 11 events a day are expected to be detected. In this work we present the preliminary results obtained on the first prototype (HELLAZ0) that has allowed us to test 2 types of chambers: multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) and a micro gas chamber combined to a gas electron multiplier (MGC+GEM). A new prototype (HELLAZ1) has been designed, its aim is to measure an elementary track of only 2 ionization electrons and to test 2 new chambers: micro gas wire chamber (MGWC) and Micromegas. The first chapter deals with the sun, solar neutrinos, and the neutrino characteristics that are expected from the sun standard model. The second chapter is dedicated to the various experiments of solar neutrino detection and to their experimental result disagreement. The HELLAZ project is described in the third chapter. The fourth chapter presents the different experimental constraints, particularly the processing of the background noise and the counting of each electron of the ionization cloud. In the last chapter HELLAZ0 and HELLAZ1 projects are described and we show that microstructure-type chambers are the best suitable for this kind of detection. (A.C.)

  16. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  17. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  18. Shielding calculations and collective dose estimations with the point-kernel-code VISIPLAN {sup registered} for the example of the project ZENT; Abschirmberechnungen und Kollektivdosisabschaetzungen mit dem Punkt-Kern-Code VISIPLAN {sup registered} am Beispiel des Projektes ZENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlke, S.; Niegoth, H. [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany). Nuclear Technologies; Stalder, I. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, Leibstadt (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    In the nuclear power plant Leibstadt (KKL) during the next year large components will be dismantled and stored for final disposal within the interim storage facility ZENT at the NPP site. Before construction of ZENT appropriate estimations of the local dose rate inside and outside the building and the collective dose for the normal operation have to be performed. The shielding calculations are based on the properties of the stored components and radiation sources and on the concepts for working place requirements. The installation of control and monitoring areas will depend on these calculations. For the determination of the shielding potential of concrete walls and steel doors with the defined boundary conditions point-kernel codes like MICROSHIELd {sup registered} are used. Complex problems cannot be modeled with this code. Therefore the point-kernel code VISIPLAN {sup registered} was developed for the determination of the local dose distribution functions in 3D models. The possibility of motion sequence inputs allows an optimization of collective dose estimations for the operational phases of a nuclear facility.

  19. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a ''Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Effective physiology teaching methods: from the perspective of first year MBBS students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagothu, Rajani Santhakumari; Reddy Indla, Yogananda; Paluru, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Students who took admission in first year MBBS course used to study physiology, anatomy and biochemistry for one and half years. Since a decade the first year course duration was reduced to one year unaltering the syllabus in the three basic subjects. So students are focusing on the easy ways to clear the university exams by accepting the concise books, which is dampening the real quality of the subject knowledge. This study is aimed at understanding the best methods of physiology teaching in the lecture gallery, from the student's perspective. The present study was undertaken at a private medical college in southern part of India in Telangana state, on 100 students who took admission in first year MBBS course, in the academic year 2015-2016. Out of 100, 36 are boys and 64 are girl students. Distributed a question paper which is having 2 sets of questions. First question is having three statements regarding the teaching methods namely; chalk and blackboard teaching, over head projection teaching and power point teaching. Students were asked to choose the best statement which they prefer. Second question is consisting of combination of teaching methods and they are; chalk and blackboard with over head projection teaching method, chalk and blackboard with power point presentation. Again the students were asked to choose one of the 2 statements in 2 nd question. Students preference of teaching methods for understanding of physiology in percentage; chalk and blackboard-54, over head projection teaching-4, power point presentation-32, chalk and blackboard with over head projection-26, chalk and blackboard with power point presentation-64. Majority of the students are in favor of a combination of chalk and blackboard with power point presentation for better understanding of physiology, next is chalk and blackboard teaching alone.

  1. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  2. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  3. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  4. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  5. The Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  6. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  7. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  8. Sources and behavior of perchlorate ions (ClO4-) in chalk aquifer of Champagne-Ardenne, France: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feifei; Jaunat, Jessy; Ollivier, Patrick; Cancès, Benjamin; Morvan, Xavier; Hubé, Daniel; Devos, Alain; Devau, Nicolas; Barbin, Vincent; Pannet, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is an environmental contaminant of growing concern due to its potential human health effects and widespread occurrence in surface water and groundwater. Analyses carried out in France have highlighted the presence of ClO4- in drinking water of Champagne-Ardenne (NW of France), with two potential sources suspected: a military source related to the First World War and an agricultural source related to the past use of Chilean nitrates. To determine the sources of ClO4- in groundwater, major and trace elements, 2H and 18O, ClO3- and ClO4- ions and a list of 39 explosives were analyzed from 35 surface water and groundwater sampling points in the east of the city of Reims. ClO4- ions were found in almost all sampling points (32 out of 35) with a max value of 33 µg L-1. ClO4- concentrations were highest in groundwater ranging from 0.7 to 33 µg L-1 (average value of about 6.2 µg L-1) against from 4 µg L-1) were collected near a military camp, where huge quantities of ammunitions have been used, stored and destroyed during and after the First World War.

  9. U–Pb, Rb–Sr, and U-series isotope geochemistry of rocks and fracture minerals from the Chalk River Laboratories site, Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymark, L.A.; Peterman, Z.E.; Moscati, R.J.; Thivierge, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • AECL evaluates Chalk River Laboratories site as potential nuclear waste repository. • Isotope-geochemical data for rocks and fracture minerals at CRL site are reported. • Zircons from gneiss and granite yielded U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 and 1045 ± 6 Ma. • WR Rb–Sr and Pb–Pb systems do not show substantial large-scale isotopic mobility. • U-series and REE data do not support oxidizing conditions at depth in the past 1 Ma. - Abstract: As part of the Geologic Waste Management Facility feasibility study, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is evaluating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario, situated in crystalline rock of the southwestern Grenville Province, for the possible development of an underground repository for low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. This paper presents petrographic and trace element analyses, U–Pb zircon dating results, and Rb–Sr, U–Pb and U-series isotopic analyses of gneissic drill core samples from the deep CRG-series characterization boreholes at the CRL site. The main rock types intersected in the boreholes include hornblende–biotite (±pyroxene) gneisses of granitic to granodioritic composition, leucocratic granitic gneisses with sparse mafic minerals, and garnet-bearing gneisses with variable amounts of biotite and/or hornblende. The trace element data for whole-rock samples plot in the fields of within-plate, syn-collision, and volcanic arc-type granites in discrimination diagrams used for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Zircons separated from biotite gneiss and metagranite samples yielded SHRIMP-RG U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 (2σ) and 1045 ± 6 Ma, respectively, in very good agreement with widespread Early Mesoproterozoic plutonic ages and Ottawan orogeny ages in the Central Gneiss Belt. The Rb–Sr, U–Pb, and Pb–Pb whole-rock errorchron apparent ages of most of the CRL gneiss samples are consistent with zircon U–Pb age and do not indicate

  10. Contribution of piezometric measurement to knowledge and management of low water levels: examples on the chalk aquifer in the Champagne Ardennes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stollsteiner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a BRGM study on piezometric indicators, threshold values of discharge and groundwater levels for the assessment of potentially-exploitable water resources of chalky watersheds. A method for estimating low water levels based on groundwater levels is presented from three examples representing chalk aquifers with different cycles: annual, combined and interannual. The first is located in Picardy and the two others in the Champagne-Ardennes region. Piezometers with annual cycles, used in these examples, are supposed to be representative of the aquifer hydro-dynamics. Except for multi-annual systems, the analysis between discharge measurements at a hydrometric station and groundwater levels measured at a piezometer representative of the main aquifer, leads to relatively precise and satisfactory relationships within a chalky context. These relationships may be useful for monitoring, validation, extension or reconstruction of the low water flow data. On the one hand, they allow definition of the piezometric levels corresponding to the different alert thresholds of river discharges. On the other hand, they clarify the proportions of low surface water flow from runoff or drainage of the aquifer. Finally, these correlations give an assessment of the minimum flow for the coming weeks. However, these correlations cannot be used to optimize the value of the exploitable water resource because it seems to be difficult to integrate the value of the effective rainfall that could occur during the draining period. Moreover, in the case of multi-annual systems, the solution is to attempt a comprehensive system modelling and, if it is satisfactory, using the simulated values to get rid of parasites or running the model for forecasting purposes.

  11. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying previously unknown locations of waste

  12. Contribution of piezometric measurement to knowledge and management of low water levels: examples on the chalk aquifer in the Champagne Ardennes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollsteiner, P.; Bessiere, H.; Nicolas, J.; Allier, D.; Berthet, O.

    2015-04-01

    This article is based on a BRGM study on piezometric indicators, threshold values of discharge and groundwater levels for the assessment of potentially-exploitable water resources of chalky watersheds. A method for estimating low water levels based on groundwater levels is presented from three examples representing chalk aquifers with different cycles: annual, combined and interannual. The first is located in Picardy and the two others in the Champagne-Ardennes region. Piezometers with annual cycles, used in these examples, are supposed to be representative of the aquifer hydro-dynamics. Except for multi-annual systems, the analysis between discharge measurements at a hydrometric station and groundwater levels measured at a piezometer representative of the main aquifer, leads to relatively precise and satisfactory relationships within a chalky context. These relationships may be useful for monitoring, validation, extension or reconstruction of the low water flow data. On the one hand, they allow definition of the piezometric levels corresponding to the different alert thresholds of river discharges. On the other hand, they clarify the proportions of low surface water flow from runoff or drainage of the aquifer. Finally, these correlations give an assessment of the minimum flow for the coming weeks. However, these correlations cannot be used to optimize the value of the exploitable water resource because it seems to be difficult to integrate the value of the effective rainfall that could occur during the draining period. Moreover, in the case of multi-annual systems, the solution is to attempt a comprehensive system modelling and, if it is satisfactory, using the simulated values to get rid of parasites or running the model for forecasting purposes.

  13. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part: 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark)] Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The present report documents the efforts to develop an impedance method for determining the distribution of the water saturation in a chalk core sample. Measurement of this distribution during a displacement process will make it possible to make numerical simulations of the process which may in turn reveal important rock parameters. The impedance method is one among other methods to determine saturation profiles in a research programme on rock parameters with participants from Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, and Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, GEUS. The other methods investigated are nmr-scanning and {gamma}-logging. (au)

  14. Circular fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Chunwei; Zhou, Changquan; Jiang, Kejian; Fang, Meiqi

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) measurement method, called the circular fringe projection profilometry (CFPP), is proposed. Similar to the conventional fringe projection profilometry, CFPP also requires fringe pattern projection and capture, phase demodulation, and phase unwrapping. However, it works with a totally different mechanism. CFPP recovers the height of a point by calculating its distance to the optical center of a projector along the optical axis. This distance is calculated with the aid of the divergence angle of a projected light ray and the distance between the measured point and the optical axis. The distance between the measured point and the optical axis is detected by a camera with telecentric lenses, while the divergence angle can be calculated from the phase of a captured circular fringe pattern. The validity of CFPP is confirmed by a set of experiments.

  15. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  16. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  17. Dealing with Historical Discrepancies: The Recovery of National Research Experiment (NRX) Reactor Fuel Rods at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) - 13324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickerd, Meggan

    2013-01-01

    Following the 1952 National Research Experiment (NRX) Reactor accident, fuel rods which had short irradiation histories were 'temporarily' buried in wooden boxes at the 'disposal grounds' during the cleanup effort. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), strategically retrieves legacy waste and restores lands affected by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) early operations. Thus under this program the recovery of still buried NRX reactor fuel rods and their relocation to modern fuel storage was identified as a priority. A suspect inventory of NRX fuels was compiled from historical records and various research activities. Site characterization in 2005 verified the physical location of the fuel rods and determined the wooden boxes they were buried in had degraded such that the fuel rods were in direct contact with the soil. The fuel rods were recovered and transferred to a modern fuel storage facility in 2007. Recovered identification tags and measured radiation fields were used to identify the inventory of these fuels. During the retrieval activity, a discrepancy was discovered between the anticipated number of fuel rods and the number found during the retrieval. A total of 32 fuel rods and cans of cut end pieces were recovered from the specified site, which was greater than the anticipated 19 fuel rods and cans. This discovery delayed the completion of the project, increased the associated costs, and required more than anticipated storage space in the modern fuel storage facility. A number of lessons learned were identified following completion of this project, the most significant of which was the potential for discrepancies within the historical records. Historical discrepancies are more likely to be resolved by comprehensive historical record searches and site characterizations. It was also recommended that a complete review of the wastes generated, and the total affected lands as a result of this historic

  18. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Felician Alecu; Paul Pocatilu; Sergiu Capisizu

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress....

  19. Marine Point Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    will link to the zone forecast and then allow further zooming to the point of interest whereas on the Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Northern Indiana, IN Lake Charles, LA New Orleans, LA Boston, MA Caribou, ME

  20. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  1. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  2. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  3. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  4. Photoacoustic Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  5. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  6. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  7. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  8. ENVISION Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a highly advanced technique of cancer radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (ions) to destroy tumour cells. While conventional X-rays traverse the human body depositing radiation as they pass through, ions deliver most of their energy at one point. Hadrontherapy is most advantageous once the position of the tumour is accurately known, so that healthy tissues can be protected. Accurate positioning is a crucial challenge for targeting moving organs, as in lung cancer, and for adapting the irradiation as the tumour shrinks with treatment. Therefore, quality assurance becomes one of the most relevant issues for an effective outcome of the cancer treatment. In order to improve the quality assurance tools for hadrontherapy, the European Commission is funding ENVISION, a 4-year project that aims at developing solutions for: real-• time non invasive monitoring • quantitative imaging • precise determination of delivered dose • fast feedback for optimal treatment planning • real-t...

  9. S08: investigation and repair of a cracked feeder at Point Lepreau GS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Celovsky, A.; Wright, M.D.; Gendron, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Early in 1997 investigation of a low level leak in the Point Lepreau GS (PLGS) PHTS revealed that an outlet feeder, S08, was leaking. Ultrasonic inspection, and subsequent failure analysis, revealed that the leak was a consequence of a crack. Given the unusual nature of this event, and current concerns over feeder thinning, a detailed and careful removal and examination procedure was developed. The S08 outlet feeder was removed and shipped to Chalk River Laboratories for examination. The examination confirmed that the failure was a through-wall crack, most likely the consequence of stress corrosion cracking. A critical point of the analysis was to determine how the crack initiated, and subsequently propagated. High residual stresses and possible abnormal loading in conjunction with chemistry environments resulted in the Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of the S08 outlet feeder bend. It is recognized that some of the causative factors implicated in the S08 failure apply to other outlet feeders. In particular, residual stresses in the non-stress-relieved, short-radius cold bent pipes will remain relatively high over the future life of the feeders. However, the risk of CANDU feeder failure by SCC is judged to be extremely low based on the evidence of the inspections carried out to date and the good performance record of feeder pipe in the CANDU industry. The channel was restored to its locked configuration, and the failed section of feeder replaced. (author)

  10. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  11. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  12. Point contact to single-crystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Uxa, Štěpán; Krištofik, Jozef; Kozak, Halyna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2012), 1-4 ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : point-contact * diamond * space-charge–limited transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2012

  13. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...

  14. The Pervasive Power of PowerPoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the pervasive role of Microsoft’s presentation software PowerPoint as a genre of professional and organizational communication. Frequently, PowerPoint is not only used for the primary function it was initially designed for, i.e., facilitating live presentations, but also...... for alternative purposes such as project documentation. Its application in a neighboring domain, however, poses a functional dilemma: does the PowerPoint genre preserve the features of its primary function, i.e., presentation, or rather adapt to the new function, i.e., documentation? By drawing on a communication......-centered perspective, this paper examines PowerPoint’s role in the domain of project documentation as a clash between the constitutive affordances of professional and of organizational communication. To investigate this issue empirically, I conducted a case study at a multinational business consulting firm. The study...

  15. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  16. [Clinical key points. Gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, P

    2007-05-01

    Gonioscopy should be performed in all patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma. Four points are systematically evaluated: the width of the angle, the degree of trabecular pigmentation, the iridotrabecular appositions or synechia, and the level of iris insertion and the shape of the peripheral iris profile.

  17. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  18. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  19. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  20. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  1. Lidar Point Cloud - USGS National Map 3DEP Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data collection consists of Lidar Point Cloud (LPC) projects as provided to the USGS. These point cloud files contain all the original lidar points collected,...

  2. Point Lepreau refurbishment - update 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Eagles, E.R.; Hickman, C.N.; Baker, R.; Thompson, P.D.; Howieson, J.Q.; Ichiyen, N.

    2005-01-01

    NB Power Nuclear is planning to conduct a 18-month maintenance outage of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) beginning in April 2008. The major activity would be the replacement of all 380 Fuel Channel and Calandria Tube assemblies and connecting feeder pipes. This activity is referred to as Retube. NB Power Nuclear would also take advantage of this outage to conduct a number of repairs, replacements, inspection and upgrades (such as rewinding or replacing the generator, replacement of shutdown system trip computers, replacement of certain valves and expansion joints, inspection of systems not normally accessible, etc.). These collective activities are referred to as Refurbishment. This would allow the station to operate for an additional 25 to 30 years. The scope or the project was determined [mm the outcome of a two year study involving a detailed condition assessment of the station which examined Issues relating to ageing and obsolescence, along with a detailed review or Safety and Licensing issues associated with extended operation. The Refurbishment outage would be preceded by a detailed Engineering Project Phase that would: Finalize details of the Retube process including modeling, tooling development, site facilities and training of personnel. Perform necessary engineering activities related to design modifications. Construct the new waste storage structures to house Retube Waste and other additional waste storage structures for the extended life of the station. Setup necessary temporary construction facilities (offices, storage areas, change moms, decontamination an maintenance areas) to support Retube. Procure equipment and components. Perform detailed outage planning. Initiate development of detailed commissioning as well as lay-up, monitoring and return to service procedures. At the present time, the NB Power Nuclear Board of Directors and the New Brunswick Provincial government are reviewing a proposal for a lease arrangement from Bruce Power

  3. Project management with dynamic scheduling baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control

    CERN Document Server

    Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is known as dynamic scheduling, and is used to refer to three dimensions of project management and scheduling: the construction of a baseline schedule and the analysis of a project schedule's risk as preparation of the project control phase during project progress. This dynamic scheduling point of view implicitly assumes that the usability of a project's baseline schedule is rather limited and only acts as a point of reference in the project life cycle.

  4. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  5. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  6. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  7. Projection radiography. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, J. L. [UNITEC Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2014-09-15

    In its simplest form, X ray imaging is the collection of attenuation shadows that are projected from an ideal X ray point source on to an image receptor. This simple form is true for all X ray imaging modalities, including complex ones that involve source and receptor movement, such as computed tomography (CT). This simplified view, however, is made vastly more complex by the non-ideal point source, by the consequences of projecting a 3-D object on to a 2-D detector and by the presence of scattered radiation, generated within the patient, which will degrade any image that is captured.

  8. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  9. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  10. The LHC project

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    At the halfway point in the construction of the LHC, the project is now moving from the design and procurement phase to the installation phase, which officially started on 1st March. An overview of the progress of the project is given and the final schedule for installation and commissioning is discussed. The talk will be given in English but questions can be taken in French.

  11. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  12. At the Tipping Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  13. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  14. THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT IN POINT OF ETHICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel DEMIR

    2013-01-01

    In this research, it is evaluated through concrete examples the results of HUGO and potential ethical problems that it may cause. It is explained deeply that when it is realize that carried potential risks of HUGO, how will be effected people’s social rights, freedoms and where will start and finish their freedom because of HUGO’s results. The research discusses the problem of regarding people as instruments and argues that genetic interventions have the potential to interfere with people's p...

  15. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument......: "Explicitly Declared Static Types: The Missing Links," by Erik Ernst. How do we understand software? Using it is a powerful approach, but it provides examples of properties, not general truths. Some static knowledge is needed. This department is part of a special issue on dynamically typed languages....

  16. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  17. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  18. Pointing control for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  19. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  20. Adaptive projective filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs

  1. KEY COMPARISON Report to the CCT on key comparison EUROMET.T-K6 (EUROMET Project no. 621): Comparison of the realizations of local dew/frost-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    2010-01-01

    The first humidity CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6, will be completed in 2010. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was carried out in 2004 to 2008. National metrology institutes from 24 countries participated in the comparison. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was organized as three parallel loops with two specially manufactured precision chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. MIKES was coordinating the project. This report presents the results of the comparison and provides detailed information on the measurements performed by all participating laboratories and the analysis of the results. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. PowerPoint presentation in learning physiology by undergraduates with different learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankad, Roopa B; Shashikala, G V; Herur, Anita; Manjula, R; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Patil, Shailaja

    2015-12-01

    PowerPoint presentations (PPTs) have become routine in medical colleges because of their flexible and varied presentation capabilities. Research indicates that students prefer PPTs over the chalk-and-talk method, and there is a lot of debate over advantages and disadvantages of PPTs. However, there is no clear evidence that PPTs improve student learning/performance. Furthermore, there are a variety of learning styles with sex differences in classrooms. It is the responsibility of teacher/facilitator and student to be aware of learning style preferences to improve learning. The present study asked the following research question: do PPTs equally affect the learning of students with different learning styles in a mixed sex classroom? After we assessed students' predominant learning style according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when learning, a test was conducted before and after a PPT to assess student performance. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test and ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test. A z-test showed no sex differences in preferred learning styles. There was significant increase in posttest performance compared with that of the pretest in all types of learners of both sexes. There was also a nonsignificant relationship among sex, learning style, and performance after the PPT. A PPT is equally effective for students with different learning style preferences and supports mixed sex classrooms. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  3. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  4. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  5. Project Longshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. Curtis; Chamberlain, Sally A.; Stevens, Robert; Pagan, Neftali

    1989-01-01

    Project Longshot is an unmanned probe to our nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, 4.3 light years away. The Centauri system is a trinary system consisting of two central stars (A and B) orbiting a barycenter, and a third (Proxima Centauri) orbiting the two. The system is a declination of -67 degrees. The goal is to reach the Centauri system in 50 years. This time space was chosen because any shorter time would be impossible of the relativistic velocities involved, and any greater time would be impossible because of the difficulty of creating a spacecraft with such a long lifetime. Therefore, the following mission profile is proposed: (1) spacecraft is assembled in Earth orbit; (2) spacecraft escapes Earth and Sun in the ecliptic with a single impulse maneuver; (3) spacecraft changed declination to point toward Centauri system; (4) spacecraft accelerates to 0.1c; (5) spacecraft coasts at 0.1c for 41 years; (6) spacecraft decelerates upon reaching Centauri system; and (7) spacecraft orbits Centauri system, conducts investigations, and relays data to Earth. The total time to reach the Centauri system, taking into consideration acceleration and deceleration, will be approximately 50 years.

  6. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  7. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  8. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  9. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  10. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  11. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    by identifying the points p1 and p2. If m ≥ 2, let R1,...,Rm−1 be m − 1 copies of the projective line P1 and let xi,yi be two distinct points in Ri. Let R be the nodal curve which arises from the union. R0 ⊔ R1 ⊔···⊔ Rm−1 ⊔ Rm by identifying p1 ∈ R0 and p2 ∈ Rm with x1 ∈ R1 and ym−1 ∈ Rm−1 respectively and by identifying ...

  12. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Musters, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The plan of the book is to build a relationship with the Author as your personal guide through the most common "pattern" of SharePoint development. In cookbook style, you will be led carefully step by step through a comprehensive set of recipes. The practical example starts quickly and builds logically throughout the chapters to create a common theme. You will be developing coding techniques that you will be able to apply to the real world. In fact, this book will train you for the first SharePoint development project you will join. This book is written for the ASP.NET developer who wants to g

  13. Project descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This part specifies the activities and project tasks of each project broken down according to types of financing, listing the current projects Lw 1 through 3 funded by long-term provisions (budget), the current projects LB 1 and 2, LG 1 through 5, LK1, LM1, and LU 1 through 6 financed from special funds, and the planned projects ZG 1 through 4 and ZU 1, also financed from special funds. (DG) [de

  14. Low-level radioactive river sediment particles originating from the Chalk river nuclear site carry a mixture of radionuclides and metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Ole Christian; Cagno, Simone; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, Center of Excellence in Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Falkenberg, Gerald [Photon science, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Janssens, Koen; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik [AXIL, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerpen (Belgium); Jaroszewicz, Jakub [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Priest, Nicholas D.; Audet, Marc [Nuclear Science Division, AECL Chalk River Laboratories (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Chalk River Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., site is located on the Ottawa River approximately 200 km northwest of Ottawa, Canada. The site has two large research reactors: NRX, which operated from 1947 to 1991 and NRU, which continues to operate and is used to produce a significant fraction of the world's supply of medical isotopes. During the course of the operation of the NRX reactor small quantities of radioactive particles were discharged to the Ottawa River through a process sewer discharge pipe. These are now located in river bed sediments within a 0.08 km² area close to the discharge pipe. In the present study, selected particles were isolated from riverbed sediments. These were then characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive micro X-ray analysis (ESEM-EDX). This was undertaken to obtain information on particle size, structure and the distribution of elements across particle surfaces. Based on the results of ESEM-EDX, particles were selected for X-ray absorption nano-tomography analysis, which provides videos showing the 3D density distribution of the particles. Furthermore, 2D and 3D Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence; micro-XRF, micro-X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy; micro-XANES and micro-X-ray diffraction; micro-XRD) with submicron resolution (beam size 0.5 μm) were employed to investigate the elemental and phase composition (micro-XRF/XRD) and oxidation states (micro-XANES) of matrix elements with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Results show that the particles investigated so far varied according to: 1) <~40 μm diameter sized U fuel particles similar in structure to particles observed from Chernobyl and Krasnoyarsk-26 and 2) larger particles with diameters up to several hundred μm. The larger particles comprised a matrix of low density, sediment material with high density inclusions that contained a range of metals including Cu, Cr, As

  15. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  16. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600 o C, or reactor irradiation at 50 o C. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  17. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  18. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    “Slow journalism” is a term anthropologist and sociologists sometimes use to describe their empirical work, ethnography. To journalists and media observers, meanwhile, “slow journalism” signifies a newfound dedication to serious long-form journalism. Not surprisingly, thus, “ethnographic journalism......”—a genre where reporters adopt research strategies from social science—takes “slow” to the extreme. Immersing themselves in communities for weeks, months and years, ethnographic journalists seek to gain what anthropologists call “the native's point of view”. Based on in-depth interviews with practitioners...... and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...

  19. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  20. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  1. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro......, and of the explanations of project practices they could offer. To discuss avenues for future research on projects and project practice, this paper suggests the notion of project studies to better grasp the status of our field. We combine these two sets of ideas to analyse the status and future options for advancing...... project research: (1) levels of analysis; and (2) type of research. Analysing recent developments within project studies, we observe the emergence of what we refer to as type 3 research, which reconciles the need for theoretical development and engagement with practice. Type 3 research suggests pragmatic...

  2. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  3. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  4. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  5. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  6. Magnonic triply-degenerate nodal points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    We generalize the concept of triply-degenerate nodal points to non-collinear antiferromagnets. Here, we introduce this concept to insulating quantum antiferromagnets on the decorated honeycomb lattice, with spin-1 bosonic quasiparticle excitations known as magnons. We demonstrate the existence of magnonic surface states with constant energy contours that form pairs of magnonic arcs connecting the surface projection of the magnonic triple nodal points. The quasiparticle excitations near the triple nodal points represent three-component bosons beyond that of magnonic Dirac, Weyl, and nodal-line cases. They can be regarded as a direct reflection of the intrinsic spin carried by magnons. Furthermore, we show that the magnonic triple nodal points can split into magnonic Weyl points, as the system transits from a non-collinear spin structure to a non-coplanar one with a non-zero scalar spin chirality. Our results not only apply to insulating antiferromagnets, but also provide a platform to seek for triple nodal points in metallic antiferromagnets.

  7. Learning power point 2000 easily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, In Su; Je, Jung Suk

    2000-05-15

    This book introduces power point 2000, which gives descriptions what power point is, what we can do with power point 2000, is it possible to install power point 2000 in my computer? Let's run power point, basic of power point such as new presentation, writing letter, using text box, changing font size, color and shape, catching power user, insertion of word art and creating of new file. It also deals with figure, chart, graph, making multimedia file, presentation, know-how of power point for teachers and company workers.

  8. The first tunnel section of the Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, T.K.; Laughton, C.; Nelson, P.P.

    1990-11-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project will be constructed for the United States Department of Energy at a competitively-selected site in Ellis County, Texas, about 30 mile (50 km) south of the central business district of Dallas. The injector system and main collider ring will be housed in 70 mile (110 km) of tunnel, and the project will include additional shafts and underground enclosures with clear spans up to 30 ft (10 m) at depths of more than 250 ft (75 m). The first tunnel segment to be designed and constructed will include approximately 5.9 mile (9.4 km) of 12 ft (3.7 m) finished internal diameter tunnel, four shafts up to 55 ft (16.8 m) diameter, and various connecting tunnels and adits. Construction will be in weak rock lithologies, including mudstones, marls, and chalks with compressive strengths typically between 300 and 2500 psi (2.0 and 17.2 MPa). Design is underway, with an expected bid date before the end of 1990, and with start of construction following in the spring of 1991. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  10. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  11. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  12. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  13. Microsoft project

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Lucija; Mandušić, Dubravka; Grbavac, Vitomir

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft Project je alat čije su prednosti u svakodnevnom radu nezamjenjive. Pomoću Microsoft Projecta omogućeno je upravljanje resursima, stvaranje izvještaja o projektima u vremenu, te analize različitih scenarija. Pojavljuje u tri verzije: Microsoft Project Professional, Microsoft Project Server i Microsoft Project Server Client Access Licenses. Upravo je trend da suvremeni poslovni ljudi zadatke povjeravaju Microsoft Projectu jer on znatno povećava produktivnost rada. Te prednos...

  14. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  15. Discovering Symmetry in Everyday Environments: A Creative Approach to Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Kei; Schrandt, Matthew; Miessler, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on symmetry project is proposed as an innovative way of teaching point groups to undergraduate chemistry students. Traditionally, courses teaching symmetry require students to identify the point group of a given object. This project asks the reverse: students are instructed to identify an object that matches each point group. Doing so…

  16. Fixed-point data-collection method of video signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yu; Yin Zejie; Qian Weiming; Wu Xiaoyi

    1997-01-01

    The author describes a Fixed-point data-collection method of video signal. The method provides an idea of fixed-point data-collection, and has been successfully applied in the research of real-time radiography on dose field, a project supported by National Science Fund

  17. Software engineering beyond the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Context The main part of software engineering methods, tools and technologies has developed around projects as the central organisational form of software development. A project organisation depends on clear bounds regarding scope, participants, development effort and lead-time. What happens when...... of traditional software engineering, but makes perfect sense, considering that the frame of reference for product development is not a project but continuous innovation across the respective ecosystem. The article provides a number of concrete points for further research....

  18. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  19. Development of Educational SharePoint portal for coding students

    OpenAIRE

    Colomer Castelló, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The project will explain what is SharePoint, why is used and who does use it. It will also expose some alternatives, compare them to SharePoint and expose the pros and cons. The main objective of this project will be developing an educational SharePoint portal. Using this portal, coding students will be able to share their solutions to different exercises, vote the best solutions and comment them. This portal will be developed using only software and servers obtained legally without any cost....

  20. A MARKED POINT PROCESS MODEL FOR VEHICLE DETECTION IN AERIAL LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Börcs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automated method for vehicle detection in LiDAR point clouds of crowded urban areas collected from an aerial platform. We assume that the input cloud is unordered, but it contains additional intensity and return number information which are jointly exploited by the proposed solution. Firstly, the 3-D point set is segmented into ground, vehicle, building roof, vegetation and clutter classes. Then the points with the corresponding class labels and intensity values are projected to the ground plane, where the optimal vehicle configuration is described by a Marked Point Process (MPP model of 2-D rectangles. Finally, the Multiple Birth and Death algorithm is utilized to find the configuration with the highest confidence.

  1. B.C. Hydro drops Duke Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The abandonment of the proposed natural gas-fired Duke Point Power Project on Vancouver Island was discussed. It was suggested that the continuing appeal process increases the risk that the plant will not be built in time. The news followed a decision by the British Columbia (BC) Court of Appeal to hear an appeal of the project by a number of intervenors. Over $170 million has been spent on the project to date. The decision will impact the BC treasury, as the amount is being deducted from the dividends that BC Hydro would have paid to the government. A coalition of individuals and environmental groups, as well as local industry, are opposed to the plant on the basis of increased greenhouse (GHG) emissions and higher natural gas prices. The project would have required a natural gas pipeline to be built under Georgia Strait. The project was thought necessary due to the deteriorating condition of high voltage direct current cables running under the strait. BC Hydro's fallback plan for the island is load reduction. A new transmission line is also planned

  2. Participation of INR to the research project initiated by the CANDU Owners Group - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, C-tin; Ohai, Dumitru; Visinescu, Doru; Ionescu, Silviu; Man, Ion; Pitigoi, Vasile; Anghel, Dumitru; Uta, Octavian

    2004-01-01

    Having in view the participation of the INR's Nuclear Materials and Corrosion Departments together with Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, and other nine well known institutes, to the Research Project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna and the results obtained as well, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) - Canada has proposed an economical contract to INR - Pitesti, called the DHC Project. The goal of this project was the investigation of the slow cracking in the hydration state (Delayed Hydride Cracking phenomenon) of the pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. There were determined, in specific conditions, the DHC rate, V DHC , and threshold factor of triggering the phenomenon K HI (the factor of stress intensity in the crack) occurring in un-irradiated Zr-2.5%Nb alloy. Further extensions of the project to irradiated alloys of the pressure tubes used in CANDU reactors, provided by the Canadian partner, are planned. This paper gives an overview covering the contributions of the INR's departments to the contract provisions for the current year as concluded with COG - Canada. It is described the design and execution activity of a device for processing the samples subject to testing, the mounting of the measuring chain, developing of a system for monitoring the testing parameters, the acquisition and automated processing of experimental data up to constituting the final report. The testing report was appreciated by the COG and recognized as demonstrating the INR's capability to fulfil the tasks of the DHC Project and so opened the way to further cooperation

  3. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  4. Agile Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Rank; Riis, Jens Ove; Mikkelsen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a preliminary introduction to the application of Agile Thinking in management of project portfolio and company development. At any point in time, companies have a crowd of development initiatives spread around the organisation and managed at different levels...... in the managerial hierarchy. They compete for resources and managerial attention, and they often take too long time - and some do not survive in the rapid changing context. Top man¬agers ask for speed, flexibility and effectiveness in the portfolio of development activities (projects). But which competencies...

  5. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa

  6. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  7. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y; Liu, C L; Dang, R S; Ando, M; Sugiyama, H; Chen, H S; Ding, G H

    2009-01-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  8. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...... which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate than eye pointing....

  9. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  10. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  11. Site management plan: Douglas Point Ecological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.L.; Miles, K.J.; Strass, P.K.; McDonald, B.

    1979-01-01

    A portion of the Douglas Point Site has been set aside for use as an ecological monitoring facility (DPEL). Plans call for it to provide for long-term scientific study and analysis of specific terrestrial and aquatic ecological systems representative of the coastal plain region of the mid-Atlantic United States. Discussion of the program is presented under the following section headings: goals and objectives; management and organization of DPEL; laboratory director; site manager; monitoring manager; research manager; and, organizational chart. The seven appendixes are entitled: detailed site description; supplemental land use plan; contract between Potomac Electric Power Company and Charles County Community Collge (CCCC); research and monitoring projects initiated at the Douglas Point Power Plant site; advisory committees; facilities and equipment; and CCCC personnel resumes

  12. Big Rock Point severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, B.A.; Gabor, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    December 1994, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) issued guidance relative to the formal industry position on Severe Accident Management (SAM) approved by the NEI Strategic Issues Advisory Committee on November 4, 1994. This paper summarizes how Big Rock Point (BRP) has and continues to address SAM strategies. The historical accounting portion of this presentation includes a description of how the following projects identified and defined the current Big Rock Point SAM strategies: the 1981 Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment performance; the development of the Plant Specific Technical Guidelines from which the symptom oriented Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) were developed; the Control Room Design Review; and, the recent completion of the Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE). In addition to the historical presentation deliberation, this paper the present activities that continue to stress SAM strategies

  13. Hilbert schemes of points and Heisenberg algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsrud, G.; Goettsche, L.

    2000-01-01

    Let X [n] be the Hilbert scheme of n points on a smooth projective surface X over the complex numbers. In these lectures we describe the action of the Heisenberg algebra on the direct sum of the cohomologies of all the X [n] , which has been constructed by Nakajima. In the second half of the lectures we study the relation of the Heisenberg algebra action and the ring structures of the cohomologies of the X [n] , following recent work of Lehn. In particular we study the Chern and Segre classes of tautological vector bundles on the Hilbert schemes X [n] . (author)

  14. Exceptional points in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Markus; Rotter, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Open quantum systems are embedded in the continuum of scattering wavefunctions and are naturally described by non-Hermitian Hamilton operators. In the complex energy plane, exceptional points appear at which two (or more) eigenvalues of the Hamilton operator coalesce. Although they are a countable set of single points in the complex energy plane and therefore of measure zero, they determine decisively the dynamics of open quantum systems. A powerful method for the description of open quantum systems is the Feshbach projection operator formalism. It is used in the present paper as a basic tool for the study of exceptional points and of the role they play for the dynamics of open quantum systems. Among others, the topological structure of the exceptional points, the rigidity of the phases of the eigenfunctions in their vicinity, the enhancement of observable values due to the reduced phase rigidity and the appearance of phase transitions are considered. The results are compared with existing experimental data on microwave cavities. In the last section, some questions being still unsolved, are considered

  15. Tunable Magnon Weyl Points in Ferromagnetic Pyrochlores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2016-10-07

    The dispersion relations of magnons in ferromagnetic pyrochlores with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are shown to possess Weyl points, i. e., pairs of topologically nontrivial crossings of two magnon branches with opposite topological charge. As a consequence of their topological nature, their projections onto a surface are connected by magnon arcs, thereby resembling closely Fermi arcs of electronic Weyl semimetals. On top of this, the positions of the Weyl points in reciprocal space can be tuned widely by an external magnetic field: rotated within the surface plane, the Weyl points and magnon arcs are rotated as well; tilting the magnetic field out of plane shifts the Weyl points toward the center Γ[over ¯] of the surface Brillouin zone. The theory is valid for the class of ferromagnetic pyrochlores, i. e., three-dimensional extensions of topological magnon insulators on kagome lattices. In this Letter, we focus on the (111) surface, identify candidates of established ferromagnetic pyrochlores which apply to the considered spin model, and suggest experiments for the detection of the topological features.

  16. Laser Dew-Point Hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Toyooka, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    A rough-surface-type automatic dew-point hygrometer was developed using a laser diode and an optical fiber cable. A gold plate with 0.8 µ m average surface roughness was used as a surface for deposition of dew to facilitate dew deposition and prevent supersaturation of water vapor at the dew point. It was shown experimentally that the quantity of dew deposited can be controlled to be constant at any predetermined level, and is independent of the dew point to be measured. The dew points were measured in the range from -15° C to 54° C in which the temperature ranged from 0° C to 60° C. The measurement error of the dew point was ±0.5° C which was equal to below ±2% in relative humidity in the above dew-point range.

  17. Fermat's point from five perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungeun; Flores, Alfinio

    2015-04-01

    The Fermat point of a triangle is the point such that minimizes the sum of the distances from that point to the three vertices. Five approaches to study the Fermat point of a triangle are presented in this article. First, students use a mechanical device using masses, strings and pulleys to study the Fermat point as the one that minimizes the potential energy of the system. Second, students use soap films between parallel planes connecting three pegs. The tension on the film will be minimal when the sum of distances is minimal. Third, students use an empirical approach, measuring distances in an interactive GeoGebra page. Fourth, students use Euclidean geometry arguments for two proofs based on the Torricelli configuration, and one using Viviani's Theorem. And fifth, the kinematic method is used to gain additional insight on the size of the angles between the segments joining the Fermat point with the vertices.

  18. The goal of ape pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halina, Marta; Liebal, Katja; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their interactions with humans. However, the precise function of this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We investigated these two possibilities here by examining how the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Upon pointing to food, subjects were faced with a recipient who either looked at the indicated object (successful-look) or failed to look at the indicated object (failed-look). We predicted that, if apes point primarily to direct attention, subjects would spend more time pointing in the failed-look condition because the goal of their gesture had not been met. Alternatively, we expected that, if apes point primarily to request an object, subjects would not differ in their pointing behavior between the successful-look and failed-look conditions because these conditions differed only in the looking behavior of the recipient. We found that subjects did differ in their pointing behavior across the successful-look and failed-look conditions, but contrary to our prediction subjects spent more time pointing in the successful-look condition. These results suggest that apes are sensitive to the attentional states of gestural recipients, but their adjustments are aimed at multiple goals. We also found a greater number of individuals with a strong right-hand than left-hand preference for pointing.

  19. MANAGING INNOVATION PROJECTS USING DISTRIBUTION LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Loučanová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant part of innovation projects management is the distribution logistics. From the point of view of time and material content, the properly chosen way of distribution is one of many factors for success of the project and innovation creation itself. The paper points out the fundamental basis of innovation management in the stage of its realization referring to the importance of distribution logistics in this part of innovation project management. Distribution logistics in the project management provides comprehensive solutions to efficiency of tangible relocating processes in all connections and mutual relations of project in order to maintain compliance between economy and business when implementing innovations.

  20. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.