WorldWideScience

Sample records for progressive facies variation

  1. Variations in vitrinite reflectance with organic facies - examples from Pennsylvanian cyclothems of the Midcontinent, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, L M; Baker, D R

    1987-01-01

    Significant variations in vitrinite reflectance (% R/sub o/) with organic facies have been demonstrated from Pennsylvanian -aged cyclothems of the Midcontinent, USA. Thermal alteration index (TAI) and Rock-Eval T/sub m/ax values remain relatively constant through these thin lithologic successions, regardless of facies, and are in reasonable agreement with R/sub o/ measurements on interbedded coal. Organic-rich black and phosphatic black-shales, which contain significant component of liptinitic organic matter of presumed marine algal derivation, display R/sub o/ values which are suppressed relative to the coal benchmark. A distinct correlation between increased hydrogen index (HI) and liptinite content with suppressed reflectivities is apparent. More oxic facies (e.g. calcareous and fossiliferous gray shales and limestones) often display R/sub o/'s that are considerably higher than for coal. Soxhlet extraction prior to maceration yielded no variation in reflectance compared to non-extracted kerogens suggesting bitumen adsorption was not the cause of the apparent suppression in the organic-rich black-shales. Lower total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized bitumen contents and Rock-Eval transformations ratios in liptinite-rich facies suggest differential reaction kinetics for kerogen types, with terrestrial organic matter 'maturing' at an earlier stage than hydrogen-rich marine-derived organic matter. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Regional facies variations in the Vempalle formation of Cuddapah Basin: implications on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, H.S.; Mukundhan, A.R.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Achar, K.K.; Umamaheswar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Strata-bound large tonnage uranium deposit hosted by the Grey-impure-dolostone of Vempalle Formation of Cuddapah Basin is known in Tummalapalle-Rachakuntapalle sector. Deposition of rocks of Cuddapah Basin commenced with Papaghni Group, which comprises Clastic - Gulcheru Formation and Chemogenic - Vempalle Formation. The Vempalle Formation is developed over 280 km stretch from south to north along the western margin of Cuddapah Basin with maximum thickness of about 2.1 km. Recent studies helped in classifying the Vempalle Formation into five major lithofacies viz. Massive Dolostone, Conglomerate, Grey-impure-dolostone (host rock for uranium mineralization), Purple shale and Cherty Dolostone. The lithofacies studies along selected traverses from Tummalapalle in south to Dhone in north revealed the development of all five facies upto Narpala near Chitravati River whereas towards its north, the Grey-impure-dolostone and Cherty Dolostone dominate. The study also revealed over lapping nature of Cherty Dolostone in North of Nossam-Peddapaya lineament; where it directly rests above the Gulcheru Formation. Environment of deposition for these facies of Vempalle Formation place this in a Shallowing-upward carbonate depositional system with characteristic tidal flat environment. The Grey-impure-dolostone facies hosting uranium is interpreted to be developed in Supratidal environment with a narrow pH range of 7.0 - 7.5 in a reducing environment along with precipitation of phosphate. Since the tidal flats have later extension over several kilometers, favorable environment of Grey-impure-dolostone may exist over wide area in northern part also. The search for Grey-impure-dolostone hosted uranium, therefore has a bearing an understanding the regional facies variations in Vempalle Formation. The paper presents the studies carried out in this direction and results thereof. (author)

  3. Seismic facies; Facies sismicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johann, Paulo Roberto Schroeder [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao Corporativo. Gerencia de Reservas e Reservatorios]. E-mail: johann@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    The method presented herein describes the seismic facies as representations of curves and vertical matrixes of the lithotypes proportions. The seismic facies are greatly interested in capturing the spatial distributions (3D) of regionalized variables, as for example, lithotypes, sedimentary facies groups and/ or porosity and/or other properties of the reservoirs and integrate them into the 3D geological modeling (Johann, 1997). Thus when interpreted as curves or vertical matrixes of proportions, seismic facies allow us to build a very important tool for structural analysis of regionalized variables. The matrixes have an important application in geostatistical modeling. In addition, this approach provides results about the depth and scale of the wells profiles, that is, seismic data is integrated to the characterization of reservoirs in depth maps and in high resolution maps. The link between the different necessary technical phases involved in the classification of the segments of seismic traces is described herein in groups of predefined traces of two approaches: a) not supervised and b) supervised by the geological knowledge available on the studied reservoir. The multivariate statistical methods used to obtain the maps of the seismic facies units are interesting tools to be used to provide a lithostratigraphic and petrophysical understanding of a petroleum reservoir. In the case studied these seismic facies units are interpreted as representative of the depositional system as a part of the Namorado Turbiditic System, Namorado Field, Campos Basin.Within the scope of PRAVAP 19 (Programa Estrategico de Recuperacao Avancada de Petroleo - Strategic Program of Advanced Petroleum Recovery) some research work on algorithms is underway to select new optimized attributes to apply seismic facies. One example is the extraction of attributes based on the wavelet transformation and on the time-frequency analysis methodology. PRAVAP is also carrying out research work on an

  4. ) Organic Facies Variations in the Middle Cretaceous Black Shales of the Abakaliki Fold Belt, South-East, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Badejoko, T.A.; Ekweozor, C.M.; Adebowale, K. O.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment, based on organic facies characteristics, have been carried out on the middle Cretaceous black shales, in order to determine their hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, and depositional environments. The methods employed include evaluation of organic carbon content, rockeval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter, maceral composition and biomarker distributions.Organic facies criteria such as TOC, HI, Tmax, liptinite content, SOMIFOC and SHC/AHC indicate that Albian to middle Cenomanian shales are could only generate gas. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian shales are characterized by Type I/II kerogen, mature and could generate both oil and characterized by Type III kerogen, immature and could generate gas with little oil. The biomarker distributions indicate immature to mature source rock, moderately biodegraded and with reduced marine environment prevailing during the deposition of the lack shales. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian black shales show the highest source-rock potential

  5. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  6. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  7. Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facies and facies architecture and depositional environments of the ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Depositional environments of the Yolde Formation were studied based on the analysis of facies and facies architecture. ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  8. Predicting interwell heterogeneity in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs: Outcrop observations and applications of progressive facies variation through a depositional cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, P.R.; Barton, M.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Nearly 11 billion barrels of mobile oil remain in known domestic fluvial-deltaic reservoirs despite their mature status. A large percentage of this strategic resource is in danger of permanent loss through premature abandonment. Detailed reservoir characterization studies that integrate advanced technologies in geology, geophysics, and engineering are needed to identify remaining resources that can be targeted by near-term recovery methods, resulting in increased production and the postponement of abandonment. The first and most critical step of advanced characterization studies is the identification of reservoir architecture. However, existing subsurface information, primarily well logs, provides insufficient lateral resolution to identify low-permeability boundaries that exist between wells and compartmentalize the reservoir. Methods to predict lateral variability in fluvial-deltaic reservoirs have been developed on the basis of outcrop studies and incorporate identification of depositional setting and position within a depositional cycle. The position of a reservoir within the framework of a depositional cycle is critical. Outcrop studies of the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of Utah have demonstrated that the architecture and internal heterogeneity of sandstones deposited within a given depositional setting (for example, delta front) vary greatly depending upon whether they were deposited in the early, progradational part of a cycle or the late, retrogradational part of a cycle. The application of techniques similar to those used by this study in other fluvial-deltaic reservoirs will help to estimate the amount and style of remaining potential in mature reservoirs through a quicklook evaluation, allowing operators to focus characterization efforts on reservoirs that have the greatest potential to yield additional resources.

  9. Hierarchy of facies of pyroclastic flow deposits generated by Laacher See type eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt, A.; Schmincke, H.-U.

    1985-04-01

    The upper Quaternary pyroclastic flow deposits of Laacher See volcano show compositional and structural facies variations on four different scales: (1) eruptive units of pyroclastic flows, composed of many flow units; (2) depositional cycles of as many as five flow units; flow units containing (3) regional intraflow-unit facies; and (4) local intraflow-unit subfacies. These facies can be explained by successively overlapping processes beginning in the magma column and ending with final deposition. The pyroclastic flow deposits thus reflect major aspects of the eruptive history of Laacher See volcano: (a) drastic changes in eruptive mechanism due to increasing access of water to the magma chamber and (b) change in chemical composition and crystal and gas content as evacuation of a compositionally zoned magma column progressed. The four scales of facies result from four successive sets of processes: (1) differentiation in the magma column and external factors governing the mechanism of eruption; (2) temporal variations of factors inducing eruption column collapse; (3) physical conditions in the eruption column and the way in which its collapse proceeds; and (4) interplay of flow-inherent and morphology-induced transport mechanics.

  10. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  11. Neural net generated seismic facies map and attribute facies map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addy, S.K.; Neri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of 'seismic facies maps' in the analysis of an Upper Wilcox channel system in a 3-D survey shot by CGG in 1995 in Lavaca county in south Texas was discussed. A neural net-generated seismic facies map is a quick hydrocarbon exploration tool that can be applied regionally as well as on a prospect scale. The new technology is used to classify a constant interval parallel to a horizon in a 3-D seismic volume based on the shape of the wiggle traces using a neural network technology. The tool makes it possible to interpret sedimentary features of a petroleum deposit. The same technology can be used in regional mapping by making 'attribute facies maps' in which various forms of amplitude attributes, phase attributes or frequency attributes can be used

  12. Variation in Raven's Progressive Matrices Scores across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Symen A.; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Van Hemert, Dianne A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a cross-cultural and historical meta-analysis of Raven's Progressive Matrices. Data were analyzed of 798 samples from 45 countries (N = 244,316), which were published between 1944 and 2003. Country-level indicators of educational permeation (which involves a broad set of interrelated educational input and output factors that…

  13. Androgen receptor variation affects prostate cancer progression and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Edel; Sissung, Tristan M; Price, Douglas K; Chau, Cindy H; Figg, William D

    2016-12-01

    Significant therapeutic progress has been made in treating prostate cancer in recent years. Drugs such as enzalutamide, abiraterone, and cabazitaxel have expanded the treatment armamentarium, although it is not completely clear which of these drugs are the most-effective option for individual patients. Moreover, such advances have been tempered by the development of therapeutic resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature pertaining to the biochemical effects of AR variants and their consequences on prostate cancer therapies at both the molecular level and in clinical treatment. We address how these AR splice variants and mutations affect tumor progression and therapeutic resistance and discuss potential novel therapeutic strategies under development. It is hoped that these therapies can be administered with increasing precision as tumor genotyping methods become more sophisticated, thereby lending clinicians a better understanding of the underlying biology of prostate tumors in individual patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Obligaciones prima facie y derrotabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo examina algunos de los problemas que presenta el tratamiento lógico de las obligaciones prima facie en la obra de Carlos Alchourrón. Por una parte, señalaremos que su sistema para los condicionales derrotables DFT no formaliza adecuadamente la noción intuitiva de condición contribuyente que Alchourrón utiliza para elucidar la de condicional derrotable. Por otra parte, argumentaremos que la noción de deber prima facie de David Ross no queda adecuadamente formalizada en el sistema...

  15. Facies analysis and paleoenvironments of the upper cretaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bida Basin is located in central Nigeria and it is perpendicular to the main axis of the Benue Trough. Due to its large areal extent and facies variation, the basin is often geographically divided into northern and southern Bida Basins. Whereas, aspects of the mineral resource and sedimentation history of the sediments in ...

  16. THEMATIC PROGRESSION VARIATION OF THE GREAT GATSBY ENGLISH-BAHASA INDONESIA TRANSLATIONAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Nursanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The data-based research on which this article is based aimed at (1 describing the thematic progression variation of The Great Gatsby texts, (2 describing the contextual factors that motivate the variation in question, and (3 describing the effects of the variation on the texts as translational texts. The study applied a qualitative approach which employed a sematic-translational content analysis of qualitative and quantiative data. The results show that thematic progression variation falls into the low category at average indicated by the mean score of 0.76. The most prominent variation was repre-sented by the low category of variation. The variations were performed by adding or omitting Themes, splitting one units of thematic structure into more than one unit, downranking, not expressing and creating new clauses. The factors that motivate the variation are the different linguistic properties bet-ween English and Bahasa Indonesia and the situational contexts. In terms of effects, the variation caused dangling clauses which cannot be identified from which they are developed. Keywords: thematic progression, thematic structure, Theme, Rheme

  17. T2 map signal variation predicts symptomatic osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Haoti; Miller, David J. [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Electrical Engineering, University Park, PA (United States); Urish, Kenneth L. [Magee Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, The Bone and Joint Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work is to use quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify patients at risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) progression. We hypothesized that classification of signal variation on T2 maps might predict symptomatic OA progression. Patients were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort. Two groups were identified: a symptomatic OA progression group and a control group. At baseline, both groups were asymptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis [WOMAC] pain score total <10) with no radiographic evidence of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] score ≤ 1). The OA progression group (n = 103) had a change in total WOMAC score greater than 10 by the 3-year follow-up. The control group (n = 79) remained asymptomatic, with a change in total WOMAC score less than 10 at the 3-year follow-up. A classifier was designed to predict OA progression in an independent population based on T2 map cartilage signal variation. The classifier was designed using a nearest neighbor classification based on a Gaussian Mixture Model log-likelihood fit of T2 map cartilage voxel intensities. The use of T2 map signal variation to predict symptomatic OA progression in asymptomatic individuals achieved a specificity of 89.3 %, a sensitivity of 77.2 %, and an overall accuracy rate of 84.2 %. T2 map signal variation can predict symptomatic knee OA progression in asymptomatic individuals, serving as a possible early OA imaging biomarker. (orig.)

  18. Progressive drowning of carbonate platform in the Moravo-Silesian Basin (Czech Republic) before the Frasnian/Famennian event: facies, compositional variations and gamma-ray spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bábek, O.; Přikryl, T.; Hladil, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2007), s. 293-316 ISSN 0172-9179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Devonian carbonate platform drowning * Frasnian/Famennian extinction * carbonate platform drowning Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  19. Prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Cenozoic Abanico Formation, Andes of central Chile (33°50'S): chemical and scale controls on mineral assemblages, reaction progress and the equilibrium state

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz,Marcia; Aguirre,Luis; Vergara,Mario; Demant,Alain; Fuentes,Francisco; Fock,Andrés

    2010-01-01

    In the El Volcan and Rodeo de los Bueyes areas, Andean Principal Cordillera (east of Santiago; 33°50'S), an Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene volcanic series belonging to the Abanico Formation (Late Eocene-Early Miocene) is exposed. The rock successions outcropping in both areas, ca. 3,300 m total thickness, have been affected by very low-grade, non-deformative metamorphism in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. This is represented by the widespread development of secondary mineral assemblages compo...

  20. Composite Elements for Biomimetic Aerospace Structures with Progressive Shape Variation Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Airoldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some engineering solutions for the development of innovative aerodynamic surfaces with the capability of progressive shape variation. A brief introduction of the most significant issues related to the design of such morphing structures is provided. Thereafter, two types of structural solutions are presented for the design of internal compliant structures and flexible external skins. The proposed solutions exploit the properties and the manufacturing techniques of long fibre reinforced plastic in order to fulfil the severe and contradictory requirements related to the trade-off between morphing performance and load carrying capabilities.

  1. Progressive erosion of genetic and epigenetic variation in callus-derived cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Carlos M; Wetten, Andrew C; Wilkinson, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    *Relatively little is known about the timing of genetic and epigenetic forms of somaclonal variation arising from callus growth. We surveyed for both types of change in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants regenerated from calli of various ages, and also between tissues from the source trees. *For genetic change, we used 15 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers from four source trees and from 233 regenerated plants. For epigenetic change, we used 386 methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers on leaf and explant (staminode) DNA from two source trees and on leaf DNA from 114 regenerants. *Genetic variation within source trees was limited to one slippage mutation in one leaf. Regenerants were far more variable, with 35% exhibiting at least one mutation. Genetic variation initially accumulated with culture age but subsequently declined. MSAP (epigenetic) profiles diverged between leaf and staminode samples from source trees. Multivariate analysis revealed that leaves from regenerants occupied intermediate eigenspace between leaves and staminodes of source plants but became progressively more similar to source tree leaves with culture age. *Statistical analysis confirmed this rather counterintuitive finding that leaves of 'late regenerants' exhibited significantly less genetic and epigenetic divergence from source leaves than those exposed to short periods of callus growth.

  2. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  3. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Zabihi Naeini, E.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  4. Optimum and robust 3D facies interpolation strategies in a heterogeneous coal zone (Tertiary As Pontes basin, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falivene, Oriol; Cabrera, Lluis; Saez, Alberto [Geomodels Institute, Group of Geodynamics and Basin Analysis, Department of Stratigraphy, Paleontology and Marine Geosciences, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti i Franques s/n, Facultat de Geologia, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    Coal exploration and mining in extensively drilled and sampled coal zones can benefit from 3D statistical facies interpolation. Starting from closely spaced core descriptions, and using interpolation methods, a 3D optimum and robust facies distribution model was obtained for a thick, heterogeneous coal zone deposited in the non-marine As Pontes basin (Oligocene-Early Miocene, NW Spain). Several grid layering styles, interpolation methods (truncated inverse squared distance weighting, truncated kriging, truncated kriging with an areal trend, indicator inverse squared distance weighting, indicator kriging, and indicator kriging with an areal trend) and searching conditions were compared. Facies interpolation strategies were evaluated using visual comparison and cross validation. Moreover, robustness of the resultant facies distribution with respect to variations in interpolation method input parameters was verified by taking into account several scenarios of uncertainty. The resultant 3D facies reconstruction improves the understanding of the distribution and geometry of the coal facies. Furthermore, since some coal quality properties (e.g. calorific value or sulphur percentage) display a good statistical correspondence with facies, predicting the distribution of these properties using the reconstructed facies distribution as a template proved to be a powerful approach, yielding more accurate and realistic reconstructions of these properties in the coal zone. (author)

  5. Variational transition-state theory. Progress report, February 1981-January 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past two years we have extended the variational transition-state theory in several ways. Especially notable is that we have developed several new methods for calculating tunneling probabilities, including two general techniques applicable to systems with small and large reaction-path curvature. We have tested these methods successfully against accurate quantal calculations, and we have applied them to real systems in three dimensions. We have also developed general algorithms for variational transition state theory calculations on polyatomic systems and we have applied these to the combustion reaction OH + H 2 → H 2 O + H. We have developed and successfully applied a statistical-diabatic theory for state-selected rates. We made a totally ab initio prediction of an absolute chemical reaction rate, for the reaction Mu + H 2 → MuH + H, using an accurate potential energy surface and ethods that we had demonstrated to be reliable by tests against accurate quantal collinear results. This prediction has now been confirmed by unpublished experiments; I believe that this is the first reliable ab initio prediction of a chemical rection rate prior to its measurement. In the rest of this technical progress report we give further details of these and other studies we have carried out in the last two years under this contract

  6. Prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Cenozoic Abanico Formation, Andes of central Chile (33°50'S): chemical and scale controls on mineral assemblages, reaction progress and the equilibrium state Metamorfismo de facies prehnita-pumpellyita en la Formación Abanico del Cenozoico, Andes centrales de Chile (33°50'S): controles químicos y de escala sobre las asociaciones minerales, el progreso de la reacción y el estado de equilibrio

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Muñoz; Luis Aguirre; Mario Vergara; Alain Demant; Francisco Fuentes; Andrés Fock

    2010-01-01

    In the El Volcan and Rodeo de los Bueyes areas, Andean Principal Cordillera (east of Santiago; 33°50'S), an Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene volcanic series belonging to the Abanico Formation (Late Eocene-Early Miocene) is exposed. The rock successions outcropping in both areas, ca. 3,300 m total thickness, have been affected by very low-grade, non-deformative metamorphism in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. This is represented by the widespread development of secondary mineral assemblages compo...

  7. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  8. Stratigraphy and Facies Analysis of a 122 M Long Lacustrine Sequence from Chalco Lake, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, D. A.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.; Lozano, S.; Pi, T.; Brown, E. T.

    2010-12-01

    Chalco lake is located SE of the outskirts of Mexico City, at the central part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Previous studies show the importance of this lacustrine sequence as an archive of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes. A set of five cores up to 122 m depth were drilled in the basin, in order to analyze the sedimentary record and to extent the previous knowledge of past environmental changes in central Mexico. As an initial step, in this work we present the identification and classification of sedimentary facies. Preliminary paleomagnetism analyses recognize the possible record of the Blake Event (ca. 120 kyr BP), and suggest that the sequence might span the last 240 kyr. In this case, variations in sedimentary facies could reflect the conditions of the MIS 1-7. The facies are mostly diatom ooze, carbonate mud, organic rich silt and volcaniclastic, both massive and laminated, and massive dark gray to reddish brown silt. From 1 to 8 m depth dominates the organic rich silt facies, which correlates with the MIS 1. Intercalations of reddish brown and grayish brown silt facies, between 8 to 60 m depth, indicate changes occurred during MIS 2 to 5d. Between 60-75 m depth the sequence is characterized by dark grayish silty clay facies, which possibly coincide with the MIS 5e. At 79 m depth (ca. 130 kyr BP) we found struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), which may be related to dry conditions. The laminated diatom ooze facies dominates between 90 to 122 m depth and indicates rhythmic changes in the sediment deposition of the basin. The volcaniclastic facies is represented by lapilli and ash deposits in more than 100 individual tephra layers of both mafic and felsic composition. Some of them correspond to main volcanic eruptions, as the Upper Toluca Pumice (13,500 cal yr BP), from the Nevado de Toluca volcano and the Pómez con Andesita (17,700 cal yr BP) from the Popocatépetl volcano. The carbonate mud facies is composed of calcite and siderite, with frequent

  9. The relationship between hydrogeologic properties and sedimentary facies: an example from Pennsylvanian bedrock aquifers, southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.T.; Barnhill, M.; Revenaugh, J.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between the hydrogeologic properties and sedimentary facies of shallow Pennsylvanian bedrock aquifers was examined using detailed sedimentologic descriptions, aquifer (slug) tests, and gamma ray logs. The main goal of the study was to determine if it was possible to reliably estimate near-well hydraulic conductivities using core descriptions and logging data at a complex field site, based on assignment of consistent conductivity indicators to individual facies. Lithologic information was gathered from three sources: core descriptions, simplified lithologic columns derived from the core descriptions, and drillers' logs. Gamma ray data were collected with a conventional logging instrument. Slug tests were conducted in all wells containing screened zones entirely within the Pennsylvanian facies of interest. Simplified subsets of sedimentologic facies were assembled for classification of subsurface geology, and all rocks within the screened intervals of test wells were assigned to individual facies based on visual descriptions. Slug tests were conducted to determine the bulk hydraulic conductivity (a spatial average within the screened interval) in the immediate vicinity of the wells, with measured values varying from 10 -4 m/s to 10 -8 m/s. Gamma ray logs from these wells revealed variations in raw counts above about 1.5 orders of magnitude. Data were combined using simple linear and nonlinear inverse techniques to derive relations between sedimentologic facies, gamma ray signals, and bulk hydraulic conductivities. The analyses suggest that facies data alone, even those derived from detailed core descriptions, are insufficient for estimating hydraulic conductivity in this setting to better than an order of magnitude. The addition of gamma ray data improved the estimates, as did selective filtering of several extreme values from the full data set. Better estimates might be obtained through more careful field measurements and reduction of

  10. A new ‘superassemblage’ model explaining proximal-to-distal and lateral facies changes in fluvial environments, based on the Proterozoic Sanjauli Formation (Lesser Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mukhopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Facies analysis of fluvial deposits of the Proterozoic Sanjauli Formation in the Lesser Himalaya was combined with an architectural analysis. On this basis, a model was developed that may be applied to other fluvial systems as well, whether old or recent. The new model, which might be considered as an assemblage of previous models, explains lateral variations in architecture and facies but is not in all respects consistent with the standard fluvial models. The Sanjauli fluvial model is unique in that it deals with lateral facies variations due to shifts of the base-level along with fluctuations in accommodation space owing to changes in palaeoclimate.

  11. Prima facie questions in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isham, C. J.

    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.

  12. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  13. Prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Cenozoic Abanico Formation, Andes of central Chile (33°50'S: chemical and scale controls on mineral assemblages, reaction progress and the equilibrium state Metamorfismo de facies prehnita-pumpellyita en la Formación Abanico del Cenozoico, Andes centrales de Chile (33°50'S: controles químicos y de escala sobre las asociaciones minerales, el progreso de la reacción y el estado de equilibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the El Volcan and Rodeo de los Bueyes areas, Andean Principal Cordillera (east of Santiago; 33°50'S, an Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene volcanic series belonging to the Abanico Formation (Late Eocene-Early Miocene is exposed. The rock successions outcropping in both areas, ca. 3,300 m total thickness, have been affected by very low-grade, non-deformative metamorphism in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. This is represented by the widespread development of secondary mineral assemblages composed of epidote, mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, albite, quartz, white mica, and titanite. These mineral assemblages also contain pumpellyite, prehmte or prehnite+actinolite in a few samples. Chemical characteristics, such as low compositional variability of mixed-layer chlorite-smectite and actino-lite independent from the metadomain where these phases are hosted, along with a high proportion of chlorite layers in the former, suggest that these phases closely represent the whole rock effective bulk composition. On the contrary, pumpellyite compositions show a higher variability and a strong metadomain control evidencing its lower equilibration kinetics and leaving only those that grow in the rock matrix as the more closely representative of a whole rock effective bulk compositional control. Mineral assemblages from both areas show evidence of having been formed during the same metamorphic event where reactions have ocurred equivalently between them. However, local differences in chemical variables controlling this process are recognizable. A higher CO2 concentration in the fluids during the metamorphism in the El Volcán area than in the Rodeo de los Bueyes area is suggested by the scarce development of prehnite and the ubiquitous presence of calcite in the metamorphic assemblages of the former. Pressure and temperature of this metamorphic event have been roughly estimated to be lower than 2-3 kbar and 320°C, respectively.En las areas de El Volcán y Rodeo de

  14. Standard Terminology for Phenotypic Variations: The Elements of Morphology Project, Its Current Progress, and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carey, John C.; Allanson, Judith E.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the authors of this article formed an international working group to develop standardized definitions and terms to describe the physical variations used in human phenotypic analyses. This project, which came to be known as the Elements of Morphology, resulted in six articles proposing

  15. Statistics and Title VII Proof: Prima Facie Case and Rebuttal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, David

    1978-01-01

    The method and means by which statistics can raise a prima facie case of Title VII violation are analyzed. A standard is identified that can be applied to determine whether a statistical disparity is sufficient to shift the burden to the employer to rebut a prima facie case of discrimination. (LBH)

  16. Mapping Depositional Facies on Great Bahama Bank: An Integration of Groundtruthing and Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariss, M.; Purkis, S.; Ellis, J. M.; Swart, P. K.; Reijmer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Great Bahama Bank (GBB) has been used in many models to illustrate depositional facies variation across flat-topped, isolated carbonate platforms. Such models have served as subsurface analogs at a variety of scales. In this presentation we have integrated Landsat TM imagery, a refined bathymetric digital elevation model, and seafloor sample data compiled into ArcGIS and analyzed with eCognition to develop a depositional facies map that is more robust than previous versions. For the portion of the GBB lying to the west of Andros Island, the facies map was generated by pairing an extensive set of GPS-constrained field observations and samples (n=275) (Reijmer et al., 2009, IAS Spec Pub 41) with computer and manual interpretation of the Landsat imagery. For the remainder of the platform, which lacked such rigorous ground-control, the Landsat imagery was segmented into lithotopes - interpreted to be distinct bodies of uniform sediment - using a combination of edge detection, spectral and textural analysis, and manual editing. A map was then developed by assigning lithotopes to facies classes on the basis of lessons derived from the portion of the platform for which we had rigorous conditioning. The new analysis reveals that GBB is essentially a very grainy platform with muddier accumulations only in the lee of substantial island barriers; in this regard Andros Island, which is the largest island on GBB, exerts a direct control over the muddiest portion of GBB. Mudstones, wackestones, and mud-rich packstones cover 7%, 6%, and 15%, respectively, of the GBB platform top. By contrast, mud-poor packstones, grainstones, and rudstones account for 19%, 44%, and 3%, respectively. Of the 44% of the platform-top classified as grainstone, only 4% is composed of 'high-energy' deposits characterized by the development of sandbar complexes. The diversity and size of facies bodies is broadly the same on the eastern and western limb of the GBB platform, though the narrower eastern

  17. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  18. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  19. Phenotype variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  20. Las facies Keuper al SW de la provincia de Soria

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    Hernando, S.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sedimentological analysis of the materials that correspond to the Keuper facies in the area situated between the Iberian Ranges and the Central System. Acording to the obtained data, two main aspects are emphasized: - During the Upper Triassic, a c1ear retreat of the roast line towards the East took place, since this area constituted the litoral zone during the sedimentation of the Rot and Muschelkalk. - Facies change lateraly from West to East as proximal alluvial Can sediments pass into facies interpreted as distal alluvial fans and continental sabkha environment.Se analizan, desde el punto de vista sedimentológico, unos materiales correspondientes a las facies Keuper entre la Cordillera Ibérica y el Sistema Central. Dos aspectos resaltan tras este análisis: - Desplazamiento de la línea de costa (que durante la sedimentación del Rot y del Muschelkalk estaba situada en esta zona hacia el Este. - Marcado cambio lateral de facies desde el Oeste hacia el Este, pasando de unas facies proximales-medias de abanico aluvial a unas facies distales y ambiente de sabkha continental.

  1. Application of probabilistic facies prediction and estimation of rock physics parameters in a carbonate reservoir from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimpouli, Sadegh; Hassani, Hossein; Nabi-Bidhendi, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein; Malehmir, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a carbonate field from Iran was studied. Estimation of rock properties such as porosity and permeability is much more challenging in carbonate rocks than sandstone rocks because of their strong heterogeneity. The frame flexibility factor (γ) is a rock physics parameter which is related not only to pore structure variation but also to solid/pore connectivity and rock texture in carbonate reservoirs. We used porosity, frame flexibility factor and bulk modulus of fluid as the proper parameters to study this gas carbonate reservoir. According to rock physics parameters, three facies were defined: favourable and unfavourable facies and then a transition facies located between these two end members. To capture both the inversion solution and associated uncertainty, a complete implementation of the Bayesian inversion of the facies from pre-stack seismic data was applied to well data and validated with data from another well. Finally, this method was applied on a 2D seismic section and, in addition to inversion of petrophysical parameters, the high probability distribution of favorable facies was also obtained. (paper)

  2. Variation in Cilia Protein Genes and Progression of Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Elizabeth; Louie, Tin L; Chong, Jessica X; Hebbring, Scott J; Barnes, Kathleen C; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Knowles, Michael R; Gibson, Ronald L; Bamshad, Michael J; Emond, Mary J

    2018-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis, like primary ciliary dyskinesia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal mucociliary clearance and obstructive lung disease. We hypothesized that genes underlying the development or function of cilia may modify lung disease severity in persons with cystic fibrosis. To test this hypothesis, we compared variants in 93 candidate genes in both upper and lower tertiles of lung function in a large cohort of children and adults with cystic fibrosis with those of a population control dataset. Variants within candidate genes were tested for association using the SKAT-O test, comparing cystic fibrosis cases defined by poor (n = 127) or preserved (n = 127) lung function with population controls (n = 3,269 or 3,148, respectively). Associated variants were then tested for association with related phenotypes in independent datasets. Variants in DNAH14 and DNAAF3 were associated with poor lung function in cystic fibrosis, whereas variants in DNAH14 and DNAH6 were associated with preserved lung function in cystic fibrosis. Associations between DNAH14 and lung function were replicated in disease-related phenotypes characterized by obstructive lung disease in adults. Genetic variants within DNAH6, DNAH14, and DNAAF3 are associated with variation in lung function among persons with cystic fibrosis.

  3. Visual pathway function and structure in Wolfram syndrome: patient age, variation and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekel, James; Narayanan, Anagha; Rutlin, Jerrel; Lugar, Heather; Al-Lozi, Amal; Hershey, Tamara; Tychsen, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    To report alterations in visual acuity and visual pathway structure over an interval of 1-3 years in a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults who have Wolfram syndrome (WFS) and to describe the range of disease severity evident in patients with WFS whose ages differed by as much as 20 years at first examination. Annual, prospective ophthalmological examinations were performed in conjunction with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) analysis. Diffusion tensor MRI-derived fractional anisotropy was used to assess the microstructural integrity of the optic radiations (OR FA). Mean age of the 23 patients with WFS in the study was 13.8 years (range 5-25 years). Mean log minimum angle resolution visual acuity was 0.66 (20/91). RNFL thickness was subnormal in even the youngest patients with WFS. Average RNFL thickness in patients with WFS was 57±8 µ or ~40% thinner than that measured in normal (94±10 µ) children and adolescents (P<0.01). Lower OR FA correlated with worse visual acuity (P=0.006). Subsequent examinations showed declines (P<0.05) in visual acuity, RNFL thickness and OR FA at follow-up intervals of 12-36 months. However, a wide range of disease severity was evident across ages: some of the youngest patients at their first examination had deficits more severe than the oldest patients. The genetic mutation of WFS causes damage to both pregeniculate and postgeniculate regions of the visual pathway. The damage is progressive. The decline in visual pathway structure is accompanied by declines of visual function. Disease severity differs widely in individual patients and cannot be predicted from their age.

  4. The investigation of sedimentary facies and stacking pattern in the Mulid River (Southeastern Qayen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Fayazi Borujeni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the most gravel bed rivers, particle size exponentially decreases to the downstream. The study of particle size fining trend to the downstream and determination of the effective processes on it along the recent rivers is accomplished in the different parts of Iran. The river sedimentary facies are deposited in the channel and overbank areas and they are provided important information about sedimentary environment and deposition rate, the extent and development of the river channel and floodplain. These sedimentary facies that are deposited in the different depositional conditions have been achieved from variations of flow regime and/ or variation in the depositional environment in the large scale. The aim of this study is to investigate of the particle size variations and the effective controllers of fining trend to downstream, to determine of the important factors in creating sedimentary discontinuities and to study of the sedimentary facies, architectural elements, determination of depositional model and some paleohydraulic parameters of river. The Mulid River catchment with elongated shape is located in 120 km of southeast Qayen in the Southern Khorasan Province, in the 33̊ 24ʹ 44.3ʺ to 33̊ 35ʹ 11.4ʺ east latitude and 59̊ 56ʹ 42.5ʺ to 59̊ 58ʹ 44ʺ north longitude. According to the geological classification of Iran, this basin is a part of the East Iran flysch and mélange belt that is located in the east of the Lut Block.  Materials and Methods  In order to sedimentological studies, 30 sediment samples unsystematically were collected from upstream to downstream and from about 20 cm depth of the main channel bottom of river (with 30 km long. The granulometry analysis of the studied samples were achieved using the dry sieving method with 0.5 φ intervals and weight percent of gravel, sand and mud size particles were estimated. The sediment naming is done using Folk (1980 classification and the estimation of sorting

  5. Geographical variation in the progression of type 2 diabetes in Peru: The CRONICAS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Miele, Catherine H; Checkley, William; Wells, Jonathan C; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-11-01

    The study aims were to estimate the incidence and risk factors for T2D in four settings with different degree of urbanization and altitude in Peru. Prospective cohort study conducted in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas in Peru. An age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants was taken from the most updated census. T2D was defined as fasting blood glucose ⩾7.0mmol/L or taking anti-diabetes medication. Exposures were divided into two groups: geographical variables (urbanization and altitude), and modifiable risk factors. Incidence, relative risks (RR), 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), and population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated. Data from 3135 participants, 48.8% males, mean age 55.6years, was analyzed. Overall baseline prevalence of T2D was 7.1% (95%CI 6.2-8.0%). At follow-up, including 6207 person-years of follow-up, a total of 121 new T2D cases were accrued, equating to an incidence of 1.95 (95%CI 1.63-2.33) per 100 person-years. There was no urban to rural gradient in the T2D incidence; however, compared to sea level sites, participants living in high altitude had a higher incidence of diabetes (RR=1.58; 95%CI 1.01-2.48). Obesity had the highest attributable risk for developing T2D, although results varied by setting, ranging from 14% to 80% depending on urbanization and altitude. Our results suggest that the incidence of T2D was greater in high altitude sites. New cases of diabetes were largely attributed to obesity, but with substantial variation in the contribution of obesity depending on the environment. These findings can inform appropriate context-specific strategies to reduce the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Elastic properties of granulite facies rocks of Mahabalipuram, Tamil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the granulite facies rocks have helped us to under- stand the metamorphic ... imperative need to make new and accurate lab- .... the driving side and a digital storage oscilloscope ..... propagation in rocks and other lossy media: An experi-.

  7. PROBLEMS AND METHODOLOGY OF THE PETROLOGIC ANALYSIS OF COAL FACIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edward C.T.

    1983-01-01

    This condensed synthesis gives a broad outline of the methodology of coal facies analysis, procedures for constructing sedimentation and geochemical formation curves, and micro- and macrostratigraphic analysis. The hypothetical coal bed profile has a 3-fold cycle of material characteristics. Based on studies of other similar profiles of the same coal bed, and on field studies of the sedimentary rock types and their facies interpretation, one can assume that the 3-fold subdivision is of regional significance.

  8. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In defence of moral imperialism: four equal and universal prima facie principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A; Garrard, E

    2006-04-01

    Raanan Gillon is a noted defender of the four principles approach to healthcare ethics. His general position has always been that these principles are to be considered to be both universal and prima facie in nature. In recent work, however, he has made two claims that seem to present difficulties for this view. His first claim is that one of these four principles, respect for autonomy, has a special position in relation to the others: he holds that it is first among equals. We argue that this claim makes little sense if the principles are to retain their prima facie nature. His second claim is that cultural variation can play an independent normative role in the construction of our moral judgments. This, he argues, enables us to occupy a middle ground between what he sees as the twin pitfalls of moral relativism and (what he calls) moral imperialism. We argue that there is no such middle ground, and while Gillon ultimately seems committed to relativism, it is some form of moral imperialism (in the form of moral objectivism) that will provide the only satisfactory construal of the four principles as prima facie universal moral principles.

  10. Fine-Grained Turbidites: Facies, Attributes and Process Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Dorrik; Omoniyi, Bayonle

    2016-04-01

    Within turbidite systems, fine-grained sediments are still the poor relation and sport several contrasting facies models linked to process of deposition. These are volumetrically the dominant facies in deepwater and, from a resource perspective, they form important marginal and tight reservoirs, and have great potential for unconventional shale gas, source rocks and seals. They are also significant hosts of metals and rare earth elements. Based on a large number of studies of modern, ancient and subsurface systems, including 1000s of metres of section logging, we define the principal genetic elements of fine-grained deepwater facies, present a new synthesis of facies models and their sedimentary attributes. The principal architectural elements include: non-channelised slope-aprons, channel-fill, channel levee and overbank, turbidite lobes, mass-transport deposits, contourite drifts, basin sheets and drapes. These comprise a variable intercalation of fine-grained facies - thin-bedded and very thin-bedded turbidites, contourites, hemipelagites and pelagites - and associated coarse-grained facies. Characteristic attributes used to discriminate between these different elements are: facies and facies associations; sand-shale ratio, sand and shale geometry and dimensions, sand connectivity; sediment texture and small-scale sedimentary structures; sediment fabric and microfabric; and small-scale vertical sequences of bed thickness. To some extent, we can relate facies and attribute characteristics to different depositional environments. We identify four distinct facies models: (a) silt-laminated mud turbidites, (b) siliciclastic mud turbidites, (c) carbonate mud turbidites, (d) disorganized silty-mud turbidites, and (e) hemiturbidites. Within the grainsize-velocity matrix turbidite plot, these all fall within the region of mean size < 0.063mm, maximum grainsize (one percentile) <0.2mm, and depositional velocity 0.1-0.5 m/s. Silt-laminated turbidites and many mud

  11. Anthropogenic effects on sedimentary facies in Lake Baldeney, West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann-Mahlkau, Peter; Niehaus, Heinz Theo

    1983-12-01

    Analysis of well logs of Lake Baldeney, a reservoir of the Ruhr River, yields four facies factors that reflect the effect of anthropogenic processes on the sediment. First, the sedimentation rate is directly related to the subsidence caused by mining. The extent of the subsidence was such that the sediment load of the river could not compensate for the sinking of the lake bottom. Discharged sediment filled about one-fifth of the basin within 40 years. In certain areas of the basin the sedimentation rate reached up to 10 cm per year. Second, the grain-size distribution of the sediment was influenced by long-term and short-term events. During the subsidence, grain-size distribution remained relatively constant. The destruction of the Möhne River dam during World War II resulted in the presence of an extremely large grain size as evidenced by the so-called Möhnelage. The filling of the lake after 1961 was accompanied by a continual increase in medium grain size. Third, until 1975, the mode of the lake sediment reflects the effect of mining in the vicinity of the lake. High coal content can be traced to its origin. The introduction of modern production processes, modernization of coal dressing, and hydraulic hauling is documented in the sediment. Finally, the heavy metal content of the sediment corresponds to the industrial development in the drainage area the Ruhr River. The accumulation of Cd reached an extreme concentration, exceeding the natural content by a thousand times. Variation in concentration reflects an increase in industrial production, as well as measures undertaken to restore water quality.

  12. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Multiparameter elastic full waveform inversion with facies-based constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-dong; Alkhalifah, Tariq; Naeini, Ehsan Zabihi; Sun, Bingbing

    2018-06-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize FWI beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a priori information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion with Facies-based Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2018-03-20

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) incorporates all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters described by the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion beyond improved acoustic imaging, like in reservoir delineation, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Some anisotropic parameters are insufficiently updated because of their minor contributions to the surface collected data. Adding rock physics constraints to the inversion helps mitigate such limited sensitivity, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a global constraint for the whole area. Since similar rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elasticity and anisotropy parameters (this enables us to define them as a seismic facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel approach to use facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such facies using Bayesian theory and update them at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. We take the uncertainties of the estimated parameters (approximated by radiation patterns) into consideration and improve the quality of estimated facies maps. Four numerical examples corresponding to different acquisition, physical assumptions and model circumstances are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Delineation of geological facies from poorly differentiated data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UCSC

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate geologic facies and to estima.te their properties from sparse data is essential for modeling physical and biochemical processes occurring in the 'ubsurface. If such data are poorly differentiated, this challcnrring task is complicated further by the absence of a clear distinction between different hydrofacies even at locations where data. are available. vVe consider three alt mative approaches for analysis of poorly differentiated data: a k-means clU!:iterinrr algorithm, an expectation-maximization algorithm, and a minimum-variance algorithm. Two distinct synthetically generated geological settings are used to r:tnalyze the ability of these algorithmti to as ign accurately the membership of such data in a given geologic facies. On average, the minimum-variance algorithm provides a more robust p rformance than its two counterparts and when combined with a nearest-neighbor algorithm, it also yields the most accurate reconstruction of the boundaries between the facies.

  16. Fluvial to Lacustrine Facies Transitions in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Schieber, Juergen; Palucis, Marisa C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Mangold, Nicolas; Kah, Linda C.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Grotzinger, John P.; Grant, John A., III; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Curiosity rover has documented predominantly fluvial sedimentary rocks along its path from the landing site to the toe of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan (0.5 km to the east) and then along its 8 km traverse across Aeolis Palus to the base of Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp). Lacustrine facies have been identified at the toe of the Peace Vallis fan and in the lowermost geological unit exposed on Aeolis Mons. These two depositional systems provide end members for martian fluvial/alluvial-lacustrine facies models. The Peace Vallis system consisted of an 80 square kilometers alluvial fan with decimeter-thick, laterally continuous fluvial sandstones with few sedimentary structures. The thin lacustrine unit associated with the fan is interpreted as deposited in a small lake associated with fan runoff. In contrast, fluvial facies exposed over most of Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons consist of sandstones with common dune-scale cross stratification (including trough cross stratification), interbedded conglomerates, and rare paleochannels. Along the southwest portion of the traverse, sandstone facies include south-dipping meter-scale clinoforms that are interbedded with finer-grained mudstone facies, interpreted as lacustrine. Sedimentary structures in these deposits are consistent with deltaic deposits. Deltaic deposition is also suggested by the scale of fluvial to lacustrine facies transitions, which occur over greater than 100 m laterally and greater than 10 m vertically. The large scale of the transitions and the predicted thickness of lacustrine deposits based on orbital mapping require deposition in a substantial river-lake system over an extended interval of time. Thus, the lowermost, and oldest, sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater suggest the presence of substantial fluvial flow into a long-lived lake. In contrast, the Peace Vallis alluvial fan onlaps these older deposits and overlies a major unconformity. It is one of the youngest deposits in the crater, and

  17. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney

    2014-09-01

    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  18. Late Permian (Zechstein) carbonate-facies maps, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Late Permian Zechstein carbonates in the Southern Permian Basin were deposited under marine conditions. The carbonates form part of a largely progradational infill, with a gradual northward facies shift. The paleogeography of the Zechstein carbonate deposits has been reviewed recently on the

  19. Level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Marco A.; McLaughlin, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir models. The identification of facies is a geometrical inverse ill-posed problem that we formulate in terms of shape optimization. The goal is to find a region (a geologic facies) that minimizes the misfit between predicted and measured data from an oil-water reservoir. In order to address the shape optimization problem, we present a novel application of the level-set iterative framework developed by Burger in (2002 Interfaces Free Bound. 5 301-29 2004 Inverse Problems 20 259-82) for inverse obstacle problems. The optimization is constrained by (the reservoir model) a nonlinear large-scale system of PDEs that describes the reservoir dynamics. We reformulate this reservoir model in a weak (integral) form whose shape derivative can be formally computed from standard results of shape calculus. At each iteration of the scheme, the current estimate of the shape derivative is utilized to define a velocity in the level-set equation. The proper selection of this velocity ensures that the new shape decreases the cost functional. We present results of facies identification where the velocity is computed with the gradient-based (GB) approach of Burger (2002) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) technique of Burger (2004). While an adjoint formulation allows the straightforward application of the GB approach, the LM technique requires the computation of the large-scale Karush-Kuhn-Tucker system that arises at each iteration of the scheme. We efficiently solve this system by means of the representer method. We present some synthetic experiments to show and compare the capabilities and limitations of the proposed implementations of level-set techniques for the identification of geologic facies.

  20. Level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Marco A; McLaughlin, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of level-set techniques for facies identification in reservoir models. The identification of facies is a geometrical inverse ill-posed problem that we formulate in terms of shape optimization. The goal is to find a region (a geologic facies) that minimizes the misfit between predicted and measured data from an oil–water reservoir. In order to address the shape optimization problem, we present a novel application of the level-set iterative framework developed by Burger in (2002 Interfaces Free Bound. 5 301–29; 2004 Inverse Problems 20 259–82) for inverse obstacle problems. The optimization is constrained by (the reservoir model) a nonlinear large-scale system of PDEs that describes the reservoir dynamics. We reformulate this reservoir model in a weak (integral) form whose shape derivative can be formally computed from standard results of shape calculus. At each iteration of the scheme, the current estimate of the shape derivative is utilized to define a velocity in the level-set equation. The proper selection of this velocity ensures that the new shape decreases the cost functional. We present results of facies identification where the velocity is computed with the gradient-based (GB) approach of Burger (2002) and the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) technique of Burger (2004). While an adjoint formulation allows the straightforward application of the GB approach, the LM technique requires the computation of the large-scale Karush–Kuhn–Tucker system that arises at each iteration of the scheme. We efficiently solve this system by means of the representer method. We present some synthetic experiments to show and compare the capabilities and limitations of the proposed implementations of level-set techniques for the identification of geologic facies

  1. Depositional facies mosaics and their time lines in Lower Ordovician carbonates of central Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.; Goldhammer, R.K.; Hardie, L.A.

    1985-02-01

    A comparative sedimentology and facies stratigraphy study of the Lower Ordovician carbonate of the central Appalachians (Beekmantown Group and equivalents) has been carried out. Our approach used subfacies (rock record of subenvironments) as the basin units of section measurement. The authors differentiated related sets of subfacies into larger facies units (rock record of environments). Facies were then correlated from section to section using fossils and lithostratigraphy to make a 3-dimensional facies mosaic. Within this mosaic, time lines were constructed using onlap-offlap tongues and cyclic sequences. These time lines cut across facies boundaries. Using this approach, the authors have established that the lower 600 m of the Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence is made up of 4 main facies: (1) cyclic laminite facies composed of a package of shoaling-upward shelf lagoon-peritidal cycles, (2) thin-bedded grainstone facies deposited in a shelf lagoon, (3) Renalcis bioherm facies recording a shelf lagoon patch-reef environment, and (4) Epiphyton bioherm facies recording a shelf-edge reef system. The distribution of these facies along time lines across the strike of the central Appalachians is markedly zoned. Epiphyton bioherm facies dominate the eastern margin while cyclic laminite facies dominate the western margin, with thin-bedded grainstone and Renalcis bioherm facies making up the central belt. This zonation of facies is a typical shallow carbonate shelf system with fringing reefs along the eastern, seaward margin and tidal flats along the western, landward margin. Vertical distribution of these facies across strike records 3 major sea level changes during deposition of the lower 600 m of this extensive Lower Ordovician carbonate shelf.

  2. Reaction softening by dissolution–precipitation creep in a retrograde greenschist facies ductile shear zone, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Ryan J.; Bish, David L.; Kunk, Michael J.; Sicard, Karri R.; Valley, Peter M.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Wathen, Bryan A.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    We describe strain localization by a mixed process of reaction and microstructural softening in a lower greenschist facies ductile fault zone that transposes and replaces middle to upper amphibolite facies fabrics and mineral assemblages in the host schist of the Littleton Formation near Claremont, New Hampshire. Here, Na-poor muscovite and chlorite progressively replace first staurolite, then garnet, and finally biotite porphyroblasts as the core of the fault zone is approached. Across the transect, higher grade fabric-forming Na-rich muscovite is also progressively replaced by fabric-forming Na-poor muscovite. The mineralogy of the new phyllonitic fault-rock produced is dominated by Na-poor muscovite and chlorite together with late albite porphyroblasts. The replacement of the amphibolite facies porphyroblasts by muscovite and chlorite is pseudomorphic in some samples and shows that the chemical metastability of the porphyroblasts is sufficient to drive replacement. In contrast, element mapping shows that fabric-forming Na-rich muscovite is selectively replaced at high-strain microstructural sites, indicating that strain energy played an important role in activating the dissolution of the compositionally metastable muscovite. The replacement of strong, high-grade porphyroblasts by weaker Na-poor muscovite and chlorite constitutes reaction softening. The crystallization of parallel and contiguous mica in the retrograde foliation at the expense of the earlier and locally crenulated Na-rich muscovite-defined foliation destroys not only the metastable high-grade mineralogy, but also its stronger geometry. This process constitutes both reaction and microstructural softening. The deformation mechanism here was thus one of dissolution–precipitation creep, activated at considerably lower stresses than might be predicted in quartzofeldspathic rocks at the same lower greenschist facies conditions.

  3. Pore facies analysis: incorporation of rock properties into pore geometry based classes in a Permo-Triassic carbonate reservoir in the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimpour-Bonab, H; Aliakbardoust, E

    2014-01-01

    Pore facies analysis is a useful method for the classification of reservoir rocks according to pore geometry characteristics. The importance of this method is related to the dependence of the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock on the pore geometry. In this study, pore facies analysis was performed by the quantification and classification of the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves applying the multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC) method. Each pore facies includes a limited variety of rock samples with different depositional fabrics and diagenetic histories, which are representative of one type of pore geometry. The present pore geometry is the result of the interaction between the primary rock fabric and its diagenetic overprint. Thus the variations in petrographic properties can be correlated with the pore geometry characteristics. Accordingly, the controlling parameters in the pore geometry characteristics were revealed by detailed petrographic analysis in each pore facies. The reservoir rock samples were then classified using the determined petrographic properties which control the pore system quality. This method is proposed for the classification of reservoir rocks in complicated carbonate reservoirs, in order to reduce the incompatibility of traditional facies analysis with pore system characteristics. The method is applicable where enough capillary pressure data is not available. (papers)

  4. Characterizing Geological Facies using Seismic Waveform Classification in Sarawak Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraa, Afiqah; Zailani, Ahmad; Prasad Ghosh, Deva

    2017-10-01

    Numerous effort have been made to build relationship between geology and geophysics using different techniques throughout the years. The integration of these two most important data in oil and gas industry can be used to reduce uncertainty in exploration and production especially for reservoir productivity enhancement and stratigraphic identification. This paper is focusing on seismic waveform classification to different classes using neural network and to link them according to the geological facies which are established using the knowledge on lithology and log motif of well data. Seismic inversion is used as the input for the neural network to act as the direct lithology indicator reducing dependency on well calibration. The interpretation of seismic facies classification map provides a better understanding towards the lithology distribution, depositional environment and help to identify significant reservoir rock

  5. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  6. Additional aspects of facies determination of the Souza Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, E.C.; Mabesoone, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    By means of geochemical analysis of total sample and trace elements, x-ray and DTA investigation of the clay fractions, and microfanes study, obtained by the facies determination of the Souza Formation, some additional aspects giving evidence of the sequence of events responsable by origin, deposition and formation of sediments of this middle unit of the Rio do Peixe group were established. (Author) [pt

  7. Comparison of four approaches to a rock facies classification problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, seven classifiers based on four different approaches were tested in a rock facies classification problem: classical parametric methods using Bayes' rule, and non-parametric methods using fuzzy logic, k-nearest neighbor, and feed forward-back propagating artificial neural network. Determining the most effective classifier for geologic facies prediction in wells without cores in the Panoma gas field, in Southwest Kansas, was the objective. Study data include 3600 samples with known rock facies class (from core) with each sample having either four or five measured properties (wire-line log curves), and two derived geologic properties (geologic constraining variables). The sample set was divided into two subsets, one for training and one for testing the ability of the trained classifier to correctly assign classes. Artificial neural networks clearly outperformed all other classifiers and are effective tools for this particular classification problem. Classical parametric models were inadequate due to the nature of the predictor variables (high dimensional and not linearly correlated), and feature space of the classes (overlapping). The other non-parametric methods tested, k-nearest neighbor and fuzzy logic, would need considerable improvement to match the neural network effectiveness, but further work, possibly combining certain aspects of the three non-parametric methods, may be justified. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2017-08-17

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  9. STOCHASTIC FRACTURED ROCK FACIES FOR GROUNDWATER FLOW MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA BLESSENT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una simulación de flujo de agua subterránea en rocas fracturadas. Se emplea un enfoque estocástico (modelo estocástico equivalente en medio poroso fracturado para construir el modelo conceptual y para usar este último en la roca de baja permeabilidad encontrada en el sitio elegido como caso de estudio (Olkiluoto, Finlandia. La roca que se investiga se encuentra localizada alrededor de un grupo de pozos de sondeo y cubre un área de algunas hectáreas. Las mediciones de campo de pruebas de interferencia hidráulica se utilizan para calibrar el modelo de flujo de agua subterránea. Múltiples combinaciones de facies estocásticos se consideran para evaluar el impacto de la distribución y del número de facies en las cargas hidráulicas y en los caudales. Este estudio cuantifica la variabilidad de los resultados numéricos, lo cual es importante para el análisis de la incertidumbre en los sistemas hidrogeológicos. Por otra parte, este estudio muestra que el modelo conceptual de facies estocásticos es una alternativa adecuada a los modelos conceptuales de redes de fracturas discretas.

  10. Tectonic and climatic controls on continental depositional facies in the Karoo Basin of northern Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian R.

    1986-02-01

    The eastern Karoo Basin, South Africa, contains a thick sequence of terrigenous clastic sediments comprising a meanderbelt facies, braided channel facies divided into coarse and fine subfacies, fluviolacustrine facies and aeolian facies. Depositional trends and changes in fluvial style reflect a progressive increase in aridity of the climate under stable tectonic conditions, interrupted by two phases of source area tectonism and the development of fine and coarse clastic wedges of the braided channel subfacies; the latter signifying a short interlude of cool, wet conditions. The fine braided channel subfacies occurs in the upper part of the meanderbelt facies, which was deposited by ephemeral, meandering mixed-load streams of variable discharge and sinuosity, under dry, semi-arid climatic conditions. These deposited complex, internally discordant channel sands and well-developed levee deposits. Following deposition of the coarse braided channel subfacies semi-arid conditions returned and fluvial deposition was dominated by ephemeral, straight to slightly sinuous mixed load streams characterised by simple channel sand bodies. As the aridity of the climate increased, the streams became more localised and carried an increasing proportion of fines. Interbedded with and overlying the fluvial deposits is a mudstone-dominated lacustrine sequence grading up into aeolian sands suggesting a playa lake-type situation. The general absence of evaporites from these sediments is attributed to the fresh nature of the lake waters, as evidenced by the freshwater aquatic organisms and clay-mineral suite, the lack of adequate inflow for solute accumulation and the removal of dust impregnated by salts from the surface of the dry lake bed during the dry season by superheated, upward-spiralling columns of air. Broadly similar environments to the fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian facies sequence are to be found in the Lake Eyre Basin of central Australia and the Okavango "delta" of northern

  11. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Peter H.; Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: With 54 o of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck

  12. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Peter H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)], E-mail: phahn@mdanderson.org; Ahn, Andrew I [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Lee, C Joe; Jin, Shen; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  13. Automatic interpretation of seismic micro facies using the fuzzy mathematics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongrun, G.; Gardner, G.H.F.

    1988-01-01

    The interpretation of seismic micro facies concentrates on changes involving single reflection or several reflections, and endeavors to explain the relations between these changes and stratigraphic variation or hydrocarbon accumulation. In most cases, one can not determine the geological significance of reflection character anomalies on single or several seismic sections. But when one maps them on a plane, their distribution may on the whole indicate the geological significance. It is stated how the fuzzy method is used on a VAX computer to automatically construct a plane map of the reflection character changes in a time window. What an interpreter needs to do for whole interpretation is only to provide some parameters, such as time window, threshold, weight coefficients etc.

  14. Multiscale heterogeneity characterization of tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies, Almond Formation outcrops, Rock Springs uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, R.A.; Tomutsa, L. [BDM Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In order to accurately predict fluid flow within a reservoir, variability in the rock properties at all scales relevant to the specific depositional environment needs to be taken into account. The present work describes rock variability at scales from hundreds of meters (facies level) to millimeters (laminae) based on outcrop studies of the Almond Formation. Tidal channel, tidal delta and foreshore facies were sampled on the eastern flank of the Rock Springs uplift, southeast of Rock Springs, Wyoming. The Almond Fm. was deposited as part of a mesotidal Upper Cretaceous transgressive systems tract within the greater Green River Basin. Bedding style, lithology, lateral extent of beds of bedsets, bed thickness, amount and distribution of depositional clay matrix, bioturbation and grain sorting provide controls on sandstone properties that may vary more than an order of magnitude within and between depositional facies in outcrops of the Almond Formation. These features can be mapped on the scale of an outcrop. The products of diagenesis such as the relative timing of carbonate cement, scale of cemented zones, continuity of cemented zones, selectively leached framework grains, lateral variability of compaction of sedimentary rock fragments, and the resultant pore structure play an equally important, although less predictable role in determining rock property heterogeneity. A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the products of diagenesis such as calcite cement or compaction is critical to modeling variation even within a single facies in the Almond Fin. because diagenesis can enhance or reduce primary (depositional) rock property heterogeneity. Application of outcrop heterogeneity models to the subsurface is greatly hindered by differences in diagenesis between the two settings. The measurements upon which this study is based were performed both on drilled outcrop plugs and on blocks.

  15. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the

  16. Genomic variation in myeloma: design, content, and initial application of the Bank On A Cure SNP Panel to detect associations with progression-free survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Gang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have engaged in an international program designated the Bank On A Cure, which has established DNA banks from multiple cooperative and institutional clinical trials, and a platform for examining the association of genetic variations with disease risk and outcomes in multiple myeloma. We describe the development and content of a novel custom SNP panel that contains 3404 SNPs in 983 genes, representing cellular functions and pathways that may influence disease severity at diagnosis, toxicity, progression or other treatment outcomes. A systematic search of national databases was used to identify non-synonymous coding SNPs and SNPs within transcriptional regulatory regions. To explore SNP associations with PFS we compared SNP profiles of short term (less than 1 year, n = 70 versus long term progression-free survivors (greater than 3 years, n = 73 in two phase III clinical trials. Results Quality controls were established, demonstrating an accurate and robust screening panel for genetic variations, and some initial racial comparisons of allelic variation were done. A variety of analytical approaches, including machine learning tools for data mining and recursive partitioning analyses, demonstrated predictive value of the SNP panel in survival. While the entire SNP panel showed genotype predictive association with PFS, some SNP subsets were identified within drug response, cellular signaling and cell cycle genes. Conclusion A targeted gene approach was undertaken to develop an SNP panel that can test for associations with clinical outcomes in myeloma. The initial analysis provided some predictive power, demonstrating that genetic variations in the myeloma patient population may influence PFS.

  17. Zeolite facies and regional rank of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisch, H J

    1966-01-01

    The author has correlated diagnostic analcime-, heulandite-, and laumontite-bearing mineral assemblages from four areas in the Upper Carboniferous and the Permian of New South Wales with the rank of the associated coals, represented by the carbon content of vitrinite. The results show that lowest-grade regional metamorphism of the zeolite facies reflects at least in part the same physical conditions of metamorphism as the increase in degree of coalification (rank) in the bituminous coal range. Degree of coalification is probably independent of partial pressures of H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/: it is controlled mainly by maximum depth of burial, its duration, and the geothermal gradient.

  18. Facies architecture and diagenesis of Belgian Late Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Late Frasnian Petit-Mont Member carbonate mounds occur in the southern pail of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Philippeville Anticline (SW Belgium). These mounds are 30 to 80 m thick and 100 to 250 m in diameter. They are embedded in shale, nodular shale and argillaceous limestone. Based on facies mapping of 14 buildups and related off-mound sediments, these mounds typically started from below the photic and storm wave base zones and builtup into shallow water environments. Above an argill...

  19. Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of

  20. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Veronica; You, Tevong

    2013-01-01

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too s...

  1. Parametric study of variation in cargo-airplane performance related to progression from current to spanloader designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made to investigate the relationship between current cargo airplanes and possible future designs that may differ greatly in both size and configuration. The method makes use of empirical scaling laws developed from statistical studies of data from current and advanced airplanes and, in addition, accounts for payload density, effects of span distributed load, and variations in tail area ratio. The method is believed to be particularly useful for exploratory studies of design and technology options for large airplanes. The analysis predicts somewhat more favorable variations of the ratios of payload to gross weight and block fuel to payload as the airplane size is increased than has been generally understood from interpretations of the cube-square law. In terms of these same ratios, large all wing (spanloader) designs show an advantage over wing-fuselage designs.

  2. Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-02-01

    In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal

  3. Gene Variation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidases 1 and 2, and Risk of Blood Pressure Progression and Incident Hypertension among 17,255 Initially Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Y. L. Zee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP in blood pressure (BP homeostasis. To date, no large prospective, genetic–epidemiological data are available on genetic variation within ERAP and hypertension risk. The association of 45 genetic variants of ERAP1 and ERAP2 was investigated in 17,255 Caucasian female participants from the Women’s Genome Health Study. All subjects were free of hypertension at baseline. During an 18-year follow-up period, 10,216 incident hypertensive cases were identified. Multivariable linear, logistic, and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship of genotypes with baseline BP levels, BP progression at 48 months, and incident hypertension assuming an additive genetic model. Linear regression analyses showed associations of four tSNPs (ERAP1: rs27524; ERAP2: rs3733904, rs4869315, and rs2549782; all p<0.05 with baseline systolic BP levels. Three tSNPs (ERAP1: rs27851, rs27429, and rs34736, all p<0.05 were associated with baseline diastolic BP levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that ERAP1 rs27772 was associated with BP progression at 48 months (p=0.0366. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed an association of three tSNPs (ERAP1: rs469783 and rs10050860; ERAP2: rs2927615; all p<0.05 with risk of incident hypertension. Analyses of dbGaP for genotype–phenotype association and GTEx Portal for gene expression quantitative trait loci revealed five tSNPs with differential association of BP and nine tSNPs with lower ERAP1 and ERAP2 mRNA expression levels, respectively. The present study suggests that ERAP1 and ERAP2 gene variation may be useful for risk assessment of BP progression and the development of hypertension.

  4. Dissecting the Variations of Ripening Progression and Flavonoid Metabolism in Grape Berries Grown under Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kai Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A double cropping system has been commercially adopted in southern China, where there is abundant sunshine and heat resources. In this viticulture system, the first growing season normally starts as a summer cropping cycle; then, the vine is pruned and forced, resulting in a second crop in winter. Due to climate differences between the summer and winter growing seasons, grape ripening progression and flavonoid metabolism vary greatly. Here, the metabolites and transcriptome of flavonoid pathways were analyzed in grapes grown under two growing seasons at different stages. Notably, the winter cropping cycle strongly increased flavonoid levels by several times in comparison to summer grapes, while the summer season took a major toll on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation, since the winter cropping greatly triggered the expression of upstream genes in the flavonoid pathway in a coordinated expression pattern. Moreover, the ratio of VviF3′5′Hs (flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase to VviF3′Hs (flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase transcript levels correlated remarkably well with the ratio of 3′5′-substituted to 3′-substituted flavonoids, which was presumed to control the flux of intermediates into different flavonoid branches. On the other hand, the phenological phase also varied greatly in the two crops. Compared to summer cropping, winter growing season accelerated the duration from budburst to veraison, therefore advancing the onset of ripening, but also prolonging the duration of ripening progression due to the purposes to harvest high-quality grapes. The differential expression pattern of hormone-related genes between the two cropping cycles might explain this phenomenon.

  5. Variations in the Biological Functions of HIV-1 Clade C Envelope in a SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque during Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    For Yue Tso

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how the biological functions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env changes during disease progression may aid the design of an efficacious anti-HIV-1 vaccine. Although studies from patient had provided some insights on this issue, the differences in the study cohorts and methodology had make it difficult to reach a consensus of the variations in the HIV-1 Env functions during disease progression. To this end, an animal model that can be infected under controlled environment and reflect the disease course of HIV-1 infection in human will be beneficial. Such an animal model was previously demonstrated by the infection of macaque with SHIV, expressing HIV-1 clade C Env V1-V5 region. By using this model, we examined the changes in biological functions of Env in the infected animal over the entire disease course. Our data showed an increase in the neutralization resistance phenotype over time and coincided with the decrease in the net charges of the V1-V5 region. Infection of PBMC with provirus expressing various Env clones, isolated from the infected animal over time, showed a surprisingly better replicative fitness for viruses expressing the Env from early time point. Biotinylation and ELISA data also indicated a decrease of cell-surface-associated Env and virion-associated gp120 content with disease progression. This decrease did not affect the CD4-binding capability of Env, but were positively correlated with the decrease of Env fusion ability. Interestingly, some of these changes in biological functions reverted to the pre-AIDS level during advance AIDS. These data suggested a dynamic relationship between the Env V1-V5 region with the host immune pressure. The observed changes of biological functions in this setting might reflect and predict those occurring during natural disease progression in human.

  6. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong

    2013-10-01

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models.

  7. Prima Facie Evidence against Spin-Two Higgs Impostors

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; You, Tevong

    2013-01-01

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models.

  8. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Verónica; You, Tevong

    2013-01-01

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models

  9. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); TH Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sanz, Verónica, E-mail: vsanz@yorku.ca [TH Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); You, Tevong [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-07

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too small a ratio between the X couplings to WW and ZZ, compared with that to photons. The data also disfavour universal couplings to pairs of photons and gluons, which would be predicted in a large class of graviton-like models.

  10. Detailed facies analyses within the Bluell and Sherwood Members, Mission Canyon Formation, North Dakota, USA - Facies stacking patterns, sequence stratigraphy and porosity relationship, consequences for reservoir distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstedt, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Detailed core analysis from seven wells with cores cut within the overall carbonate succession that makes up the Bluell and Sherwood Members of the Mission Canyon Formation located in Renville County, North Dakota, resulted in the identification of eleven depositional facies. These facies that reflect a range in depositional conditions from inner to back ramp, that is shallow fair-weather to uppermost intertidal and supratidal conditions. Systematic core analysis using a highly detailed digit...

  11. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  12. Pilot points method for conditioning multiple-point statistical facies simulation on flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Jafarpour, Behnam

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new pilot points method for conditioning discrete multiple-point statistical (MPS) facies simulation on dynamic flow data. While conditioning MPS simulation on static hard data is straightforward, their calibration against nonlinear flow data is nontrivial. The proposed method generates conditional models from a conceptual model of geologic connectivity, known as a training image (TI), by strategically placing and estimating pilot points. To place pilot points, a score map is generated based on three sources of information: (i) the uncertainty in facies distribution, (ii) the model response sensitivity information, and (iii) the observed flow data. Once the pilot points are placed, the facies values at these points are inferred from production data and then are used, along with available hard data at well locations, to simulate a new set of conditional facies realizations. While facies estimation at the pilot points can be performed using different inversion algorithms, in this study the ensemble smoother (ES) is adopted to update permeability maps from production data, which are then used to statistically infer facies types at the pilot point locations. The developed method combines the information in the flow data and the TI by using the former to infer facies values at selected locations away from the wells and the latter to ensure consistent facies structure and connectivity where away from measurement locations. Several numerical experiments are used to evaluate the performance of the developed method and to discuss its important properties.

  13. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain prima facie investment companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment...

  14. Delineating Facies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics with Level Set Transformation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Song, Xuehang; Ye, Ming; Dai, Zhenxue; Zachara, John; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-03-01

    A new approach is developed to delineate the spatial distribution of discrete facies (geological units that have unique distributions of hydraulic, physical, and/or chemical properties) conditioned not only on direct data (measurements directly related to facies properties, e.g., grain size distribution obtained from borehole samples) but also on indirect data (observations indirectly related to facies distribution, e.g., hydraulic head and tracer concentration). Our method integrates for the first time ensemble data assimilation with traditional transition probability-based geostatistics. The concept of level set is introduced to build shape parameterization that allows transformation between discrete facies indicators and continuous random variables. The spatial structure of different facies is simulated by indicator models using conditioning points selected adaptively during the iterative process of data assimilation. To evaluate the new method, a two-dimensional semi-synthetic example is designed to estimate the spatial distribution and permeability of two distinct facies from transient head data induced by pumping tests. The example demonstrates that our new method adequately captures the spatial pattern of facies distribution by imposing spatial continuity through conditioning points. The new method also reproduces the overall response in hydraulic head field with better accuracy compared to data assimilation with no constraints on spatial continuity on facies.

  15. Sedimentary environment and facies of St Lucia Estuary Mouth, Zululand, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. I.; Mason, T. R.

    The St. Lucia Estuary is situated on the subtropical, predominantly microtidal Zululand coast. Modern sedimentary environments within the estuary fall into three categories: (1) barrier environments; (2) abandoned channel environments; and (3) estuarine/lagoonal environments. The barrier-associated environment includes tidal inlet channel, inlet beach face, flood-tidal delta, ebb-tidal delta, spit, backspit and aeolian dune facies. The abandoned channel environment comprises washover fan, tidal creek tidal creek delta and back-barrier lagoon facies. The estuarine/lagoonal environment includes subtidal estuarine channel, side-attached bar, channel margin, mangrove fringe and channel island facies. Each sedimentary facies is characterised by sedimentary and biogenic structures, grain-size and sedimentary processes. Vertical facies sequences produced by inlet channel migration and lagoonal infilling are sufficiently distinct to be recognized in the geological record and are typical of a prograding shoreline.

  16. Assessing Biogenecity of Stromatolites: Return to the Facies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, R. S.; Jameson, S.; Rutter, A.; McCarthy, K.; Planavsky, N. J.; Severson, M.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of richly microfossiliferous cherty stromatolites near Schreiber and Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, in the 1.9 Ga Gunflint Iron Formation, firmly established the field of pre-Cambrian paleontology. In the half-century since this discovery, paradigm shifts in the ecology of the microfossils as well as the utility of stromatolites as biological markers has caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the pre-Cambrian fossil record. This research summarizes facies evaluation of the two stromatolite marker beds in the Gunflint-correlative Biwabik Iron Formation of Minnesota. The centimeter-scale microstratigraphy of cores drilled through the central and eastern Mesabi Iron Range was coupled with field descriptions of outcrops and mines in both the Biwabik and Gunflint iron formations. Eight lithologic facies associated with the stromatolites are identified: A) Pebble conglomerate clasts ranging in size of 0.5-3 cm, syneresis cracks, and septarian nodules with medium to coarse grain matrix; B) siltstone with subparallel sub-mm to 5 cm magnetitic and non-magnetic bands; C) stromatolitic boundstone comprising stratiform, pseudocolumnar, domal, undulatory, flat-laminated, dendritic, columnar, and mico-digitate forms and oncoids 0.5 to 2 cm diameter; D) grainstone with medium to coarse siliceous and carbonate ooids and peloids; E) massive green crystalline beds with bands of magnetite, quartz, calcite, disseminated pyrite and localized ankerite; F) autobreccicated fabric of 0.3 to 10 mm clasts; G) medium to coarse sandstone; H) quartzite. Correlation between 11 cores near Hoyt Lakes and 9 cores through the basal stromatolite layer at the MinnTac Mine near Virginia revealed that stromatolites formed both on conglomerate and medium quartz sandstone. Multiple forms of stromatolite may occur in a vertical succession (flat-laminated to undulatory to psuedocolumnar to columnar) or a core may be dominated by one type, typically columnar-stratiform. Where stromatolites do

  17. Joint inversion of geophysical data using petrophysical clustering and facies deformation wth the level set technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological expertise and petrophysical relationships can be brought together to provide prior information while inverting multiple geophysical datasets. The merging of such information can result in more realistic solution in the distribution of the model parameters, reducing ipse facto the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem. We consider two level of heterogeneities: facies, described by facies boundaries and heteroegenities inside each facies determined by a correlogram. In this presentation, we pose the geophysical inverse problem in terms of Gaussian random fields with mean functions controlled by petrophysical relationships and covariance functions controlled by a prior geological cross-section, including the definition of spatial boundaries for the geological facies. The petrophysical relationship problem is formulated as a regression problem upon each facies. The inversion of the geophysical data is performed in a Bayesian framework. We demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy using a first synthetic case for which we perform a joint inversion of gravity and galvanometric resistivity data with the stations located at the ground surface. The joint inversion is used to recover the density and resistivity distributions of the subsurface. In a second step, we consider the possibility that the facies boundaries are deformable and their shapes are inverted as well. We use the level set approach to perform such deformation preserving prior topological properties of the facies throughout the inversion. With the help of prior facies petrophysical relationships and topological characteristic of each facies, we make posterior inference about multiple geophysical tomograms based on their corresponding geophysical data misfits. The method is applied to a second synthetic case showing that we can recover the heterogeneities inside the facies, the mean values for the petrophysical properties, and, to some extent, the facies boundaries using the 2D joint inversion of

  18. Middle Eocene seagrass facies from Apennine carbonate platforms (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Laura; Benedetti, Andrea; Brandano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Two stratigraphic sections located in the Latium-Abruzzi (Monte Porchio, Central Apennines, Central Italy) and in the Apulian carbonate platform (S. Cesarea-Torre Tiggiano, Salento, Southern Italy) were measured and sampled to document the sedimentological characteristic and the faunistic assemblages of Middle Eocene seagrass deposits. The faunistic assemblages are dominated by porcellaneous foraminifera Orbitolites, Alveolina, Idalina, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Triloculina and abundant hooked-shaped gypsinids, associated with hooked red algae and green algae Halimeda. Fabiania, rotaliids and textulariids as well as nummulitids are subordinated. The samples were assigned to Lutetian (SBZ13-16) according to the occurrence of Nummulites cf. lehneri, Alveolina ex. gr. elliptica, Idalina berthelini, Orbitolites complanatus, Slovenites decastroi and Medocia blayensis. At Santa Cesarea reticulate nummulites occur in association with Alveolina spp. and Halkyardia minima marking the lower Bartonian (SBZ17). Three main facies associations have been recognised: I) larger porcellaneous foraminiferal grainstones with orbitolitids and alveolinids deposited into high-energy shallow-water settings influenced by wave processes that reworked the sediments associated with a seagrass; II) grainstone to packstone with small porcellaneous foraminifera and abundant permanently-attached gypsinids deposited in a more protected (e.g., small embayment) in situ vegetated environment; III) bioclastic packstone with parautochthonous material reworked from the seagrass by rip currents and accumulated into rip channels in a slightly deeper environment. The biotic assemblages suggest that the depositional environment is consistent with tropical to subtropical vegetated environments within oligotrophic conditions.

  19. Dating Metasomatism: Monazite and Zircon Growth during Amphibolite Facies Albitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailey B. Condit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present coupled textural observations and trace element and geochronological data from metasomatic monazite and zircon, to constrain the timing of high-grade Na-metasomatism (albitization of an Archean orthogneiss in southwest Montana, USA. Field, mineral textures, and geochemical evidence indicate albitization occurred as a rind along the margin of a ~3.2 Ga granodioritic orthogneiss (Pl + Hbl + Kfs + Qz + Bt + Zrn exposed in the Northern Madison range. The metasomatic product is a weakly deformed albitite (Ab + Bt + OAm + Zrn + Mnz + Ap + Rt. Orthoamphibole and biotite grew synkinematically with the regional foliation fabric, which developed during metamorphism that locally peaked at upper amphibolite-facies during the 1800–1710 Ma Big Sky orogeny. Metasomatism resulted in an increase in Na, a decrease in Ca, K, Ba, Fe, and Sr, a complete transformation of plagioclase and K-feldspar into albite, and loss of quartz. In situ geochronology on zoned monazite and zircon indicate growth by dissolution–precipitation in both phases at ~1750–1735 Ma. Trace element geochemistry of rim domains in these phases are best explained by dissolution–reprecipitation in equilibrium with Na-rich fluid. Together, these data temporally and mechanistically link metasomatism with high-grade tectonism and prograde metamorphism during the Big Sky orogeny.

  20. Combined tide and storm influence on facies sedimentation of miocene Miri Formation, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarta Ulfa; Nasiman Sapari; Zuhar Zahir Tuan Harith

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on the sedimentary rocks belonging to the Miri Formation (Middle - Late Miocene). The primary objective of the present study is to provide additional interpretation on the stratigraphy of the Miri Formation in the Miri Field based on the new information gathered from new outcrops in the area. Five outcrops were examined in detail on sedimentology and stratigraphy. Based on lithology, sedimentary structures, bedding geometry and traces fossil, the sediments of the Miri Formation were grouped into fourteen lithofacies. Influence of tide and storm during the depositional processes of the formation were indicated by the group of two main facies associations which are: (i) tide-dominated estuary; and (ii) wave-and-storm dominated facies associations. The tide-dominated estuary system of the Miri Formation are includes variety of sub environments: estuary mouth or tidal channel and sand bars (characterized by trough cross-stratified sandstone with mud drapes facies), estuary channel or upper flow regime of sand flat (characterized by parallel stratified sandstone with mud-laminas facies), mixed-tidal flat (characterized by wavy and flaser bedded sandstone facies), and mud-tidal flat (characterized by rhythmic stratified sandstone-mudstone and lenticular bedding facies). The wave-and-storm dominated varied from lower to middle shore face (characterized by hummocky cross-stratified sandstone and rhythmic parallel stratified sandstone and laminated siltstone facies), upper shore face (characterized by swaley cross-stratified sandstone), lower shore face inter bedded to bioturbated sandstone and siltstone facies), and offshore transitional (characterized by bioturbated sandstone and mudstone inter bedding with parallel to hummocky cross-stratified sandstone facies). (author)

  1. Modeling Oligo-Miocence channel sands (Dezful Embayment, SW Iran): an integrated facies classification workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Mostafa; Maddahi, Iradj; Moradpour, Mehran; Esmaeilpour, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    This study has been conducted on Mansuri onshore oilfield located in Dezful Embayment, south-west Iran. One of the hydrocarbon-bearing formations is a Oligo-Miocene Asmari formation—the most prolific Iranian reservoir rock. Like many other oilfields in the area, the trap in this field is deemed structural (anticline), formed during the collision of the Arabian plate with the Iranian plate and the folding of Neotethys deposits with a NW–SE trend. This study integrates three different quantitative studies from geology, geophysics and petrophysics disciplines to quantitate ‘the qualitative study of seismic facies analysis based on trace shapes and 3D multi-attribute clustering’. First, stratigraphic sequences and seismic detectable facies were derived at one well location using the available high resolution core facies analysis and depositional environment assessment reports. Paleo and petrophysical logs from other wells were subsequently used for the extrapolation of stratigraphic sequences interpreted at the first well. Utilizing lithology discrimination obtained by wire-line log interpretation, facies were extrapolated to all wells in the area. Seismic 3D attribute analysis and seismic facies classification established a 3D facies volume accordingly, which was finally calibrated to geological facies at well locations. The ultimate extracted facies-guided geobody shows that good reservoir-quality channel sands have accumulated with NW/SE elongation at the ridge of the structure. As a result, this type of geometry has created a stratigraphic/structural hydrocarbon trap in this oilfield. Moreover, seismic facies analysis shows that buried channels do not parallel the predominant Arabian plate-originated channels (with SW–NE trends) in SW Zagros and are locally swerved in this area. (paper)

  2. Mesozoic Alpine facies deposition as a result of past latitudinal plate motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Erba, Elisabetta; Kent, Dennis V; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2005-03-03

    The fragmentation of Pangaea as a consequence of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean is documented in the Alpine-Mediterranean region by the onset of widespread pelagic sedimentation. Shallow-water sediments were replaced by mainly pelagic limestones in the Early Jurassic period, radiolarian cherts in the Middle-Late Jurassic period, and again pelagic limestones in the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous period. During initial extension, basin subsidence below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is thought to have triggered the transition from Early Jurassic limestones to Middle-Late Jurassic radiolarites. It has been proposed that the transition from radiolarites to limestones in the Late Jurassic period was due to an increase in calcareous nannoplankton abundance when the CCD was depressed below the ocean floor. But in modern oceans, sediments below the CCD are not necessarily radiolaritic. Here we present palaeomagnetic samples from the Jurassic-Cretaceous pelagic succession exposed in the Lombardian basin, Italy. On the basis of an analysis of our palaeolatitudinal data in a broader palaeogeographic context, we propose an alternative explanation for the above facies tripartition. We suggest that the Lombardian basin drifted initially towards, and subsequently away from, a near-equatorial upwelling zone of high biosiliceous productivity. Our tectonic model for the genesis of radiolarites adds an essential horizontal plate motion component to explanations involving only vertical variations of CCD relative to the ocean floor. It may explain the deposition of radiolarites throughout the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern region during the Jurassic period.

  3. Lithofacies-paleo-geography and uranium sedimentary facies in Hailar basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng

    1992-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary paleo-structure and lithofacies-paleo-geography in Hailar Basin are described. Taking Chenqi coal field as an example, the sedimentary facies pattern of coal-bearing series characterized by alternating sedimentation of fluviatile and lacustrine-swampy facies is reconstructed. It is pointed out that this sedimentary facies not only controls the sedimentation and distribution of syngenetic uranium mineralization, but also is a favourable place that converges uranium-bearing solution and reduces and precipitates uranium for the second time in epigenetic mineralization

  4. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    , including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab­sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites...... slump packages (14–18 in total) are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in slumping. The vertical succession of facies records an earliest Cenomanian facies shift from dominantly siliciclastic to chalk deposition...

  5. Genetic variation in the interleukin-28B gene is associated with spontaneous clearance and progression of hepatitis C virus in Moroccan patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeh Ezzikouri

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in the IL28B gene has been strongly associated with treatment outcomes, spontaneous clearance and progression of the hepatitis C virus infection (HCV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of polymorphisms at this locus with progression and outcome of HCV infection in a Moroccan population.We analyzed a cohort of 438 individuals among them 232 patients with persistent HCV infection, of whom 115 patients had mild chronic hepatitis and 117 had advanced liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, 68 individuals who had naturally cleared HCV and 138 healthy subjects. The IL28B SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917 were genotyped using a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay.The protective rs12979860-C and rs8099917-T alleles were more common in subjects with spontaneous clearance (77.9% vs 55.2%; p = 0.00001 and 95.6% vs 83.2%; p = 0.0025, respectively. Individuals with clearance were 4.69 (95% CI, 1.99-11.07 times more likely to have the C/C genotype for rs12979860 polymorphism (p = 0.0017 and 3.55 (95% CI, 0.19-66.89 times more likely to have the T/T genotype at rs8099917. Patients with advanced liver disease carried the rs12979860-T/T genotype more frequently than patients with mild chronic hepatitis C (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 0.99-3.61; p = 0.0532 and this risk was even more pronounced when we compared them with healthy controls (OR = 4.27; 95% CI, 2.08-8.76; p = 0.0005. The rs8099917-G allele was also associated with advanced liver disease (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.40-3.93; p = 0.0100.In the Moroccan population, polymorphisms near the IL28B gene play a role both in spontaneous clearance and progression of HCV infection.

  6. Statistical classification of log response as an indicator of facies variation during changes in sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inwood, Jennifer; Lofi, Johanna; Davies, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel application of a statistical approach is utilized for analysis of downhole logging data from Miocene-aged siliciclastic shelf sediments on the New Jersey Margin (eastern USA). A multivariate iterative nonhierarchical cluster analysis (INCA) of spectral gamma-ray logs from I...

  7. Influence of seamount topography on the local facies variation in ferromanganese deposits in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Nath, B.N.

    surfaces, have lowest oxide/nucleus (O/N) ratios, and contain low values of Mn/Fe, Ni and Cu. In contrast, nodules from plains at the base of the seamount show greater abundance, are more spherical, have rougher surfaces, register high O/N ratios...

  8. Depositional and palaeoenvironmental variation of lower Turonian nearshore facies in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žítt, Jiří; Vodrážka, R.; Hradecká, L.; Svobodová, Marcela; Šťastný, Martin; Švábenická, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, September/December (2015), s. 293-315 ISSN 0195-6671 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : phosphatic particle accumulations * organic matter * micropalaeontology * biostratigraphy * condensed sedimentation * Upper Cretaceous Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2015

  9. [Burden of proof in medical cases--presumption of fact and prima facie evidence. II. Presumption of fact and prima facie evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwka, Marcin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main rules concerning the burden of proof in polish civil trials, including medical cases. The standard rules were presented with all the important exclusions such as presumption of law and fact or prima facie evidence. The author analyses the effect of these institutions on burden of proof in medical cases. The difference between presumptions of fact and prima facie evidence was analysed and explained. This paper also describes the importance of the res ipsa loquitur rule in United Kingdom and USA. This paper includes numerous High Court sentences on evidential and medical issues.

  10. Fluvial facies reservoir productivity prediction method based on principal component analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to forecast the well productivity because of the complexity of vertical and horizontal developments in fluvial facies reservoir. This paper proposes a method based on Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network to predict well productivity of fluvial facies reservoir. The method summarizes the statistical reservoir factors and engineering factors that affect the well productivity, extracts information by applying the principal component analysis method and approximates arbitrary functions of the neural network to realize an accurate and efficient prediction on the fluvial facies reservoir well productivity. This method provides an effective way for forecasting the productivity of fluvial facies reservoir which is affected by multi-factors and complex mechanism. The study result shows that this method is a practical, effective, accurate and indirect productivity forecast method and is suitable for field application.

  11. Sedimentary Facies of the West Crocker Formation North Kota Kinabalu-Tuaran Area, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.

  12. Distinguishing fluvio-deltaic facies by bulk geochemistry and heavy minerals: an example from the Miocene of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Rasmussen, Erik S.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Interpretations of seismic profiles, gamma-ray logs and sediment descriptions were used to classify seven facies in Miocene fluvio-deltaic deposits ofDenmark. An impartial approach was adopted by not including analytical data in the facies definition. This approach allowed identification of signi......Interpretations of seismic profiles, gamma-ray logs and sediment descriptions were used to classify seven facies in Miocene fluvio-deltaic deposits ofDenmark. An impartial approach was adopted by not including analytical data in the facies definition. This approach allowed identification...... grain size of quartz and heavy minerals from the channel facies towards the delta shoreface facies and further along the coast to the spit shoreface facies is associated with an increase in sorting and textural maturity. This trend is related to longshore drift. Increasing heavy mineral grain size...... is found from the delta slope facies offshore to the delta toe and shelf facies. This trend is interpreted as a result of sorting by turbidity currents. The mixed origin of the transgressive lag facies is shown by the poorer sorting in this facies. By indicating the amount of alteration the sediments have...

  13. Sedimentología y petrología de los abanicos aluviales y facies adyacentes en el Neogeno de Paracuellos de Jarama (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, M.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateral and vertical variations of middle Miocene lithofacies (Lower and Intermediate Units of the Miocene of the Madrid Basin have been analyzed in the Paracuellos de Jarama area, near Madrid. A complete transition from medial to distal alluvial fan facies and palustrinelshaltow 1acustrine deposits can be observed. This sedimentary evolution is inferred from the detailed sedimentological. analysis carried out in each of the previously defined lithostratigraphic units: a1 Green shale and dolomite Unit, a2 Brown clays, arkosic and carbonate Unit; these two units are linked together into a Lower Group. b Coarse Arkosic Unit (Upper Group. Facies relationsbips within the Lower Group show a lateral change pattern between alluvial fan deposits, and palustrine deposits. Also the former ones gradually prograde over the palustrine deposits, as deduced from vertical evolution in the southernmost parts of the area. Upper Group represents a sudden progradation of the alluvial fan systems, that extensively overlie the distal facies observed in the Lower Group.
    Wide development of calcretes, sepiolite deposits, and nodular chert is an outstanding feature in the most distal parts of the alluvial fan bodies. They are studied in some detail provided the scarcity of well described examples of facies relationships in the kinds of deposits.

    Se estudia en este trabajo la variación lateral y vertical de las litofacies del Mioceno medio (Unidades Inferior e Intermedia en el área de Paracuellos de Jarama, próxima a Madrid, quedando representada en este área una transición completa entre depósitos de facies medias de abenícos aluviales y depósitos de ámbitos palustres. Estas conclusiones se extraen a partir del análisis sedimentológico realizado en cada una de las unidades previamente definidas: a Unidad de arcillas verdes y carbonatos y Unidad de arcillas pardas, arcillas y carbonatos en el Conjunto Inferior; b Unidad de

  14. Detailed facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Tununk Shale Member, Henry Mountains Region, Utah: Implications for mudstone depositional models in epicontinental seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyang; Schieber, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    Lower-Middle Turonian strata of the Tununk Shale Member of the greater Mancos Shale were deposited along the western margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway during the Greenhorn second-order sea level cycle. In order to examine depositional controls on facies development in this mudstone-rich succession, this study delineates temporal and spatial relationships in a process-sedimentologic-based approach. The 3-dimensional expression of mudstone facies associations and their stratal architecture is assessed through a fully integrative physical and biologic characterization as exposed in outcrops in south-central Utah. Sedimentologic characteristics from the millimeter- to kilometer-scale are documented in order to fully address the complex nature of sediment transport mechanisms observed in this shelf muddy environment. The resulting facies model developed from this characterization consists of a stack of four lithofacies packages including: 1) carbonate-bearing, silty and sandy mudstone (CSSM), 2) silt-bearing, calcareous mudstone (SCM), 3) carbonate-bearing, silty mudstone to muddy siltstone (CMS), and 4) non-calcareous, silty and sandy mudstone (SSM). Spatial and temporal variations in lithofacies type and sedimentary facies characteristics indicate that the depositional environments of the Tununk Shale shifted in response to the 2nd-order Greenhorn transgressive-regressive sea-level cycle. During this eustatic event, the Tununk shows a characteristic vertical shift from distal middle shelf to outer shelf (CSSM to SCM facies), then from outer shelf to inner shelf environment (SCM to CMS, and to SSM facies). Shifting depositional environments, as well as changes in dominant paleocurrent direction throughout this succession, indicate multiple source areas and transport mechanisms (i.e. longshore currents, offshore-directed underflows, storm reworking). This study provides a rare documentation of the Greenhorn cycle as exposed across the entire shelf setting

  15. Polymetamorphic evolution of the granulite-facies Paleoproterozoic basement of the Kabul Block, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali; Mosazai, Amir Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The Kabul Block is an elongate crustal fragment which cuts across the Afghan Central Blocks, adjoining the Indian and Eurasian continents. Bounded by major strike slip faults and ophiolitic material thrust onto either side, the block contains a strongly metamorphosed basement consisting of some of the only quantifiably Proterozoic rocks south of the Herat-Panjshir Suture Zone. The basement rocks crop-out extensively in the vicinity of Kabul City and consist predominantly of migmatites, gneisses, schists and small amounts of higher-grade granulite-facies rocks. Granulite-facies assemblages were identified in felsic and mafic siliceous rocks as well as impure carbonates. Granulite-facies conditions are recorded by the presence of orthopyroxene overgrowing biotite in felsic rocks; by orthopyroxene overgrowing amphibole in mafic rocks and by the presence of olivine and clinohumite in the marbles. The granulite-facies assemblages are overprinted by a younger amphibolite-facies event that is characterized by the growth of garnet at the expense of the granulite-facies phases. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the granulite-facies event of around 850 °C and up to 7 kbar were calculated through conventional thermobarometry and phase equilibria modeling. The younger, amphibolite-facies event shows moderately higher pressures of up to 8.5 kbar at around 600 °C. This metamorphism likely corresponds to the dominant metamorphic event within the basement of the Kabul Block. The results of this work are combined with the litho-stratigraphic relations and recent geochronological dating to analyze envisaged Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic events in the Kabul Block.

  16. Sedimentary facies and Holocene depositional processes of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Toru; Kayanne, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Toru; Yamano, Hiroya

    2014-10-01

    The depositional processes that formed Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, were reconstructed based on a facies analysis of island sediments and spine ratios, and radiocarbon ages of foraminifera. Sedimentary facies were analyzed from trenches and drill cores excavated on the island and its adjacent reef flat. Depositional ages were obtained using benthic foraminifera (Calcarina) whose spines had not been abraded. The facies were classified into two types: gravelly and sandy. The initial sediments of these sites consisted of gravelly facies in the lower horizon and sandy facies in the upper horizon. Their ages were approximately 2000 cal BP and coincident with the onset of a 1.1-m decline in regional relative sea level, which enabled deposition of the gravelly facies. Half of the sand fraction of the sediment was composed of larger benthic foraminifera. The spine ratio showed that their supply source on the reef flat was located oceanside of the island. The supply source appears to have been caused by the relative sea-level fall. This indicates that the studied island was formed by a relative reduction in wave energy and enhanced foraminiferal supply, both of which were triggered by the late Holocene relative sea-level fall.

  17. Mineralogical Characterization of The Alteration Facies at Gabal El-Missikat Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the alteration facies zones recognized around the shear zone at Gabal El-Missikat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Petrographically, the fresh granitic samples are composed mainly of quartz, K-feldspars (microcline and microcline perthite), plagioclase, biotite. The secondary minerals are sericite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and epidote as well as zircon, apatite, fluorite, titanite and iron oxides as accessory minerals. Two alteration facies zones are recognized and namely as propylitic and advanced argillic. The propylitic facies zone is composed mainly of sericite with minor kaolinite, muscovite, quartz, relics of plagioclases, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite, columbite and fluorite and secondary uranium minerals, the advanced argillic facies zone is composed mainly of kaolinite with minor sericite, quartz, muscovite, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite and garnet of spessartine type as accessory minerals. The identified minerals in the studied two alteration facies zones can be grouped into three mineral groups which are: the primary minerals (pyrite, magnetite, galena, columbite and gold), the secondary minerals (uranophane, kasolite and wulfenite) and the gangue minerals (anhydrite, barite, celestine, hematite, goethite and fluorite). The identified mineral assemblage of the studied propylitic alteration facies zone may be attributed to strongly alkaline hydrothermal solutions at ph value of more than 7 with temperature varying between 350 and 450°C, while the advanced argillic alteration facies zone is essentially associated with strongly acidic hydrothermal solutions at ph value less than 7 with temperature varying between 150 and 400°C

  18. Mineralogical and Micro-fabric investigation of the Sandy Facies of Opalinus Clay (Mont Terri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Dohrmann, Reiner; Graesle, Werner; Plischke, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    In the field of geological disposal of radioactive waste in many countries argillaceous formations are considered as potential host rock. For the understanding of the long-term behaviour of clay host rock, it is important to understand the interaction between mechanical behaviour, micro-fabric, and mineral composition. Previous publications showed that particularly the carbonate content and the arrangement of the carbonate grains (as cement in the matrix or as shells) determines the mechanical strength of Opalinus Clay and Callovo-Oxfordian Clay specimens, respectively. Klinkenberg et al. (2009) studied the shaly facies of Opalinus Clay, however, the actual deposit is planned to be built in the sandy facies of Opalinus Clay. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between micro-fabric, mineral composition, and mechanical properties of different samples derived from the sandy facies (BLT-A2). Image analysis showed that the carbonates in the sandy facies mainly occur as 1) matrix which in turn acts as cement. Carbonates also occur 2) in the fine sand fraction and 3) biogenic carbonates as traces. The carbonates of the sandy facies, therefore, appear to be similar to the carbonates of the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay with respect to their possible influence on failure strength. The mechanical testing showed that the shear strength increases with increasing carbonate content. This phenomenon was also observed for the samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian Clay, while the opposite relation was found for the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay. Preliminary results presented here, indicate that the sandy facies (drilling BLT-A2) and Callovo-Oxfordian Clay show similar mechanical properties - in detail: 1) Micro-fabric: carbonates predominate in the matrix, 2) Mineralogy: high carbonate content and 3) Mechanical testing: shear strength increases with increasing carbonate content, where the type of carbonates which controls the increase of strength has to be

  19. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  20. Supercritical flows and their control on the architecture and facies of small-radius sand-rich fan lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, George; Kleverlaan, Kick

    2018-02-01

    New insights into flow characteristics of supercritical, high-density turbidity currents initiated renewed interest in a sand-rich lobe complex near the hamlet of Mizala in the Sorbas Basin (Tortonian, SE Spain). The field study was done using drone-made images taken along bed strike in combination with physical tracing of bounding surfaces and section logging. The studied lobe systems show a consistent built-up of lobe elements of 1.5-2.0 m thick, which form the building 'blocks' of the lobe system. The stacking of lobe elements shows lateral shift and compensational relief infill. The new model outlined in this paper highlights three stages of fan lobe development: I. an early aggradational stage with lobe elements characterized by antidune and traction-carpet bedforms and burrowed mud intervals (here called 'distal fan' deposits); II. a progradational stage, where the distal fan deposits are truncated by lobe elements of amalgamated sandy to gravelly units characterized by cyclic step bedform facies (designated as 'supra fan' deposits). The supra fan is much more channelized and scoured and of higher flow energy than the distal-fan. Aggradation of the supra-fan is terminated by a 'pappy' pebbly sandstone and by substrate liquefaction, 'pappy' referring to a typical, porridge-like texture indicating rapid deposition under conditions of little-to-no shear. The facies-bounded termination of the supra-fan is here related to its maximum elevation, causing the lobe-feeding supercritical flow to choke and to expand upwards by a strong hydraulic jump at the channel outlet; III. a backfilling stage, characterized by backfilling of the remaining relief with progressively thinning and fining of turbidite beds and eventually with mud. The three-stage development for fan-lobe building is deducted from reoccurring architectural and facies characteristics in three successive fan-lobes. The validity of using experimental, supercritical-flow fan studies for understanding the

  1. Non-marine carbonate facies, facies models and palaeogeographies of the Purbeck Formation (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) of Dorset (Southern England).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Arnaud; Bosence, Dan; Burgess, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Non-marine carbonates are relatively poorly understood compared with their more abundant marine counterparts. Sedimentary facies and basin architecture are controlled by a range of environmental parameters such as climate, hydrology and tectonic setting but facies models are few and limited in their predictive value. Following the discovery of extensive Early Cretaceous, non-marine carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in the South Atlantic, the interest of understanding such complex deposits has increased during recent years. This study is developing a new depositional model for non-marine carbonates in a semi-arid climate setting in an extensional basin; the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) in Dorset (Southern England). Outcrop study coupled with subsurface data analysis and petrographic study (sedimentology and early diagenesis) aims to constrain and improve published models of depositional settings. Facies models for brackish water and hypersaline water conditions of these lacustrine to palustrine carbonates deposited in the syn-rift phase of the Wessex Basin will be presented. Particular attention focusses on the factors that control the accumulation of in-situ microbialite mounds that occur within bedded inter-mound packstones-grainstones in the lower Purbeck. The microbialite mounds are located in three units (locally known as the Skull Cap, the Hard Cap and the Soft Cap) separated by three fossil soils (locally known as the Basal, the Lower and the Great Dirt Beds) respectively within three shallowing upward lacustrine sequences. These complex microbialite mounds (up to 4m high), are composed of tabular small-scale mounds (flat and long, up to 50cm high) divided into four subfacies. Many of these small-scale mounds developed around trees and branches which are preserved as moulds (or silicified wood) which are surrounded by a burrowed mudstone-wackestone collar. Subsequently a thrombolite framework developed on the upper part only within

  2. The salt that wasn't there: Mudflat facies equivalents to halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.W.; Holt, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four halite beds of the Permian Restler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over horst lateral distances to correlative classic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. The authors interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccials are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Restler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional)halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin, It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion

  3. Sedimentology, eruptive mechanism and facies architecture of basaltic scoria cones from the Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly

    2016-09-01

    Scoria cones are a common type of basaltic to andesitic small-volume volcanoes (e.g. 10- 1-10- 5 km3) that results from gas-bubble driven explosive eruptive styles. Although they are small in volume, they can produce complex eruptions, involving multiple eruptive styles. Eight scoria cones from the Quaternary Auckland Volcanic Field in New Zealand were selected to define the eruptive style variability from their volcanic facies architecture. The reconstruction of their eruptive and pyroclastic transport mechanisms was established on the basis of study of their volcanic sedimentology, stratigraphy, and measurement of their pyroclast density, porosity, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 2D particle morphology analysis and Visible and Near Visible Infrared Spectroscopy. Collection of these data allowed defining three end-member types of scoria cones inferred to be constructed from lava-fountaining, transitional fountaining and Strombolian type, and explosive Strombolian type. Using the physical and field-based characteristics of scoriaceous samples a simple generalised facies model of basaltic scoria cones for the AVF is developed that can be extended to other scoria cones elsewhere. The typical AVF scoria cone has an initial phreatomagmatic phases that might reduce the volume of magma available for subsequent scoria cone forming eruptions. This inferred to have the main reason to have decreased cone volumes recognised from Auckland in comparison to other volcanic fields evolved dominantly in dry eruptive condition (e.g. no external water influence). It suggests that such subtle eruptive style variations through a scoria cone evolution need to be integrated into the hazard assessment of a potentially active volcanic field such as that in Auckland.

  4. Facies discrimination in a mixed fluvio-eolian setting using elemental whole rock geochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Johan; Friis, Henrik; Stollhofen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    -eolian successions. The method is developed on the modern fluvio-eolian sediments from the Skeleton Coast dune field, Namibia. The examined sediments comprise eight different facies types; eolian dune sands, inter dune fluvial channel sands, intra erg mass flow deposits, intra erg hyperconcentrated flow deposits......, fluvial channel sands, fluvial mud, lacustrine heterolithic sand and lacustrine heterolithic mud. The contrasting provenance of the fluvial and eolian sediments results in a distinct source fingerprint which can be discriminated using elemental whole rock geochemistry. Multivariate statistical technique...... performed on the geochemical data has enabled discrimination of seven of the eight facies types. Furthermore, the facies discrimination method allowed a quantitative estimate of the degree of fluvial reworking of eolian sand. We believe that the method presented here, when calibrated to a reference well...

  5. The influence of facies heterogeneity on the doublet performance in low-enthalpy geothermal sedimentary reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crooijmans, R. A.; Willems, C. J L; Nick, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional model is used to study the influence of facies heterogeneity on energy production under different operational conditions of low-enthalpy geothermal doublet systems. Process-based facies modelling is utilised for the Nieuwerkerk sedimentary formation in the West Netherlands Basin...... and the energy recovery rate for different discharge rates and the production temperature (Tmin) above which the doublet is working. With respect to the results, we propose a design model to estimate the life time and energy recovery rate of the geothermal doublet. The life time is estimated as a function of N....../G, Tmin and discharge rate, while the design model for the energy recovery rate is only a function of N/G and Tmin. Both life time and recovery show a positive relation with an increasing N/G. Further our results suggest that neglecting details of process-based facies modelling may lead to significant...

  6. Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    The felsic volcanics, tuff and volcaniclastic rocks within the Tadpatri Formation of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin are not extensively studied so far. It is necessary to evaluate the extrusive environment of felsic lavas with associated ash fall tuffs and define the resedimented volcaniclastic components. The spatial and temporal bimodal association were addressed, but geochemical and petrographic studies of mafic volcanics are paid more attention so far. The limited exposures of eroded felsic volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastic components in this terrain are highly altered and that is the challenge of the present facies analysis. Based on field observation and mapping of different lithounits a number of facies are categorized. Unbiased lithogeochemical sampling have provided major and selective trace element data to characterize facies types. Thin-section studies are also carried out to interpret different syn- and post- volcanic features. The facies analysis are used to prepare a representative facies model to visualize the entire phenomenon with reference to the basin evolution. Different devitrification features and other textural as well as structural attributes typical of flow, surge and ash fall deposits are manifested in the middle, lower and upper stratigraphic levels. Spatial and temporal correlation of lithologs are also supportive of bimodal volcanism. Felsic and mafic lavas are interpreted to have erupted through the N-S trending rift-associated fissures due to lithospheric stretching during late Palaeoproterozoic. It is also established from the facies model that the volcaniclastics were deposited in the deeper part of the basin in the east. The rifting and associated pressure release must have provided suitable condition of decompression melting at shallow depth with high geothermal gradient and this partial melting of mantle derived material at lower crust must have produced mafic magmas. Such upwelling into cold crust also caused partial heat

  7. Importance of separating sedimentation facies in prospecting for oil and gas pools confined to sloping structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B

    1984-01-01

    The Shuantotszi field which is in the southeast part of the Sunlyalo oil and gas basin was discovered in 1962. For a long time the correlation of the main factors controlling the oil and gas distribution remained obscure. It has been established in recent years that the main volume of oil and gas is confined to facies in the channels of the second order, arranged between the facies of the main channel and the perlite deposits of the delta. It was established that formation of the accumulation is associated with redistribution and secondary migration of hydrocarbons.

  8. Traces in the dark: sedimentary processes and facies gradients in the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven O.; Fishman, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Black, organic-rich rocks of the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, a world-class petroleum source rock in the Williston Basin of the United States and Canada, contain a diverse suite of mudstone lithofacies that were deposited in distinct facies belts. The succession consists of three discrete facies associations (FAs). These comprise: 1) siliceous mudstones; 2) quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones; and 3) macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones. These FAs were deposited in three facies belts that reflect proximal to distal relationships in this mudstone system. The macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones (FA 3) occur in the proximal facies belt and contain erosion surfaces, some with overlying conodont and phosphate–lithoclast lag deposits, mudstones with abundant millimeter-scale siltstone laminae showing irregular lateral thickness changes, and shell debris. In the medial facies belt, quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate, exhibiting sub-millimeter-thick siltstone layers with variable lateral thicknesses and localized mudstone ripples. In the distal siliceous mudstone facies belt, radiolarites, radiolarian-bearing mudstones, and quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate. Overall, total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between about 3 and 10 wt %, with a general proximal to distal decrease in TOC content. Abundant evidence of bioturbation exists in all FAs, and the lithological and TOC variations are paralleled by changes in burrowing style and trace-fossil abundance. While two horizontal traces and two types of fecal strings are recognized in the proximal facies belt, only a single horizontal trace fossil and one type of fecal string characterize mudstones in the distal facies belt. Radiolarites intercalated into the most distal mudstones are devoid of traces and fecal strings. Bedload transport processes, likely caused by storm-induced turbidity

  9. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  10. Facies-constrained FWI: Toward application to reservoir characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant

    2017-11-01

    The most common approach to obtaining reservoir properties from seismic data exploits the amplitude variation with offset response of reflected waves. However, structural complexity and errors in the velocity model can severely reduce the quality of the inverted results. Full-waveform inversion (FWI) has shown a lot of promise in obtaining high-resolution velocity models for depth imaging. We propose supplementing FWI with rock-physics constraints obtained from borehole data to invert for reservoir properties. The constraints are imposed by adding appropriately weighted regularization terms to the objective function. The advantages of this technique over conventional FWI algorithms are shown by conducting synthetic tests for both isotropic and VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) models. The medium parameterization for FWI is selected using radiation (scattering) patterns of perturbations in the model parameters.

  11. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.

    2016-07-01

    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  12. Unsupervised seismic facies analysis with spatial constraints using regularized fuzzy c-means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyun; Liu, Zhining; Cai, Hanpeng; Wang, Yaojun; Li, Xingming; Hu, Guangmin

    2017-12-01

    Seismic facies analysis techniques combine classification algorithms and seismic attributes to generate a map that describes main reservoir heterogeneities. However, most of the current classification algorithms only view the seismic attributes as isolated data regardless of their spatial locations, and the resulting map is generally sensitive to noise. In this paper, a regularized fuzzy c-means (RegFCM) algorithm is used for unsupervised seismic facies analysis. Due to the regularized term of the RegFCM algorithm, the data whose adjacent locations belong to same classification will play a more important role in the iterative process than other data. Therefore, this method can reduce the effect of seismic data noise presented in discontinuous regions. The synthetic data with different signal/noise values are used to demonstrate the noise tolerance ability of the RegFCM algorithm. Meanwhile, the fuzzy factor, the neighbour window size and the regularized weight are tested using various values, to provide a reference of how to set these parameters. The new approach is also applied to a real seismic data set from the F3 block of the Netherlands. The results show improved spatial continuity, with clear facies boundaries and channel morphology, which reveals that the method is an effective seismic facies analysis tool.

  13. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  14. Facies architecture of heterolithic tidal deposits : The Holocene Holland Tidal Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, M.E.; Geel, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    The size, shape and spatial position of lithofacies types (or facies architecture) in a tidal estuarine basin are complex and therefore difficult to model. The tidal currents in the basin concentrate sand-sized sediment in a branching pattern of tidal channels and fringing tidal flats. Away from the

  15. Getting to First Base: Prima Facie Arguments for Propositions of Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuman, Joseph S.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that few clear standards exist for value debate. Defines values as instrumental or terminal, and identifies four prima facie burdens necessary for affirming a value resolution: value identification; value criteria; value hierarchy; and topicality through relevance. Examines the role of presumption and burden of proof in value debate. (MM)

  16. The Burger Court and the Prima Facie Case in Employment Discrimination Litigation: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joel William

    1979-01-01

    The unprincipled and contrived reasoning running through these opinions manifests an intentional effort by the Court to impede litigants' ability to secure their rights to equal employment opportunity by raising the requirements of the prima facie case. Available from Fred B. Rothman & Co., 10368 West Centennial Road, Littleton, CO 80123; sc…

  17. Cataplectic facies: clinical marker in the diagnosis of childhood narcolepsy-report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manish; Setty, Gururaj; Ponnusamy, Athi; Hussain, Nahin; Desurkar, Archana

    2014-05-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic disease and is commonly diagnosed in adulthood. However, more than half of the patients have onset of symptoms in childhood and/or adolescence. The full spectrum of clinical manifestations, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis, is usually not present at disease onset, delaying diagnosis during childhood. Mean delay in diagnosis since symptom onset is known to be several years. Initial manifestations can sometimes be as subtle as only partial drooping of eyelids leading to confusion with a myasthenic condition. We present two children who presented with "cataplectic facies," an unusual facial feature only recently described in children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. The diagnosis of narcolepsy was confirmed by multiple sleep latency test along with human leukocyte antigen typing and cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin assay. The diagnosis of narcolepsy with cataplexy at onset can be challenging in young children. With more awareness of subtle signs such as cataplectic facies, earlier diagnosis is possible. To date, only 11 children between 6 and 18 years of age presenting with typical cataplectic facies have been reported in the literature. We present two patients, one of whom is the youngest individual (4 years old) yet described with the typical cataplectic facies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multinomial Logistic Regression & Bootstrapping for Bayesian Estimation of Vertical Facies Prediction in Heterogeneous Sandstone Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhafar, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Precisely prediction of rock facies leads to adequate reservoir characterization by improving the porosity-permeability relationships to estimate the properties in non-cored intervals. It also helps to accurately identify the spatial facies distribution to perform an accurate reservoir model for optimal future reservoir performance. In this paper, the facies estimation has been done through Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) with respect to the well logs and core data in a well in upper sandstone formation of South Rumaila oil field. The entire independent variables are gamma rays, formation density, water saturation, shale volume, log porosity, core porosity, and core permeability. Firstly, Robust Sequential Imputation Algorithm has been considered to impute the missing data. This algorithm starts from a complete subset of the dataset and estimates sequentially the missing values in an incomplete observation by minimizing the determinant of the covariance of the augmented data matrix. Then, the observation is added to the complete data matrix and the algorithm continues with the next observation with missing values. The MLR has been chosen to estimate the maximum likelihood and minimize the standard error for the nonlinear relationships between facies & core and log data. The MLR is used to predict the probabilities of the different possible facies given each independent variable by constructing a linear predictor function having a set of weights that are linearly combined with the independent variables by using a dot product. Beta distribution of facies has been considered as prior knowledge and the resulted predicted probability (posterior) has been estimated from MLR based on Baye's theorem that represents the relationship between predicted probability (posterior) with the conditional probability and the prior knowledge. To assess the statistical accuracy of the model, the bootstrap should be carried out to estimate extra-sample prediction error by randomly

  19. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of modern foraminiferal abundance and environmental data from the Bertioga Channel (Sa??o Paulo, Brazil) reveal multiple biofacies within an overall paralic setting. Despite its fisheries, mariculture and attraction to tourists, the environmental state of Bertioga Channel remains poorly studied. The present investigation is an attempt to partly fill this gap; the parameters examined include depth, salinity, temperature, organic carbon, sulfur content and bottom sediment type. Muddy sediments with high organic carbon content derived from land drainage are found in the inner parts of the channel, whereas sandy sediment dominates the areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern entrance to the channel, sandy sediment contain species of Rotaliida from Facies 1 (including Elphidium discoidale, Elphidium poeyanum, Hanzawaia boueana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis and Nonionella atlantica), reflecting normal marine salinity. Sediments with high percentages of silt and clay in polyhaline and eurybaline environments of the eastern part and Itapanhau?? River contain Facies 2, which includes Ammonia beccarii and Pararotalia cananeiaensis. In the western entrance and central, western and eastern parts, where salinities vary from 18 to 30 psu and the sediments contain both low and high organic carbon, the foraminifera from Facies 3 are dominated by Quinqueloculina milletti, Arenoparrella mexicana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Ammonia beccarii, Buliminella elegantissima, Elphidium sp., Elphidium excavatum, Elphidium gunteri and Elphidium poeyanum. In mesohaline and polyhaline waters of the central part, the organic-carbon-rich silt and clay contain Facies 4, which includes Ammonia beccarii, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Elphidium excavatum and Elphidium sp. Most of organic-carbon-enriched, silty-clay substrates that are subject to the highest fresh-water discharge and high bottom temperatures support two different assemblages: one of mostly Rotaliina and the

  20. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  1. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  2. Sedimentary Facies Mapping Based on Tidal Channel Network and Topographic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. H.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.

    2015-12-01

    Tidal flats on the west coast of Korea suffer intensive changes in their surface sedimentary facies as a result of the influence of natural and artificial changes. Spatial relationships between surface sedimentary facies distribution and benthic environments were estimated for the open-type Ganghwa tidal flat and semi closed-type Hwangdo tidal flat, Korea. In this study, we standardized the surface sedimentary facies and tidal channel index of the channel density, distance, thickness and order. To extract tidal channel information, we used remotely sensed data, such as those from the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT)-2, KOMPSAT-3, and aerial photographs. Surface sedimentary facies maps were generated based on field data using an interpolation method.The tidal channels in each sediment facies had relatively constant meandering patterns, but the density and complexity were distinguishable. The second fractal dimension was 1.7-1.8 in the mud flat, about 1.4 in the mixed flat, and about 1.3 in the sand flat. The channel density was 0.03-0.06 m/m2 in the mud flat and less than 0.02 m/m2 in the mixed and sand flat areas of the two test areas. Low values of the tidal channel index, which indicated a simple pattern of tidal channel distribution, were identified at areas having low elevation and coarse-grained sediments. By contrast, high values of the tidal channel index, which indicated a dendritic pattern of tidal channel distribution, were identified at areas having high elevation and fine-grained sediments. Surface sediment classification based on remotely sensed data must circumspectly consider an effective critical grain size, water content, local topography, and intertidal structures.

  3. Facies architecture and high resolution sequence stratigraphy of an aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine system in the Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lucas Valadares; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation records the deposition of aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine systems accumulated in the cratonic sag Parnaíba basin. Characterization of the facies associations and sequence stratigraphic framework was done by detailed description and logging of outcrops. Six facies associations were recognized: aeolian dunes and interdunes, aeolian sandsheets, fluvial channels, tidally-influenced fluvial channels, shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition. Through correlation of stratigraphic surfaces, the facies associations were organized in system tracts, which formed eight high frequency depositional sequences, bounded by subaerial unconformities. These sequences are composed of a lowstand system tract (LST), that is aeolian-dominated or fluvial-dominated, a transgressive system tract (TST) that is formed by tidally-influenced fluvial channels and/or shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition deposits with retrogradational stacking, and a highstand system tract (HST), which is formed by shoreface-shelf transition and shoreface deposits with progradational stacking. Two low frequency cycles were determined by observing the stacking of the high frequency cycles. The Lower Sequence is characterized by aeolian deposits of the LST and an aggradational base followed by a progressive transgression, defining a general TST. The Upper Sequence is characterized by fluvial deposits and interfluve pedogenesis concurring with the aeolian deposits of the LST and records a subtle regression followed by transgression. The main control on sedimentation in the Piauí Formation was glacioeustasy, which was responsible for the changes in relative sea level. Even though, climate changes were associated with glacioeustatic phases and influenced the aeolian and fluvial deposition.

  4. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Fengjun Zhang; Yannong Dong; Jan Arild Skjervheim; Ning Liu

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. But while the volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade, it is not yet possible to make use of all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. The goal of this project is to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management. Facies (defined here as regions of relatively uniform petrophysical properties) are common features of all reservoirs. Because the flow properties of the various facies can vary greatly, knowledge of the location of facies boundaries is of utmost importance for the prediction of reservoir performance and for the optimization of reservoir management. When the boundaries between facies are fairly well known, but flow properties are poorly known, the average properties for all facies can be determined using traditional techniques. Traditional history matching honors dynamic data by adjusting petrophysical properties in large areas, but in the process of adjusting the reservoir model ignores the static data and often results in implausible reservoir

  5. Biostratigraphy, facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Sarvak Formation in the Ahwaz Oil Field, North Dezful Embayment Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kazemzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleontological studies lead to recognition of 21 genera and 16 species of benthic foraminifera, 5 genera and 6 species of planktonic foraminifera and 3 genera and 3 species of oligosteginids. The vertical distribution of fauna lead to identification of 5 biozones including: Favusella washitensis Range Zone, Oligostegina Assemblage Zone, Rudist debris Zone, Nezzazata-Alveolinids Assemblage Zone, Nezzazatinella-Dicyclina Assemblage Zone. Based on the indicated biozones, the age of the Sarvak Formation is Late Albian to Early Turonian in the study area. Eleven carbonate facies belonging to four environments including tidal flat, restricted and semi-restricted lagoon, shoal and open marine are recognized. The identified facies are deposited on the homoclinal ramp setting. Based on the vertical changes of facies and recognized depositional environments, four third-order depositional sequences are represented. The transgressive systems tracts mainly comprises of open marine facies including sponge spicule, oligosteginid, echinoid and benthic foraminifera, while the highstand systems tracts mainly consists of shoal facies rich in bioclast, and restricted and semi-restricted lagoon facies rich in porcellaneous and hyaline benthic foraminifera and peloid. The maximum flooding surface represented by open marine facies including echinoid and planktonic foraminifera

  6. Coal facies evolution of the main minable coal-bed in the Heidaigou Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.F.; Ren, D.Y.; Li, S.S.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-11-15

    The No. 6 Coal-bed from the Heidaigou Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia is a super-large Ga deposit. The dominant carrier of Ga is boehmite in coal. The study of coal facies may provide genetic enrichment information of Ga and its carrier (boehmite) in the Ga deposit. On the basis of study on coal petrology and mineralogy, it was found that the No. 6 Coal-bed from the Heidaigou Mine of Jungar was enriched in inertinites and the microlithotypes were dominated by clarodurite. The maceral morphological features and association indicate that the coal-bed was formed in a dry sedimentary environment or in a periodic dry sedimentary environment caused by the alternating variations of groundwater level. The optimum conditions for the enrichment of Ga and its particular carrier (boehmite) were dominated by four transitional conditions: (1) the upper delta plain which was the transitional zone between alluvial and lower delta plains, (2) the transitional zone between the dry and wet forest swamps, being slightly apt to the dry one, (3) the transitional tree density between the thick and loose ones, and (4) the low moor that was the transitional zone between two high moors during peat accumulation.

  7. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-08-01

    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  8. Zircon ages in granulite facies rocks: decoupling from geochemistry above 850 °C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Engi, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Granulite facies rocks frequently show a large spread in their zircon ages, the interpretation of which raises questions: Has the isotopic system been disturbed? By what process(es) and conditions did the alteration occur? Can the dates be regarded as real ages, reflecting several growth episodes? Furthermore, under some circumstances of (ultra-)high-temperature metamorphism, decoupling of zircon U-Pb dates from their trace element geochemistry has been reported. Understanding these processes is crucial to help interpret such dates in the context of the P-T history. Our study presents evidence for decoupling in zircon from the highest grade metapelites (> 850 °C) taken along a continuous high-temperature metamorphic field gradient in the Ivrea Zone (NW Italy). These rocks represent a well-characterised segment of Permian lower continental crust with a protracted high-temperature history. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that zircons in the mid-amphibolite facies preserve mainly detrital cores with narrow overgrowths. In the upper amphibolite and granulite facies, preserved detrital cores decrease and metamorphic zircon increases in quantity. Across all samples we document a sequence of four rim generations based on textures. U-Pb dates, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-zircon concentrations show an essentially continuous evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, except in the samples from the granulite facies, which display significant scatter in age and chemistry. We associate the observed decoupling of zircon systematics in high-grade non-metamict zircon with disturbance processes related to differences in behaviour of non-formula elements (i.e. Pb, Th, U, Ti) at high-temperature conditions, notably differences in compatibility within the crystal structure.

  9. Facies and sedimentary series in the La Camocha Carboniferous, (Gijon, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales, I; Flor, G; Pello, J; Peon, A

    1985-01-01

    The Carboniferous of La Camocha Mine consists mainly of terrigenous facies belonging to a fluvial-dominated delta system. Occasionally, as a consequence of avulsion, the area is abandoned by the distributary channels; it gives occasion for some quick marine transgression, the sediments of which being of carbonate character. This situation occurs in the lower part of the studied succession; the upper one is characterised only by sediments of the delta plain environments. 12 references.

  10. The use of anion geochemistry in mapping groundwater facies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The groundwater system of the Port Harcourt area is home to three anion facies, the Cl – SO4, the Cl – SO4 – HCO3 and the HCO3 – Cl – SO4. The first two types exist in both shallow – and deep – groundwater environments while the third is restricted to the deep environment. Although there are natural intermittent and, ...

  11. Holocene facies analysis of the sedimentary record with anthropogenic impacts in the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, B.; Garcia-Gil, S.; Vilas, F.; Garcia, A.

    2004-05-01

    The Ria de Vigo constitutes the southernmost ria of the Rias Bajas. The reconnaisance studies of this ria indicate a heterogeneous distribution of both terrigenous and carbonate sediments with a major axial deposit of cohesive sediments. These fine sediments are relatively rich in organic matter, particularly in the inner part of the ria. This is the result of a progressive change in hydrodynamic conditions along the ria. The outer parts are affected by severe storms in winter and by upwelling processes in summer, whilst the inner parts have an estuarine character throughout the year. The upwelling produces a marked increase in the biological productivity in the Ria and, consequently, these sediments have typically very high contents of organic matter. In recent years, increasing interest has been shown in the levels of heavy metals in sediments of the Galician Rias. Particularly, some of these studies showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in the muddiest surficial sediments in the Ria de Vigo. However, and despite of the important human and industrial settlement in the Galician rias, knowledge about the evolution of historical contamination along the Holocene sedimentary record is scarce. In order to ascertain this evolution have been selected 8 gravity corer located along the axial part of the ria. This evaluation was focused on the muddy sediments of the axial part of the ria due to the dependence of metal levels on grain size, resulting from the association of metals with the finer particles, as it has been demonstrated by previous studies in the ria. On these sediments, the combination of geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological data, facies interpretations (obtained from x-ray radiography), and their integration with high resolution seismic data (Uniboom and 3.5 Khz subbottom profiler) have allowed to establish the evolution of certain heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) along the Holocene recent sedimentary record in the Ria de Vigo. Sediments in the

  12. Hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in the Sinian Dengying Fm, central Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiang Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Sinian Dengying Fm is the focus of natural gas exploration in the central part of the Sichuan Basin (central Sichuan Basin in recent years. Especially, epigenic karstification and its resulted reservoir-seepage spaces have always been the focal points in researches. Based on the petrographic characteristics of drilling cuttings and core samples, and through experimental analysis by using trace elements, isotopes, and cathodoluminescence, the Dengying Fm dolomite was demonstrated to have matrix recrystallized dolomite (MRD, filled saddle dolomite (FSD (the mean homogenization temperature of inclusion: 178.5 °C, high concentrations of Fe & Mn, slightly positive 87Sr/86Sr value and hydrothermal minerals combination (including sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and quartz, etc.. Thus, it was proposed that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies (HDRF exist in the Dengying Fm dolomite, in other words, the dolomite reservoir is composed of hydrothermal dissolved pores, intercrystalline pores of hydrothermal origin, hydrothermal caverns and expanded fractures, and was formed due to the reworking of hydrothermal fluid on tight matrix dolomite. Identification marks are presented in terms of petrography and geochemistry so that hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies can be effectively recognized and identified. It is concluded that the development of hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies in this area are preliminary controlled by deep and large basement faults and the strength of hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Tacuari formation (Nov. Nom.): Lithostratigraphy, facies, environment, age and geological significance (Cerro Largo - Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroslavsky, G.; De Santa Ana, H.; Daners, G.

    2006-01-01

    The definition of the Tacuari formation is proposed to group a set of glacial and fossiliferous siliciclastic rock deposited during the Upper proterozoic in the northeast of Uruguay. Up to this paper these lithologies were included in the San Gregorio formation (Carboniferous - Permian - Norte Basin). However, Leiosphaeridia tenuissima, L, minutissima, Myxcocooides distola, M, siderophila, Soldadophycus bossil and S. major were recorded in these rocks.This finded motivated the accomplishment of geological surveys that allowed to ferify the glacial origin of the Tacuari formation, to define its stratigraphic relationships and to corroborate its affectation by the Sierra Ballena shear zone. Two association of facies were recognized in the Tacuari formation: the base is represented by facies association A (outwash plains), characterized diamictites, sandostones and pelites; at the top, the facies association B (glaciomarine) includes a package of rhythmites with dropstones. On account of the tectonic setting, nature of sedimentation, age, and fossils, the definition of Tacuari formation constitutes a novel contribution to the regional evolutionary model of the Upper proterozoic. discussion of posible stratigraphc correlations with other neoproterozoic units of Western wondwana is also attempted

  14. Association of the gene expression variation of tumor necrosis factor-α and expressions changes of dopamine receptor genes in progression of diabetic severe foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Vaseghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Regulation of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-, which are secreted by the immune cells through induction of their several receptors including dopamine receptors (especially DRD2 and DRD3 is one of the noticeable problems in diabetic severe foot ulcer healing. This study was conducted to evaluate the alteration of TNF- in plasma as well as DRD2 and DRD3 changes in PBMCs of diabetics with severe foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 31 subjects with ulcers, 29 without ulcers, and 25 healthy individuals. Total mRNA was extracted from PBMCs for the study of DRD2, DRD3, and TNF- gene expression variations. Expression patterns of these genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. Consequently, concentration of TNF- was investigated in plasma. Results: Significant decrease in gene expression and plasma concentration of TNF- in PBMCs was observed in both patient groups at P Conclusion: We concluded that DRD2 and DRD3 expression alteration and presence of new DRD3 transcripts can be effective in reduction of TNF-α expression as a pro-inflammatory factor. Performing complementary studies, may explain that variations in DRD2 and DRD3 are prognostic and effective markers attributed to the development of diabetes severe foot ulcers.

  15. Study of the temporal and spatial variation of climate and solar radiation in th metropolitan Phoenix area. Final technical progress report, July 1, 1977-June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrenberger, R.W.

    1978-09-29

    The research performed was designed to identify spatial or temporal variation of any atmospheric parameters that might affect the operation of devices utilizing solar energy in the metropolitan Phoenix area. The first part of the research involved the analysis of all available solar and climatic data to determine their validity and comparability. For the standard climatic parameters, few difficulties were encountered, but the task of determining comparability of solar radiation data involved many pitfalls. It was concluded that most of the solar data acquired before January 1977 could not be used for purposes of identifying spatial variability. And, a year and a half of data does not represent a long enough period of time upon which to base sound conclusions about spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix region. The data currently available to us do not indicate any great variation of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix area. However, any meaningful statements about spatial and temporal variability of solar radiation in the metropolitan Phoenix area must await the acquisition of additional data from well-calibrated equipment.

  16. Sedimentary facies and evolution of the upper member of cretaceou Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area of western Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhonghua; Xi Haiyin; Chen Debing; Wang Liming; Rao Minghui

    2010-01-01

    The upper member of Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area is mainly alluvial fan facies. From the macroscopic view, alluvial fan facies can be divided into three sub-facies of proximal end gravel braided plain, distal end gravel braided plain and pre-fan flood-plain and further into some micro-facies of debris flow, gravel braided channel, gravel dam, flood-fine and peat bog etc. The upper member of Sunjiawan formation could be divided into three sub-members. The first sub-member is retrograding dry land type fan sediment under drought-humid climate. The second sub-member is retrograding wet land type fan deposit under humid climate. Third sub-member is progradational wetland type fan sediments under humid climate. Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area experienced three evolutionary stages: the early retrograding dryland type fan deposition, the medium term retrograding wet land type fan deposition and the later progradational wetland type fan. (authors)

  17. The identification of provenance-controlled facies by geochemical methods on a portion of the Vaal Reef, Klerksdorp Goldfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henckel, J.; Schweitzer, J.K.; Horsch, H.

    1990-01-01

    The use of geochemical methods for identifying provenance controlled facies in Witwatersrand reefs is considered. Three methods - whole rock geochemistry, zircon analysis, and chromite analysis - have been evaluated in order to establish the feasibility of using these geochemical techniques. An area of Vaal Reef where two sedimentological facies with distinct gold distributions had previously been identified was investigated. The studies reported here gave evidence of differences in the source areas for these two facies. Accordingly, it is concluded that the application of geochemistry to identify provenance-controlled facies is a useful technique which can help geologists arrive at a better interpretation of depositional systems within Witwatersrand reefs and thereby assist in the understanding of gold distribution patterns. 26 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.T.G. de; Formoso, M.L.L.; Trescases, J.J.; Meunier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  19. Facies analysis of an Upper Jurassic carbonate platform for geothermal reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hartmann, Hartwig; Buness, Hermann; Dussel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Jurassic Carbonate platform in Southern Germany is an important aquifer for the production of geothermal energy. Several successful projects were realized during the last years. 3D-seismic surveying has been established as a standard method for reservoir analysis and the definition of well paths. A project funded by the federal ministry of economic affairs and energy (BMWi) started in 2015 is a milestone for an exclusively regenerative heat energy supply of Munich. A 3D-seismic survey of 170 square kilometer was acquired and a scientific program was established to analyze the facies distribution within the area (http://www.liag-hannover.de/en/fsp/ge/geoparamol.html). Targets are primarily fault zones where one expect higher flow rates than within the undisturbed carbonate sediments. However, since a dense net of geothermal plants and wells will not always find appropriate fault areas, the reservoir properties should be analyzed in more detail, e.g. changing the viewpoint to karst features and facies distribution. Actual facies interpretation concepts are based on the alternation of massif and layered carbonates. Because of successive erosion of the ancient land surfaces, the interpretation of reefs, being an important target, is often difficult. We found that seismic sequence stratigraphy can explain the distribution of seismic pattern and improves the analysis of different facies. We supported this method by applying wavelet transformation of seismic data. The splitting of the seismic signal into successive parts of different bandwidths, especially the frequency content of the seismic signal, changed by tuning or dispersion, is extracted. The combination of different frequencies reveals a partition of the platform laterally as well as vertically. A cluster analysis of the wavelet coefficients further improves this picture. The interpretation shows a division into ramp, inner platform and trough, which were shifted locally and overprinted in time by other

  20. The potential role of fluids during regional granulite-facies dehydration in the lower crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Harlov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-grade dehydration of amphibolite-facies rocks to granulite-facies is a process that can involve partial melting, fluid-aided solid-state dehydration, or varying degrees of both. On the localized meter scale, solid-state dehydration, due to CO2-rich fluids traveling along some fissure or crack and subsequently outwards along the mineral grain boundaries of the surrounding rock, normally is the means by which the breakdown of biotite and amphibole to orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene occur. Various mineral textures and changes in mineral chemistry seen in these rocks are also seen in more regional orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-bearing rocks which, along with accompanying amphibolite-facies rocks, form traverses of lower crust. This suggests that solid-state dehydration during high-grade metamorphism could occur on a more regional scale. The more prominent of these fluid-induced textures in the granulite-facies portion of the traverse take the form of micro-veins of K-feldspar along quartz grain boundaries and the formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite. The fluids believed responsible take the form of concentrated NaCl- and KCl- brines from a basement ultramafic magma heat source traveling upwards along grain boundaries. Additional experimental work involving CaSO4 dissolution in NaCl-brines, coupled with natural observation of oxide and sulfide mineral associations in granulite-facies rocks, have demonstrated the possibility that NaCl-brines, with a CaSO4 component, could impose the oxygen fugacity on these rocks as opposed to the oxygen fugacity being inherent in their protoliths. These results, taken together, lend credence to the idea that regional chemical modification of the lower crust is an evolutionary process controlled by fluids migrating upwards from the lithospheric mantle along grain boundaries into and through the lower crust where they both modify the rock and are modified by it. Their presence allows for rapid mass and

  1. Facies and depositional model of Almada Canyon, Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Facies e modelo deposicional do Canyon de Almada, Bacia de Almada, Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Avila, Roberto Salvador Francisco; Souza Cruz, Carlos Emanoel de; Oliveira Filho, Jose Souto; Jesus, Candida Menezes de; Cesero, Pedro de; Dias Filho, Dorval Carvalho; Lima, Claudio Coelho de; Queiroz, Claudia Lima de; Santos, Saulo Ferreira; Ferreira, Eduardo Araripe [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao]. E-mail: rdavila@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the continental portion of the Almada Basin outcrops of canyon filling deposits are represented by turbidite channels and associated facies from Urucutuca Formation. The canyon - semi-exhumated - eroded basement and pre-Cenomanian sedimentary rocks. The field study of the outcrops and cores obtained in adjacent perforations lead to the understanding of the facies and processes that controlled the deposition of these channeled turbidite that can be compared to the reservoirs of many oil fields in Brazil. The Almada canyon is a submarine conduct of tectonic origin that was enlarged by the repeated passing of turbidity currents. During the rift phase and the Albian period, compressive events reactivated old N E and N W faults in the basement as trans current fault systems. The continuation of these stresses, from the Cenomanian to the Maastrichtian, developed normal faults that controlled a submarine canyon that connected the continent, where an estuary was formed between the mountains, to the deep marine region of the basin. The canyon has received sediments brought by catastrophic fluvial floods coming from the surrounding mountains, which formed hyperpicnal flows that have evolved as turbidity currents, thus causing erosion of the substrate and carrying a huge volume of sediments to the basin. A part of that load was deposited in the canyon and formed turbidite channels filled by conglomerates, sandstones and shales. These moderately to highly efficient turbidite are intercalated to pro delta pelites and low density turbid plumes deposits, which have mostly been re mobilized as slump and debris flows (chaotic deposits). Pelites were accumulated mainly in the normal fluvial sedimentation phases, when the sandy sediment was retained next to the canyon head and were reworked by the tides on the upper part of the estuary. (author)

  2. Association of germline variation in CCNE1 and CDK2 with breast cancer risk, progression and survival among Chinese Han women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yuan Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic alterations of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2-cyclin E complex have been shown to contribute to breast cancer (BC development and progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CDK2 and CCNE1 (a gene encoding G1/S specific cyclin E1 protein, formerly called cyclin E on BC risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We herein genotyped 6 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs of CCNE1 and 2 htSNPs of CDK2 in 1207 BC cases and 1207 age-matched controls among Chinese Han women, and then reconstructed haplotype blocks according to our genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of these htSNPs. For CCNE1, the minor allele homozygotes of three htSNPs were associated with BC risk (rs3218035: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-6.67; rs3218038: aOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22-2.70; rs3218042: aOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31-5.34, and these three loci showed a dose-dependent manner in increasing BC risk (P(trend = 0.0001. Moreover, the 5-SNP haplotype CCGTC, which carried none of minor alleles of the 3 at-risk SNPs, was associated with a favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.90. Stratified analysis suggested that the minor-allele homozygote carriers of rs3218038 had a worse event-free survival among patients with aggressive tumours (in tumour size>2 cm group: HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.06-3.99; in positive lymph node metastasis group: HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.15-5.03; in stage II-IV group: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09-3.79. For CDK2, no significant association was found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that genetic variants in CCNE1 may contribute to BC risk and survival in Chinese Han population. They may become molecular markers for individual evaluation of BC susceptibility and prognosis. Nevertheless, further validation studies are needed.

  3. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease

  4. Plasma miR-200b in ovarian carcinoma patients: distinct pattern of pre/post-treatment variation compared to CA-125 and potential for prediction of progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Nikiforos-Ioannis; Uzan, Catherine; Jimenez-Pailhes, Anne-Sophie; Gouy, Sébastien; Bentivegna, Enrica; Morice, Philippe; Caron, Olivier; Gourzones-Dmitriev, Claire; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Busson, Pierre

    2015-11-03

    Ovarian carcinomas (OvCa) are highly heterogeneous malignancies. We investigated four circulating plasma microRNAs (miR-21, miR-34a, miR-200b and miR-205) as candidate biomarkers. Using qPCR, we assessed the plasma concentration of these markers in 101 women, including 51 previously untreated OvCa patients, 25 healthy women and 25 patients bearing benign pelvic lesions. For a subset of 33 OvCa patients, the assay was repeated at the end of the primary treatment. The pattern of variations (post- minus pre-treatment) of concentration was compared to that of CA-125. A Cox regression model was used to study the association between variations and the progression-free survival (PFS). Plasma miR-200b proved to have a greater average concentration in OvCa samples (median 2-ΔΔCt = 15.18) than in samples linked to non-malignant lesions (median 2-ΔΔCt = 1.26, p-value = 0.0004). Its concentration was highly heterogeneous among OvCa patients, without any correlations with the FIGO stage and the pre-treatment CA-125 level. The decrease in CA-125 concentration was constant and often dramatic, while the variations of miR-200b concentration were much more diverse. The variation of miR-200b was marginally associated with the PFS (hazard ratio=2.95 95%CI=[0.94; 9.28], p=0.06) while miR-200b as a continuous time-dependent variable was significantly associated (HR=1.06 [1.02; 1.10], p=0.003). This study is the first direct empirical evidence that miR-200b can provide additional information, independent of CA-125 in OvCa patients.

  5. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of

  6. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  7. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  8. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution of the Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from Recent coastline environments adjacent to the coastline of Abu Dhabi (UAE) was studied in detail with the aim to: 1) provide reliable analogs for understanding and interpreting the depositional environment of ancient shallow-marine sediments from the UAE; 2) assess any modifications in the distribution of benthic environments and sedimentary facies in an area affected by significant anthropogenic activities - particular construction and land reclamation. A total of 100 sea-floor sediment samples were collected in different shallow-marine sedimentary environments (nearshore shelf, beach-front, channels, ooid shoals, lagoon and mangals) close to the coastline of Abu Dhabi Island. Where possible, we revisited the sampling sites used in several studies conducted in the middle of last century (prior to any significant anthropogenic activities) to assess temporal changes in Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies distribution during the last 50 years. Five foraminiferal assemblages were recognized in the studied area. Species with a porcellaneous test mainly belonging to the genera Quinqueloculina, Triloculina, Spiroloculina, Sigmoilinita are common in all studied areas. Larger benthic foraminifera Peneroplis and Spirolina are particularly abundant in samples collected on seaweed. Hyaline foraminifera mostly belonging to the genera Elphidium, Ammonia, Bolivina and Rosalina are also common together with Miliolidae in the nearshore shelf and beach front. Agglutinated foraminifera (Clavulina, Textularia, Ammobaculites and Reophax) are present in low percentages. The species belonging to the genera Ammobaculites and Reophax are present only in the finest grain samples particularly in lagoons and mangal environments and have not been reported previously in the studied area. The majority of the ooid shoal sediments, the coarser sediments of the beach-front and samples collected in dredged channels

  9. The Archaen volcanic facies in the Migori segment, Nyanza greenstone belt, Kenya: stratigraphy, geochemistry and mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichang'l, D. W.; MacLean, W. H.

    The Migori segment is an 80 by 20 km portion of the Nyanza greenstone belt which forms the northern part of the Archean Tanzanian Craton in western Kenya, northern Tanzania and southeastern Uganda. It consists of two volcanic centres, each with central, proximal and distal volcanic facies, comprising the Migori Group, the Macalder and Lolgorien Subgroups, and eleven volcano-sedimentary formations. The centres are separated by a basin of tuffs and greywacke turbidites. The volcanics are bimodal mafic basalt and dolerite ( Zr/Y = 3.8 - 6.5, La N/Yb N = 1.0 - 2.4) , and felsic calc-alkaline dacite-rhyolite ( Zr/Y = 10 - 21, La N/Yb N = 19 - 42 ) and high-K dacite ( Zr/Y = 9 - 16, La N/Yb N = 21 - 22 ). Felsic units form approximately three-fourths of the volcanic stratigraphy. Basalts, calc-alkaline dacites and rhyolites were deposited in a submarine environment, but the voluminous high-K dacites were erupted subaerially. The turbidites contain units of iron-formations. Granitic intrusions are chemically continuous with the high-K dacites. The felsic volcanics are anologous to those found at modern volcanic arc subduction settings involving continental crust. The Macalder ZnCuAuAg volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits is in central facies basalts-greywacke-rhyolite. Gold mineralisation occurs in proximal facies tuffs and iron formation, and in oblique and semi-conformable quartz veins. Greenstones in the Nyanza belt are dominated by calc-alkaline felsic volcanics in constrast to the komatiite-tholeiitic basalt volcanism in the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa, and a mixture of the two types in the Zimbabwe Craton.

  10. Palaeoenvironments and facies on a progressively flooded rocky island (Upper Cenomanian – Lower Turonian, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žítt, Jiří; Vodrážka, R.; Hradecká, L.; Svobodová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 179, - (2010), s. 223-234 ISSN 1802-6842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cretaceous island * weathering * geomorphology * sedimentary environments * biostratigraphy * Upper Cenomanian-Lower Turonian * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv-en.php?id=1&rok=179&f_=Show

  11. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  12. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  13. Verdine and glaucony facies from surficial sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Thamban, M.; Lamboy, M.

    -trioctahedral Fe-rich 1:l clay mineral. Clay Miner., 23: 237-247. Murthy, K.S.R., 1989. Seismic stratigraphy of Ongole-Paradip continental shelf East coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 16: 47-58. Murthy, K.S.R., Rao, T.C.S., Subramanyam, AS., Rao, M... at the continent- ocean boundary: the verdine facies. Clay Miner. 25: 477-483. Rao, K.M. and Rao, T.C.S., 1994. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, East Coast of India. J. Geol. Sot. India, 44: 685-689. Rao, V.P., 1991. Clay mineral distribution...

  14. LA VALIDEZ PRIMA FACIE Y EL PRINCIPIO DE DERROTABILIDAD DE LAS NORMAS JURÍDICAS

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA-YZAGUIRRE, JOSÉ VÍCTOR

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende explorar las implicancias teóricas del concepto prima facie y como este se relaciona con el principio de derrotabilidad, el cual es aplicable para justificar el incumplimiento de un deber jurídico a causa del acatamiento de otro en un contexto en el que ambos son incompatibles entre sí. Partiremos desde su sustento conceptual analizando cuál es el rol y la importancia del contexto en el razonamiento jurídico hasta arribar a pautas concretas de cómo opera en la pr...

  15. Reefs of the Jurassic-Cretaceous west Atlantic margin : an overview of settings, types, facies trends, depositional styles and terminations (with reservoir implications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliuk, L.S. [GeoTours Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In the past 40 years, approximately 20 exploratory wells have been drilled in the Jurassic-Cretaceous Abenaki Formation near-margin carbonate sequences off the Atlantic coast. These include the pioneer wells drilled in the 1970s offshore Nova Scotia, a mid-1980s group including 3 Baltimore Canyon wells in the United States, and those following EnCana's Deep Panuke 1998 gas discovery offshore Nova Scotia. A comparison of these wells has revealed 2 margin settings over deep basement highs versus prograded carbonates, 3 reef-reef mound/slope types, and an overall vertical facies trend that reveals an upward progression from microbial-rich slope beds to shallower forereef to reef and reef-flat beds initially rich in coralline sponges, followed by more microsolenid corals and bioeroded stormreworked coral-rich and oncolitic debris beds up to oolitic shoals. The top of carbonate bank sequences may be replaced gradually by shallow-water siliciclastics near deltaic depocentres or abruptly by deeper-water sponge-reef-derived beds. Smaller-scale similar flooding and shoaling patterns exist within this overall style that allow sequence or parasequence subdivision in Nova Scotia following an initial oolitic flooding event immediately above the Misaine shale. The association of deltas and reef termination suggests drowning by nutrient poisoning. The mid-Mesozoic biotas appear more robust by living in close proximity to siliciclastics. Being at the carbonate shelf margin and in a non-argillaceous shallow water reef-associated facies would appear to be necessary requirements for gas-bearing reservoir development in the Abenaki, but they are not sufficient. Originally porous oolitic grainstones are tight in areas where they are deeply buried in the Panuke area. Siliciclastic burial influenced the limestone cementation, resulting in potential stratigraphic trapping where offset by subsurface dolomitization and leaching fed by fractures or faults in coarser reef

  16. Magma Chamber Model of Batur Caldera, Bali, Indonesia: Compositional Variation of Two Facies, Large-Volume Dacitic Ignimbrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.111-124Batur is one of the finest known calderas on Earth, and is the source of at least two major ignimbrite eruptions with a combined volume of some 84 km3 and 19 km3. These ignimbrites have a similar compositions, raising the question of whether they are geneticaly related. The Batur Ignimbrite-1 (BI-1 is crystal poor, containing rhyodacitic (68 - 70wt % SiO2, white to grey pumices and partly welded and unwelded. The overlying Batur Ignimbrite-2 (BI-2 is a homogeneous grey to black dacitic pumices (64 - 66 wt % SiO2, unwelded and densely welded (40 - 60% vesicularity, crystal and lithic rich. Phase equilibria indicate that the Batur magma equilibrated at temperatures of 1100 - 1300oC with melt water contents of 3 - 6 wt%. The post-eruptive Batur magma was cooler (<1100oC and it is melt more water rich (> 6 wt % H2O. A pressure of 20 kbar is infered from mineral barometry for the Batur magma chamber. Magmatic chamber model is one in which crystals and melt separate from a convecting Batur magma by density differences, resulting in a stratified magma chamber with a homogeneous central zone, a crystal-rich accumulation zone near the walls or base, and a buoyant, melt-rich zone near the top. This is consistent with the estimated magma temperatures and densities: the pre-eruptive BI-1 magma was hoter (1300oC and more volatile rich (6 wt % H2O with density 2.25 g/cm3 than the BI-2 magma (1200oC; 4 wt % H2O in density was higher (2.50 g/cm3. Batur melt characteristics and intensive parameters are consistent with a volatile oversaturation-driven eruption. However, the higher H2O content, high viscosity and low crystal content of the BI-1 magma imply an external eruption trigger.

  17. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  18. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  19. Seismic facies analysis from pre-stack data using self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourki, Meysam; Ali Riahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In facies analysis, seismic data are clustered in different groups. Each group represents subsurface points with similar physical properties. Different groups can be related to differences in lithology, physical properties of rocks and fluid changes in the rocks. The supervised and unsupervised data clustering are known as two types of clustering architecture. In supervised clustering, the number of clusters is predefined, while in unsupervised clustering, a collection of patterns partitions into groups without predefined clusters. In this study, the pre-stack data clustering is used for seismic facies analysis. In this way, a horizon was selected from pre-stack data, followed by sorting of data using offset. A trace associated with each CDP is constructed, for which the first and second samples are related to the first and second offsets, respectively. The created trace is called consolidated trace which is characteristic of subsurface points. These consolidated traces are clustered by using self-organizing maps (SOM). In proposed pre-stack seismic data clustering, points with similar physical properties are placed in one cluster. Seismic data associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs have very different characteristics that are easily recognized. The efficiency of the proposed method was tested on both synthetic and real seismic data. The results showed that the algorithm improves the data classification and the points of different properties are noticeable in final maps. (paper)

  20. Facies-related fracturing in turbidites: insights from the Marnoso-Arenacea Fm. (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Bedogni, Enrico; Tinterri, Roberto; Fetter, Marcos; Gomes, Leonardo; Hatushika, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Natural fractures deeply influence subsurface fluid flow, exerting a primary control on resources like aquifers, hydrocarbons and geothermal reservoirs, and on environmental issues like CO2 storage and nuclear waste disposal. In layered sedimentary rocks, depositional processes-imprinted rock rheology favours the development of both mechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity on a wide range of scales, and are thus expected to strongly influence location and frequency of fractures. To better constrain the contribution of stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrophysical attributes, we performed a high-resolution, multidisciplinary study on a selected stratigraphic interval of jointed foredeep turbidites in the Miocene Marnoso-arenacea Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy), which are characterised by a great lateral and vertical variability of grain-size and depositional structures. Statistical relationships among field and laboratory data significantly improve when the single facies scale is considered, and, for similar facies recording different evolutionary stages of the parent turbidity currents, we observed a direct correlation between the three-dimensional anisotropies of rock hardness tensors and the normalized fracture frequencies, testifying for the primary sedimentary flow-related control on fracture distributions.

  1. [First trimester screening for Down syndrome at Prima facie. A 6-year survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, P; Bernard, J-P; Meyer, V; Beaujard, M-P; Salomon, L-J; Ville, Y

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the results of screening for trisomy 21 by the combined risk of first trimester (as defined by the decree of June 23, 2009) in the Prima facie structure. Single center study involving all patients that were seen for first trimester screening at Prima facie with singleton living pregnancy, not obtained by embryo donation, between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Eighteen thousand two hundred and fifty-one patients were included, of which underwent screening for trisomy 21 by the combined risk. One thousand and forty-six (6.1%) had a calculated risk higher than 1/250. Seventy-five were affected by trisomy 21, of whom 65 in the high risk group. The sensitivity and specificity of screening are 86.7% and 94.4%. The median nuchal translucency was 0.98 MoM. Screening for trisomy 21 by calculating the combined risk of first trimester enabled to detect 86.7% of trisomy 21 with a false positive rate of 5.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV status: the prima facie right not to know the result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Kwong

    2016-02-01

    When a patient regains consciousness from Cryptococcus meningitis, the clinician may offer an HIV test (in case it has not already been done) (scenario 1) or offer to tell the patient his HIV status (in case the test has already been performed with a positive result while the patient was unconscious) (scenario 2). Youngs and Simmonds proposed that the patient has the prima facie right to refuse an HIV test in scenario 1 but not the prima facie right not to be told the HIV status in scenario 2. I submit that the claims to the right of refusal in both scenarios are similarly strong as they should both be grounded in privacy, self determination or dignity. But a conscientious agent should bear in mind that members of the public also have the right not to be harmed. When the circumstance allows, a proper balance of the potential benefits and harm for all the competing parties should guide the clinical decision as to whose right should finally prevail. Where a full ethical analysis is not possible, the presumption should favour respecting the patient's right of refusal in both scenarios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Facies analysis, sedimentology and paleocurrent of the quaternary nenering formation, Pengkalan Hulu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarti Ulfa; Evonne Hooi Rong Yu; Ooi Cheng Kit

    2014-01-01

    Nenering Formation is essentially made up of semi-consolidated sediments, which are divided into basal conglomerate beds, conglomeratic sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, and siltstone to muddy layers facies. It is overlie unconformable to the Berapit Formation, but conformable to the Kroh and Grik Formations. The stratigraphy of Nenering Formation is a fining upwards sequence where the thickness of conglomerate beds become thinner upwards and become thicker for conglomeratic sandstone. The thickness varies from 0.5 m to tenths of meters. The more sandy in the upper portion (cross-bedded sandstone) overlie with thin siltstone and mud stone facies. The clast and grain composition suggested that the material making up the sedimentary sequence were derived predominantly from the erosion of granitoid rocks and sedimentary and metamorphic rocks constitute a minor provenance. Imbrications and the trend sizes of clasts indicate that the paleo-current flow toward northeast. Cross bedding that was found in conglomerate and sandstone indicates the main channel depositional environment. The sequence stratigraphy of this area match with the Saskatchewan fluvial braided channel model. (author)

  4. Investigation of Facies Types and Associations of Kuhlan Red Bed Formation in NW Yemen: A New Hypothesis for Origin and Depositional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Wosabi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of thirteen facies types were recognized in the Kuhlan Formation represented by red bed siliciclastic sequences of argillaceous sediments. Examination of the Kuhlan stratigraphic column included sequence relationships, lithology, sedimentary characters, structures and petrography of the dominant rock types. These facies types are grouped in three distinct associations of facies. The lower unit A comprises association of facies (Distal turbidites represented by alternates of turbidity sequences including sandstone, siltstone and thick shale beds. These facies types confirm a regressive depositional environment in deep marine shelf conditions. There are three facies types which are identified as massive sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone and pebbly sandstone facies. The middle unit B association of facies (Proximal turbedites represents glaciomarine sequences displaying high lateral and vertical facies changes of glacioturbidite sediment alternates with diamictites and tillite beds. The sequences are affected by eustatic and eustatism of the glacial advance and retreat. This unit B includes eight types of facies. These are identified as; tillite, massive diamictites, stratified diamictites, laminated siltstone/shale, deformed siltstone/mudstone, graded rhythmic siltstone, massive conglomerate and cross-stratified sandy conglomerate facies. The upper unit C association of facies is represented by shallow marine shelf sequences displaying very thick massive and locally cross-bedded sand bar sandstone overlying the laminated siltstone/shale interbeds. The upward gradual changes in mineralogical composition and color confirms the start of marine transgression and later deposited platform Amran Group. Mineralogical composition of Kuhlan sandstone displays impure dirty rocks consisting of more than 30% of argillaceous matrix, 50% of cristobalite and quartz grains, more than 10% of ferruginous cement and 10% of detrital iron oxide grains, potash

  5. The Upper Permian sandstones of Mountains Mecsek: form elements of uranium ore mineralization and facies relations Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, Janos; Somogyi, Janos

    1984-01-01

    The ore mineralization in the Upper Permian sandstones of Mountais Mecsek, Hungary, was brought about at the oxidation-reduction front between the grey and red sandstones; the predominant rock colour here is green. The sandstones of different colour are oxidation-reduction species. The formation is a megacycle containing in its core grey sandstones of reduced state with coalified plant remains and in its mantle oxidized red sandstones. Uranium accumulates mainly in the transitional green facies. Uranium content gets enriched to a commercial concentration only if the difference in potential of neighbouring beds is in the range of 400-480 mV. The relationship between organic matter and uranium content in the individual facies is shown. The principles of oxidation-reduction processes in the formation of boundary facies are discussed. (V.N.)

  6. Lacustrine sedimentation and facies model for the last 45,000 yr in Chalco basin. Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, B.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Herrera, D.

    2013-05-01

    Chalco basin in central Mexico (19° 15' N, 98° 58' W, 2200 m asl) is one of the most detailed lake sediment sequence analyzed in Mexico for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies. In this former lake, five drill cores up to 27 m depth were recovered in 1987-1989 by the UNAM team, and three cores covering most of the former sequence were obtained in 2008 and 2011. The upper 27 m of the Chalco lacustrine sequence contains the record of the last 45 kyr climate history in the northern American tropics. The active tectonic and volcanic setting of Chalco Lake in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, provides an opportunity to evaluate environmental (volcanic + tectonic vs. climatic) controls on lacustrine sedimentation. The establishment of a detailed time scale by 14C in pollen extracts provides an accurate chronological control. The stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses presented here provided the recognition of depositional environments and the architecture of the upper lacustrine succession. Sedimentary facies were defined on the basis of sedimentological descriptions, microscopic observation and compositional analyses. According to compositional criteria, facies were identified and groped into two main categories according to compositional criteria: 1) detrital and volcaniclastic, and 2) biogenic facies. The clastic facies includes massive to laminated, silty and clayey sediments composed of clay minerals, feldspars, amphiboles with minor amounts of quartz, opaque minerals and calcite. Diatoms are the most common biological remains in all the clastic facies. Most of the volcaniclastic deposits correspond to fall-out deposits, some of them of well documented eruptions of the nearby large stratovolcanoes Popocatepetl and Nevado de Toluca, which in turn serve as stratigraphical markers. The biogenic facies are massive to finely laminated diatom ooze and ostracod ooze layers. The sedimentary architecture of the lacustrine succession has been controlled by

  7. Language, Learners and Levels. Progression and Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, P.J.M. de; Vries, C.M. de; Vuuren, S. van

    2017-01-01

    Learner Corpus Research (LCR) is a vibrant discipline, which combines methodological rigour in the analysis of authentic learner data with a focus on practical pedagogical application. Following earlier successful conferences in Louvain and Bergen, the third LCR conference, hosted by Radboud

  8. Implementation of the Iterative Proportion Fitting Algorithm for Geostatistical Facies Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yupeng; Deutsch, Clayton V.

    2012-01-01

    In geostatistics, most stochastic algorithm for simulation of categorical variables such as facies or rock types require a conditional probability distribution. The multivariate probability distribution of all the grouped locations including the unsampled location permits calculation of the conditional probability directly based on its definition. In this article, the iterative proportion fitting (IPF) algorithm is implemented to infer this multivariate probability. Using the IPF algorithm, the multivariate probability is obtained by iterative modification to an initial estimated multivariate probability using lower order bivariate probabilities as constraints. The imposed bivariate marginal probabilities are inferred from profiles along drill holes or wells. In the IPF process, a sparse matrix is used to calculate the marginal probabilities from the multivariate probability, which makes the iterative fitting more tractable and practical. This algorithm can be extended to higher order marginal probability constraints as used in multiple point statistics. The theoretical framework is developed and illustrated with estimation and simulation example.

  9. Lower Tertiary Sedimentary Turbidite Facies at the Chicontepec Basin, East-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Piña N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area comprises the northwestern portion of the Chicontepec Basin at southeastern San Luis Potosí and northeastern Hidalgo States. At the stratigraphy sequences of the Chicontepec Formation from Lower Paleocene in isolated outocrops, were herein interpreted two major sedimentary sub-environments into the fan model: the middle and the external sedimentary settings; the applied criteria for their identification were: (a lithostratigraphic (thickness, geometry and distribution; (b internal and external primary sedimentary structures, and (c intra-formational deformation structures. The sedimentary facies are composed of siliciclastic and calcareous particles sourced from the Sierra Madre Oriental, western; the Tuxpan paleo-island, eastern; and from the Teziutlan Massif, southern; the sediments were massively transported by slideing, slumping, flow debris and turbidity currents, then deposited as massive, tabular, lenticular and lobely in shape at the slope foot and on the sea marine floor.

  10. Pennsylvanian coniferopsid forests in sabkha facies reveal the nature of seasonal tropical biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Jud, N.A.; John, Nelson W.; DiMichele, W.A.; Chaney, D.S.; Lucas, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Pennsylvanian fossil forests are known from hundreds of sites across tropical Pangea, but nearly all comprise remains of humid Coal Forests. Here we report a unique occurrence of seasonally dry vegetation, preserved in growth position along >5 km of strike, in the Pennsylvanian (early Kasimovian, Missourian) of New Mexico (United States). Analyses of stump anatomy, diameter, and spatial density, coupled with observations of vascular traces and associated megaflora, show that this was a deciduous, mixed-age, coniferopsid woodland (~100 trees per hectare) with an open canopy. The coniferopsids colonized coastal sabkha facies and show tree rings, confirming growth under seasonally dry conditions. Such woodlands probably served as the source of coniferopsids that replaced Coal Forests farther east in central Pangea during drier climate phases. Thus, the newly discovered woodland helps unravel biome-scale vegetation dynamics and allows calibration of climate models. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  11. La validez prima facie y el principio de derrotabilidad de Las normas jurídicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Víctor García-Yzaguirre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende explorar las implicancias teóricas del concepto prima facie y como este se relaciona con el principio de derrotabilidad, el cual es aplicable para justificar el incumplimiento de un deber jurídico a causa del acatamiento de otro en un contexto en el que ambos son incom- patibles entre sí. Partiremos desde su sustento conceptual analizando cuál es el rol y la importancia del contexto en el razonamiento jurídico hasta arribar a pautas concretas de cómo opera en la práctica judicial ofreciendo algunos ejemplos hipotéticos y jurisprudenciales.

  12. Facies volcánicas del depósito de avalancha de detritos del volcán Tata Sabaya, Andes Centrales Volcanic facies of the debris avalanche deposit of Tata Sabaya Volcano, Central Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benigno Godoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las avalanchas de detritos, asociadas a colapsos parciales de edificios volcánicos, son fenómenos comunes en la evolución de un volcán. Este tipo de flujos son por inestabilidades, que pueden deberse a factores tales como la existencia de zonas afectadas por alteración hidrotermal, cambios climáticos, terremotos, intrusión de magmas en zonas superficiales (criptodomos y/o diques y/o movimiento de fallas bajo el edificio volcánico o cercanas a él. El producto final de estos flujos -denominado depósito de avalancha de detritos (DAD- presenta morfologías típicas de cerrillos y drenajes cerrados. En los Andes Centrales se han reconocido, al menos, 14 centros volcánicos con depósitos de avalancha asociados, entre los que está el volcán Tata Sabaya (Bolivia. El colapso que ha dado origen a este depósito podría haberse generado por una combinación de actividad sísmica y magmática en el volcán. El depósito asociado al colapso parcial de este volcán se distribuye sobre la parte baja del flanco sur del volcán y sobre la parte noroccidental de la cuenca del salar de Coipasa. Cubre una superficie de más de 230 km² y tiene un volumen estimado de 6±1 km³. Sobre la base de las composiciones litológicas, se ha establecido que el depósito está constituido por 6 tipos distintos de cerrillos, los cuales son: lávicos, piroclásticos, sedimentarios mixtos, brecha piroclástica y andesítico-basálticos. Considerando el tipo predominante de cerrillos y su distribución espacial dentro del depósito, se ha definido 6 facies diferentes (Facies de Bloques Toreva, Facies de Cerrillos Volcánicos, Facies Central, Facies de Cerrillos Sedimentarios, Facies Mixta y Facies de Cerrillos de Brecha Piroclástica. Tomando en cuenta la distribución espacial de estas facies, se propone la estructura del paleovolcán previa a su colapso parcial.Debris avalanches associated with partial sector collapse of volcanic edifices are common phenomena in the

  13. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihi, H.

    1997-05-12

    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  14. Upper Carboniferous retroarc volcanism with submarine and subaerial facies at the western Gondwana margin of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukharsky, M.; Kleiman, L.; Etcheverría, M.; Quenardelle, S.; Bercowski, F.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Carboniferous times a continental magmatic arc developed at the western margin of Gondwana in South America, as several marine sedimentary basins were formed at the same time in the retroarc region. North of 33°S, at Cordón Agua del Jagüel, Precordillera of Mendoza, Argentina, a volcanic sequence crops out which was emplaced in a submarine environment with some subaerial exposures, and it is intercalated in marine sediments of Agua del Jagüel Formation, which fills of one of these retroarc basins. This paper presents, for the first time, a facies analyses together with geochemical and isotopic data of this volcanic suite, suggesting its deposition in an ensialic retroarc marine basin. The volcanic succession comprises debris flows with either sedimentary or volcanic fragments, base surge, resedimented massive and laminated dacitic-andesitic hyaloclastite, pillow lava, basic hyaloclastite and dacitic-andesitic lavas and hyaloclastite facies. Its composition is bimodal, either basaltic or dacitic-andesitic. The geochemistry data indicate a subalkaline, low K calk-alkaline and metaluminous affinity. The geochemistry of the basalts points to an origin of the magmas from a depleted mantle source with some crustal contamination. Conversely, the geochemistry of the dacites-andesites shows an important participation of both crustal components and subduction related fluids. A different magmatic source for the basalts than for the dacites-andesites is also supported by Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios and Nd model ages. The characteristics of this magmatic suite suggest its emplacement in an extensional setting probably associated with the presence of a steepened subduction zone at this latitude during Upper Carboniferous times.

  15. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  16. Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome: an intellectual disability syndrome with characteristic facies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jillian; Jenkinson, Allan; Magee, Alex; Ennis, Sean; Monavari, Ahmad; Green, Andrew; Lynch, Sally A; Crushell, Ellen; Hughes, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    We report a female child from an Irish Traveller family presenting with severe intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, renal anomalies, dental caries and cyclical vomiting. Current health issues include global developmental delay, mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, dental malocclusion and caries and a single duplex left kidney. The proband and her mother also have multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic cause. DNA from the proband was enriched with the Agilent Sure Select v5 Exon array and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Rare homozygous variants were prioritized. Whole-exome sequencing identified three linked homozygous missense variants in THOC6 (c.298T>A, p.Trp100Arg; c.700G>C, p.Val234Leu; c.824G>A, p.Gly275Asp) as the likely cause of this child's intellectual disability syndrome, resulting in a molecular diagnosis of Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome (BBIS). This is the first report of BBIS in Europe. BBIS has been reported previously in two Hutterite families and one Saudi family. A review of all patients to date shows a relatively homogenous phenotype. Core clinical features include low birth weight with subsequent growth failure, short stature, intellectual disability with language delay, characteristic facies, renal anomalies and dental malocclusion with caries. Some patients also have cardiac defects. All patients show characteristic dysmorphic facial features including a tall forehead with high anterior hairline and deep-set eyes with upslanting palpebral fissures. The coexistence of intellectual disability together with these characteristic facies should provide a diagnostic clue for BBIS during patient evaluation.

  17. Oxygenation in carbonate microbialites and associated facies after the end-Permian mass extinction: Problems and potential solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kershaw

    2018-01-01

    The oxygenation state of post-end-Permian extinction shallow marine facies continues to present a challenge of interpretation, and requires high-resolution sampling and careful attention to small-scale changes, as well as loss of rock through pressure solution, as the next step to resolve the issue.

  18. Objective justification and Prima Facie anti-competitive unilateral conduct : an exploration of EU Law and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Tjarda Desiderius Oscar van der

    2014-01-01

    The prohibition of anti-competitive unilateral conduct by firms with market power is not absolute, but allows for derogation. For the purposes of EU law, the ECJ has accepted that a so-called ‘objective justification’ plea may be invoked in the case of a prima facie abuse of dominance. Even though

  19. Tectonic controls on preservation of Middle Triassic Halfway reservoir facies, Peejay Field, northeastern British Columbia: a new hydrocarbon exploration model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Moslow, T. F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1997-12-01

    The Peejay Field in northeastern British Columbia was chosen as the site of a detailed study to establish the paleogeography, geological history and genesis of reservoir facies of Middle Triassic strata. A total of 132 cores and well logs from 345 wells were examined to establish the depositional model, to identify the origin of all reservoir facies and to construct an exploration model to improve the prediction of reservoir facies. Results show that the Middle Triassic Halfway Formation of northeastern British Columbia is comprised of at least four west-southwest prograding paleoshorelines. The Lithofacies Succession One quartz-arenites paleoshore faces have less porosity and permeability and are laterally discontinuous. For these reasons shoreface facies have minimal reservoir quality. The tidal inlet fill successions were found to have the greatest observed porosity, permeability and lateral continuity in the Peejay Field. The geometry and orientation of these tidal inlet fill deposits are controlled by tectonic processes. It was suggested that the success of hydrocarbon exploration in this structurally complex area of northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta depends on further stratigraphic and sedimentological examination of Middle Triassic strata on a regional scale to obtain a complete understanding of the geological history of the area. 39 refs., 13 refs.

  20. The Student-Athlete and the National Collegiate Athletic Association: The Need for a Prima Facie Tort Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Roy D., III

    1975-01-01

    In examining whether courts have jurisdiction to hear student-athlete grievances against the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) the author rejects the position that the NCAA's activities are under cover of state law, and instead proposes that the student-athlete's remedy lies in an action against the NCAA for a prima facie tort. (JT)

  1. Influence of pre-tectonic carbonate facies architecture on deformation patterns of syntectonic turbidites, an example from the central Mexican fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Serrano, Alberto; Tolson, Gustavo; Fitz Diaz, Elisa; Chávez Cabello, Gabriel

    2018-04-01

    The Mexican fold-thrust belt in central México excellently exposes relatively well preserved syntectonic deposits that overlay rocks with lateral lithostratigraphic changes across the belt. We consider the deformational effects of these changes by investigating the geometry, kinematics and strain distribution within syntectonic turbidites, which are deposited on top of Albian-Cenomanian shallow and deep water carbonate layers. Field observations and detailed structural analysis at different stratigraphic and structural levels of the Late Cretaceous syntectonic formation are compared with the deformation as a function of lithological and structural variations in the underlying carbonate units, to better understand the effect of these lithostratigraphic variations on deformation, kinematics, strain distribution and propagation of deformation. From our kinematic analyses, we conclude that the syntectonic strata are pervasively affected by folding in all areas and that deformation partitioning localized shear zones at the boundaries of this unit, particularly along the contact with massive carbonates. At the boundaries with massive platformal carbonates, the turbidites are strongly deformed by isoclinal folding with a pervasive sub-horizontal axial plane cleavage and 70-60% shortening. In contrast, contacts with thinly-bedded carbonate layers (basinal facies), do not show strain localization, and have horizontal shortening of 50-40% that is accommodated by buckle folds with a less pervasive, steeply dipping cleavage. The mechanical properties variations in the underlying pre-tectonic units as a function of changes in lithostratigraphy fundamentally control the deformation in the overlying syntectonic strata, which is an effect that could be expected to occur in any deformed sedimentary sequence with such variations.

  2. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  3. Mechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and micro fabric of Opalinus Clay. Sandy and shaly facies (Mont Terri, Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Graesle, Werner; Plischke, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    For the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste, different host rocks are currently considered. The favorable properties of claystone are low permeability, retention capacity for some radionuclides, and the ability to self-seal cracks, e.g. by swelling or time-dependent compaction creep. For the understanding of the long-term behavior of clay host rocks, the interaction between mechanical behavior, micro fabric, and mineral composition has to be understood (Bock et al., 2010). In the international research project Mont Terri (Switzerland) the Opalinus Clay (Jurassic Formation) is investigated in an underground rock laboratory (URL). In the present study the relationship between mechanical, mineralogical and micro fabric properties were studied on representative samples of the sandy and shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay (OPA) from Mont Terri. The mineral composition of all samples was analysed by using a complex mineral phase analysis. Therefore, the results of the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluoreszence, organic and inorganic carbonate analysis (LECO) were adjusted with each other. In the case of the sandy facies (OPA) the mechanical strength inrcreases with increasing carbonate content. Here small carbonate particles form the matrix and act as stabilisator. The carbonates of the shaly facies (OPA), on the other hand, are mainly fossil fragments (e.g. shells) aligned parallel to bedding. These large carbonate particles are acting as predetermined breaking surfaces. Hence, in the case of shaly facies (OPA) the mechanical strength decreases with increasing carbonate content. Image Analyses (Fiji registered ) of scattering electron microscope images of polished sections proved the determined microstructural differences. Besides, carbonate particles in the sandy facies are mostly isometric, in contrast carbonates of the shaly facies show different shapes. This is explained further in terms of the aspect ratio. The mechanical tests were carried out as triaxial

  4. Mechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and micro fabric of Opalinus Clay. Sandy and shaly facies (Mont Terri, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufhold, Annette; Graesle, Werner [BGR Hannover (Germany); Plischke, Ingo

    2015-07-01

    For the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste, different host rocks are currently considered. The favorable properties of claystone are low permeability, retention capacity for some radionuclides, and the ability to self-seal cracks, e.g. by swelling or time-dependent compaction creep. For the understanding of the long-term behavior of clay host rocks, the interaction between mechanical behavior, micro fabric, and mineral composition has to be understood (Bock et al., 2010). In the international research project Mont Terri (Switzerland) the Opalinus Clay (Jurassic Formation) is investigated in an underground rock laboratory (URL). In the present study the relationship between mechanical, mineralogical and micro fabric properties were studied on representative samples of the sandy and shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay (OPA) from Mont Terri. The mineral composition of all samples was analysed by using a complex mineral phase analysis. Therefore, the results of the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluoreszence, organic and inorganic carbonate analysis (LECO) were adjusted with each other. In the case of the sandy facies (OPA) the mechanical strength inrcreases with increasing carbonate content. Here small carbonate particles form the matrix and act as stabilisator. The carbonates of the shaly facies (OPA), on the other hand, are mainly fossil fragments (e.g. shells) aligned parallel to bedding. These large carbonate particles are acting as predetermined breaking surfaces. Hence, in the case of shaly facies (OPA) the mechanical strength decreases with increasing carbonate content. Image Analyses (Fiji {sup registered}) of scattering electron microscope images of polished sections proved the determined microstructural differences. Besides, carbonate particles in the sandy facies are mostly isometric, in contrast carbonates of the shaly facies show different shapes. This is explained further in terms of the aspect ratio. The mechanical tests were carried out as triaxial

  5. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  6. Facies architecture and stratigraphic evolution of aeolian dune and interdune deposits, Permian Caldeirão Member (Santa Brígida Formation), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Fábio Herbert; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Kuchle, Juliano

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Caldeirão Member (Santa Brígida Formation), located in the Tucano Central Basin, northeast region of Brazil, is characterized by a sandstone succession of aeolian origin that comprises the preserved deposits of dunes and interdunes. Grainflow and translatent wind-ripple strata, and frequent presence of reactivation surface, compose the cross-bedding of crescent aeolian dune deposits. The aeolian cross-strata show a mean dip toward the ENE. In places, interlayered with dune cross-beds, occur interdune units composed of facies indicative of dry, damp and wet condition of the substrate, suggesting spatial and/or temporal variations in the moisture content of the interdune accumulation surface. The presence of NNW current ripple cross-lamination in wet interdune areas indicates streamflows confined to interdune corridors and oriented perpendicular to aeolian transport direction. Lenses of damp and wet interdune strata exhibit mainly interdigitated and transitional relationships with the toe-sets of overlying aeolian dune units in sections parallel to aeolian transport, indicating that dune migration was contemporaneous with accumulation in adjacent interdunes. Lateral variations in the preserved thickness of the interdune units and the associated rare occurrence of abrupt and erosive contacts between interdune and overlying dune sets, suggest temporal variations in the angle of dune and interdune climb that may be related to high-frequency changes in water table position. Four stratigraphic intervals in the Caldeirão Member can be identified, two intervals showing cross-bedding of aeolian dunes without wet interdune areas and two intervals exhibiting aeolian dunes separated by wet interdune areas, marking the transition between dry aeolian systems (Intervals I and III) and wet aeolian systems (Intervals II and IV). The temporal alternations between dry and wet aeolian systems reflect changes in the availability of dry sand and/or the rate in the water

  7. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  8. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  9. Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from a Late Cambrian‐Early Ordovician tide‐dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina): Implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mángano, M. Gabriela; Buatois, Luis A.; Aceñolaza, Guillermo F.

    1996-01-01

    cross the Cruziana ichnocoenosis. The Skolithos ichnocoenosis represents colonization by suspension‐feeding organisms following a major change in environmental conditions, related to the migration of lower intertidal to subtidal sandwaves.The Planolites ichnocoenosis consists exclusively of Planolites montanus within mudstones overlying wave‐rippled sandstones (facies C). The Planolites ichnocoenosis records opportunistic colonization by inf aunal deposit feeders that mined the organic‐rich fine‐grained sediment during the waning phase of storms that scoured organic detritus from the sea bottom.The section records, from base to top, a Cruziana‐Skolithos ichnofacies zone, a Skolithos ichnofacies zone and an unbioturbated zone typified by the thick‐bedded cross‐stratified quartzose sandstone (fades A). This trend reflects progressively higher energy conditions linked to the establishment of a large sand wave complex. The presence of a mixed Cruziana‐Skolithos ichnofacies in the lower interval reflects changes in substrate and energy levels, rather than water depth. Accordingly, contrasting ichnocoenoses from interbars (Cruziana) and sandwaves (Skolithos) must be considered an example of ichnofacies controlled by local parameters instead of general bathymétrie trends. Conversely, the vertical replacement of the Cruziana ichnofacies by the Skolithos ichnofacies towards the middle interval of the section reflects the environmental changes associated with the transition between the intertidal and subtidal zones. As overall tidal energy increases from supratidal to subtidal settings, the Skolithos ichnofacies tends to occur seaward of the Cruzianaichnofacies in tide‐dominated shallow marine environments. Therefore, onshore‐offshore ichnofacies replacement in tide‐dominated shallow seas is opposite to that in wave‐dominated marine settings.

  10. Prograding coastal facies associations in the Vryheid formation (Permian) at Effingham quarries near Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavener-Smith, R.

    1982-05-01

    This paper describes and interprets a flat-lying, sandstone—siltstone sequence 70 m thick in three disused quarries. The beds comprise the lowest part of the Vryheid Formation (middle Ecca) in the Durban vicinity. The sequence is conveniently divisible into two parts: the Lower Division constitutes a prograding beach barrier association, while the upper one represents a back barrier lagoonal complex. Fourteen sedimentary facies are described and interpreted to represent a range of depositional environments including open water shelf silts, sandy shoreface and littoral deposits, organic-rich muds and peats of lagoonal origin, a tidal inlet, washover fans and a fluvial channel sand. Among the conclusions reached are that the local middle Ecca coastline extended in a northwest to southeast direction and that progradation was towards the southwest; that the coastline was microtidal and that stormy conditions were common with prevalent palaeowinds from the northwest. The absence of invertebrate body fossils in these strata is attributed to penecontemporaneous solution of shelly remains. This is the first time that a coastal sequence has been identified on the southeast margin of the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa

  11. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  12. MAPPING OF RESERVOIR PROPERTIES AND FACIES THROUGH INTEGRATION OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Reynolds; Dean S. Oliver; Yannong Dong; Ning Liu; Guohua Gao; Fengjun Zhang; Ruijian Li

    2004-12-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of permeability and porosity in a reservoir is necessary for the prediction of future oil production, estimation of the location of bypassed oil, and optimization of reservoir management. The volume of data that can potentially provide information on reservoir architecture and fluid distributions has increased enormously in the past decade. The techniques developed in this research will make it easier to use all the available data in an integrated fashion. While it is relatively easy to generate plausible reservoir models that honor static data such as core, log, and seismic data, it is far more difficult to generate plausible reservoir models that honor dynamic data such as transient pressures, saturations, and flow rates. As a result, the uncertainty in reservoir properties is higher than it could be and reservoir management can not be optimized. In this project, we have developed computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Specifically, we have developed methods for adjusting porosity and permeability fields to match both production and time-lapse seismic data and have also developed a procedure to adjust the locations of boundaries between facies to match production data. In all cases, the history matched rock property fields are consistent with a prior model based on static data and geologic information. Our work also indicates that it is possible to adjust relative permeability curves when history matching production data.

  13. Autoantibodies to neuronal antigens in children with focal epilepsy and no prima facie signs of encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borusiak, Peter; Bettendorf, Ulrich; Wiegand, Gert; Bast, Thomas; Kluger, Gerhard; Philippi, Heike; Münstermann, Dieter; Bien, Christian G

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing awareness of neuronal autoantibodies and their impact on the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We investigated children with focal epilepsy in order to provide an estimate of autoantibody frequency within a pediatric population without prima facie evidence of encephalitis using a broad panel of autoantibodies. This was done to assess the specificity of antibodies and to see whether antibodies might be of modifying influence on the course of focal epilepsies. We searched for autoantibodies in 124 patients with focal epilepsy (1-18 years; mean 10; 6 years). Sera were tested using a broad panel of surface and intracellular antigens. We found autoantibodies in 5/124 patients (4%): high-positive GAD65 antibodies (n = 1), low-positive GAD65 antibodies (N = 1), VGKC complex antibodies not reactive with LGI1 or CASPR2 (n = 3). We did not find any distinctive features distinguishing antibody positive patients from those without antibodies. The antibodies found in this cohort are probably neither disease-specific nor pathogenic. This has been suggested before for these antigenic targets. Moreover, they do not seem to modify disease severity in the antibody-positive epilepsy patients. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Late Neogene organic-rich facies from the Mediterranean region: the role of productivity and anoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, M.W.; Thunell, R.C.; Tappa, E.

    1985-01-01

    Various factors influence the deposition of organic-rich facies in the marine environment, including: bulk sedimentation rate, water depth, primary productivity and oxygen content of bottom waters. Organic-rich sediments have been periodically deposited during the Neogene within both the deep basins and the marginal areas of the Mediterranean, and have been attributed to either the development of bottom water anoxia or greatly increased surface productivity. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each of these factors, organic-rich sediments from both the deep eastern Mediterranean and an uplifted sequence at Vrica (Calabria, Italy) have been studied. The deep sea sapropels examined were deposited during the last full interglacial (approx. 125,000 YBP) and preceeding glacial (approx. 160,000 YBP), while the laminites from Vrica are late Pliocene and early Pleistocene in age. The sapropels have maximum organic carbon contents of 10%, with C/N ratios typically between 15-20. In contrast, the maximum organic carbon content of the laminites if approx. 1%, and the C/N ratios are between 5-10. The C/N ratios, particularly those for the sapropels, are indicative of a multiple source, and may reflect some terrestrial organic matter input. The oxygen isotopic composition of calcareous plankton associated with both laminite and sapropel deposition is suggestive of reduced surface water salinities, while the carbon isotopic composition is suggestive of a change in source of surface waters which maybe responsible for increased productivity.

  15. Application of Musical Information Retrieval (MIR Techniques to Seismic Facies Classification. Examples in Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dell’Aversana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for automatic pattern recognition and classification of geophysical data based on digital music technology. We import and apply in the geophysical domain the same approaches commonly used for Musical Information Retrieval (MIR. After accurate conversion from geophysical formats (example: SEG-Y to musical formats (example: Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or briefly MIDI, we extract musical features from the converted data. These can be single-valued attributes, such as pitch and sound intensity, or multi-valued attributes, such as pitch histograms, melodic, harmonic and rhythmic paths. Using a real data set, we show that these musical features can be diagnostic for seismic facies classification in a complex exploration area. They can be complementary with respect to “conventional” seismic attributes. Using a supervised machine learning approach based on the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm and on Automatic Neural Networks, we classify three gas-bearing channels. The good performance of our classification approach is confirmed by borehole data available in the same area.

  16. Stepped fans and facies-equivalent phyllosilicates in Coprates Catena, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, P. M.; Warner, N. H.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Schwartz, C.; Gupta, S.

    2018-06-01

    Stepped fan deposits and phyllosilicate mineralogies are relatively common features on Mars but have not previously been found in association with each other. Both of these features are widely accepted to be the result of aqueous processes, but the assumed role and nature of any water varies. In this study we have investigated two stepped fan deposits in Coprates Catena, Mars, which have a genetic link to light-toned material that is rich in Fe-Mg phyllosilicate phases. Although of different sizes and in separate, but adjacent, trough-like depressions, we identify similar features at these stepped fans and phyllosilicates that are indicative of similar formation conditions and processes. Our observations of the overall geomorphology, mineralogy and chronology of these features are consistent with a two stage formation process, whereby deposition in the troughs first occurs into shallow standing water or playas, forming fluvial or alluvial fans that terminate in delta deposits and interfinger with interpreted lacustrine facies, with a later period of deposition under sub-aerial conditions, forming alluvial fan deposits. We suggest that the distinctive stepped appearance of these fans is the result of aeolian erosion, and is not a primary depositional feature. This combined formation framework for stepped fans and phyllosilicates can also explain other similar features on Mars, and adds to the growing evidence of fluvial activity in the equatorial region of Mars during the Hesperian and Amazonian.

  17. Phosphate-rich sedimentary rocks: significance for organic facies and petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waples, D W

    1982-03-01

    Phosphorus-bearing rocks and sediments can be divided into two genetically distinct classes: phosphatic shales or limestones and phosphorites. Phosphatic shales are primary sediments in which phosphate nodules or micronodules have formed diagenetically by precipitation of calcium phosphates derived mainly from organic phosphorus. The nodules form in reducing environments at shallow depths within the sediments, where loss of phosphate by diffusion to the overlying water column is minimized. Highly biogenic sediments containing large amounts of organic matter and some fine clastic debris provide ideal environments for the formation of phosphate nodules. Phosphorites, in contrast, represent concentrated accumulations of reworked phosphate nodules which originated in phosphatic shales or limestones. Currents, wave action, recrystallization, and erosion and resedimentation are important mechanisms in the concentration process. Phosphatic shales and limestones may become excellent oil source rocks if thermal maturity is achieved. They are useful facies indicators for anoxic or nearly anoxic depositional environments, and are often associated with restricted basins, or, during certain geologic periods, with broad shelves developed during transgressions. Phosphorites, in contrast, are often correlated with sea-level regressions or uplifts. They are modest source rocks because of their low organic carbon contents and the fact that they were reworked under oxidizing conditions. Nevertheless, because phosphorites are derived from, and often grade into, phosphatic shales, they also are of potential utility in the search for oil source beds.

  18. Facies associations, depositional environments and stratigraphic framework of the Early Miocene-Pleistocene successions of the Mukah-Balingian Area, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Muhammad; Rahman, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Sum, Chow Weng; Konjing, Zainey

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-five stratigraphic section exposed along the Mukah-Selangau road in the Mukah-Balingian area have been studied. Sedimentological and palynological data have been integrated to gain a better insight into the depositional architecture of the area. Broadly, the Mukah-Balingian area is dominated by fluvial, floodplain and estuarine related coal-bearing deposits. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations have been described and interpreted in terms of seven facies association. These are: FA1 - Fluvial-dominated channel facies association; FA2 - Tide-influenced channel facies association; FA3 - Tide-dominated channel facies association; FA4 - Floodplain facies association; FA5 - Estuarine central basin-mud flats facies association; FA6 - Tidal flat facies association and FA7 - Coastal swamps and marshes facies association. The Balingian Formation is characterised by the transgressive phase in the base, followed by a regressive phase in the upper part. On the basis of the occurrence of Florscheutzia trilobata with Florscheutzia levipoli, the Early to Middle Miocene age has been assigned to the Balingian Formation. The distinct facies pattern and foraminifera species found from the samples taken from the Begrih outcrop imply deposition in the intertidal flats having pronounced fluvio-tidal interactions along the paleo-margin. Foraminiferal data combined with the pronounced occurrence of Stenochlaena laurifolia suggest at least the Late Miocene age for the Begrih Formation. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Liang Formation is a function of a combination of sea level, stable tectonic and autogenic control. Based on stratigraphic position, the Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the Liang Formation is probable. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations display deposits of multiple regressive-transgressive cycles while the sediments were derived from the uplifted Penian high and Rajang group.

  19. Calcareous nannofossils and sedimentary facies in the Upper Cretaceous Bozeş Formation (Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Balc

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The lithology, sedimentology and biostratigraphy of the Bozes Formation, which crop out in the SE Metaliferi Mountains (Apuseni Mts. have been investigated in order to establish the age of the deposits and the depositional environment. The sedimentary structures and facies are interpreted as indicating a deep-water depositional environment, representing part of a submarine fan lobe. Three facies assemblages have been identified and described. Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The presence of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii and Calculites obscurus indicates the CC17 biozone, while UC13 Zone is pointed out by the continuous occurrence of Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis and the absence of Broinsonia parca parca. Thus, the age of the studied deposits is Late Santonian -?Early Campanian.

  20. Facies and sedimentary environments of the Abu Qada Formation at Gabal El-Gunna, Southeastern Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Y.M.A. El-Hariri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The biostratigraphy, microfacies association, mineralogical interferences, depositional environments and geochemical properties of the Abu Qada Formation, which exposed at Gabal El-Gunna Southeastern Sinai, Egypt were delineated. It belongs to the planktonic foraminiferal Whiteinella archaeocretacea Zone of the Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian and consists of calcareous shale and limestone. The calcareous shale facies is characterized by chlorite, smectite and illite with high concentration of P2O5, Zn, Ni, V, and Cr. The carbonate rocks are characterized by foraminiferal wakestone and bioclastic grainstone. These microfacies associations are characterized by barite with high content of Sr. The facies types with faunal contents, geochemical and mineralogical studies suggest a restricted to shelf lagoon open circulation environment.

  1. The Toarcian Bathonian succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar): Facies analysis and tectono-sedimentary history in the development of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Mauro; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-04-01

    The latest Early to Middle Jurassic succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar) records the complex transition from the continental rifting of Gondwana to the drifting of Madagascar-India from East Africa. The Madagascan Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic successions have been included in several paleogeographic and geodynamic models explaining the evolution of the Gondwana margins. Nevertheless, in some cases, as for the Toarcian-Bathonian deposits of the Antsiranana Basin, no significant stratigraphic revision has been carried out since the early 1970s. New field surveys allow reconsidering the stratigraphic and structural context and the palaeoenvironmental meaning of Toarcian-Bathonian successions occurring in different parts of the basin. These successions rest on the Triassic-Early Jurassic Isalo Sandstone which records pre-breakup rift events with a dominantly fluvial deposition. This situation is similar to other continental rift basins of Gondwana. After a regional Toarcian transgression the different portions of the Antsiranana Basin were characterized by significantly diversified and coeval depositional environments. The basin can be subdivided in a SW and NE part separated by a NW-SE trending structural high. In the SW part of the basin (Ampasindava sub-basin) the so-called "Jurassique paralique" [Rerat, J.C., 1964. Note sur les variations de faciès des sèries jurassiques du nord de Madagascar. Comptes Rendus Semaine gèologique, Tananarive, pp. 15-22] or " Facies Mixtes de la Presqu'ile de Ampasindava" [Besairie, H., Collignon, M., 1972. Géologie de Madagascar; I. Les terrains sédimentaires. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, 35, 1-463], a 1500 m thick prevalently terrigenous deposit, has been subdivided into four units. They document the long-lasting development of coastal-deltaic systems in a highly subsiding area. In the NE portion of the basin (Ankarana-Analamera sub-basin), a coeval mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession subdivided in five units

  2. Preliminary Facies Reconstruction of a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest Discovered on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Bentley, S. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Xu, K.; Caporaso, A.; Obelcz, J. B.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Truong, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    We are investigating the origin and preservation of an ancient bald cypress forest (Taxodium distichum) discovered on the continental shelf seafloor, offshore of Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA, in 20 m water depth. The forest was likely buried in the late Pleistocene, possibly exhumed by Hurricane Ivan in 2004, and is now exposed as stumps in life position with little evidence of decay before recent marine exposure. Radiocarbon analyses show that the forest age is near (and in some cases beyond) the limits of 14C dating, at least 41-45 ky BP. In August 2015 and July 2016, submersible vibracores (up to 5 m in length) were collected. Ongoing core analyses include: organic content (loss on ignition), granulometry, and core logging using a Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger to generate imagery, bulk density, and x-ray fluorescence data. To bolster 14C analyses, cores collected in 2016 are presently being dated using optically stimulated luminescence. Local stratigraphy consists of a surface facies of Holocene transgressive sands, underlain by possible estuarine sediments of interbedded sand and mud (potentially Holocene or Pleistocene), overlying a swamp or delta plain facies (likely Pleistocene) containing woody debris and mud. Deeper woody facies are thought to include the soil horizons of the ancient cypress forest. Cores collected in 2016 revealed a Pleistocene paleosol beneath Holocene sands in a nearby trough. Elevation differences between swamp and paleosol horizons will be evaluated from bathymetric and subbottom data, to help characterize the preserved ancient landscape. Initial interpretation based on close proximity of Pleistocene swamp and oxidized paleosol sediments, and regional geomorphic gradients suggest that this relatively diverse assemblage of facies developed up to tens of km from the glacial-age coastline, and relatively rapid burial prevented erosion by coastal processes during the Holocene transgression thus preserving the tree stumps and wood debris.

  3. Optical-televiewer-based identification and characterization of material facies associated with an Antarctic ice-shelf rift

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, B.; Tison, J.-L.; Pattyn, F.; Dierckx, M.; Boereboom, T.; Samyn, D.

    2012-01-01

    We have drilled 13 boreholes within and around a through-cutting rift on the (unofficially named) Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Logging by optical televiewer (OPTV) combined with core inspection has resulted in the identification and characterization of several material facies. Outside the rift, OPTV-imaged annual layering indicates ~150 years of accumulation over the 66m length of one of the boreholes. Luminosity analysis of this image also reveals the presence of numerous dark me...

  4. CARBONATE FACIES ZONATION OF THE UPPER JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS APULIA PLATFORM MARGIN (GARGANO PROMONTORY, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE MORSILLI

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Apulia platform margin and the transition to adjacent basinal deposits (inner platform to basin are well exposed in the Gargano Promontory. Detailed field work has allowed to recognize eight main facies associations which reflect various depositional environments, and which document a differentiated zonation, from the inner platform to the basin. A shallow lagoon existed in the internal part of the Gargano Promontory with a transition to tidal flat areas (F1. Oolitic shoals (F2 bordered this internal peritidal area passing seaward to a reef-flat with abundant corals (F3. A reef-front, associated with a coral rubble zone, has been found in some areas (F4. In the external margin zone, massive wackestones with Ellipsactinia occur (F5 and pass gradually to a rudstone facies on the proximal slope (F6. The base-of-slope facies association consists of pelagic sediments interbedded with gravity-displaced deposits (F7 and F8. The depositional profile of the Apulia Platform is typical of the Tethyan Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platforms, with slope declivities in the order of 25°-28°. The remarkable progradation of the platform in the northern tract of the Gargano (Lesina and Varano lakes area and its substantial stability east- and southwards (Mattinata area suggest a possible windward position of the margin in this latter portion and, in contrast, a leeward position of the northern portion.   

  5. Preliminary investigation on the sedimentary facies of the middle silurian uraniferous rock formations in western Qinling Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yunian; Min Yongming.

    1987-01-01

    The Middle Silurian stratabound uranium deposits in Western Qinling were formed due to hydrothermal modification of ground water and reconcentration of uranium from the sedimentary source rocks. The Silurian system consists of the sediments deposited in the marginal sea of the passive continent, to the south of which is the Ruoergai palaeocontinent. The Middle Silurian is divided into three formations. The lower members of each formation are composed of fine-grained clastic rocks with bay-lagoon facies, while the upper members of each formation are uraniferous rock formations consisted of carbonaceous-siliceous-limestone-argillaceous rocks. During the Middle Silurian period there occurred an island chain barrier which is roughly parallel to the palaeocoast and was formed by undersea uplifts. The uraniferous rock formations belong to the assemblage of lagoon-reef-back tidal flat-reef beach facies. Nearshore shallow water environment, abundant terrestrial fine detritus, local reduction facies and zones are three cardinal conditions for the formation of uranium-rich sediments. Uranium deposition mainly took place in the environments of the inner part of reef beach and reef-back tidal flat, which are characterized by having medium to slightly lower energy, the terrestrial fine detritus involved, and local reduction field resulting from the decomposition of organism after their massive death. Furing the process of relative slow deposition, UO 2 2+ in the sea water was formed by means of infiltration, diffusion and alternative absorption of water at the bottom into organic matter and clay

  6. Paragenetic evolution of reservoir facies, Middle Triassic Halfway Formation, PeeJay Field, northeastern British Columbia: controls on reservoir quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. L. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Moslow, T. F. [Ulster Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Because of the obvious importance of reservoir quality to reservoir performance, diagenetic controls on reservoir quality of Middle Triassic reservoir facies are investigated by comparing two reservoir lithofacies. The implications of porosity structure on the efficiency of primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery are also assessed. Halfway reservoir facies are composed of bioclastic grainstones (lithofacies G) and litharenites/sublitharenites (lithofacies H), both of which are interpreted as tidal inlet fills. Although paragenetic evolution was similar for the two reservoir facies, subtle differences in reservoir quality are discernible. These are controlled by sedimentary structures, porosity type, grain constituents, and degree of cementation. Reservoir quality in lithofacies G is a function of connectivity of the pore network. In lithofacies H, secondary granular porosity creates a more homogeneous interconnected pore system, wide pore throats and low aspect ratios. The high porosity and low permeability values of the bioclastic grainstones are suspected to cause inefficient flushing of hydrocarbons during waterflooding. However, it is suggested that recovery may be enhanced by induced hydraulic fracturing and acidization of lower permeability calcareous cemented zones. 52 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  8. Zircon (Hf, O isotopes) as melt indicator: Melt infiltration and abundant new zircon growth within melt rich layers of granulite-facies lenses versus solid-state recrystallization in hosting amphibolite-facies gneisses (central Erzgebirge, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Whitehouse, Martin; Gerdes, Axel; Schulz, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    In the central Erzgebirge within the Bohemian Massif, lenses of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure felsic granulites occur within meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous amphibolite-facies felsic rocks. In the felsic granulite, melt rich parts and restite form alternating layers, and were identified by petrology and bulk rock geochemistry. Mineral assemblages representing the peak P-T conditions were best preserved in melanocratic restite layers. In contrast, in the melt rich leucocratic layers, garnet and related HP minerals as kyanite are almost completely resorbed. Both layers display differences in accessory minerals: melanosomes have frequent and large monazite and Fe-Ti-minerals but lack xenotime and apatite; leucosomes have abundant apatite and xenotime while monazite is rare. Here we present a detailed petrographic study of zircon grains (abundance, size, morphology, inclusions) in granulite-facies and amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses, along with their oxygen and hafnium isotope compositions. Our data complement earlier Usbnd Pb ages and trace element data (REE, Y, Hf, U) on zircons from the same rocks (Tichomirowa et al., 2005). Our results show that the degree of melting determines the behaviour of zircon in different layers of the granulites and associated amphibolite-facies rocks. In restite layers of the granulite lenses, small, inherited, and resorbed zircon grains are preserved and new zircon formation is very limited. In contrast, new zircons abundantly grew in the melt rich leucocratic layers. In these layers, the new zircons (Usbnd Pb age, trace elements, Hf, O isotopes) best preserve the information on peak metamorphic conditions due to intense corrosion of other metamorphic minerals. The new zircons often contain inherited cores. Compared to cores, the new zircons and rims show similar or slightly lower Hf isotope values, slightly higher Hf model ages, and decreased oxygen isotope ratios. The isotope compositions (Hf, O) of new zircons indicate

  9. Seismo-turbidite Sedimentology: Implications for Active Tectonic Margin Stratigraphy and Sediment Facies Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Goldfinger, C.; Gutierrez Pastor, J.; Polonia, A.; Van Daele, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes generate mass transport deposits (MTDs); megaturbidites (MTD overlain by coeval turbidite); multi-pulsed, stacked, and mud homogenite seismo-turbidites; tsunamites; and seiche deposits. The strongest (Mw 9) earthquake shaking signatures appear to create multi-pulsed individual turbidites, where the number and character of multiple coarse-grained pulses for correlative turbidites generally remain constant both upstream and downstream in different channel systems. Multiple turbidite pulses, that correlate with multiple ruptures shown in seismograms of historic earthquakes (e.g. Chile 1960, Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011), support this hypothesis. The weaker (Mw = or turbidity currents that deposit in channels below confluences of the tributaries. Proven tsunamites, which result from tsunami waves sweeping onshore and shallow water debris into deeper water, are a fine-grained turbidite cap over other seismo-turbidites. In contrast, MTDs and seismo-turbidites result from slope failures. Multiple great earthquakes cause seismic strengthening of slope sediment, which results in minor MTDs in basin floor turbidite system deposits (e.g. maximum run-out distances of MTDs across basin floors along active margins are up to an order of magnitude less than on passive margins). In contrast, the MTDs and turbidites are equally intermixed in turbidite systems of passive margins (e.g. Gulf of Mexico). In confined basin settings, earthquake triggering results in a common facies pattern of coeval megaturbidites in proximal settings, thick stacked turbidites downstream, and ponded muddy homogenite turbidites in basin or sub-basin centers, sometimes with a cap of seiche deposits showing bi-directional flow patterns.

  10. First direct observations linking confined supercritical turbidity currents to their depositional architecture and facies characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, S.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Clare, M. A.; Sumner, E.; Hubbard, S. M.; Talling, P.; Lintern, G.; Stacey, C.; Vardy, M. E.; Hunt, J.; Vendettuoli, D.; Yokokawa, M.; Hizzett, J. L.; Vellinga, A. J.; Azpiroz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents transfer globally significant amounts of sediment via submarine channels from the continental margin to deep submarine fans. Submarine channel inception is thought to result from erosive, supercritical turbidity currents that are common in proximal settings of the marine realm. Recent monitoring of submarine processes have provided the first measurements of supercritical turbidity currents (Hughes Clarke, 2016), demonstrating that they drive the upstream migration of crescentic bedforms in confined submarine channels. Although upstream-migrating bedforms are common in confined channels across the world's oceans, there is considerable debate over the type of deposits that they produce. It is important to understand what types of deposit record these supercritical bedforms to potentially identify them from geological archives. For the first time, we combine direct measurements from supercritical field-scale turbidity currents with the facies and depositional architecture resulting from such flows. We show how the subsurface architecture evolves in a highly active channel at Squamish submarine delta, British Columbia, Canada. Repeated upstream migration of bedforms is found to create two main deposit geometries. First, regular back-stepping beds result from flow deceleration on the slightly-inclined sides of the bedforms. Second, lens-shaped scour fills composed of massive deposits result from erosion of the back-stepping beds by subsequent turbidity currents. We relate our findings to a range of ancient outcrop studies to demonstrate that supercritical flows are common in proximal settings through the geological record. This study provides the first direct observation-based model to identify confined supercritical turbidity currents and their associated upslope-migrating bedforms in the sedimentary record. This is important for correctly identifying the proximal sites of ancient submarine channels that served as past conduits for globally

  11. Pb and O isotope systematics in granulite facies xenoliths, French Massif Central: Implications for crustal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, H.; Kempton, P.D.; Harmon, R.S.; Briot, D.; Leyreloup, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Pb and O isotope data are represented for a suite of granulite facies xenoliths found within Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks of the Massif Central, France. The suite consists of ultramafic and mafic cumulates, metagabbros which are considered to represent basic liquids, felsic meta-igneous lithologies (charnockites) and metasediments. Ranges of δ 18 O values are +6.9 to +9.8per mille for mafic xenoliths, +9.3 to +10.2per mille for felsic meta-igneous samples and +6.1 to +11.8per mille for the metasediments. By comparison, δ 18 O values for mantle peridotites from the same region range from +5.1 to +6.9per mille, whilst local Hercynian granitoids vary from +8.6 to +12.0per mille. The 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios of the granulite xenoliths are between 17.77 and 19.19, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios vary from 15.51 to 15.69, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios range from 38.07 to 40.07. In general, metasedimentary granulites have the more radiogenic Pb isotope compositions, whereas mafic meta-igneous samples are less radiogenic. These isotopic characteristics can be explained as the result of the interaction of mafic magmas with the metasedimentary crust into which they intruded. The release of heat also provoked melting of the more fusible parts of the lower crust and led to the formation of late-orogenic Hercynian granitoids. However, an additional component which provides less radiogenic Pb is also needed in the source of the granitoids; this may be the felsic meta-igneous xenoliths or middle/upper crustal gneisses. (orig.)

  12. Facies interpretations and lateral variability based on correlation of conventional core in the Logan canyon and Mississauga formations of the Scotian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, D.J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada (Canada); Gould, K.M.; Pe-Piper, G. [Saint Mary' s University (Canada)], email: 075353g@acadiau.ca

    2011-07-01

    In the Lower Cretaceous of the Scotian Basin in Canada, sediment facies have been interpreted mostly using vertical successions of rock. However, other studies show that the lateral extent and variability of sediment facies must be understood to assess reservoir extent and connectivity. The aim of this paper is to present the investigation of two areas of the Scotian Basin. In each area, a regional correlation was performed using gamma ray well logs and the lithology, sedimentary and biogenic structures were determined for 67 different cores. It was found that the determination of facies and vertical successions was useful for comparing and correlating across multiple wells. In addition it was shown that gamma logs are effective for regional correlation but can only correlate major changes. This paper demonstrated that gamma logs are useful for performing facies interpretations and determining lateral variability.

  13. Syn-sedimentary tectonics and facies analysis in a rift setting: Cretaceous Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin, SE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chakraborty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous (Albian–Cenomanian Dalmiapuram Formation is one of the economically significant constituents in the hydrocarbon-producing Cauvery rift basin, SE India that opened up during the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Gondwanaland fragmentation. The fossil-rich Dalmiapuram Formation, exposed at Ariyalur within the Pondicherry sub-basin of Cauvery Basin, rests in most places directly on the Archean basement and locally on the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian Basal Siliciclastic Formation. In the Dalmiapuram Formation, a facies association of tectonically-disturbed phase is sandwiched between two drastically quieter phases. The early syn-rift facies association (FA 1, records the first carbonate marine transgression within the basin, comprising a bar–lagoon system with occasionally storms affecting along the shore and a sheet-like non-recurrent biomicritic limestone bed on the shallow shelf that laterally grades into pyrite–glauconite-bearing dark-colored shale in the deeper shelf. Spectacular breccias together with varied kinds of mass-flow products comprise the syn-rift facies association (FA 2. While the breccias occur at the basin margin area, the latter extend in the deeper inland sea. Clast composition of the coarse clastics includes large, even block-sized limestone fragments and small fragments of granite and sandstone from the basement. Marl beds of quieter intervals between tectonic pulses occur in alternation with them. Faulted basal contact of the formation, and small grabens filled by multiple mass-flow packages bear the clear signature of the syntectonic activity localized contortions, slump folds, and pillow beds associated with mega slump/slide planes and joints, which corroborates this contention further. This phase of tectonic intervention is followed by another relatively quieter phase and accommodates the late syn-rift facies association (FA 3. A tidal bar–interbar shelf depositional system allowed a

  14. Controls on facies and sequence stratigraphy of an upper Miocene carbonate ramp and platform, Melilla basin, NE Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K.J.; Collins, Luke S.

    2002-01-01

    Upwelling of cool seawater, paleoceanographic circulation, paleoclimate, local tectonics and relative sea-level change controlled the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of a carbonate ramp and overlying platform that are part of a temporally well constrained carbonate complex in the Melilla basin, northeastern Morocco. At Melilla, from oldest to youngest, a third-order depositional sequence within the carbonate complex contains (1) a retrogradational, transgressive, warm temperate-type rhodalgal ramp; (2) an early highstand, progradational, bioclastic platform composed mainly of a temperate-type, bivalve-rich molechfor facies; and (3) late highstand, progradational to downstepping, subtropical/tropical-type chlorozoan fringing Porites reefs. The change from rhodalgal ramp to molechfor platform occurred at 7.0??0.14 Ma near the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. During a late stage in the development of the bioclastic platform a transition from temperate-type molechfor facies to subtropical/tropical-type chlorozoan facies occurred and is bracketed by chron 3An.2n (??? 6.3-6.6 Ma). Comparison to a well-dated carbonate complex in southeastern Spain at Cabo de Gata suggests that upwelling of cool seawater influenced production of temperate-type limestone within the ramp and platform at Melilla during postulated late Tortonian-early Messinian subtropical/tropical paleoclimatic conditions in the western Paleo-Mediterranean region. The upwelling of cool seawater across the bioclastic platform at Melilla could be related to the beginning of 'siphoning' of deep, cold Atlantic waters into the Paleo-Mediterranean Sea at 7.17 Ma. The facies change within the bioclastic platform from molechfor to chlorozoan facies may be coincident with a reduction of the siphoning of Atlantic waters and the end of upwelling at Melilla during chron 3An.2n. The ramp contains one retrogradational parasequence and the bioclastic platform three progradational parasequences. Minor erosional surfaces

  15. Geomorphology, facies architecture, and high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy in avulsion deposits, Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, K. M.

    2001-02-01

    This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution

  16. Facies distribution, depositional environment, and petrophysical features of the Sharawra Formation, Old Qusaiba Village, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muhammad Asif; Kaminski, Michael; Umran Dogan, A.

    2016-04-01

    moderate-scale transgressive episodes, while the thin shale interbeds in the middle and upper part of the Sharawra Formation represent small-scale transgressions. Overall, the Sharawra Formation contains a series of repetitive transgressive and regressive events and has been interpreted as a pro-deltaic deposit in previous studies. In the present study, the lowermost sandstone thickly bedded facies lie within the transition zone environment. The siltstone facies and the horizontally stratified facies show a middle shore face environment. The middle shore face environment is present locally. The bioturbation in the uppermost facies is indicative of the upper shore face environment. The porosity values do not vary much, as the average porosity for the sandstone facies is about 15%, for the siltstones it ranges about 7%. The permeability is variable throughout the formation, the values range from 50 to 300 md. Although sandstone has a good porosity and permeability, the siltstone facies exhibit poor petrophysical characteristics. In terms of reservoir characterization, the mineralogical mature, moderately well sorted top most sandstone facies, with appreciable porosity and permeability can be considered as a potential reservoir rock. This study has provided a base for future quantitative studies in this important formation in the area.

  17. Petrogenesis of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite pipe, Indrāvati Basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Chalapathi Rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New geochemical data of the crater-facies Tokapal kimberlite system sandwiched between the lower and upper stratigraphic horizons of the Mesoproterozoic Indrāvati Basin are presented. The kimberlite has been subjected to extensive and pervasive low-temperature alteration. Spinel is the only primary phase identifiable, while olivine macrocrysts and juvenile lapilli are largely pseudomorphed (talc-serpentine-carbonate alteration. However, with the exception of the alkalies, major element oxides display systematic fractionation trends; likewise, HFSE patterns are well correlated and allow petrogenetic interpretation. Various crustal contamination indices such as (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O/(MgO + K2O and Si/Mg are close to those of uncontaminated kimberlites. Similar La/Yb (79–109 of the Tokapal samples with those from the kimberlites of Wajrakarur (73–145 and Narayanpet (72–156, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India implies a similarity in their genesis. In the discriminant plots involving HFSE the Tokapal samples display strong affinities to Group II kimberlites from southern Africa and central India as well as to ‘transitional kimberlites’ from the Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, and those from the Prieska and Kuruman provinces of southern Africa. There is a striking similarity in the depleted-mantle (TDM Nd model ages of the Tokapal kimberlite system, Bastar craton, the kimberlites from NKF and WKF, Eastern Dharwar craton, and the Majhgawan diatreme, Bundelkhand craton, with the emplacement age of some of the lamproites from within and around the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah basin, southern India. These similar ages imply a major tectonomagmatic event, possibly related to the break-up of the supercontinent of Columbia, at 1.3–1.5 Ga across the three cratons. The ‘transitional’ geochemical features displayed by many of the Mesoproterozoic potassic-ultrapotassic rocks, across these Indian cratons are inferred to be

  18. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  19. Tufa in Northern England: depositional facies, carbonate mineral fabrics, and role of biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, E.; Mawson, M.; Perri, E.; Tucker, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Tufas are widely scattered in northern England, being concentrated in areas of limestone (Carboniferous and Permian), where there are springs, seepages, streams and waterfalls with waters supersatured in respect of calcite. Some deposits are clearly related to faults. Tufas have been examined in Gordale and Malham (SW Yorkshire), Teesdale and Weardale (Co. Durham), Sunderland (Tyne & Wear) and Great Asby Fell (Cumbria). A variety of tufa types are developed: spring-related pisoids and moss tufa, fluviatile barrage and waterfall tufa, and seepage and spring tufa with microbial oncoids in a paludal setting. We present preliminary data and observations on tufa in the Teesdale area, which forms along the valley-side adjacent to the River Tees. Locally here, a tiny stream draining agricultural land runs over a sandstone outcrop at the top of a 30 metre high slope; water descends the 30-60 degrees slope, creating tiny waterfalls and pools across an area reaching 10 metres wide, on the way down towards the river. Three main facies are recognizable in the tufa deposits: carbonate crusts, moss tufa and pisoids. In the upper part of the slope tufa occurs as sub-vertical 0.5-5 cm thick carbonate crusts forming "sheets" with a bulbous external surface covered by a green biofilm, with some insect larvae. Encrustations form upon surfaces of rock exposures and pebbles, and coat plant fragments (leaves, twigs, pine cones). Tufa precipitation, particularly on mosses, liverworts and leaves (moss tufa), creates a series of rimmed pools, a few decimetres across and centimetres deep. Apart from the presence of moss, which gives the tufa has a vacuolar texture, the main constituents are cyanobacteria and diatoms. The moss tufa deposit may reach a metre or more in height and several metres in width, notably towards the base of the slope, adjacent to the river. Within the small pools on the slope, pisoids and partially calcified plant remains accumulate. They also occur abundantly in the

  20. Facies-controlled reservoir properties in ramp-fan and slope-apron deposits, Miocene Puente Formation, Los Angeles basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, K.T.; Geving, R.L.; Suchecki, R.K.

    1989-03-01

    The Miocene Puente Formation in outcrops of the eastern Los Angeles basin is interpreted as a succession of slope-apron and ramp-fan deposits that accumulated in a prism-rise wedge. The principal depositional components of this dominantly base-of-slope and ramp system are ramp-fan channels and lobes, and slope-channel and slope-apron channel/interchannel deposits. Facies-specific textural, compositional, and diagenetic attributes observed in thin section assist in the classification of depositional facies. Specifically, occurrence of carbonate cement, clay mineralogy, and abundance of organic material vary as a function of component facies architecture of the depositional system. Slope and ramp-fan channel-fill sandstones are characterized by pervasive carbonate cements, including poikilotopic and fine-grained calcite, fine-grained and baroque dolomite, and minor siderite. Diagenetic clays predate carbonate cements, and dolomite predates coarser, void-filling calcite. Ramp-fan lobe and interchannel deposits are carbonate free but are rich in detrital clay and organic matter. Diagenetic clays include mixed-layer illite/smectite and kaolinite. Sediments deposited in slope-apron channel fill are virtually cement free except for small amounts of authigenic illite/smectite. Slope-apron interchannel deposits are characterized by high content of organic matter and clay-rich matrix. Potential reservoir characteristics, such as grain size, sorting, and abundance of depositional clay matrix, are related to the primary sedimentary properties of depositional architectural components in the ramp-fan and slope-apron system. Additional diagenetic modifications, without consideration of compaction, were controlled by precipitation reactions associated with fluid flow along pathways related to the depositional architectural framework.

  1. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  2. The Adversarial Principle in Prima Facie Judgments of the Legal Thesis Firmed in the Trial of Repetitive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Provedel Cardoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present articles objective is to analyse the highly effective adversarial principle from the Constitutional Democratic State of Law and the cooperative process structure. In this sense, an analysis of the repetitive cases model is made with special relevance to the Civil Procedure Codice 2015, put in evidence the preliminary injunction, the repetitive appeals and the resolution incident repetitive demands. With the establishment of the premises, an analysis of the adversarial principle is made on prima facie judgments of the legal thesis firmed in the trial of repetitive cases, in view of the motivation of the court decision (speech of the case and law (speech of the precedents.

  3. Tort recovery of acid rain damages in the United States--observations on plaintiff's prima facie case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honabach, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Common law tort doctrine has long supplied a judicially administered vehicle for dealing with harms suffered by one party as a result of the activities of another. As such, it might be used to address the problem of acid rain. Before tort law may be used, however, a would-be plaintiff must make out a prima facie case. While traditional applications of tort doctrine might effectively prevent plaintiff from doing so, recent court decisions suggest that plaintiff might nevertheless be successful in obtaining at least partial recovery.

  4. Las almas indisciplinadas: comentario crítico y estilístico de Plut., De facie 945B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lesage Gárriga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El mito escatológico que aparece al final del tratado de Plutarco De facie in orbe lunae todavía a día de hoy presenta problemas textuales y de interpretación que deben ser estudiados. Con este análisis del texto, que parte de estudios de crítica textual y crítica literaria y estilística, intento arrojar algo de luz sobre un pasaje que versa sobre el destino de las almas licenciosas.

  5. Ichnofabrics and Facies in the Paleocene of Chicxulub: A Record of the Recovery of Life Post-Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. T.; O'Malley, K.; Lowery, C. M.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 recovered 829 m of core at Site M0077 including 110 m of post-impact, (hemi)pelagic Paleogene sedimentary rocks overlying the Chicxulub impact crater peak ring formed from suevite, melt rock, and granitic basement. The transition between suevite and Paleocene limestone (Unit 1F) is a remarkable fining upward package of gravel to sand-sized suevite (Unit 2A) overlain by the laminated carbonate-rich Unit 1G that records deposition of fine-grained material post-impact and contains a mix of Late Cretaceous and earliest Danian taxa. This study concentrates on the overlying Unit 1F. The ichnofabric index (ii, 1-6 indicating no bioturbation to complete homogenization), provides a semiquantitative estimate of burrow density to help assess the return of life to the crater. Unit 1F is 10 m thick with a sharp contact at the base of a green claystone (ii 2) that overlies Unit 1G. It consists of cm-dm interbedded blue-gray marlstone (ii 2) grading upward into gray to blue-gray wacke/packstone (ii 3-5). Contacts between facies are mostly gradational due to burrowing. The upper 3 m of the unit is a yellow-brown burrowed packstone (ii 4) intercalated with gray marlstone (ii 2). The uppermost 7.5 cm is calcite cemented with 1 cm wide burrows (ii 3-4) and fine to coarse sand size clasts including foraminifera. The upper surface of the unit is a hardground with an 2 Myr unconformity overlain by Eocene rocks. The first well-defined burrows occur in the upper 30 cm of Unit 1G. Unequivocal burrows (ii 2) that disturb sedimentary facies occur in overlying Unit 1F with values of 3-5 recorded in the overlying 10 cm indicating significant disruption of primary sedimentary structures. The iis in Unit 1F vary between 2 and 5 with rare laminated intervals without bioturbation (ii 1). Values of ii correlate well with facies changes, i.e. marlstones display lower iis than more carbonate-rich facies, implying a depth and/or redox control on burrower distribution. The ii

  6. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  7. Nódulos opalinos en facies marginales del salar Olaroz (Puna Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, R.

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a petrological and geochemical study of silica nodules from Quaternary alluvial fallS of the Olaroz Salar. The nodules are mainly constituted by C-T opal, d. (101 spacing to 4,11 A, implying a high-disorder; this is commonly observed in opa! rocks formed in near surface environments, without burial and heating. The chemical composition of the nodules is anomalous when compared with other typical silica-rocks formed in arid continental closed basin, without any eruptive environments (for instance the Cuenca del Tajo in Spain. The siliceous nodules do not have the characteristics of the silcretes and are not associated to the evaporitic facies of the salar. Their genesis is probably related to contamination of groundwater of the alluvial fan with high-silica thermal water. The C-T opal would thus precipitate by either displacing tbe terrigenous host-rock or replacing previous ulexite nodules.Se realiza un estudio petrológico y geoquímico de los nódulos silíceos que se encuentran incluidos en sedimentos terrígenos cuaternarios de la Cuenca de Olaroz (La Puna, Argentina. Estos nódulos se localizan en abanicos aluviales que aparecen encajados, debido a los cambios en el nivel de base que se produce desde el Pleistoceno a la actualidad, durante la evolución de los cuerpos lacustres a salares. Un estudio mediante DRX revela que son rocas constituidas por ópalo C-T, con un espaciado (101 a 4,11 A, que implica un grado de desorden alto, típico de las rocas silíceas formadas en superficie y que no han sufrido enterramiento ni influencia térmica. Su composición química es anómala si se compara con rocas silíceas continentales formadas en ambiente endorreico y fuera de un marco volcánico (Mioceno de la Cuenca del Tajo. No poseyendo características de silcretas y no estando asociadas a la sedimentación evaporítica de los salares, se considera la influencia de aguas termales. La contaminación local y en

  8. Oceanographic controls on sedimentary and geochemical facies on the Peru outer shelf and upper slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael A.; Dean, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of organic matter in surface sediments deposited under an intense oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) on the Peru margin were mapped and studied in samples from deck-deployed box cores and push cores acquired by submersible on two east-west transects spanning depths of 75 to 1,000 meters (m) at 12°S and 13.5°S. On the basis of sampling and analyses of the top 1–2 centimeters (cm) of available cores, three main belts of sediments were identified on each transect with increasing depth: (1) muds rich in organic carbon (OC); (2) authigenic phosphatic mineral crusts and pavements; and (3) glaucony facies.Sediments rich in OC on the 12°S transect were mainly located on the outer shelf and upper slope (150–350 m), but they occurred in much shallower water (approximately 100 m) on the 13.5°S transect. The organic matter is almost entirely marine as confirmed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis and isotopic composition of OC. Concentrations of OC are highest (up to 18 percent) in sediments within the OMZ where dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are Peru margin can only become buried and incorporated into the geologic record once bottom currents slacken sufficiently to allow fine-grained sediment to accumulate.Glaucony-rich surface sediments, relatively undiluted by other components, were found mainly in deeper water on the 13.5°S transect (750 m to at least 1,067 m). These sediments consist almost entirely of sand-size glaucony pellets. These widespread glaucony sands formed in place and were then concentrated and reworked by strong currents that winnowed away the fine-grained matrix. Although the glaucony occurs in sand-size pellets, the pellets are made up of aggregates of authigenic, platy, micaceous clay minerals. Glaucony is predominantly a potassium (K), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg) aluminosilicate with an approximate formula of (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2. The glaucony on the 13.5°S transect forms by alteration of one or more

  9. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  10. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson Handford, C.

    1990-08-01

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level sauna on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to differences in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to ˜60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  11. Applying and improving a sedimentary facies model for exploration of stratigraphic traps in the Austrian Molasse basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinsch, R.; Kofler, N. [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG (RAG), Vienna (Austria); Hubbard, S. [Calgary Univ., Calgary (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2007-09-13

    In the Molasse foreland basin of Upper Austria gas is produced from deep-water sandstones and conglomerates of the Puchkirchen and basal Hall formations (Oligocene-Lower Miocene). The basin is mature, with >750 wells drilled by RAG to date. An extensive 3-D seismic reflection dataset that covers much of the paleo-basin foredeep has been acquired in the study area over the last 15 years. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has revealed that deepwater sedimentation in the basin was dominated by a channel belt up to 5 km wide that transported sediment derived from the Central and Eastern Alps eastward along the basin axis (Linzer, 2001; de Ruig, 2003). Based on these findings, a detailed sedimentary facies model has been developed, outlining several distinct depositional elements that reveal numerous possible stratigraphic trap types (de Ruig and Hubbard, 2006). This depositional model is currently being applied and tested in exploration and refined by ongoing research. Channel abandonment and migration are important processes that resulted in stratigraphic configurations consisting of coarse-grained sandstones and conglomerates overlain by channel and overbank mudstones. This represents ideal reservoir architecture, including porous reservoir facies sealed by impermeable deposits. Additional stratigraphic trapping conditions can result from special spatial arrangements of depositional elements, for example a sandstone-filled tributary channel that is sealed by an overlying mudstone-filled abandonment channel. Recognizing and further improving such stratigraphic trapping configurations are important for future exploration in Upper Austria, where most of the structural traps have been drilled. (orig.)

  12. Resolving Carbonate Platform Geometries on the Island of Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands through Semi-Automatic GPR Facies Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, R. D.; Laya, J. C.; Everett, M. E.

    2018-05-01

    The study of exposed carbonate platforms provides observational constraints on regional tectonics and sea-level history. In this work Miocene-aged carbonate platform units of the Seroe Domi Formation are investigated, on the island of Bonaire, located in the Southern Caribbean. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to probe near-surface structural geometries associated with these lithologies. The single cross-island transect described herein allowed for continuous mapping of geologic structures on kilometer length scales. Numerical analysis was applied to the data in the form of k-means clustering of structure-parallel vectors derived from image structure tensors. This methodology enables radar facies along the survey transect to be semi-automatically mapped. The results provide subsurface evidence to support previous surficial and outcrop observations, and reveal complex stratigraphy within the platform. From the GPR data analysis, progradational clinoform geometries were observed on the northeast side of the island which supports the tectonics and depositional trends of the region. Furthermore, several leeward-side radar facies are identified which correlate to environments of deposition conducive to dolomitization via reflux mechanisms.

  13. Dowód prima facie w postępowaniu cywilnym dotyczącym szkód powstałych w związku z leczeniem

    OpenAIRE

    Białkowski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present main perspectives expressed by representatives of Polish legal doctrine as well as several examples of applications of prima facie evidence in legal cases submitted to Polish Supreme Court. Although not codified in Polish civil procedure prima facie evidence is applied in cases concerning claims for compensation for damages such as those occurred during medical treatment or inflicted by employees. The paper tries to answer whether prima facie evidence...

  14. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  15. The relationship between carbonate facies, volcanic rocks and plant remains in a late Palaeozoic lacustrine system (San Ignacio Fm, Frontal Cordillera, San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.; Gallastegui, G.; Colombo, F.; Cardó, R.; Limarino, O.; Heredia, N.; Césari, S. N.

    2013-07-01

    The San Ignacio Fm, a late Palaeozoic foreland basin succession that crops out in the Frontal Cordillera (Argentinean Andes), contains lacustrine microbial carbonates and volcanic rocks. Modification by extensive pedogenic processes contributed to the massive aspect of the calcareous beds. Most of the volcanic deposits in the San Ignacio Fm consist of pyroclastic rocks and resedimented volcaniclastic deposits. Less frequent lava flows produced during effusive eruptions led to the generation of tabular layers of fine-grained, greenish or grey andesites, trachytes and dacites. Pyroclastic flow deposits correspond mainly to welded ignimbrites made up of former glassy pyroclasts devitrified to microcrystalline groundmass, scarce crystals of euhedral plagioclase, quartz and K-feldspar, opaque minerals, aggregates of fine-grained phyllosilicates and fiammes defining a bedding-parallel foliation generated by welding or diagenetic compaction. Widespread silicified and silica-permineralized plant remains and carbonate mud clasts are found, usually embedded within the ignimbrites. The carbonate sequences are underlain and overlain by volcanic rocks. The carbonate sequence bottoms are mostly gradational, while their tops are usually sharp. The lower part of the carbonate sequences is made up of mud which appear progressively, filling interstices in the top of the underlying volcanic rocks. They gradually become more abundant until they form the whole of the rock fabric. Carbonate on volcanic sandstones and pyroclastic deposits occur, with the nucleation of micritic carbonate and associated production of pyrite. Cyanobacteria, which formed the locus of mineral precipitation, were related with this nucleation. The growth of some of the algal mounds was halted by the progressive accumulation of volcanic ash particles, but in most cases the upper boundary is sharp and suddenly truncated by pyroclastic flows or volcanic avalanches. These pyroclastic flows partially destroyed the

  16. Sequential development of platform to off-platform facies of the great American carbonate bank in the central Appalachians: chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, David K.; Taylor, John F.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In the central Appalachians, carbonate deposition of the great American carbonate bank began during the Early Cambrian with the creation of initial ramp facies of the Vintage Formation and lower members of the Tomstown Formation. Vertical stacking of bioturbated subtidal ramp deposits (Bolivar Heights Member) and dolomitized microbial boundtsone (Fort Duncan Member) preceded the initiation of platform sedimentation and creation of sand shoal facies (Benevola Member) that was followed by the development of peritidal cyclicity (Daragan Member). Initiation of peritidal deposition coincided with the development of a rimmed platform that would persist throughout much of the Cambrian and Early Odrovician. At the end of deposition of the Waynesboro Formation, the platform became subaerially exposed because of the Hawke Bay regression, bringing the Sauk I supersequence to and end. In the Conestoga Valley of eastern Pennsylvania, Early Cambrian ramp deposition was succeeded by deposition of platform-margin and periplatfrom facies of the Kinzers Formation.

  17. Field-trip guide to subaqueous volcaniclastic facies in the Ancestral Cascades arc in southern Washington State—The Ohanapecosh Formation and Wildcat Creek beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, Martin; McPhie, Jocelyn

    2017-06-27

    Partly situated in the idyllic Mount Rainier National Park, this field trip visits exceptional examples of Oligocene subaqueous volcaniclastic successions in continental basins adjacent to the Ancestral Cascades arc. The >800-m-thick Ohanapecosh Formation (32–26 Ma) and the >300-m-thick Wildcat Creek (27 Ma) beds record similar sedimentation processes from various volcanic sources. Both show evidence of below-wave-base deposition, and voluminous accumulation of volcaniclastic facies from subaqueous density currents and suspension settling. Eruption-fed facies include deposits from pyroclastic flows that crossed the shoreline, from tephra fallout over water, and from probable Surtseyan eruptions, whereas re-sedimented facies comprise subaqueous density currents and debris flow deposits.

  18. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  19. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  20. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as

  1. Petrographic changes induced by artificial coalification of peat: comparison of two planar facies (Rhizophora and Cladium) from the Everglades-mangrove complex of Florida and a domed facies (Cyrilla) from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.D.; Bailey, A.M. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-12-01

    Petrographic changes during coalification of three peat samples were investigated by artificial coalification experiments using a semi-open reactor system. Compressions of from 83 to 88% produced dark brown to black, shiny, flattened pellets exhibiting microscopic banding. Overall amounts of compression inversely correlated with the framework to matrix ratios (F/M) although certain tissue fragments remained relatively uncompressed due to the presence of tanniferous cell fillings. The most distinct microscopic banding (longest and widest bands) developed in samples of the dome-formed peat facies. The planar, root-dominated, Rhizophora facies showed the greatest change in microbanding character during coalification, with greater compressions roots having disappeared. This could explain why roots are significant components of many modern peats (and ancient coal ball concretions) but are difficult to recognize in bituminous coals. Similarly, separation of cuticles from leaves in modern peat-forming environments partially explains why leaf remains are also difficult to recognize in most coals, even those with abundant cutinites. Macerals were also affected. These petrographic results, along with previously reported chemical results, all suggest that the methods used in these experiments have produced changes that might reasonably be expected to occur during natural coalification (despite speeding up). Although more work needs to be done to verify and refine these results and to establish a correlation between these artificial `coalification steps` and true coalification, the new observations and conclusions from these studies might still be helpful in constructing models to predict or interpret coal seam characteristics and to establish the timing and release-potential of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons from coals. 69 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Marine habitat mapping of the Milford Haven Waterway, Wales, UK: Comparison of facies mapping and EUNIS classification for monitoring sediment habitats in an industrialized estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Drew A.; Hayn, Melanie; Germano, Joseph D.; Little, David I.; Bullimore, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    A detailed map and dataset of sedimentary habitats of the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) was compiled for the Milford Haven Waterway Environmental Surveillance Group (MHWESG) from seafloor images collected in May, 2012 using sediment-profile and plan-view imaging (SPI/PV) survey techniques. This is the most comprehensive synoptic assessment of sediment distribution and benthic habitat composition available for the MHW, with 559 stations covering over 40 km2 of subtidal habitats. In the context of the MHW, an interpretative framework was developed that classified each station within a 'facies' that included information on the location within the waterway and inferred sedimentary and biological processes. The facies approach provides critical information on landscape-scale habitats including relative location and inferred sediment transport processes and can be used to direct future monitoring activities within the MHW and to predict areas of greatest potential risk from contaminant transport. Intertidal sediment 'facies' maps have been compiled in the past for MHW; this approach was expanded to map the subtidal portions of the waterway. Because sediment facies can be projected over larger areas than individual samples (due to assumptions based on physiography, or landforms) they represent an observational model of the distribution of sediments in an estuary. This model can be tested over time and space through comparison with additional past or future sample results. This approach provides a means to evaluate stability or change in the physical and biological conditions of the estuarine system. Initial comparison with past results for intertidal facies mapping and grain size analysis from grab samples showed remarkable stability over time for the MHW. The results of the SPI/PV mapping effort were cross-walked to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) classification to provide a comparison of locally derived habitat mapping with European-standard habitat

  3. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  4. Facies and carbon/oxygen isotopes of the Calabozo Formation (Middle Jurassic), Arroyo La Vaina, Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabaleri, N.G.; Valencio, S.A.; Cagnoni, M.C.; Ramos, A.M.; Armella, C.; Panarello, H.O; Riccardi, A.C

    2001-01-01

    Facial / microfacial studies and geochemical isotopic analyses on marine jurassic carbonates of the Calabozo Formation (Dessanti, 1973) were carried out to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment and postdepositional history of the unit. This study is part of a project which purpose is the sedimentological and geochemical characterization of the Jurassic carbonate sequences of Cuenca Neuquina, in the southwestern Mendoza, Argentina. A detailed description about this basin can be found in Legarreta and Uliana (1999) and Riccardi et al. (2000). During the Late Bathonian and Early Callovian, the basin showed a reduction of the sedimentation area and a marked marginal facies progradation. West of Malargue, in areas with low detritic contribution, limestones of the Calabozo Formation were deposited. At the end of the Early Callovian, the basin was isolated, prevailing hypersaline conditions which caused the accumulation of the evaporites of the Tabanos Formation (Stipanicic, 1966) (au)

  5. Seismic Facies of Pleistocene–Holocene Channel-fill Deposits in Bawean Island and Adjacent Waters, Southeast Java Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The late Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic architecture of the Bawean Island and surrounding waters, southeast Java Sea has been analyzed by using sparker seismic profiles. Geological interpretation of these seismic profiles revealed the widespread distribution of paleochannels with different shape and size in the present-day Java Sea. Two channel types can be distinguished based on its morphology: U-shaped channels in the western part and V-shaped channels in the eastern part. The stratigraphic successions were grouped into two major seismic units separated by different seismic boundaries. Characters of marine and fluvial deposits were determined based on seismic boundaries and internal reflectors. Three seismic facies can be identified within late Pleistocene – Holocene incised channel fills associated with SB2. The internal structure of incised-channels consist of chaotic reflector at the bottom, covered by parallel–sub parallel and almost reflection-free indicating the homogenous sediment deposited during the succession.

  6. Facies architecture of basin-margin units in time and space: Lower to Middle Miocene Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiner, A.; Kosun, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Miocene Sivas Basin is located within a collision zone, forming one of the largest basins in Central Turkey that developed unconformably on a foundered Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement and Eocene-Oligocene deposits. The time and space relationships of sedimentary environments and depositional evolution of Lower to Middle Miocene rocks exposed between Zara and Hafik towns is studied. A 4 km thick continuous section is subdivided into the Agilkaya and Egribucak Formations. Each formation shows an overall fining upward trend and contains three members. Although a complete section is present at the western part (near Hafik) of the basin, to the east the uppermost two members (near Zara) are absent. The lower members of both formations are composed of fluvial sheet-sandstone and red mudstone that migrate laterally on a flood basin within a semi-arid fan system. In the Agilkaya Formation that crops out near Zara, alluvial fans composed of red-pink volcanic pebbles are also present. The middle members are composed of bedded to massive gypsum and red-green mudstone of a coastal and/or continental sabkha environment. While the massive gypsum beds reach several 10’s of m in Hafik area, near Zara, they are only few m thick and alternate with green mudstones. In Hafik, bedded gypsums are intercalated with lagoonal dolomitic limestone and bituminous shale in the Agilkaya Formation and with fluvial red-pink sandstone-red mudstone in the Egribucak Formation. The upper members are made up of fossiliferous mudstone and discontinuous sandy limestone beds with gutter casts, HCS, and 3-D ripples. They indicate storm-induced sedimentation in a shallow marine setting. The disorganized accumulations of ostreid and cerithiid shells, interpreted as coquina bars, are the products of storm generated reworking processes in brackish environments. Rapid vertical and horizontal facies changes and the facies associations in both formations reflect the locally subsiding nature of this molassic

  7. Asymmetrical cross-current turbidite facies tract in a structurally-confined mini-basin (Priabonian-Rupelian, Ranzano Sandstone, northern Apennines, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinterri, R.; Laporta, M.; Ogata, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work discusses the stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Ranzano Sandstone, in the northern Apennines (Italy), a confined low-efficiency turbidite system deposited in a series of small piggy-back basins, which show strong analogies with intraslope minibasins commonly observed in divergent

  8. Stratigraphy, facies analysis and depositional environments of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member in the Abu Gharadig field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy

    2018-03-01

    Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.

  9. Intent v. Impact: The Standard of Proof Necessary to Establish a Prima Facie Case of Race Discrimination under 42 U.S.C. Section 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Considers action's impact and intent as proof; analyzes language, purpose, and legislative history of civil rights statutes; and concludes that the Supreme Court will likely require proof of intent to sustain a prima facie case of discrimination. Available from San Diego Law Review Association, University of San Diego School of Law, San Diego,…

  10. Implication of corona formation in a metatroctolite to the granulite facies overprint of HP-UHP rocks in the Moldanubian Zone (Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faryad, S. W.; Kachlík, V.; Sláma, Jiří; Hoinkes, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2015), s. 295-310 ISSN 0263-4929 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : coronitic metatroctolite * granulite facies * Moldanubian Zone * sapphirine * spinel * Variscan orogeny Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.673, year: 2015

  11. Trace fossils of the Moravice Formation from the southern Nízký Jeseník Mts. (Lower Carboniferous, Culm facies; Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Lehotský, T.; Bábek, O.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2004), s. 81-98 ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/00/0118 Keywords : ichnofossils * Lower Carboniferous * Culm facies Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/contents/2004/vol79no2/bullgeosci200402081.pdf

  12. Zircon and monazite petrochronologic record of prolonged amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones, NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergouz, Celia; Martin, Laure; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Thébaud, Nicolas; Fiorentini, Marco

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of thermal-tectonic evolution of high-grade terranes, we conducted a systematic study of textures, REE content and U-Pb ages of zircon and monazite grains extracted from migmatitic metapelites across the amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic gradient exposed in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones (Italy). This study documents the behaviour of these accessory minerals in the presence of melt. The absence of relict monazite grains in the metasediments and the gradual decrease in the size of inherited zircon grains from amphibolite to granulite facies cores indicate partial to total dissolution of accessory minerals during the prograde path and partial melting. The retrograde path is marked by (i) growth of new zircon rims (R1 and R2) around inherited cores in the mesosome, (ii) crystallisation of stubby zircon grains in the leucosome, especially at granulite facies, and (iii) crystallisation of new monazite in the mesosome. Stubby zircon grains have a distinctive fir-tree zoning and a constant Th/U ratio of 0.20. Together, these features reflect growth in the melt; conversely, the new zircon grains with R1 rims have dark prismatic habits and Th/U ratios ages obtained on both types are similar, indicating contemporaneous growth of stubby zircon and rims around unresorbed zircon grains, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the melt at the grain scale. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone the interquartile range (IQR) of U-Pb ages on zircon and monazite are interpreted to represent the length of zircon and monazite crystallisation in the presence of melt. Accordingly, they provide an indication on the minimum duration for high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting of the lower crust: 20 Ma and 30 Ma in amphibolite and granulite facies, respectively. In amphibolite facies, zircon crystallisation between 310 and 294 Ma (IQR) is interpreted to reflect metamorphic peak condition and earlier retrograde history; conversely

  13. Trace fossils, sedimentary facies and parasequence architecture from the Lower Cretaceous Mulichinco Formation of Argentina: The role of fair-weather waves in shoreface deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Lindsey J. N.; Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Ponce, Juan José; Carmona, Noelia B.

    2018-05-01

    Shorefaces can display strong facies variability and integration of sedimentology and ichnology provides a high-resolution model to identify variations among strongly storm-dominated (high energy), moderately storm-affected (intermediate energy), and weakly storm-affected (low energy) shoreface deposits. In addition, ichnology has proved to be of help to delineate parasequences as trace-fossil associations are excellent indicators of environmental conditions which typically change along the depositional profile. Shallow-marine deposits and associated ichnofaunas from the Mulichinco Formation (Valanginian, Lower Cretaceous) in Puerta Curaco, Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, were analyzed to evaluate stress factors on shoreface benthos and parasequence architecture. During storm-dominated conditions, the Skolithos Ichnofacies prevails within the offshore transition and lower shoreface represented by assemblages dominated by Thalassinoides isp. and Ophiomorpha irregulaire. Under weakly storm-affected conditions, the Cruziana Ichnofacies is recognized, characterized by assemblages dominated by Thalassinoides isp. and Gyrochorte comosa in the offshore transition, and by Gyrochorte comosa within the lower shoreface. Storm-influenced conditions yield wider ichnologic variability, showing elements of both ichnofacies. Storm influence on sedimentation is affected by both allogenic (e.g. tectonic subsidence, sea-level, and sediment influx) and autogenic (e.g. hydrodynamic) controls at both parasequence and intra-parasequence scales. Four distinct types of parasequences were recognized, strongly storm-dominated, moderately storm-affected, moderately storm-affected - strongly fair-weather reworked, and weakly storm-affected, categorized based on parasequence architectural variability derived from varying degrees of storm and fair-weather wave influence. The new type of shoreface described here, the moderately storm-affected - strongly fair-weather reworked shoreface

  14. Metaleptic Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Pernot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Les derniers romans de Gabriel Josipovici offrent beaucoup de variété, allant de la parodie, de la fiction comique légère, dans Only Joking et Making Mistakes, à des sujets plus graves, plus personnels, ontologiques. Dans un court roman, Everything Passes, et dans un roman majeur, Goldberg: Variations, le lecteur est amené à se poser des questions sur la nature mystérieuse de la réalité, qui est, trop souvent, acceptée sans conteste par de nombreux roma...

  15. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  16. Fluoride characterization by principal component analysis in the hydrochemical facies of Serra Geral Aquifer System in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Nanni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis is applied to 309 groundwater chemical data information from wells in the Serra Geral Aquifer System. Correlations among seven hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A four-component model is suggested and explains 81% of total variance. Component 1 represents calcium-magnesium bicarbonated groundwaters with long time of residence. Component 2 represents sulfated and chlorinated calcium and sodium groundwaters; Component 3 represents sodium bicarbonated groundwaters; and Component 4 is characterized by sodium sulfated with high fluoride facies. The components' spatial distribution shows high fluoride concentration along analyzed tectonic fault system and aligned on northeast direction in other areas, suggesting other hydrogeological fault systems. High fluoride concentration increases according to groundwater pumping depth. The Principal Component Analysis reveals features of the groundwater mixture and individualizes water facies. In this scenery, it can be determined hydrogeological blocks associated with tectonic fault system here introduced.A Análise de Componentes Principais foi aplicada em 309 dados químicos de águas subterrâneas de poços do Sistema Aqüífero Serra Geral. Correlações entre sete parâmetros hidroquímicos foram examinadas através da estatística. O modelo de quatro componentes foi utilizado por explicar 81% da variância total. A Componente 1 é representada por águas cálcio-magnesianas com longo tempo de residência, a Componente 2 representa águas bicarbonatadas sulfatadas e cloretadas, a Componente 3 representa águas bicarbonatadas sódicas e a Componente 4 é caracterizada por águas de fácies sódica e sulfatada com alto fluoreto. A distribuição espacial das componentes mostra águas com concentrações anômalas ao longo dos sistemas tectônicos de falhas, analisados e alinhados a NE em algumas áreas, sugerindo outros sistemas de falhas hidrogeológicos. As

  17. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from mangrove swamps and channels of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Lokier, Stephen W.; Paul, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations in several coastline environments (mangrove swamps and channels) located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of living and dead benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding area comprising natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels) and areas modified by anthropogenic activities (dredged channels). The fine-grain sediments collected near mangrove (Avicenna marina) roots presented a high abundance of living and dead foraminifera tests. The assemblages in these samples show very low diversity and are almost entirely constituted of small-sized opportunistic species belonging to the genera Ammonia and Elphidium. In particular: • Samples collected on the mud flat and in ponds at the margin of the channel show a foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. • Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicenna marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Elphidium along with rare miliolidae. • Samples from the upper intertidal area (dry) close to Avicenna marina roots, produced an assemblage exclusively composed of small-sized opportunistic Ammonia and Elphidium, together with abundant specimens belonging to the genera Trochammina. Throchammina specimens have not been previously recorded from Recent sedimentary samples of

  18. Bathymetric and sediment facies maps for China Bend and Marcus Flats, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington, 2008 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created bathymetric and sediment facies maps for portions of two reaches of Lake Roosevelt in support of an interdisciplinary study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and their habitat areas within Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington. In October 2008, scientists from the USGS used a boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder (MBES) to describe bathymetric data to characterize surface relief at China Bend and Marcus Flats, between Northport and Kettle Falls, Washington. In March 2009, an underwater video camera was used to view and record sediment facies that were then characterized by sediment type, grain size, and areas of sand deposition. Smelter slag has been identified as having the characteristics of sand-sized black particles; the two non-invasive surveys attempted to identify areas containing black-colored particulate matter that may be elements and minerals, organic material, or slag. The white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt is threatened by the failure of natural recruitment, resulting in a native population that consists primarily of aging fish and that is gradually declining as fish die and are not replaced by nonhatchery reared juvenile fish. These fish spawn and rear in the riverine and upper reservoir reaches where smelter slag is present in the sediment of the river lake bed. Effects of slag on the white sturgeon population in Lake Roosevelt are largely unknown. Two recent studies demonstrated that copper and other metals are mobilized from slag in aqueous environments with concentrations of copper and zinc in bed sediments reaching levels of 10,000 and 30,000 mg/kg due to the presence of smelter slag. Copper was found to be highly toxic to 30-day-old white sturgeon with 96-h LC50 concentrations ranging from 3 to 5 (u or mu)g copper per liter. Older juvenile and adult sturgeons commonly ingest substantial amounts of sediment while foraging. Future study efforts in Lake Roosevelt should include sampling of

  19. New age data and geothermobarometric estimates from the Apuseni Mountains (Romania); evidence for Cretaceous amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Spikings, Richard; Tropper, Peter; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    New Ar-Ar ms, Rb-Sr bt and Sm-Nd grt age data in combination with microprobe analyses and structural data from the Apuseni Mountains provide new constraints for the tectonic evolution of the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units during the Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous time interval, which is of special importance for the present day arrangement of tectonic units in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic region. Late Jurassic obduction of Transylvanian Ophiolites (155 Ma) partially reset Ar-Ar ms ages at the top of the Biharia Nappe System in the Dacia Mega-Unit. New Sm-Nd grt ages and P-T estimates yielded amphibolite-facies conditions of 500°C and about 0.8 GPa during the Early Cretaceous (125 Ma Sm-Nd age) for the Dacia Mega-Unit and during late Early Cretaceous times (104 Ma Sm-Nd age) for the Tisza Mega-Unit. This implies that not only the Dacia Mega-Unit, but also the Tisza Mega-Unit experienced a strong regional metamorphic overprint accompanying Alpine deformation. New 95 Ma Ar-Ar ms and 81 Ma Rb-Sr bt ages from the Bihor Nappe (Tisza Mega-Unit), in combination with fission track ages constrain rapid cooling of more than 20°C/Ma after the thermal maximum. The amplitude of cooling corresponds to data from the Dacia Mega-Unit, which started cooling 20 Ma earlier, but at a rate of only about 12°C/Ma. Kinematic indicators and stretching lineations show NE-directed, in-sequence nappe stacking for the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units during "Austrian Phase" deformation (125-100 Ma). Following the Austrian Phase, the Dacia Mega-Unit was thrust over the Tisza Mega-Unit during the Turonian Phase (93-89 Ma). Constrained through NW-directed kinematic indicators and 94-80 Ma Rb-Sr bt ages, this tectonic phase is responsible for a pervasive retrograde greenschist-facies overprint and the geometry of the present-day nappe stack in the Apuseni Mountains.

  20. Lateral and vertical facies relationships of bedforms deposited by aggrading supercritical flows: From cyclic steps to humpback dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Winsemann, Jutta

    2013-10-01

    The preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows and hydraulic jumps is commonly considered to be rare in the geologic record, although these bedforms are known from a variety of depositional environments. This field-based study presents a detailed analysis of the sedimentary facies and stacking pattern of deposits of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools, antidunes and humpback dunes from three-dimensional outcrops. The well exposed Middle Pleistocene successions from northern Germany comprise glacilacustrine ice-contact subaqueous fan and glacial lake-outburst flood deposits. The studied successions give new insights into the depositional architecture of bedforms related to supercritical flows and may serve as an analogue for other high-energy depositional environments such as fluvial settings, coarse-grained deltas or turbidite systems. Deposits of cyclic steps occur within the glacial lake-outburst flood succession and are characterised by lenticular scours infilled by gently to steeply dipping backsets. Cyclic steps formed due to acceleration and flow thinning when the glacial lake-outburst flood spilled over a push-moraine ridge. These bedforms are commonly laterally and vertically truncated and alternate with deposits of chutes-and-pools and antidunes. The subaqueous fan successions are dominated by laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms, which are interpreted as deposits of aggrading stationary antidunes, which require quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation. Humpback dunes are characterised by downflow divergent cross-stratification, displaying differentiation into topsets, foresets and bottomsets, and are interpreted as deposited at the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow conditions or vice versa. Gradual lateral and vertical transitions between humpback dunes and antidune deposits are very common. The absence of planar-parallel stratification in all studied successions

  1. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.

    2018-05-01

    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  2. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based...... the study on four video-recorded sessions, with four different PhD students and their supervisors, all from life sciences. Our analysis revealed that learning opportunities in the supervision sessions concerned either the content matter of research (for instance, understanding soil structure......), or the research methods— more specifically how to produce valid results. Our results illustrate how supervisors and PhD students create a space of learning together in their particular discipline by varying critical aspects of their research in their discussions. Situations where more openended research issues...

  3. Estuarine Facies Model Revisited: Conceptual Model of Estuarine Sediment Dynamics During Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; McKee, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of estuarine systems show deposition occurs primarily within the central basin. There, accommodation space is high within the deep central valley, which is below regional wave base and where current energy is presumed to reach a relative minimum, promoting direct deposition of cohesive sediment and minimizing erosion. However, these models often reflect long-term (decadal-millennial) timescales, where accumulation rates are in relative equilibrium with the rate of relative sea-level rise, and lack the resolution to capture shorter term changes in sediment deposition and erosion within the central estuary. This work presents a conceptual model for estuarine sedimentation during non-equilibrium conditions, where high-energy inputs to the system reach a relative maximum in the central basin, resulting in temporary deposition and/or remobilization over sub-annual to annual timescales. As an example, we present a case study of Core Sound, NC, a lagoonal estuarine system where the regional base-level has been reached, and sediment deposition, resuspension and bypassing is largely a result of non-equilibrium, high-energy events. Utilizing a 465 cm-long sediment core from a mini-basin located between Core Sound and the continental shelf, a 40-year sub-annual chronology was developed for the system, with sediment accumulation rates (SAR) interpolated to a monthly basis over the 40-year record. This study links erosional processes in the estuary directly with sediment flux to the continental shelf, taking advantage of the highly efficient sediment trapping capability of the mini-basin. The SAR record indicates high variation in the estuarine sediment supply, with peaks in the SAR record at a recurrence interval of 1 year (+/- 0.25). This record has been compared to historical storm influence for the area. Through this multi-decadal record, sediment flushing events occur at a much more frequent interval than previously thought (i.e. annual rather than

  4. Modern sedimentary facies, depositional environments, and major controlling processes on an arid siliciclastic coast, Al qahmah, SE Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Abdullah I.; Yang, Wan

    2018-04-01

    The facies and environments along the arid siliciclastic coast of Red Sea in Al Qahmah, Saudi Arabia are studied to establish a depositional model for interpretation of ancient rocks deposited in rift settings. Field and petrographic studies of 151 sediment samples in an area of 20 km2 define seven main facies types: beach, washover fan, tidal channel, dune, sabkha, delta, and wadi (seasonal stream). The wadi and delta facies are composed of poorly to moderately well-sorted, gravelly, medium-to-fine sands. Delta-front sands are redistributed by southward longshore currents to form a beach. Beach facies is composed of well-to-moderately sorted fine sands with minor gravels, which contain high concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, titanite, and apatite grains, indicating strong winnowing. Crabs and other burrowers destroy primary sedimentary structures and mix sediments in foreshore and backshore of the beaches. Wind and storm surge rework foreshore and backshore sediments to form washover fans. Sabkha facies occurs extensively in supratidal depressions behind beach, are flooded by rainstorms and spring tide, and capped by a 5-cm-thick crust composed of interlaminated halite, quartz, albite, minor gypsum and biotite, and rarely calcium carbonate. Halite occurs as thin sheets and gypsum as nodules with a chicken-wire structure. Clastic fraction in sabkha sediments ranges from coarse silt to coarse sand with moderate sorting, and is transported by currents and wind. Tidal inlets and tidal creeks assume abandoned wadis and are filled by muddy sand. Sand dunes and sand sheets are 1-7 m high and widely distributed due to variable wind directions. Fine-grained dune sands are moderately well sorted, whereas sheet sands are coarser and poorly sorted due to vegetation baffling. Most eolian sands are sourced from beach deposits. This suite of complex riverine, wave, tidal, wind, chemical, and biological processes form the facies mosaic

  5. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) facies delineated shallow sedimentary records along a recently prograding coastal barrier adjoining the Bay of Bengal: Paradeep, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, M. K.; Sengupta, P.; Mukherjee, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level fluctuations, triggered by progradation of beach or marine regression, can be of various time-scales. The fluctuating history of a shoreline along a coastal barrier can be identified from the sedimentary features of accretion or erosion. The necessity of the understanding of the complex barrier dynamics and subsurface along the Paradeep coast (in the state of Odisha, India), adjacent to the Bay of Bengal, has been growing since the number of the harbor industrial projects and the inhabitants of this major port city of India increases. In this study area, high resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey and its interpretation by GPR facies analysis, which considers the pattern/set of reflected electromagnetic signals, has proved to be a useful method for shallow-subsurface (up to 8 m) imaging. In order to perform this task, a GPR system with 200 MHZ antenna was employed to survey along (17 profiles) and across (21 profiles) the microtidal coastal barrier of Paradeep. The shapes and sizes of the accretional and erosional features like beach-ridge deposits, washover deposits, channel-and-fill, and scour-and-fill are delineated on the radargram after processing by Radan7® software. The internal geometry of the beach ridge is mapped accurately after the radar facies analysis which suggests the longshore drift of sediments from the nearby river mouths of Mahanadi, Devi and their tributaries. This GPR facies analysis revealed the existence of two types of palaeo-tidal channels of the study area - (a) larger channels which are perpendicular to the shoreline having channel width of about 400 m with maximum depth of 4.5 m from the surface and (b) smaller channels (width up to 60 m) which flow parallel to the shoreline. In case of Paradeep coastal barrier, seaward-dipping beach progradational facies is positioned within oblique erosional surfaces (13°-36°) below the horizontal erosional surface or facies boundary. This lead to delineate the cycles of erosion

  6. REGIONAL OUTCROPS WITH DIDACTIC INTEREST AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP AT SÃO PAULO (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to locate and identify the outcrops considered iconic and valuable as references, not only from the point of view of Cultural or Didactic Tourism, but also in paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies, based on the lithologies that comprise the Itararé Group, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This work also intends to relate these sites to outcrops of sedimentary facies, in an area located at south of Itu and Porto Feliz, and north of Sorocaba. The Itararé Group lies within the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic, and is composed by sedimentary sequences associated with the record of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation event that occurred in the Gondwana supercontinent. This work is based on observations of outcrops in a macro- and mesoscopic scale, considering the characterization of external and internal aspects of the layer, the stratigraphic sequence in the outcrop, and the continuity of the layers within the mapped area. The study area has outcrops where the evidences of glaciomarine deposits predominate. Sedimentary sequences deposited in a subaquatic low-energy environment, as well as episodic deposits, in which relatively more energetic phases alternated with low hydrodynamic conditions are well-developed in the study area. There are also fluvio-deltaic environmental occurrences related to sea level oscillations linked with glacier advances and receding.

  7. Post-depositional reactivity of the plutonium in different sediment facies from the English channel - an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzy, A.; Boust, D.; Klein, A.

    2004-01-01

    The plutonium discharged into sea (in particular resulting from the activity of the reprocessing plants of nuclear fuels) presents a great affinity for the sedimentary particles. In the English Channel, the weakness of the plutonium concentrations met in the natural environment makes very difficult a direct study of the diagenetic phenomena which influences on the behavior of this radionuclide after its incorporation to the sedimentary column. On the scale of the all English Channel, the stock of plutonium immobilized in the sediments is significant (some TBq), this fact justifies the study of its becoming. With this intention, we constructed a set of experiments on series marine sediments with various sedimentological facies, which have been spiked with plutonium. After a one-month incubation period, various parameters describing the behavior of plutonium were given: (1) distribution of plutonium between the particulate phases and the pore waters; (2) quantification of plutonium associated with reactive sulphides; (3) distribution of plutonium between the particles and the seawater during a sediment resuspension episode. (author)

  8. Reactive solute transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous porous media with multimodal reactive mineral facies: the Lagrangian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Ritzi, Robert W; Dai, Zhenxue; Huang, Chao Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Physical and chemical heterogeneities have a large impact on reactive transport in porous media. Examples of heterogeneous attributes affecting reactive mass transport are the hydraulic conductivity (K), and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd). This paper uses the Deng et al. (2013) conceptual model for multimodal reactive mineral facies and a Lagrangian-based stochastic theory in order to analyze the reactive solute dispersion in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media with hierarchical organization of reactive minerals. An example based on real field data is used to illustrate the time evolution trends of reactive solute dispersion. The results show that the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the equilibrium sorption distribution coefficient does have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. The anisotropy ratio does not have a significant effect on reactive solute dispersion. Furthermore, through a sensitivity analysis we investigate the impact of changing the mean, variance, and integral scale of K and Kd on reactive solute dispersion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  10. Deposits related to supercritical flows in glacifluvial deltas and subaqueous ice-contact fans: Integrating facies analysis and ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joerg; Sievers, Julian; Loewer, Markus; Igel, Jan; Winsemann, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    Bedforms related to supercritical flows have recently received much interest and the understanding of flow morphodynamics and depositional processes has been greatly advanced. However, outcrop studies of these bedforms are commonly hampered by their long wavelengths. Therefore, we combined outcrop-based facies analysis with extensive ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Different GPR antennas (200, 400 and 1500 MHz) were utilised to measure both long profiles and densely spaced grids in order to map the large-scale facies architecture and image the three-dimensional geometry of the deposits. The studied delta and subaqueous ice-contact fan successions were deposited within ice-dammed lakes, which formed along the margins of the Middle Pleistocene Scandinavian ice sheets across Northern Germany. These glacilacustrine depositional systems are characterised by high aggradation rates due to the rapid expansion and deceleration of high-energy sediment-laden flows, favouring the preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows. In flow direction, delta foresets commonly display lenticular scours, which are 2 to 6 m wide and 0.15 to 0.5 m deep. Characteristically, scours are filled by upslope dipping backsets, consisting of pebbly sand. In a few cases, massive and deformed strata were observed, passing upflow into backsets. Across flow, scours are 2 to 3 m wide and typically display a concentric infill. The scour fills are commonly associated with subhorizontally or sinusoidal stratified pebbly sand. These facies types are interpreted as deposits of cyclic steps and antidunes, respectively, representing deposition from supercritical density flows, which formed during high meltwater discharge events or regressive slope failures (Winsemann et al., in review). The GPR-sections show that the scour fills form trains along the delta foresets, which can be traced for up to 15 m. The studied subaqueous ice-contact fan succession relates to the zone of flow

  11. The Dsu Article 3.8 Presumption that an Infringement Constitutes a Prima Facie Case of Nullification or Impairment: When Does it Operate and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Arwel Davies

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the origin, meaning and current relevance of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) Article 3.8 presumption that a government measure which infringes World Trade Organization (WTO) obligations constitutes a prima facie case of nullification or impairment. It is argued that the prevailing interpretation of this provision is inconsistent with its plain language and may have contributed to the tendency of respondent states to invoke the presumption in order to undermin...

  12. Evidence for new resonances in the K-barN system: A prima facie case for the even-wave harmonic-oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    Arguments are presented to show that the new resonance parameters obtained by Alston-Garnjost et al. in a recent analysis of the K-barN system from 365 to 1320 MeV/c provide a prima facie case for the even-wave harmonic-oscillator theory of baryonic states in the framework of SU(6)/sub W/ x O(3). A new quantum classification of the Λ states belonging to the (70,1 - ) is also proposed

  13. Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of Missole Outcrops: N’Kapa Formation of the South-Eastern Edge of Douala Sub-Basin (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwetche , Paul; Ntamak-Nida , Marie Joseph; Nitcheu , Adrien Lamire Djomeni; Etame , Jacques; Owono , François Mvondo; Mbesse , Cecile Olive; Kissaaka , Joseph Bertrand Iboum; Ngon , Gilbert Ngon; Bourquin , Sylvie; Bilong , Paul

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Missole facies description and sequence stratigraphy analysis allow a new proposal of depositional environments of the Douala sub-basin eastern part. The sediments of Missole outcrops (N’kapa Formation) correspond to fluvial/tidal channel to shallow shelf deposits with in some place embayment deposits within a warm and semi-arid climate. Integrated sedimentologic, palynologic and mineralogical data document a comprehensive sequence stratigraphy of this part of the Doua...

  14. Rock formation characterization for carbon dioxide geosequestration: 3D seismic amplitude and coherency anomalies, and seismic petrophysical facies classification, Wellington and Anson-Bates Fields, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Derek; Raef, Abdelmoneam

    2014-04-01

    Higher resolution rock formation characterization is of paramount priority, amid growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide, CO2, into subsurface rock formations of depeleting/depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this paper, we present a case study for a Mississippian carbonate characterization integrating post-stack seismic attributes, well log porosities, and seismic petrophysical facies classification. We evaluated changes in petrophysical lithofacies and reveal structural facies-controls in the study area. Three cross-plot clusters in a plot of well log porosity and acoustic impedance corroborated a Neural Network petrophysical facies classification, which was based on training and validation utilizing three petrophysically-different wells and three volume seismic attributes, extracted from a time window including the wavelet of the reservoir-top reflection. Reworked lithofacies along small-throw faults has been revealed based on comparing coherency and seismic petrophysical facies. The main objective of this study is to put an emphasis on reservoir characterization that is both optimized for and subsequently benefiting from pilot tertiary CO2 carbon geosequestration in a depleting reservoir and also in the deeper saline aquifer of the Arbuckle Group, south central Kansas. The 3D seismic coherency attribute, we calculated from a window embracing the Mississippian top reflection event, indicated anomalous features that can be interpreted as a change in lithofacies or faulting effect. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) lithofacies modeling has been used to better understand these subtle features, and also provide petrophysical classes, which will benefit flow-simulation modeling and/or time-lapse seismic monitoring feasibility analysis. This paper emphasizes the need of paying greater attention to small-scale features when embarking upon characterization of a reservoir or saline-aquifer for CO2

  15. Las bioconstrucciones de corales y sus facies asociadas durante el Malm en la Cordillera Ibérica Central (provincia de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndez, A.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The differents types of bioconstructions and associated facies in the Central Iberian Chain (Higueruelas Formation, Upper Kimmeridgian have been studied. Biohermes of different thickness (decimetric to metric and less lateral continuity are developped, highly colonized by corals, that are associated to oncolitic, bioclastic and oolitic of high energy facies, in marginal areas, near the litoral developpment. At the same time takes place an important set up of mud mounds, with a small coral colonisation, in protected arcas in a inner shelf, or in outer areas, where the action of the waves is not so effective. The environment protection is been generated in some places due to the appearance of oolitic barrier islands.Se estudian los diferentes tipos de bioconstrucciones de corales, y sus facies asociadas, presentes en el sector central de la rama aragonesa de la Cordillera Ibérica, en la Formación Higueruelas (Kimmeridgiense superior. Se desarrollan biohermos de potencias métricas a decimétricas y escasa continuidad lateral, intensamente colonizados por corales coloniales, que se encuentran asociados a facies oncolíticas, bioclásticas y oolíticas de alta energía en zonas marginales, próximas al desarrollo litoral. Al mismo tiempo tiene lugar una importante instalación de mud mounds, con escasa colonización de corales, en zonas protegidas dentro de la plataforma interna o en zonas más externas, donde la acción del oleaje no es efectiva. La protección del medio viene condicionada en algunos puntos por la aparición de islas barrera oolíticas.

  16. Basin analysis in the Southern Tethyan margin: Facies sequences, stratal pattern and subsidence history highlight extension-to-inversion processes in the Cretaceous Panormide carbonate platform (NW Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio

    2018-01-01

    In the Mediterranean, the South-Tethys paleomargin experienced polyphased tectonic episodes and paleoenvironmental perturbations during Mesozoic time. The Cretaceous shallow-water carbonate successions of the Panormide platform, outcropping in the northern edge of the Palermo Mountains (NW Sicily), were studied by integrating facies and stratal pattern with backstripping analysis to recognize the tectonics vs. carbonate sedimentation interaction. The features of the Requienid limestone, including geometric configuration, facies sequence, lithological changes and significance of the top-unconformity, highlight that at the end of the Lower Cretaceous the carbonate platform was tectonically dismembered in various rotating fault-blocks. The variable trends of the subsidence curves testify to different responses, both uplift and downthrow, of various platform-blocks impacted by extensional tectonics. Physical stratigraphic and facies analysis of the Rudistid limestone highlight that during the Upper Cretaceous the previously carbonate platform faulted-blocks were subjected to vertical movements in the direction opposite to the displacement produced by the extensional tectonics, indicating a positive tectonic inversion. Comparisons with other sectors of the Southern Tethyan and Adria paleomargins indicate that during the Cretaceous these areas underwent the same extensional and compressional stages occurring in the Panormide carbonate platform, suggesting a regional scale significance, in time and kinematics, for these tectonic events.

  17. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  18. DEPOSITIONAL ARCHITECTURE, FACIES CHARACTER AND GEOCHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF THE TIVOLI TRAVERTINES (PLEISTOCENE, ACQUE ALBULE BASIN, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNA DELLA PORTA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facies character, diagenesis, geochemical signature, porosity, permeability, and geometry of the upper Pleistocene Tivoli travertines were investigated integrating information from six borehole cores, drilled along a 3 km N-S transect, and quarry faces, in order to propose a revised depositional model. Travertines overlie lacustrine and alluvial plain marls, siltstones, sandstones and pyroclastic deposits from the Roman volcanic districts. In the northern proximal area, with respect to the inferred hydrothermal vents, travertines accumulated in gently-dipping, decametre-scale shallow pools of low-angle terraced slopes. The intermediate depositional zone, 2 km southward, consisted of smooth and terraced slopes dipping S and E. In the southernmost distal zone, travertine marshes dominated by coated vegetation and Charophytes interfingered with lacustrine siltstones and fluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Travertine carbon and oxygen stable isotope data confirm the geothermal origin of the precipitating spring water. The travertine succession is marked by numerous intraclastic/extraclastic wackestone to rudstone beds indicative of non-deposition and erosion during subaerial exposure, due to temporary interruption of the vent activity or deviation of the thermal water flow. These unconformities identify nine superimposed travertine units characterized by aggradation in the proximal zone and southward progradation in the intermediate to distal zones. The wedge geometry of the travertine system reflects the vertical and lateral superimposition of individual fan-shaped units in response to changes in the vent location, shifting through time to lower elevations southward. The complexity of the travertine architecture results from the intermittent activity of the vents, their locations, the topographic gradient, thermal water flow paths and the rates and modes of carbonate precipitation.

  19. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  20. Intermediate-Depth Subduction Earthquakes Recorded by Pseudotachylyte in Dry Eclogite-Facies Oceanic Lithosphere from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambelluri, M.; Pennacchioni, G.; Gilio, M.; Bestmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    While geophysical studies and laboratory experiments provide much information on subduction earthquakes, field studies identifying the rock types for earthquake development and the deep seismogenic environments are still scarce. To date, fluid overpressure and volume decrease during hydrous mineral breakdown the widely favoured trigger of subduction earthquakes in serpentinized lithospheric mantle and hydrated low-velocity layers atop slabs. Here we document up to 40 cm-thick pseudotachylyte (PST) in Alpine oceanic gabbro and peridotite (2-2.5 GPa-550-620°C), the analogue of a modern cold subducting oceanic lithosphere. These rocks mostly remained unaltered dry systems; only very minor domains (<1%) record partial hydration and static eclogitic metamorphism. Meta-peridotite shows high-pressure olivine + antigorite (garnet + zoisite + chlorite after mantle plagioclase); meta-gabbro develops omphacite + zoisite + talc + chloritoid + garnet. Abundant syn-eclogitic pseudotachylyte cut the dry gabbro-peridotite and the eclogitized domains. In meta-peridotite, PST shows olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel microliths and clasts of high-pressure olivine + antigorite and garnet + zoisite + chlorite aggregates. In metagabbro, microfaults in damage zones near PST cut brecciated igneous pyroxene cemented by omphacite. In unaltered gabbro, glassy PST contains micron-scale garnet replacing plagioclase microliths during, or soon after, PST cooling. In the host rock, garnet coronas between igneous olivine and plagioclase only occur near PST and between closely spaced PST veins. Absence of garnet away from PST indicates that garnet growth was triggered by mineral seeds and by heat released by PST. The above evidence shows that pseudotachylyte formed at eclogite-facies conditions. In such setting, strong, dry, metastable gabbro-peridotite concentrate stress to generate large intermediate depth subduction earthquakes without much involvement of free fluid.

  1. Intra-slab COH fluid fluxes evidenced by fluid-mediated decarbonation of lawsonite eclogite-facies altered oceanic metabasalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Chu, Xu; Martin, Laure; Ague, Jay J.; Monié, Patrick; Groppo, Chiara; Martinez, Isabelle; Chaduteau, Carine

    2018-04-01

    The interplay between the processes controlling the mobility of H2O and C-bearing species during subduction zone metamorphism exerts a critical control on plate tectonics and global volatile recycling. Here we present the first study on fresh, carbonate-bearing, lawsonite eclogite-facies metabasalts from Alpine Corsica, France, which reached the critical depths at which important devolatilization reactions occur in subducting slabs. The studied samples indicate that the evolution of oceanic crustal sequences subducted under present-day thermal regimes is dominated by localized fluid-rock interactions that are strongly controlled by the nature and extent of inherited (sub)seafloor hydrothermal processes, and by the possibility of deep fluids to be channelized along inherited or newly-formed discontinuities. Fluid channelization along inherited discontinuities controlled local rehydration and dehydration/decarbonation reactions and the stability of carbonate and silicate minerals at the blueschist-eclogite transition. Fluid-mediated decarbonation was driven by upward, up-temperature fluid flow in the inverted geothermal gradient of a subducting oceanic slab, a process that has not been documented in natural samples to date. We estimate that the observed fluid-rock reactions released 20-60 kg CO2 per m3 of rock (i.e. 0.7-2.1 wt% CO2), which is in line with the values predicted from decarbonation of metabasalts in open systems at these depths. Conversely, the estimated time-integrated fluid fluxes (20-50 t/m2) indicate that the amount of carbon transported by channelized fluid flow within the volcanic part of subducting oceanic plates is potentially much higher than previous numerical estimates, testifying to the percolation of C-bearing fluids resulting from devolatilization/dissolution processes operative in large reservoirs.

  2. Stratigraphy and Facies of Cretaceous Schrader Bluff and Prince Creek Formations in Colville River Bluffs, North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Myers, Mark D.; Houseknecht, David W.; Stricker, Gary D.; Brizzolara, Donald W.; Ryherd, Timothy J.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.

    2007-01-01

    Stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies of facies of the Upper Cretaceous rocks along the Colville River Bluffs in the west-central North Slope of Alaska identified barrier shoreface deposits consisting of vertically stacked, coarsening-upward parasequences in the Schrader Bluff Formation. This vertical stack of parasequence deposits represents progradational sequences that were affected by shoaling and deepening cycles caused by fluctuations of sea level. Further, the vertical stack may have served to stabilize accumulation of voluminous coal deposits in the Prince Creek Formation, which formed braided, high-sinuosity meandering, anastomosed, and low-sinuosity meandering fluvial channels and related flood plain deposits. The erosional contact at the top of the uppermost coarsening-upward sequence, however, suggests a significant drop of base level (relative sea level) that permitted a semiregional subaerial unconformity to develop at the contact between the Schrader Bluff and Prince Creek Formations. This drop of relative sea level may have been followed by a relative sea-level rise to accommodate coal deposition directly above the unconformity. This rise was followed by a second drop of relative sea level, with formation of incised valley topography as much as 75 ft deep and an equivalent surface of a major marine erosion or mass wasting, or both, either of which can be traced from the Colville River Bluffs basinward to the subsurface in the west-central North Slope. The Prince Creek fluvial deposits represent late Campanian to late Maastrichtian depositional environments that were affected by these base level changes influenced by tectonism, basin subsidence, and sea-level fluctuations.

  3. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  4. Sequence and facies architecture of the upper Blackhawk Formation and the Lower Castlegate Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), Book Cliffs, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.

    2000-11-01

    High-frequency stratigraphic sequences that comprise the Desert Member of the Blackhawk Formation, the Lower Castlegate Sandstone, and the Buck Tongue in the Green River area of Utah display changes in sequence architecture from marine deposits to marginal marine deposits to an entirely nonmarine section. Facies and sequence architecture differ above and below the regionally extensive Castlegate sequence boundary, which separates two low-frequency (106-year cyclicity) sequences. Below this surface, high-frequency sequences are identified and interpreted as comprising the highstand systems tract of the low-frequency Blackhawk sequence. Each high-frequency sequence has a local incised valley system on top of the wave-dominated delta, and coastal plain to shallow marine deposits are preserved. Above the Castlegate sequence boundary, in contrast, a regionally extensive sheet sandstone of fluvial to estuarine origin with laterally continuous internal erosional surfaces occurs. These deposits above the Castlegate sequence boundary are interpreted as the late lowstand to early transgressive systems tracts of the low-frequency Castlegate sequence. The base-level changes that generated both the low- and high-frequency sequences are attributed to crustal response to fluctuations in compressive intraplate stress on two different time scales. The low-frequency stratigraphic sequences are attributed to changes in the long-term regional subsidence rate and regional tilting of foreland basin fill. High-frequency sequences probably reflect the response of anisotropic basement to tectonism. Sequence architecture changes rapidly across the faulted margin of the underlying Paleozoic Paradox Basin. The high-frequency sequences are deeply eroded and stack above the Paradox Basin, but display less relief and become conformable updip. These features indicate that the area above the Paradox Basin was more prone to vertical structural movements during formation of the Blackhawk

  5. Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis and Facies Architecture of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale on and Near the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico-their relation to Sites of Oil Accumulation; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgley, Jennie

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 and phase 2 of the Department of Energy funded project Analysis of oil- bearing Cretaceous Sandstone Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico was to define the facies of the oil producing units within the Mancos Shale and interpret the depositional environments of these facies within a sequence stratigraphic context. The focus of this report will center on (1) redefinition of the area and vertical extent of the ''Gallup sandstone'' or El Vado Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, (2) determination of the facies distribution within the ''Gallup sandstone'' and other oil-producing sandstones within the lower Mancos, placing these facies within the overall depositional history of the San Juan Basin, (3) application of the principals of sequence stratigraphy to the depositional units that comprise the Mancos Shale, and (4) evaluation of the structural features on the Reservation as they may control sites of oil accumulation

  6. Eclogite facies relics and a multistage breakdown in metabasites of the KTB pilot hole, NE Bavaria: implications for the Variscan tectonometamorphic evolution of the NW Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Patrick J.; Röhr, Christian; Okrusch, Martin; Patzak, Margarete

    1992-11-01

    Complex reaction textures in coronitic metagabbros and retrograded eclogites of the KTB pilot and an adjacent drilling provide evidence for a multistage metamorphic history in the Variscan basement of the NW Bohemian Massif. The eclogites show complete metamorphic recrystallization leaving no textural or mineral relics of their igneous precursors. In contrast, textural relics of the igneous protolith are still preserved in the metagabbros where the metamorphic overprint under high pressure conditions achieved only partial replacement of the initial assemblage plagioclase + augite + amphibole (+olivine or orthopyroxene?) + ilmenite to form the eclogite facies assemblage garnet + omphacite + kyanite + zoisite + quartz+rutile. The garnets in the metagabbros occur in the typical ‘necklace’ fashion at the borders between the original plagioclase and mafic phase domains. In the same rocks, omphacite formed by a topotactic reaction mechanism replacing igneous augite as well as in smaller grains at the margins of the texturally igneous clinopyroxene where it occurs without fixed orientation with respect to the relict phase. Both eclogites and metagabbros show a partial breakdown under high pressure granulite (transitional to high pressure amphibolite) facies conditions during which omphacite broke down to vermicular symplectites of diopside + plagioclase. A later pervasive medium pressure metamorphism under amphibolite facies conditions led to the development of assemblages dominated by hornblende + plagioclase+titanite: phases prevailing in the overwhelming majority of the surrounding metabasites. Subsequent vein-associated retrogression produced minerals typical of the greenschist to zeolite facies. All metamorphic stages may be represented in a single thin section but although the overall reaction sequence is apparent, the obvious disequilibrium in the rocks makes the use of conventional geothermobarometry difficult. However, calculations made by assuming an

  7. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  8. Hidrogeoquímica de los manantiales sulfhídricos y ferruginosos de las facies Purbeck-Weald del noroeste de la Cordillera Iberica (provincia de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Pérez, E.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to study the chemical composition of the sulfide-bearingand iron-rich springs in Soria. These springs are mainly located on sedimentary rocks of the Purbeck-Weald facies and most precisely in the Oncala group materials. Sulfide-bearing spring water belongs to calcium sulfate facies. It pH is basic or neutral. This kind of springs is mainly in the eastern area of Oncala group. Sulfate reduction with presence of organic matter seems to be the most common ORIGIN of the H2S. lronrich springs are more often located in the westside of Oncala group. Water of these springs has calcium bicarbonate character, very low salinity and acid pH. These differences on major ion chemical composition likely show the influence of the lithologic and mineralogic changes in the Oncala group. It presents low soluble terrigenous sediments in the western area whereas eastward there is a facies lateral change with the appearance of carbonates and sulfates. On the other hand, none of the iron-rich springs contains H2S and coversely Fe is never detected in the sulfide-bearing springs, although sometimes they appear together. This fact is in accordance with the plot of the two water types have in the pH/Eh diagrams.El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el estudio de la composición química de las aguas de los manantiales sulfhídricos y ferruginosos existentes en la provincia de Soria. Este tipo de surgencias se encuentran principalmente en los materiales de las facies Purbeck-Weald, y más concretamente en los afloramientos del grupo Oncala. Los manantiales sulfhídricos son de facies sulfatada cá1cica, pH neutro o básico, y se concentran en el sector oriental del grupo Oncala; en la mayoría de los casos, el origen del H2S parece deberse a procesos de reducción de sulfatos en presencia de materia orgánica. Los manantiales ferruginosos tienden a ser más frecuentes en el sector oeste del grupo Oncala, donde presentan un car

  9. The influence of freshwater and material export on sedimentary facies and benthic processes within the Fly Delta and adjacent Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, D. M.; Christoffersen, P.; Tirendi, F.; Robertson, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    Large volumes of freshwater and suspended material debouch from the Fly River in southwestern Papua New Guinea into the Gulf of Papua, greatly influencing the hydrography and sedimentary processes within the river delta and adjacent shelf region. Sedimentary facies within the subtidal regions of the Fly Delta are composed mainly of compacted and eroded very fine black sand, and highly laminated, muddy sand and sandy mud, progressing to prodelta mud with intermixed primary and biogenic structures in the inner Gulf of Papua. These prodelta muds grade further to mixed terrigenous-carbonate deposits southwards into the northern Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, and to well-bioturbated, fluid mud northwards into the Gulf of Papua. The transition from physically-dominated, estuarine conditions within the delta to more quiescent, marine conditions on the shelf leads to concomitant changes in sediment chemistry, microbial activity and infaunal and epifaunal communities. Particulate (C, N, P) and dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations were a function of sediment type (higher in finer deposits) rather than location (delta vs gulf). C: N: P ratios of solid-phase nutrients varied greatly, but were usually less than those predicted by the Redfield ratio. Mean interstitial concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients were low (μM range), but dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus levels were equivalent to those found in higher latitude systems. Fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients were generally low (μmol m -2 day -1). Flux rates were mostly negative (into the sediment) in the delta suggesting that these deposits are a sink for nutrients. In the offshore deposits, dissolved inorganic fluxes were higher and mostly positive indicating that they are a source for dissolved nutrients. Standing crops of bacteria (range: below detection limits— 2.5 × 10 10 cells g -1 dry wt), meiofauna (range: 5-750 individuals 10 cm -2; 9-1006 μg dry wt 10

  10. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  11. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  12. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    . Evidence for such high-pressure metamorphism followed by UHT conditions along a single clockwise exhumation path is the first report from southern India. The Namakkal area occurs within the central domain of the PCSS, which defines the probable collisional suture between the Archean craton in the north and the Proterozoic Madurai Block in the south. We propose that the rocks reported in this study testify to metamorphism at mantle depths (eclogite-facies) and their subsequent heating at extreme thermal conditions during collisional orogenic event and subsequent rapid exhumation associated with the final suturing of the Gondwana assembly in the late Pan-African. The high-pressure metamorphism and subsequent UHT event reported in this study have important bearing on the tectonic evolution of the continental deep crust in southern India.

  13. Chevkinite-group minerals from granulite-facies metamorphic rocks and associated pegmatites of East Antarctica and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Macdonald, R.; Grew, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Electron microprobe data are presented for chevkinite-group minerals from granulite-facies rocks and associated pegmatites of the Napier Complex and Mawson Station charnockite in East Antarctica and from the Eastern Ghats, South India. Their compositions conform to the general formula for this group, viz. A4BC2D2Si4O22 where, in the analysed specimens A = (rare-earth elements (REE), Ca, Y, Th), B = Fe2+, Mg, C = (Al, Mg, Ti, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zr) and D = Ti and plot within the perrierite field of the total Fe (as FeO) (wt.%) vs. CaO (wt.%) discriminator diagram of Macdonald and Belkin (2002). In contrast to most chevkinite-group minerals, the A site shows unusual enrichment in the MREE and HREE relative to the LREE and Ca. In one sample from the Napier Complex, Y is the dominant cation among the total REE + Y in the A site, the first reported case of Y-dominance in the chevkinite group. The minerals include the most Al-rich yet reported in the chevkinite group (≤9.15 wt.% Al2O3), sufficient to fill the C site in two samples. Conversely, the amount of Ti in these samples does not fill the D site, and, thus, some of the Al could be making up the deficiency at D, a situation not previously reported in the chevkinite group. Fe abundances are low, requiring Mg to occupy up to 45% of the B site. The chevkinite-group minerals analysed originated from three distinct parageneses: (1) pegmatites containing hornblende and orthopyroxene or garnet; (2) orthopyroxene-bearing gneiss and granulite; (3) highly aluminous paragneisses in which the associated minerals are relatively magnesian or aluminous. Chevkinite-group minerals from the first two parageneses have relatively high FeO content and low MgO and Al2O3 contents; their compositions plot in the field for mafic and intermediate igneous rocks. In contrast, chevkinite-group minerals from the third paragenesis are notably more aluminous and have greater Mg/Fe ratios

  14. Magma ascent, fragmentation and depositional characteristics of "dry" maar volcanoes: Similarities with vent-facies kimberlite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Jaap F.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2013-02-01

    , sufficiently large to drive magmatic fragmentation. Both eruptions were pulsating in intensity and relatively short-lived, with estimated durations of 23 and 10 h for Loolmurwak and Eledoi, respectively. The depositional characteristics of these maars, including the abundant occurrence of mantle xenoliths in the deposits, as well as their envisaged mode of emplacement show a strong similarity to the often poorly preserved vent-facies of kimberlitic diatremes. Therefore, future research on well-preserved melilititic maar-diatreme deposits may provide valuable insights into kimberlite emplacement processes.

  15. Intrafamilial variation in Cohen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I D; Moore, J R

    1987-01-01

    Three sibs with Cohen syndrome are presented. Abnormalities present in all three children include mental retardation, hypotonia, and short philtrum with open mouth and prominent lips. The older two sibs have a similar facies and an engaging personality. The youngest child shows a different facial appearance and marked behavioural problems, thereby illustrating the intrafamilial variability which may occur in this disorder. Images PMID:3656371

  16. Intrafamilial variation in Cohen syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, I D; Moore, J R

    1987-01-01

    Three sibs with Cohen syndrome are presented. Abnormalities present in all three children include mental retardation, hypotonia, and short philtrum with open mouth and prominent lips. The older two sibs have a similar facies and an engaging personality. The youngest child shows a different facial appearance and marked behavioural problems, thereby illustrating the intrafamilial variability which may occur in this disorder.

  17. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  18. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: Comprehending spoken or written ... word meanings Naming objects Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing ...

  19. Two-point versus multiple-point geostatistics: the ability of geostatistical methods to capture complex geobodies and their facies associations—an application to a channelized carbonate reservoir, southwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Seyyedhossein; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Ataee-pour, Majid; Khoshdel, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Facies models try to explain facies architectures which have a primary control on the subsurface heterogeneities and the fluid flow characteristics of a given reservoir. In the process of facies modeling, geostatistical methods are implemented to integrate different sources of data into a consistent model. The facies models should describe facies interactions; the shape and geometry of the geobodies as they occur in reality. Two distinct categories of geostatistical techniques are two-point and multiple-point (geo) statistics (MPS). In this study, both of the aforementioned categories were applied to generate facies models. A sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and a truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS) represented two-point geostatistical methods, and a single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) selected as an MPS simulation representative. The dataset from an extremely channelized carbonate reservoir located in southwest Iran was applied to these algorithms to analyze their performance in reproducing complex curvilinear geobodies. The SNESIM algorithm needs consistent training images (TI) in which all possible facies architectures that are present in the area are included. The TI model was founded on the data acquired from modern occurrences. These analogies delivered vital information about the possible channel geometries and facies classes that are typically present in those similar environments. The MPS results were conditioned to both soft and hard data. Soft facies probabilities were acquired from a neural network workflow. In this workflow, seismic-derived attributes were implemented as the input data. Furthermore, MPS realizations were conditioned to hard data to guarantee the exact positioning and continuity of the channel bodies. A geobody extraction workflow was implemented to extract the most certain parts of the channel bodies from the seismic data. These extracted parts of the channel bodies were applied to the simulation workflow as hard data

  20. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  1. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  2. Evidence for Mojave-Sonora megashear-Systematic left-lateral offset of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies, western United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Major successions as well as individual units of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies appear to be systematically offset left laterally from eastern California and western Nevada in the western United States to Sonora, Mexico. This pattern is most evident in units such as the "Johnnie oolite," a 1- to 2-m-thick oolite of the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation in the western United States and of the Clemente Formation in Sonora. The pattern is also evident in the Lower Cambrian Zabriskie Quartzite of the western United States and the correlative Proveedora Quartzite in Sonora. Matching of isopach lines of the Zabriskie Quartzite and Proveedora Quartzite suggests ???700-800 km of left-lateral offset. The offset pattern is also apparent in the distribution of distinctive lithologic types, unconformities, and fossil assemblages in other rocks ranging in age from Neoproterozoic to Early Jurassic. In the western United States, the distribution of facies in Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata indicates that the Cordilleran miogeocline trends north-south. A north-south trend is also suggested in Sonora, and if so is compatible with offset of the miogeocline but not with the ideas that the miogeocline wrapped around the continental margin and trends east-west in Sonora. An imperfect stratigraphic match of supposed offset segments along the megashear is apparent. Some units, such as the "Johnnie oolite" and Zabriskie-Proveedora, show almost perfect correspondence, but other units are significantly different. The differences seem to indicate that the indigenous succession of the western United States and offset segments in Mexico were not precisely side by side before offset but were separated by an area-now buried, eroded, or destroyed-that contained strata of intermediate facies. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  3. Marine and fluvial facies modelling at petroleum reservoir scale; Modelisation des heterogeneites lithologiques a l'echelle du reservoir petrolier en milieu marin et fluviatile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leflon, B.

    2005-10-15

    When modelling a petroleum reservoir, well data are very useful to model properties at a sub-seismic scale. Petrophysical properties like porosity or permeability are linked to the rock-type. Two methods based on well data have been developed to model facies. The first one is used to model marine carbonates deposits. The geometry of sedimentary layers is modelled through a special parameterization of the reservoir similar to Wheeler space. The time parameter is defined along the well paths thanks to correlations. The layer thickness is then extrapolated between wells. A given relationship between facies and bathymetry of sedimentation makes it possible to compute bathymetry along the well paths. Bathymetry is then extrapolated from wells and a reference map using the concept of accommodation. The model created this way is stratigraphically consistent. Facies simulation can then be constrained by the computed bathymetry. The second method describes a novel approach to fluvial reservoirs modelling. The core of the method lies in the association of a fairway with the channels to be simulated. Fairways are positioned so that all data are taken in account; they can be stochastic if unknown or explicitly entered if identified on seismic data. A potential field is defined within the fairway. Specifying a transfer function to map this potential field to thickness results in generating a channel inside the fairway. A residual component is stochastically simulated and added to the potential field creating realistic channel geometries. Conditioning to well data is obtained by applying the inverse transfer function at the data location to derive thickness values that will constrain the simulation of residuals. (author)

  4. Sedimentologia y paleogeografía de la secuencia de deposito Aptiense inferior (Facies Urgón) en la subcuenca de Las Parras. (Teruel)

    OpenAIRE

    Clariana, M. P.; Meléndez Hevia, Alfonso; Soria, Ana Rosa

    1999-01-01

    The Lower Aptian D.S. is made up of materials which settled in shallow carbonate ramp enviroments. This sequence shows a retrogradational evolution, that is, from internal to mid ramp enviroments. The vertical evolution of this sequence and its sedimentological features allowed us to differenciate three system tracts (L.S.T, T.S.T and H.S.T). The Low System Tract appears only in the western area of the basin and it consits of facies of typical shallow marine enviroments. Transgressive System ...

  5. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  6. Facies sedimentarias de la laguna kárstica de La Parra (Cuenca) durante los últimos 1600 años cal. BP.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.

    2014-01-01

    [ES] El análisis sedimentario y geoquímico llevado a cabo en los sondeos del lago kárstico de La Parra (Cordillera Ibérica, Cuenca) ilustra el comienzo de la sedimentación en la cuenca hace 1.600 años y su evolución sedimentaria, que principalmente está controlada por variaciones en la descarga detrítica hacia el lago. Un total de 11 facies sedimentarias han sido descritas, agrupadas en 3 unidades litoestratigráficas, compuestas en su mayor parte por carbonatos bandeados y m...

  7. Emplacement mechanisms of contrasting debris avalanches at Volcán Mombacho (Nicaragua), provided by structural and facies analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Pilato, Martín

    2008-07-01

    We study the lithology, structure, and emplacement of two debris-avalanche deposits (DADs) with contrasting origins and materials from the Quaternary-Holocene Mombacho Volcano, Nicaragua. A clear comparison is possible because both DADs were emplaced onto similar nearly flat (3° slope) topography with no apparent barrier to transport. This lack of confinement allows us to study, in nature, the perfect case scenario of a freely spreading avalanche. In addition, there is good evidence that no substratum was incorporated in the events during flow, so facies changes are related only to internal dynamics. Mombacho shows evidence of at least three large flank collapses, producing the two well-preserved debris avalanches of this study; one on its northern flank, “Las Isletas,” directed northeast, and the other on its southern flank, “El Crater,” directed south. Other south-eastern features indicate that the debris-avalanche corresponding to the third collapse (La Danta) occurred before Las Isletas and El Crater events. The materials involved in each event were similar, except in their alteration state and in the amount of substrata initially included in the collapse. While “El Crater” avalanche shows no signs of substratum involvement and has characteristics of a hydrothermal weakening-related collapse, the “Las Isletas” avalanche involves significant substratum and was generated by gravity spreading-related failure. The latter avalanche may have interacted with Lake Nicaragua during transport, in which case its run-out could have been modified. Through a detailed morphological and structural description of the Mombacho avalanches, we provide two contrasting examples of non-eruptive volcanic flank collapse. We show that, remarkably, even with two distinct collapse mechanisms, the debris avalanches developed the same gross stratigraphy of a coarse layer above a fine layer. This fine layer provided a low friction basal slide layer. Whereas DAD layering and

  8. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  9. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  10. Variation and Mathematics Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper put forwards variation as a theme to structure mathematical experience and mathematics pedagogy. Patterns of variation from Marton's Theory of Variation are understood and developed as types of variation interaction that enhance mathematical understanding. An idea of a discernment unit comprising mutually supporting variation…

  11. Facies characterization and sequential evolution of an ancient offshore dunefield in a semi-enclosed sea: Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Schwarz, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    This study analyses a 30-m-thick, sand-dominated succession intercalated between offshore mudstones in the Lower Cretaceous record of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina, defining facies associated with unidirectional currents as sand dunes (simple and compound), rippled sand sheets and heterolithic sheets. These facies associations are related to the development of an offshore, forward-accreting dunefield developed as a response to the onset of a tidal-transport system. The reported stratigraphic record results from the combination of the gradual downcurrent decrease of the current speed together with the long-term climbing of the entire system. Maximum amplification of the tidal effect associated with incoming oceanic tides to this epicontinental sea would develop at the time of more efficient connection between the basin and the open ocean. Thus, the onset of the offshore tidal system approximately corresponds to the time of maximum flooding conditions (or immediately after). The short-term evolution of the tidal-transport system is more complex and characterized by the vertical stacking of small-scale cycles defined by the alternation of episodes of construction and destruction of the dunefield. The development of these cycles could be the response to changes in tidal current speed and transport capacity.

  12. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  13. A geostatistical model of facies-architecture and internal heterogeneity of Rotliegend-reservoirs developed from outcrop-analogues. Outcrop-analogue study Cutler Group (Utah/USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this DGMK study was the collection of data that document the distribution of facies units within mixed fluvial/aeolian deposits. The Cutler Group of southeastern Utah was chosen as an outcrop analog since it contains all major lithofacies common within such deposits (aeolian dunes and interdunes, fluvial channel-films as well as lacustrine and Sabkha deposits). Because of the outstanding outcrop quality in this region, numerous detailed datasets could be collected, which allowed the visualization of size, distribution, and sedimentological inventory of the different facies in various ''paleogeographical'' maps and diagrams. A genetic model, which explains the presence of correlative horizons and cyclic patterns of deposition, could be developed. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung dieses DGMK-Forschungsvorhabens war es, quantitative Daten zur Verteilung fazieller Einheiten innerhalb eines gemischt fluviatil/aeolischen Ablagerungsraums zu gewinnen. Die Cutler Group im Suedosten des amerikanischen Bundesstaates Utah wurde als Aufschlussanalog gewaehlt, in welchem die typischen Ablagerungen eines solchen Deposystems vorhanden sind (aeolische Duenen und -Interduenen, fluviatile Rinnenfuellungen, sowie lakustrine und Sabkha-Ablagerungen). Aufgrund der hervorragenden Aufschlusssituation konnten detaillierte Datensaetze gewonnen werden, welche die Darstellung von Groesse, bevorzugter Ausrichtung und Sedimentologie potentieller Heterogenitaetselemente entweder direkt als ''paleogeographische'' Karten, oder in statistischer Form ermoeglichten. Ein genetisches Modell erklaert die Zyklizitaet der Ablagerungen und die Anwesenheit von weitraeumig korrelierbaren Horizonten. (orig.)

  14. Espinas dérmicas del dinosaurio anquilosaurio Polacanthus en las facies Weald de Salas de los Infantes (Burgos, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urién, V.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosaurian dermal armour elements from the Fuente Espudia locality, near Salas de los Infantes (Burgos Province, are described. These remains have been recovered from red clays of the Urbion Group, which belong to the Weald facies of the western Cameros Basin, of possible Barremian-Aptian age (Lower Cretaceous. Based on their general form, two caudal spines are here assigned to the nodosaurid Polacanthus. This represents the first mention of this genus in the Iberian Peninsula. Previous finds in the same area could also be assigned to this armoured dinosaur.Se describen elementos dermatoesqueléticos de un anquilosaurio procedentes del yacimiento de Fuente Espudia, cerca de Salas de los Infantes (Burgos. Los restos fósiles se localizan en arcillas rojas del Grupo Urbión, que forman parte de las facies Weald del sector occidental de la Cuenca de Cameros, de posible edad Barremiense-Aptiense (Cretácico inferior. Dos espinas proceden de la región caudal y, por su forma general, se atribuyen al nodosáurido Polacanthus. Se trata de la primera cita de este género en la Península Ibérica. Hallazgos previos en el mismo área pueden también asignarse a este dinosaurio acorazado.

  15. Sedimentary facies analysis of the Mesozoic clastic rocks in Southern Peru (Tacna, 18°S): Towards a paleoenvironmental Redefinition and stratigraphic Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alván, Aldo; Jacay, Javier; Caracciolo, Luca; Sánchez, Elvis; Trinidad, Inés

    2018-07-01

    The Mesozoic rocks of southern Peru comprise a Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary sequence deposited during a time interval of approximately 34 Myr. In Tacna, these rocks are detrital and constitute the Yura Group (Callovian to Tithonian) and the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian). Basing on robust interpretation of facies and petrographic analysis, we reconstruct the depositional settings of such units and provide a refined stratigraphic framework. Accordingly, nine types of sedimentary facies and six architectural elements are defined. They preserve the record of a progradational fluvial system, in which two styless regulated the dispersion of sediments: (i) a high-to moderate-sinuosity meandering setting (Yura Group), and a later (ii) incipient braided setting (Hualhuani Formation). The Yura Group (Callovian-Tithonian) represents the onset of floodplain deposits and lateral accretion of point-bar deposits sited on a semi-flat topography. Nonetheless, the progradational sequence was affected by at least two rapid marine ingressions occurred during Middle Callovian and Tithonian times. Such marine ingressions reveal the proximity of a shallow marine setting and incipient carbonate deposition. In response to increase in topographic gradient, the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian) deposited as extensive multistory sandy channels. The mineralogy of the Mesozoic sediments suggests sediment supplies and intense recycling from a craton interior (i.e. Amazon Craton and/or plutonic sources) located eastward of the study area.

  16. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, L E; Stark, M

    1961-01-01

    Calculus of Variations aims to provide an understanding of the basic notions and standard methods of the calculus of variations, including the direct methods of solution of the variational problems. The wide variety of applications of variational methods to different fields of mechanics and technology has made it essential for engineers to learn the fundamentals of the calculus of variations. The book begins with a discussion of the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries. Subsequent chapters cover variational problems with movable boundaries and some other problems; sufficiency

  17. Simulación de Facies mediante un Modelo Geoestadístico integrado para el desarrollo de un campo petrolero ecuatoriano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Portilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de un modelo geoestadístico a partir de la integración de datos geofísicos, registros de pozos, información litológica, facies interpretadas, topes estratigráficos, coordenadas de pozos, surveys, wellheaders,los cuales son esenciales para determinar la ubicación de potenciales yacimientos de hidrocarburos y poder determinar el volumen de petróleo original en el sitio (POES. Para lo cual se recopilará información de campo para crear una base de datos la misma que se ingresará a la plataforma de trabajo Openworks, que a su vez, serán cargados a sesiones individuales en el Software Decision Space Geoscience (DSG, lo cual permitirá crear modelos de las diferentes realizaciones geoestadísticas que consisten en modelos de facies utilizando los algoritmos de Simulación Secuencial Indicadora y Simulación Plurigaussiana, además tomando en cuenta las propiedades petrofísicas nos permitirá seleccionar la que más se asemeje a la realidad geológica del campo y de esta manera realizar la estimación de reservas. Los métodos de simulación numérica de yacimientos que se aplican en el software DSG permiten generar datos en las zonas que no cuentan con información, a partir de técnicas o algoritmos de interpolación para cada modelo que se generará, los cuales serán estudiados en el presente proyecto.   Abstract   The objective of this research is to build a geostatistical model from the integration of geophysical data, logging wells and lithology information to determine the location of potential hydrocarbon deposits and know the POES of field. For which we have to collect information about field according to coordinates of wells, surveys, wellheaders, logging wells, facies interpreted stratigraphic tops and a database to be input in the platform OpenWorks, those data will be charged in individual sessions in the Software Decision Space Geoscience (DSG, which will create models of different Geostatistical

  18. Palaeoenvironmental and geochemical approach of Archaeocyath-rich facies from Lower Cambrian of Western Gondwana margin at Central Iberian Zone (Urda, Toledo Mountains, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Moreno-Eris, Elena; Perejón, Antonio; Reitner, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Archaeocyath-rich facies are located in a quarry close to Urda village, at Toledo Mountains, Spain. The outcrops belong to the Caliza de los Navalucillos Formation and they record a considerably high diverse archaeocyath assemblage in the Lower Cambrian successions from the Central Iberian Zone (Julivert et al. 1972 [1974]). In fact, it is first time recorded the presence of Agyrekocyathus, Dokidocyathus, and Plicocyathus in the Central Iberian Zone. Therefore Plicocyathus is no longer exclusive to biozone VI in Spain. The presence of Anthomorpha is characteristic for the early Botomian, presently early Stage 4 (ICS, 2009), and the assemblage corresponds to the biozone VII (late Ovetian, following the biozonation of Perejón & Moreno-Eiris, 2006). The fossiliferous part of the succession is formed by seven lithofacies, all of them tectonically folded and with a low grade metamorphic overprint. They are comprised by two main groups of facies: (a) mound-shaped to massive lithofacies (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (b) massive to bedded and nodular lithofacies (B1, B2, B3). Archaeocyaths occur in several facies: (A1) mound-shaped white marble with irregular to stromatactoid cavities; (A2) massive mottled white to grey limestone; (A3) massive grey limestone with slumps levels; (A4) massive archaeocyath-rich orange limestone; as well as in carbonate nodules embedded in siltstones and cherts (B1, B2 and B3). The best preserved assemblage comes from the nodule record, where fossils are partially pyritized. This type of preservation is exceptional and has never been described before. XRD and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses reveal the presence of pyrite and pyrrotine partially altered to iron oxides and hydroxides (hematite and goethite) surrounding the archaeocyath cups. In Central Iberian Zone, the development of mounds and nodular facies like those described here is unusual, although the Botomian marks the peak for Early Cambrian archaeocyathan-microbial mounds

  19. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection ...

  20. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; de Berg, M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; ten Brink, Alex P.; Buchin, K.A.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  1. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; Berg, de M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; Brink, ten A.P.; Buchin, K.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  2. Combined Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Mariánské Lázně Complex: New constraints on the timing of eclogite- and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Štípská, Pavla; Schulmann, Karel; Peřestý, Vít; Soldner, Jeremie; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Lexa, Ondrej; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology combined with petrographic observations, minero-chemical variations, thermodynamic modelling and structural data was used to constrain the P-T-t-d evolution of eclogites from the Mariánské Lázně Complex (Bohemian Massif). Boudins of mostly isotropic eclogite with relict steep eclogite-facies fabric are affected by steep migmatitic foliation, which is followed on a regional scale by the development of almost pervasive, predominantly SE-dipping, extensional foliation. The structural succession shows continuous transition from eclogite to garnetiferous migmatitic amphibolite and to amphibolite migmatite. A least retrogressed sample of eclogite shows clusters of fine-grained inclusion-poor garnet, omphacite relicts surrounded by a fine-grained clinopyroxene-plagioclase symplectite with minor amphibole, biotite-plagioclase intergrowths after white mica, kyanite with plagioclase-spinel coronas and accessory rutile. Rare potassic white mica occurs as inclusions in omphacite. A more retrogressed eclogite, with no omphacite or kyanite relicts, contains inclusion-poor garnet surrounded by amphibole-plagioclase corona in a matrix dominated by plagioclase-amphibole symplectite with minor clinopyroxene. In places, the symplectite is overgrown by coarse-grained amphibole. Peak P-T conditions, inferred from combined conventional thermobarometry and phase-equilibria modelling and based on inclusions of white mica (up to 3.33 Si p.f.u.), matrix omphacite (Jd33-36) and garnet core (Alm33-38Prp38-42Grs22-25Sps1) compositions are 25 kbar at 650-750 °C. A HT overprint occurred at 14-18 kbar and >800 °C based on coexisting clinopyroxene (Jd18-24), plagioclase (An18-35), and amphibole (Na(B) modelling of garnet mantle compositions. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology has been applied to both samples, an older age (c. 390 Ma) obtained by the Lu-Hf method is interpreted as the timing of HP metamorphism, while c. 15 Ma younger ages were

  3. Calculus of variations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsgolc, Lev D

    2007-01-01

    This concise text offers both professionals and students an introduction to the fundamentals and standard methods of the calculus of variations. In addition to surveys of problems with fixed and movable boundaries, it explores highly practical direct methods for the solution of variational problems.Topics include the method of variation in problems with fixed boundaries; variational problems with movable boundaries and other problems; sufficiency conditions for an extremum; variational problems of constrained extrema; and direct methods of solving variational problems. Each chapter features nu

  4. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  5. Structure of the Kaoko Belt, Namibia: progressive evolution of a classic transpressional orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goscombe, Ben; Hand, Martin; Gray, David

    2003-07-01

    The Kaoko Belt portion of the Damara Orogen, Namibia, is the deeply eroded core of a sinistral transpressional orogen that has half-flower structure geometry centred on the major, 4-5-km-wide Purros Mylonite Zone. Formed between the Congo Craton in the east and Rio De La Plata Craton in Brazil, the Kaoko Belt represents the northern coastal arm of a triple junction within the Pan-African Orogenic System. Consisting of reworked Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic basement and a cover of Neoproterozoic Damara Sequence, the Kaoko Belt can be sub-divided structurally into three parallel NNW-trending zones. The Eastern Kaoko Zone comprises sub-greenschist facies shelf carbonates that have been uprightly folded. The Central Kaoko Zone contains a slope and deep basin facies succession that has experienced intense deformation, including pervasive reworking of basement into large-scale east-vergent nappes. The Western Kaoko Zone is predominantly deep basin facies of high metamorphic grade intruded by numerous granites. It has experienced intense wrench-style deformation with formation of upright isoclines and steep, crustal-scale shear zones. The Kaoko Belt evolved through three distinct phases of a protracted Pan-African Orogeny in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. (1) An early Thermal Phase (M 1) was responsible for pervasive partial melting and granite emplacement in the Western Kaoko Zone from 656 Ma. (2) The Transpressional Phase produced the geometry of the belt by progressive sinistral shearing between 580 and 550 Ma. Deformation was continuously progressive through two stages and involved both temporal and spatial migration of deformation outwards towards the margin. The early strike-slip Wrench-Stage produced a high-strain L-S fabric by sub-horizontal transport. Deformation became progressively more transpressive, with high-angle convergence and flattening strains during the Convergent-Stage. In this stage, strike-slip movements evolved through

  6. Facies sedimentology, mineralogy and genetic stratigraphy of the lower-Lias silici-clastic reservoirs of Cere-La-Ronde; Sedimentologie de facies, mineralogie et stratigraphie genetique des reservoirs silicoclastiques du Lias inferieur de Cere-La-Ronde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiller, M.

    1997-11-21

    Some sandstone reservoirs in the South West of the Parisian Basin (Sologne) are used for gas storage in the underground aquifer by GDF. The study aims to reconstruct the geometry of these reservoirs and to establish the factors controlling their deposition in the Sologne basin during Rhaetian and Hettangian times. This study combines palynological, sedimentological, mineralogical and sequential analyses. It is applied to channel deposits as well as to flood-plain and over-bank deposits which are rarely considered. The formations are deposited in a continental transgressive context associated to a decreasing subsidence. The different depositional environments varied from the alluvial fan to the coastal plain with different intermediate alluvial plains. They get organized in three depositional profiles which are emphasized by hydrodynamic discontinuities due to irreversible modifications in depositional conditions. The clayey associations change with each depositional profile according to detrital source modifications. They characterize discontinuities due to geodynamic events affecting the Sologne basin (depositional profile changes, pedogenesis). In this continental context, the genetic sequences record a cycle of variation of the river longitudinal profile slope. They determine the sediments geometry which results from the relative sea-level variations. Local tectonics creates an heterogenous subsidence and consequently controls the distribution of the sediments. During tectonic instability periods, the subsiding areas migrate while they do not during tectonic stability periods. The latter end with irreversible change in depositional profile. (author) 135 refs.

  7. Relative role of transfer zones in controlling sequence stacking patterns and facies distribution: insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Entao; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuan; Huang, Chuanyan

    2015-04-01

    In sedimentary basins, a transfer zone can be defined as a coordinated system of deformational features which has good prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Although the term 'transfer zone' has been widely applied to the study of extensional basins, little attention has been paid to its controlling effect on sequence tracking pattern and depositional facies distribution. Fushan Depression is a half-graben rift sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. In this study, comparative analysis of seismic reflection, palaeogeomorphology, fault activity and depositional facies distribution in the southern slope indicates that three different types of sequence stacking patterns (i.e. multi-level step-fault belt in the western area, flexure slope belt in the central area, gentle slope belt in the eastern area) were developed along the southern slope, together with a large-scale transfer zone in the central area, at the intersection of the western and eastern fault systems. Further analysis shows that the transfer zone played an important role in the diversity of sequence stacking patterns in the southern slope by dividing the Fushan Depression into two non-interfering tectonic systems forming different sequence patterns, and leading to the formation of the flexure slope belt in the central area. The transfer zone had an important controlling effect on not only the diversity of sequence tracking patterns, but also the facies distribution on the relay ramp. During the high-stand stage, under the controlling effect of the transfer zone, the sediments contain a significant proportion of coarser material accumulated and distributed along the ramp axis. By contrast, during the low-stand stage, the transfer zone did not seem to contribute significantly to the low-stand fan distribution which was mainly controlled by the slope gradient (palaeogeomorphology). Therefore, analysis of the transfer zone can provide a new perspective for basin analysis

  8. Quantum Variational Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowska , Agnieszka B.; Torres , Delfim

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Introduces readers to the treatment of the calculus of variations with q-differences and Hahn difference operators Provides the reader with the first extended treatment of quantum variational calculus Shows how the techniques described can be applied to economic models as well as other mathematical systems This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of it...

  9. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  10. Genetics and variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The broad genotypic variability in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), that results in equally broad phenotypic variability among clones is important to the ecology and management of this species. This chapter considers principles of aspen genetics and variation, variation in aspen over its range, and local variation among clones. For a more...

  11. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  12. Progress test utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Cees; Freeman, Adrian; Collares, Carlos Fernando

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of progress testing. A utopia is described where medical schools would work together to develop and administer progress testing. This would lead to a significant reduction of cost, an increase in the quality of measurement and phenomenal feedback to learner and school. Progress testing would also provide more freedom and resources for more creative in-school assessment. It would be an educationally attractive alternative for the creation of cognitive licensing exams. A utopia is always far away in the future, but by formulating a vision for that future we may engage in discussions on how to get there.

  13. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  14. Distribution characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and its relationship with sedimentary facies and uranium mineralization in QJD uranium deposit, Songliao basin, NE China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaolin; Xiang Weidong; Li Tiangang; Fang Xiheng; Xia Yuliang; Pang Yaqing; Zheng Jiwei; Zhang Mingyu; Zhang Zegui; Tian Shifeng

    2006-01-01

    QJD uranium deposit is a sandstone-type uranium deposit with the special shape of the interlayer oxidation zone. After studying the palaeoclimate condition and sedimentation of host sandstones, contrasting drilling cross sections, this paper suggests that primary colors of host sandstones are mostly in gray, red and yellow colors of sandstones are the result of oxidation alteration. According to the positions of drill holes with red and yellow alteration sandstones, the plane distribution of oxidation roll fronts of the Upper and Lower Member of Yaojia Formation are delineated. By contrasting the plane distribution of oxidation fronts and sedimentary facies, it can be found that oxidation fronts are obviously controlled by interchannel fine-grained sediments. The movement of uranium-bearing oxidizing groundwater can be obstructed by interchannel sediments and pelitic interbeds of host sandstones. As a result, redox interface will be developed and uranium can be concentrated in neighbouring sandstones. (authors)

  15. Footwall degradation styles and associated sedimentary facies distribution in SE Crete: Insights into tilt-block extensional basins on continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Cupkovic, Tomas

    2018-05-01

    Depositional facies resulting from footwall degradation in extensional basins of SE Crete are studied based on detailed geological maps, regional transects, lithological columns and outcrop photos. During an extensional episode affecting Crete in the late Miocene-early Pliocene, depocentres trending N20°E and N70°E were filled with fan deltas, submarine mass-wasting deposits, sandy turbidites and fine-grained hemipelagites sourced from both nearby and distal sediment sources. Deposition of proximal continental and shallow-marine units, and relatively deep (marine) turbidites and mass-transport deposits, occurred within a complex mosaic of tectonically controlled depocentres. The new geological maps and transects in this work reveal that depositional facies in SE Crete were controlled by: a) their relative proximity to active faults and uplifting footwall blocks, b) the relative position (depth and relative height above sea level) of hanging-wall basins, and c) the nature of the basement units eroded from adjacent footwall blocks. Distal sediment sources supplied background siliciclastic sediment ('hemipelagites'), which differ markedly from strata sourced from local footwalls. In parallel, mass-transport of sediment was ubiquitous on tectonically active slopes, and so was the presence of coarse-grained sediment with sizes varying from large blocks > 50 m-wide to heterolithic mass-transport deposits and silty-sandy turbidites. We expect similar tectono-sedimentary settings to have predominated in tectonically active Miocene basins of the eastern Mediterranean, in which hydrocarbon exploration is occurring at present, and on rifted continental margins across the world.

  16. Seismic facies and stratigraphy of the Cenozoic succession in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: Implications for tectonic, climatic and glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C.R.; Whittaker, J.; Henrys, S.A.; Wilson, T.J.; Nash, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new stratigraphic model is presented for the evolution of the Cenozoic Victoria Land Basin of the West Antarctic Rift, based on integration of seismic reflection and drilling data. The Early Rift phase (?latest Eocene to Early Oligocene) comprises wedges of strata confined by early extensional faults, and which contain seismic facies consistent with drainage via coarse-grained fans and deltas into discrete, actively subsiding grabens and half-grabens. The Main Rift phase (Early Oligocene to Early Miocene) comprises a lens of strata that thickens symmetrically from the basin margins into a central depocenter, and in which stratal events pass continuously over the top of the Early Rift extensional topography. Internal seismic facies and lithofacies indicate a more organized, cyclical shallow marine succession, influenced increasingly upward by cycles of glacial advance and retreat into the basin. The Passive Thermal Subsidence phase (Early Miocene to ?) comprises an evenly distributed sheet of strata that does not thicken appreciably into the depocentre, with more evidence for clinoform sets and large channels. These patterns are interpreted to record accumulation under similar environmental conditions but in a regime of slower subsidence. The Renewed Rifting phase (? to Recent, largely unsampled by coring thus far) has been further divided into 1, a lower interval, in which the section thickens passively towards a central depocentre, and 2. an upper interval, in which more dramatic thickening patterns are complicated by magmatic activity. The youngest part of the stratigraphy was accumulated under the influence of flexural loading imposed by the construction of large volcanic edifices, and involved minimal sediment supply from the western basin margin, suggesting a change in environmental (glacial) conditions at possibly c. 2 Ma.

  17. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  18. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now The Progression of Liver ...

  19. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  20. Progress report for '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podest, M.

    1990-08-01

    The 1989 Progress Report presents the most important scientific and technical achievements of the Nuclear Research Institute's research work. Some specialized products prepared at or fabricated by the NRI are mentioned as well. (author). 24 figs., 8 tabs., 101 refs

  1. Progress report, Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report reviews events and progress in the following areas: development of the TASCC facility; experimental and theoretical nuclear physics research; radionuclide standardization; condensed matter research; applied mathematics; and computer facility operation

  2. Progress for the Paralyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contents Latest Advances Help People Regain Function and Independence Founded in 2000, the National Institute for Biomedical ... More "NIBIB Robotics" Articles Progress for the Paralyzed / College Athlete Stands Again…On His Own! / Coffee to ...

  3. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress report on the meetings and working groups of DAF in 1979, e.g. engineering and industry, public and press, law and administration, business and industry, international cooperation in Europe and with the USA. (GL) [de

  4. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This progress report of the nuclear physics institute includes five basic subjects: theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics, combined research physics and instrumentation (microelectronics, imaging, multidetectors, scintillators,...) [fr

  5. Modeling Progress in AI

    OpenAIRE

    Brundage, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Participants in recent discussions of AI-related issues ranging from intelligence explosion to technological unemployment have made diverse claims about the nature, pace, and drivers of progress in AI. However, these theories are rarely specified in enough detail to enable systematic evaluation of their assumptions or to extrapolate progress quantitatively, as is often done with some success in other technological domains. After reviewing relevant literatures and justifying the need for more ...

  6. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  7. Ostracods and facies of the Early and Middle Frasnian at Devils Gate in Nevada: Relationship to the Alamo Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Berra, I.; Olempska, Ewa; Sandberg, C.; Preat, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to document the Alamo Event and to investigate its influence on shallow-marine environments, we undertook a study of ostracods, conodonts, and analysis of the sedimentology of the lower member of the type Devils Gate Limestone, Six major carbonate microfacies (MF1-MF6) ranging from open-marine environments below storm wave base to pre-evaporitic supratidal lagoons were recognized. The sedimentological study detected no important sedimentological changes during the Alamo Event; only an influx of detrital material and lithoclasts indicate that an unusual event had occurred. Ostracods are generally rare or absent in the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone, and only 2,000 carapaces, valves and fragments were extracted; from these some 26 taxa were identified. Two new species, Voronina? eureka and Serenida dorsoplicata are proposed. The ostracods belong to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage and their distribution was influenced by strong salinity variations. Because of the rarity and low diversity of ostracods and conodonts in samples collected from the lower part of the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone it is not adequate to demonstrate conclusively an extinction event close to the Alamo Event Bed. Nevertheless the greater abundance and diversity of ostracods above this bed seems to indicate that the Alamo Event did not result in significant extinction of ostracod taxa in this shallow water setting. The ostracod fauna present in the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone suggests faunal exchanges between Nevada and the Russian Platform via the Western Canadian platform.

  8. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  9. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  10. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  11. Progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupka, A.; Dirninger, G.

    1982-01-01

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1981. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  12. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  13. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupka, A.; Wild, E.; Dirninger, G.

    1983-01-01

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1982. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  14. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  15. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs formed by ancient river deltas. This has implications for the spatial distribution of rock types and the variation of transport properties. A between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles that influence productivity and recovery efficiency. Diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can also alter flow properties. A better understanding of these properties and improved methods will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high-resolution view of variability. Insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is sparser. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high-resolution models. The same rocks exposed in the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields. Kilometers of exposure are accessible, and bedding-plane exposures allow use of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct geostatistical and flow models. Strata-conforming grids were use to reproduce the observed geometries. A new Bayesian method integrates outcrop, core, and radar amplitude and phase data. The proposed method propagates measurement uncertainty and yields an ensemble of plausible models for calcite concretions. These concretions affect flow significantly. Models which integrate more have different flow responses from simpler models, as demonstrated an exhaustive two-dimensional reference image and in three dimensions. This method is simple to implement within widely available geostatistics packages. Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs that are inferred to have been formed by ancient river deltas. This geologic setting has implications for the spatial distribution of

  16. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution. PMID:22296923

  17. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  18. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  19. Greenschist-Facies Pseudotachylytes and Gouge: a Microstructural Study of the Deformation Propagation at the Boundary Between Hp-Metabasite and Calcite Bearing Metasediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispini, L.; Scambelluri, M.; Capponi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Recent friction experiments on calcite-bearing systems reproduce pseudotachylyte structures, that are diagnostic of dinamic calcite recrystallization related to seismic slip in the shallow crust. Here we provide the study of a pseudotachylyte (PT) bearing low angle oblique-slip fault. The fault is linked to the exhumation of Alpine HP-ophiolites and it is syn- to post-metamorphic with respect to retrograde greenschist facies metamorphism. The observed microstructures developed at the brittle-ductile transition and suggest that seismic and interseismic slip was enhanced by interaction with fluids. The fault zone is in-between high-pressure eclogite-facies metabasites (hangingwall) and calcite bearing metasediments (footwall). The mafic rocks largely consist of upper greenschist facies hornblende, albite, chlorite, epidote with relict eclogitic garnet, Na-pyroxene and rutile; metasediments correspond to calcschist and micaschist with quartz, phengite, zoisite, chlorite, calcite and relics of garnet. Key features of the oucrop are: the thickness and geometry of the PT and gouge; the multiple production of PT characterized by overprinting plastic and brittle deformation; the occurrence in footwall metasediments of mm-thick bands of finely recrystallized calcite coeval with PT development in the hangingwall. The damage zone is ca. 2 m-thick and is characterized by two black, ultra-finegrained straight and sharp Principal Slip Zones (PSZ) marked by PT. The damage zone shows a variety of fault rocks (cataclasite and ultracataclasite, gouge and PT) with multiple crosscutting relationships. Within the two main PSZ, PT occurs in 10-20 cm thick layer, in small scale injection veins and in microfractures. In the mafic hanging wall, the PT is recrystallized and does not preserve glass: it shows flow structures with subrounded, embayed and rebsorbed quartz in a fine grained matrix composed of isotropic albite + chlorite + quartz + epidote + titanite, suggesting recrystallization

  20. Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barghoorn, E.S.; Knoll, A.H.; Dembicki, H. Jr.; Meinschein, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to examine possible variations in organic carbon isotopic ratios within a single Precambrian formation, the kerogen separated from 15 samples of the approximately 2000 m.y. old Gunflint Iron Formation and the conformably overlying Rove Formation, representing a wide range of lithologies and geographic localities, was isotopically analyzed. From the resulting data, four conclusions can be drawn: (1) delta 13 C values of the shallow water algal chert facies are significantly more negative (-25 to -30 parts per thousand) than those of the deeper water chert-carbonate and taconite facies (-15 to -20 parts per thousand). Comparative data for modern marine algal mats shows a range of delta 13 C values from -8.4 to -19 parts per thousand PDB. Values obtained for fresh water mats were slightly more negative. (2) These differences in isotopic ratios can be correlated with similar differences in preserved microbiotas. (3) Anthraxolite lenses are depleted in 13 C relative to the reduced carbon in surrounding sediments. (4) The effect of Keweenawan diabase intrusions upon the carbon isotopic composition is pronounced, but limited to the immediate vicinity of the contact. (author)

  1. BARC progress report - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyane, V L [comp.; Library and Information Services Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1999-04-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author) figs., tabs.

  2. BARC progress report - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyane, V.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  3. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi...

  4. Progress report of CJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the progress report of the Russian Nuclear Data Center at F.E.I., Obninsk. Evaluations have been made for dosimetry reactions and neutron reactions. Analysis of the spectra and the production cross sections were made. (a.n.)

  5. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    This progress report describes the scientific work and research results done by the institute for experimental physics, atom and nuclear physics of the Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz in the period of 1982. The covered subject areas are ionization by cations, investigations of surface areas by light ions, measurement of stopping power in solids, data acquisition and aerosol physics. (A.N.)

  6. Recent progress in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1980-03-01

    Recent progress in biophysics is reviewed, and three examples of the use of physical techniques and ideas in biological research are given. The first one deals with the oxygen transporting protein-hemoglobin, the second one with photosynthesis, and the third one with image formation, using nuclear magnetic resonance. (Author) [pt

  7. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  8. Scales of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  9. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  10. Progress Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document is the 1994 annual progress report of the CEA-Direction of Waste Management (DGD). It comprises four chapters. The first chapter is a general presentation of radioactive wastes, of the management of liquid effluents, solid wastes, sealed sources, of the relations with the ANDRA (The French Agency for the Management of Radioactive Wastes), and of the research and development studies in progress for the improvement of waste management. The second chapter concerns the spent fuels and their reprocessing, in particular AGR and PWR type reactor fuels, the ''Caramel'' fuel from Osiris reactor and the cover elements from the Rapsodie reactor core. The long time storage of ancient fuels is also discussed. The third chapter concerns the dismantling of decommissioned installations, the actions in progress and the planning of dismantling actions up to the year 2000. Chapter four is devoted to the management of wastes from the Direction of Military Applications (DAM), the actions in progress in the different DAM centers and the cleansing projects at Marcoule plant. (J.S.). 5 figs., 28 tabs., 21 photos., 3 appendix

  11. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This progress report deals with technical and research work done at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Work done in the following research divisions is reported: Applied Maths and Computing, Chemical Technology, Engineering Research, Environmental Science, Instrumentation and Control, Isotope, Materials and Physics

  12. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  13. Progress in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.; Storm, E.

    1985-10-01

    The requirements for high gain in inertial confinement are given in terms of target implosion requirements. Results of experimental studies of the laser/target interaction and of the dynamics of laser implosion. A report of the progress of advanced laser development is also presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Progress report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Studsvik Science Research Laboratory herewith presents its progress report for 1978. The report summarizes the current projects carried out by the research groups working at the laboratory. Projects within the following fields are presented: neutron physics, neutron absorption and scattering, radiation chemistry, radiation damage studies, radioactivity and theoretical studies of condensed matter. (E.R.)

  15. Progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving a brief description of operations of an improvements to the University of Alberta nuclear physics facilities, this report summarizes the principal research programs. These include work on neutron scattering, thorium 232 fission, iodine 123 production. Progress towards the construction of MARIA, the Medical Accelerator Research Institute in Alberta, is described, and research on relativistic heavy ions is summarized

  16. BARC progress report - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyane, V L [comp.; Library and Information Services Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-07-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author) figs., tabs.

  17. BARC progress report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyane, V.L.

    1998-07-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  18. Response: Progress Takes Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1984-01-01

    Although declining enrollment and administrative seniority have hampered efforts to eliminate sex discrimination in employment practices in three Long Island, New York, school systems (Commack, Smithtown, and Bay Shore), progress is being made. Because of the Reagan administration's lack of support for affirmative action, however, litigation…

  19. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  20. "Paideia," Progress, Puzzlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrachovec, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Platonic "paideia" is a mainstream concept in traditional philosophy and humanistic circles generally. It is closely connected with social progress brought about by the dynamics of enlightenment and self-fulfillment, symbolized by the allegory of the cave. The main contention of this paper is that the philosophical grammar of this simile…

  1. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  2. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This progress report deals with service oriented work performed at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Services provided by the Engineering Services Division, the Safety Department, Site Information Services Department and Commercial Applications are described

  3. The post collisional metamorphic evolution from Ultra High Temperature to Amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odesan area during the Triassic collision between the North and South China cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Kee Wook

    2015-04-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (OGC) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt in Korean Peninsula which is the extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks. The OGC mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneiss with porphyritic granitoid and amphibolite. The banded gneiss can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. The highest metamorphic P/T conditions of the migmatitic and garnet-biotite banded gneiss were 760-820°C/6.3-7.2kbar and 810-840°C/7.2-7.8kbar respectively. On the other hand, the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss records 940-950°C/10.5-10.7kbar that is corresponded to UHT metamorphic condition. These data indicate that the peak UHT metamorphic condition of the study area was preserved only within the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss because its lower water content than other gneisses and UHT metamorphic mineral assemblage was completely replaced by the granulite facies metamorphism in other gneisses due to their higher water content than the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss. Finally all gneisses experienced amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism which is observed locally within rocks, such as garnet rim and surrounding area. The peak UHT metamorphism is estimated to occur at ca. 250-230 Ma using SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating and was caused by the heat supplied from asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by slab break-off during early post collision stage. The calculated metamorphic conditions represent that geothermal gradient of the study area during the post collision stage was 86°C/kbar indicating the regional low-P/T metamorphic event. Besides the Triassic metamorphic age, two Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1930 and 1886 Ma are also recognized by the SHRIMP age dating from the banded gneisses and Paleoproterozoic emplacement age of ca. 1847 Ma is identified from the porphyritic granitoid which formed in the within plate tectonic

  4. Sulfur speciation and isotope analysis of the 2.7 Ga shallow- and deep-facies black shales from Pilbara, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, H.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Naraoka, H.

    2014-12-01

    It has been widely believed that Great Oxidation Event (GOE: Holland, 1994) occurred at ~2.4-2.2 Ga ago. However, some previous studies have found evidence for oxic ocean and atmosphere from earlier rock records (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). In order to explore if such oxic environment was local or global and if there was redox heterogeneity in a sedimentary basin before the inferred GOE, using the 2.7 Ga pyrite-bearing drillcore black shales (deep-facies WRL1 and shallow-facies RHDH2A drillcores) from Pilbara, Western Australia, we separately quantified abundance of S-bearing species (SAVS (acid-volatile sulfide), Spy (pyrite), SSO4 (sulfate), Sorg (organic-S), and S0 (elemental S) and Fe-bearing species (Fecarb, Feox, and Femag) by using sequential extraction methods. These samples were previously used by Brocks et al. (1999), Yamaguchi (2002), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). The shallow samples have high S contents and are interpreted to have deposited in relatively anoxic environment, but most of deep samples with elevated Fe contents deposited in relatively oxic environment. The DOP values and δ34Spy values are relatively higher in shallow samples, suggesting active bacterial sulfate reduction in reducing environment created due to near-complete consumption of dissolved O2by decomposition of organic matter produced by photosynthesizers living in the surface ocean. All of these observations consistently suggest that the shallower part was anoxic and deeper part was oxic in the 2.7 Ga ocean. The surface ocean would have been oxygenated due to activity of oxygenic photosynthesis. Such redox stratification of the ocean, i.e., development of mid-depth (shallow) OMZ in an essentially oxic ocean, is typically seen in highly productive regions in the modern ocean. Modern-style oceanic redox structure could have existed as far back as 2.7 Ga ago, much earlier than the inferred GOE at ~2.4-2.2 Ga. Brocks et al. (1999) Science 285, 1033

  5. Cyanobacterial diversity and related sedimentary facies as a function of water flow conditions: Example from the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrendero, Esther; Arenas, Concha; Mateo, Pilar; Jones, Brian

    2016-05-01

    The River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) is a modern tufa-depositing river that encompasses various depositional environments that are inhabited by different cyanobacterial populations. Molecular (16S rDNA) and morphological analyses of the cyanobacteria from different facies showed that Phormidium incrustatum dominates in the fast-flowing water areas where the mean depositional rate is 1.6 cm/year. Stromatolites in these areas are formed of palisades of hollow calcite tubes (inner diameter of 6.0-7.5 μm, walls 2-12 μm thick) that formed through calcite encrustation around the filaments followed by decay of the trichomes. In contrast, in slow-flowing water areas with lower depositional rates (mean depositional rate of 0.3 cm/year), Phormidium aerugineo-caeruleum is the dominant species. In these areas, randomly oriented calcite tubes (inner diameter of 5-6 μm, walls 3-8 μm thick) formed by calcite encrustation, are found in thin and uneven laminae and as scattered tubes in the loose lime mud and sand-sized carbonate sediment. Although this species did not build laminated deposits, it gave cohesiveness to the loose sediment. In the stepped and low waterfalls, with intermediate deposition rates (mean depositional rate of 0.9 cm/year), both species of Phormidium are found in association with spongy moss and algal boundstones, which is consistent with the variable flow conditions in this setting. The calcite encrustations on the cyanobacteria from different environments exhibit irregular patterns that may be linked to changes in the calcite saturation index. The physicochemical conditions associated with extracellular polymeric substances may be more significant to CaCO3 precipitation in microbial mats in slow-flowing water conditions than in fast-flowing water conditions. These results show that flow conditions may influence the distribution of different cyanobacteria that, in turn, leads to the development of different sedimentary

  6. Lower Paleozoic deep-water facies of the Medfra area, central Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Deep-water facies, chiefly hemipelagic deposits and turbidites, of Cambrian through Devonian age are widely exposed in the Medfra and Mt. McKinley quadrangles. These strata include the upper part of the Telsitna Formation (Middle-Upper Ordovician) and the Paradise Fork Formation (Lower Silurian-Lower Devonian) in the Nixon Fork terrane, the East Fork Hills Formation (Upper Cambrian-Lower Devonian) in the East Fork subterrane of the Minchumina terrane, and the chert and argillite unit (Ordovician) and the argillite and quartzite unit (Silurian- Devonian? and possibly older) in the Telida subterrane of the Minchumina terrane.In the western part of the study area (Medfra quadrangle), both hemipelagic deposits and turbidites are largely calcareous and were derived from the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. East- ern exposures (Mt. McKinley quadrangle; eastern part of the Telida subterrane) contain much less carbonate; hemipelagic strata are mostly chert, and turbidites contain abundant rounded quartz and lesser plagioclase and potassium feldspar. Deep-water facies in the Medfra quadrangle correlate well with rocks of the Dillinger terrane exposed to the south (McGrath quadrangle), but coeval strata in the Mt. McKinley quadrangle are compositionally similar to rocks to the northeast (Livengood quadrangle). Petrographic data thus suggest that the Telida subterranes presently defined is an artificial construct made up of two distinct sequences of disparate provenance.Restoration of 90 and 150 km of dextral strike-slip on the Iditarod and Farewell faults, respectively, aligns the deep-water strata of the Minchumina and Dillinger terranes in a position east of the Nixon Fork carbonate platform. This restoration supports the interpretation that lower Paleozoic rocks in the Nixon Fork and Dillinger terranes, and in the western part of the Minchumina terrane (East Fork subterrane and western part of the Telida subterrane), formed along a single continental margin. Rocks in the

  7. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.     Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  8. Shale Gas Exploration and Development Progress in China and the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghua

    2018-02-01

    Shale gas exploration in China started late but is progressing very quickly with the strong support from Central Government. China has 21.8 tcm technically recoverable shale gas resources and 764.3 bcm proved shale gas reserve, mainly in marine facies in Sichuan basin. In 2016, overall shale gas production in China is around 7.9 bcm, while it is set to reach 10 bcm in 2017 and 30 bcm in 2020. BP is the only remaining IOC actor in shale gas exploration in China partnering with CNPC in 2 blocks in Sichuan basin. China is encouraging shale gas business both at Central level and at Provincial level through establishing development plan, continuation of subsidies and research funding. Engineering services for shale gas development and infrastructures are developing, while the overall cost and gas marketing conditions will be key factors for the success in shale gas industry.

  9. Evaluation of keratoconus progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Mehdi; Steinwender, Gernot; Herrmann, Kim; Kubiak, Kate Barbara; Pavlovic, Ivana; Plawetzki, Elena; Schmack, Ingo; Kohnen, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    To define variables for the evaluation of keratoconus progression and to determine cut-off values. In this retrospective cohort study (2010-2016), 265 eyes of 165 patients diagnosed with keratoconus underwent two Scheimpflug measurements (Pentacam) that took place 1 year apart ±3 months. Variables used for keratoconus detection were evaluated for progression and a correlation analysis was performed. By logistic regression analysis, a keratoconus progression index (KPI) was defined. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed and Youden Index calculated to determine cut-off values. Variables used for keratoconus detection showed a weak correlation with each other (eg, correlation r=0.245 between RPImin and Kmax, pKPI). KPI was defined by logistic regression and consisted of a Pachymin coefficient of -0.78 (p=0.001), a maximum elevation of back surface coefficient of 0.27 and coefficient of corneal curvature at the zone 3 mm away from the thinnest point on the posterior corneal surface of -12.44 (both pKPI: D-index had a cut-off of 0.4175 (70.6% sensitivity) and Youden Index of 0.606. Cut-off for KPI was -0.78196 (84.7% sensitivity) and a Youden Index of 0.747; both 90% specificity. Keratoconus progression should be defined by evaluating parameters that consider several corneal changes; we suggest D-index and KPI to detect progression. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  11. Facies analysis of the Codó Formation (Late Aptian in the Grajaú Area, Southern São Luís-Grajaú Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossetti Dilce F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Facies descriptions of the Codó Formation in the Grajaú area are provided for the first time, and its sedimentary characteristics compared to those from the Codó area to allow paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Deposits in the Grajaú area include evaporites, limestones and argillites bearing features indicative of a shallow, low energy, subaqueous, saline environment exposed to meteoric and/or capillary conditions. Flooding-evaporative concentration-desiccation cycles suggest a saline pan complex surrounded by extensive evaporitic mudflats. The location of the system, whether coastal or inland, is a matter open for debate. However, the later hypothesis is favored considering: 1. Sr isotopic data, with values higher than those expected for Late Aptian marine waters; 2. calcitic composition of limestones (instead of dolomitic and/or magnesitic as expected in coastal settings; and 3. presence of continental ostracods and lack of marine fauna. This interpretation is consistent with that proposed for UpperAptian deposits of the Codó area, but the depositional system there was one dominated by more stable, well-stratified, anoxic waters and evaporite precipitation in central lacustrine areas, while in the Grajaú area the salt pan was more oxygenated and ephemeral, with salt precipitation mainly in marginal areas or along surrounding mudflats.

  12. Biallelic UNC80 mutations caused infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 2 in two Chinese patients with variable phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunjuan; Ji, Xing; Yan, Hui; Ye, Xiantao; Liu, Yu; Wei, Wei; Xiao, Bing; Sun, Yu

    2018-06-20

    Biallelic UNC80 mutations cause infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 2 (IHPRF2), which is characterized by hypotonia, developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID), intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation and characteristic facial features. We report two unrelated Chinese patients with compound heterozygous UNC80 mutations inherited from their parents, as identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Mutations c.3719G>A (p.W1240*)/c.4926_4937del (p.N1643_L1646del) and c.4963C>T (p.R1655C)/c.8385C>G (p.Y2795*) were identified in patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. Although both patients presented with DD/ID and hypotonia, different manifestations also occurred. Patient 1 presented with infantile hypotonia, epilepsy and hyperactivity without growth retardation, whereas patient 2 presented with persistent hypotonia, growth retardation and self-injury without epilepsy. Furthermore, we herein summarize the genotypes and phenotypes of patients with UNC80 mutations reported in the literature, revealing that IHPRF2 is a phenotypically heterogeneous disease. Common facial dysmorphisms include a thin upper lip, a tented upper lip, a triangular face, strabismus and microcephaly. To some extent, the manifestations of IHPRF2 mimic those of Angelman syndrome (AS)-like syndromes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sedimentary facies of the upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: new insight on the old stormy debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    New data from detailed measured sections permit a comprehensive revision of the sedimentary facies of the Furongian (upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Heterogeneous sandstones, comprising seven lithofacies along a depositional transect from shoreface to transitional-offshore environments, record sedimentation in a storm-dominated, shallow-marine epicontinental sea. The origin of glauconite in the Birkmose Member and Reno Member of the Lone Rock Formation was unclear, but its formation and preserved distribution are linked to inferred depositional energy rather than just net sedimentation rate. Flat-pebble conglomerate, abundant in lower Paleozoic strata, was associated with the formation of a condensed section during cratonic flooding. Hummocky cross-stratification was a valuable tool used to infer depositional settings and relative paleobathymetry, and the model describing formation of this bedform is expanded to address flow types dominant during its genesis, in particular the importance of an early unidirectional component of combined flow. The depositional model developed here for the Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation is broadly applicable to other strata common to the early Paleozoic that document sedimentation along flooded cratonic interiors or shallow shelves.

  14. The relative economic progress of male foreign workers in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-qudsi, S S; Shah, N M

    1991-01-01

    "A human capital framework is utilized to examine the economic progress of nine nationality groups of foreign workers [in Kuwait] using data from the 1983 national Labor Survey. The sources of earnings' variations of particular interest to us included different degrees of education and experience transferability, occupational affiliation and ethnic background. In general, the results derived from the analysis suggest that 1) foreign workers achieve a discernible economic progress as their residence lengthens; 2) the rate of economic progress varies depending on worker's education, home and Kuwait-specific experience, occupational status and ethnic background; and 3) about one third of the earnings inequality is due to unexplained factors including discrimination." excerpt

  15. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  16. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The Permian and Triassic of South Devon (England) are a continental red bed sequence of very diversified lithogenetical composition. Within the thick series, the distribution of the main depositional environments being fluvial braidplain, fluvial floodplain and playa lake, alluvial fan, aeolian dune and calcrete palaeosol changes repeatedly in both horizontal and vertical direction. Significant sedimentary milieus such as aeolian dunes and calcrete palaeosols occur repeatedly within the succession, but are also lacking in several parts of the sequence. Fluvial braidplain deposits comprise conglomerates, sandstones, intraformational reworking horizons and mudstones and originate in channels and overbank plains of a braided river system. Conglomerates and sandstones are formed by migration of bars and spreading out of sheets during infilling of streams and aggradation of flats. Gravel is often enriched as lag pockets or veneers within steeper scour holes and kolk pots or on the plane floor of the watercourse. Finer-grained sandstones and mudstones are laid down by suspension settling in stagnant water bodies such as small lakes in the overbank area and residual pools in interbar depressions during low-stage or waning-flow in active channels or in abandoned streams. Spectacular bioturbation features in some sandstones with both horizontal tubes and vertical burrows testify to the colonization of the sediments at the bottom of the rivers with declining discharge and transport capacity. Intraformational reworking horizons with ghost-like remnants of degraded sandstones, mudstones and pedogenic carbonates document partially severe condensation of the sequence by removal of some facies elements from the depositional record. The occasionally occurring gravel-bearing mudstones or silty-clayey sandstones represent products of high-energy water surges overspilling the channel banks and transporting sandy and gravelly bed-load in limited amounts beyond the levee wall. The

  17. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  18. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Machado, Gislaine Cristina Lopes; Morillo, Lilian Schafirovits; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2010-01-01

    Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD) is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal) and ventral (occipito-temporal) pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction), complete Balint’s syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right. Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD. PMID:29213665

  19. ISABELLE: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  20. ISABELLE: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed

  1. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  2. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  3. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  4. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  5. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with

  6. Three year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: x-ray and uv effects in photosynthetic organisms; effects of alcohols and oxygen concentration on transforming DNA; free radical studies; sensitization by metal ions; role of the solvated electron in radiation damage to cells; effectiveness of organic and inorganic compounds in sensitizing bacterial spores to high energy radiation; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of enzyme systems in Chlorella; and effects of pre-irradiation of solutions on spores

  7. Enalapril dosage in progressive chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Sonne, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In chronic renal failure, clearance of enalapril is reduced. Hence, a renoprotective effect may be achieved with lower doses than conventionally used. Since marked inter-patient variation in concentrations of enalaprilat has been shown in patients with renal failure despite equivalent...... dosage of enalapril, a direct comparison of the effect of high versus low plasma concentrations of enalaprilat on the progression of renal failure was undertaken. METHODS: Forty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 17 (6-35) ml/min/1.73 m2 were studied in an open-label, randomised...... intervals by the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, and the individual rates of progression of renal failure were calculated as the slope of GFR versus time plot. RESULTS: In the high-concentration group, the median enalaprilat trough concentration was 92.9 ng/ml (21.8-371.0 ng/ml) and in the low...

  8. Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mampaey, S.; De Schepper, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.; Boven, K.; Hul, W. van

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) in a 9-year-old girl is presented. Clinically, chronic painless swollen joints, accompanied by progressive motion restriction and progressive walking difficulties, were found. Radiologically, there was enlargement of the epimetaphyseal portions of the large joints, metacarpal heads, and phalanges, and generalized platyspondyly with irregular delineation of the endplates of the vertebral bodies. The radioclinical features at the peripheral joints were originally misdiagnosed as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and the structural spinal abnormalities were neglected and interpreted as Scheuermann's disease. However, the absence of active inflammatory parameters argues against JRA, whereas the low age of onset of the irregularities at the vertebral endplates is an argument against the diagnosis of Scheuermann's disease. The combination of the dysplastic abnormalities of the spine, with platyspondyly and Scheuermann-like lesions at an unusually low age of onset, and radiological features mimicking JRA of the peripheral joints, is the clue to the diagnosis of this rare autosomal-recessive disease. This case is the first to document the MRI features of PPD of the spine. (orig.)

  9. Quantum variational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowska, Agnieszka B

    2014-01-01

    This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of its results is that they are able to deal with nondifferentiable (even discontinuous) functions, which are important in applications. Possible applications in economics are discussed. Economists model time as continuous or discrete. Although individual economic decisions are generally made at discrete time intervals, they may well be less than perfectly synchronized in ways discrete models postulate. On the other hand, the usual assumption that economic activity takes place continuously, is nothing else than a convenient abstraction that in many applications is far from reality. The Hahn quantum calculus helps to bridge the gap between the two families of models: continuous and discrete. Quantum Variational Calculus is self-contained and unified in presentation. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to the quantum calculus of variations fo...

  10. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 8. Variational Monte Carlo Technique: Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. General Article Volume 19 Issue 8 August 2014 pp 713-739 ...

  11. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  12. General quantum variational calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur M. C. Brito da Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new variational calculus based in the general quantum difference operator recently introduced by Hamza et al. In particular, we obtain optimality conditions for generalized variational problems where the Lagrangian may depend on the endpoints conditions and a real parameter, for the basic and isoperimetric problems, with and without fixed boundary conditions. Our results provide a generalization to previous results obtained for the $q$- and Hahn-calculus.

  13. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  14. ARGUS progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darden, C.W. III.

    1982-01-01

    On September 7th, 1982, following four years of planning and construction, the magnetic solenoid detector ARGUS was moved into one of the two interaction regions of the electron-positron storage ring DORIS. A month later the ring started delivering luminosity for physics research, specifically, the study of the formation and decay of members of the Upsilon family of mesons. These mesons are bound states, b anti b, of the heaviest of the five known quarks and therefore of considerable interest. This report describes the progress made during the year from March 1982 to March 1983 with emphasis on the experience gained during the first running period

  15. HSX progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Brief statements on the progress of the design and construction of the HSX experiment are reported. Topics covered include the modular and auxiliary coil systems, the coil support structure, vacuum vessel, the ECH system, the magnet power supply and site. The proposed budget for Year 2 (August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1995) is presented. The effects of a flat funding profile (based on Year 2 budget level of $1137K) on out-years and the HSX project schedule are discussed. The stretching out of the program to accommodate the reduced funding profile should result in only a slight delay in HSX operations

  16. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  17. [Research progress on fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cheng, Na; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Xue-Nian

    2013-06-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonosis caused by Fasciola spp. It can cause pathological damages to human liver and gallbladder, as well as economic loss in animal husbandry. Fascioliasis can be easily misdiagnosed with other hepatobiliary diseases. The appearance of resistance to triclabendazole is an issue problem for fascioliasis control. Therefore, research for better diagnostic methods, effective drugs and vaccines become to the focus of fascioliasis control. This article summarizes the progress on epidemiological status, diagnostic method, therapy, drug resistance, vaccine and omics of fascioliasis.

  18. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, B. Utkin

    2011-10-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  19. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkin, Andrei B.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. TASCC Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    The TASCC (Tandem Accelerator-Superconducting Cyclotron) facility is devoted to developing and providing beams for an experimental program of basic nuclear research. Beam was on target for 2901 hours during the period of interest. The cyclotron provided beam for 524 hours, and tandem beams were used for a total of 3940 hours. The most exciting experimental result was the first evidence of a rotational band with the characteristics of hyperdeformation: a ridge-valley structure in 152 Dy. This progress report details experimental results and instrumentation and facility development over the period. (L.L.) (refs., tabs., figs.)

  1. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  2. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsu, Motoichi (ed.) [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with security. These topics are reviewed by seven leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics. (orig.)

  3. Impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on seasonal variation of heavy metals in a coastal lagoon Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Garza-Pérez, R; Noreña-Barroso, E; Oceguera-Vargas, I

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of geochemical and environmental factors on seasonal variation in metals in Yucatan's Chelem lagoon. Anthropogenic activities discharge non-treated wastewater directly into it with detrimental environmental consequences. Accordingly, this study established the spatial and temporal patterns of fine grain sediments and concentrations of heavy metals. Multivariate analyses showed fine grain facies deposition, transition sites dominated by fine grain transport, and fine grain erosion sites. Spatial and temporal variations of heavy metals concentration were significant for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb. As, Cd, and Sn were as much as 12 times higher than SQuiRTs standards (Buchman 2008). The results indicate that aquifer water is bringing metals from relatively far inland and releasing them into the lagoon. Thus, it appears that the contamination of this lagoon is highly complex and must take into account systemic connections with inland anthropogenic activates and pollution, as well as local factors.

  4. Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia misdiagnosed as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia misdiagnosed as seronegative juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ozgur Taspinar, Fatih Kelesoglu, Yasar Keskin, Murat Uludag. Abstract. Background: Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a rare spondylo- epi-metaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). It can be confused with juvenile ...

  5. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the timing and history of amphibolite facies gold mineralisation in the Southern Cross area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, R.W.; Guise, P.G.; Rex, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Cross Greenstone Belt in Western Australia contains structurally controlled, hydrothermal gold deposits which are thought to have formed at or near the peak of amphibolite facies regional metamorphism during the Late Archaean. Although the geological features of deposits in the area are well documented. conflicting genetic models and ore-fluid sources have been used to explain the observed geological data. This paper presents new 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data which suggest that the thermal history of the Southern Cross area after the peak of regional metamorphism was more complex than has previously been suggested. After the main gold mineralisation event prior to ca 2620 Ma, the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages from amphiboles and biotites sampled from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing veins indicate that temperatures remained elevated in the region of 500 deg C for between 20 and 70 million years. These amphiboles and biotites from individual deposits yield ages that are in good agreement with one another to a high precision. implying increased cooling rates after the long period of elevated temperatures. Along the Southern Cross Greenstone Belt. however. amphibole-biotite pairs from the alteration selvages of gold-bearing quartz veins. while remaining in good agreement with one another, vary between deposits from ca 2560 Ma to ca 2440 Ma. Amphiboles from metabasalts that are associated with regional metamorphism and not hydrothermal alteration contain numerous exsolution lamellae that reduce the effective closure temperature of the amphiboles and yield geologically meaningless ages. These age relationships show that the thermal history of the area did not follow a simple cooling path and the area may have been tectonically active for a long period after the main gold mineralisation event before ca 2620 Ma. Such data may provide important constraints on subsequent genetic modelling of gold mineralisation and metamorphism. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia

  6. Scaling-Up Ionic Liquid-Based Technologies: How Much Do We Care About Their Toxicity? Prima Facie Information on 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadjoo, Shaghayegh; Berton, Paula; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D

    2018-02-01

    The potential of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) to dissolve a variety of biopolymers such as cellulose and chitin, makes it an attractive candidate for scaled-up industrial utilization. In fact, the first steps towards its use at industrial scale have been taken. This increases the urgency to fill the knowledge gaps in its toxicity and environmental impact in order to predict and control its environmental fate. In this mini-review, we discuss the available literature surrounding this key IL. The literature (through the analysis of toxicity of the anion and the cation separately) suggests that [C2mim][OAc] is a relatively safe choice for industrial applications. However, because the IL should be considered as a compound, with unique properties arising from the interactions between the ions, comprehensive toxicity information for this particular IL is still required. To decide, prima facie, if this IL is toxic or not, evaluation of its influence on human health and ecotoxicity is needed prior to its large scale utilization. We chose in this mini-review to focus on toxicity surrounding this IL and evaluate what is known and what is not. Here with all the information in hand, we hope that the urgent need for [C2mim][OAc] toxicological assessment before it can be used in numerous technologies is highlighted. In the near future, we expect that the assessment of toxicity and environmental fate and impact can be integrated directly into any research into the industrial utilization of this IL and any others contemplated for industrial application. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Stonewall Mountain Volcanic Center, southern Nevada: Stratigraphic, structural, and facies relations of outflow sheets, near-vent tuffs, and intracaldera units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Steven I.; Noble, Donald C.

    1989-05-01

    Directly south and southeast of Stonewall Mountain, Nevada, a depression and north facing caldera scarp were formed during and(or) after eruption of the Spearhead Member of the late Miocene Stonewall Flat Tuff. Abundant large lithic and juvenile blocks are present in the Spearhead Member within 0.5 km of this topographic margin but absent elsewhere in the ash-flow sheet, consistent with eruption from vents in the Stonewall Mountain area. Within about 100,000 years, comendite tuff of the overlying Civet Cat Canyon Member of the Stonewall Flat Tuff buried the depression and associated scarp. The Civet Cat Canyon Member is traceable continuously to the north from an outflow sheet capping northwestern Pahute Mesa, into near-vent tuff on the southeastern flank of Stonewall Mountain. Proximal outflow-sheet tuff locally exhibits strong rheomorphic disruption and is overlain without a cooling break by surge, flow, and fall deposits of trachytic composition. Much of Stonewall Mountain is composed of welded tuff and megabreccia interpreted as intracaldera tuff of the Civet Cat Canyon Member, strongly suggesting that the vent area of the member was largely within Stonewall Mountain. Welded tuff of trachytic composition comprises an important part of the intracaldera Civet Cat Canyon Member, which was intruded by dikes and plugs of trachyte and rhyolite. Juvenile inclusions of basalt dispersed in near-vent facies trachyte tuff provide direct evidence for the high-level involvement of basaltic magma in the evolution of the highly potassic Stonewall Mountain center. Complex discordant compaction foliations and the widespread presence of megabreccia within the intracaldera tuff suggest, following Foley (1978), cauldron subsidence by piecemeal collapse during eruption of the Civet Cat Canyon Member. The elevation of intracaldera tuff and intrusions in Stonewall Mountain above the surrounding ashflow sheet suggests a significant amount of magmatic uplift, perhaps involving the

  8. Facies analysis of the Balta Formation: Evidence for a large late Miocene fluvio-deltaic system in the East Carpathian Foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshko, Anton; Matoshko, Andrei; de Leeuw, Arjan; Stoica, Marius

    2016-08-01

    Deposits of the Balta Fm are preserved in a large arcuate sediment body that covers about 60,000 km2 and is up to 350 m thick. The Balta Fm spans ca. 5 Ma as constrained by underlying Tortonian (Bessarabian) and overlying Messinian (early Pontian) Paratethys strata. It contains frequent terrestrial mammal fossils and fresh- as well as brackish-water (Paratethys) molluscs and ostracods. Over the past 140 years our understanding of the sedimentary architecture of the formation and its origins has remained in its infancy, which has limited insight into the evolution of the East Carpathian Foreland. Here, we provide the first modern sedimentary facies analysis of the Balta Fm, which is integrated with an extensive review of previously published local literature. It is supported with micropalaeontological results and a wealth of historical borehole information. We show that the Balta Fm has a tripartite vertical division. Its lowermost part is clay dominated and consists of subordinate delta front sand bodies interspersed between muds. The middle unit contains separate delta plain channels or channel belts encased in thick muds. These are overlain by a unit with amalgamated delta plain channel deposits with only minor amounts of associated mud. The abundance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures in channel sands, the absence of peats (or coals) and the presence of calcareous nodules suggest a strongly seasonal and relatively dry climate with a flashy discharge regime. Deposition of the Balta Fm in an area previously characterized by distal shelf and prodelta environments indicates large-scale progradation triggered by high sediment volume from the uplifting Carpathian Orogen and enhanced by a general lowering of Paratethys sea-level. The tripartite internal architecture of the Balta Fm indicates that progradation continued during deposition. Its wedge-shaped geometry suggests that tectonic activity in the Carpathians generated a 300 km wide foreland basin that

  9. Facies-architecture of fossil arid siliciclastic depositional systems as outcrop analogue for Rotliegend reservoirs. Literature study; Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Ablagerungsraeume als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A.

    1999-08-01

    In this project a literature-based study was carried out in order to document the facies-architecture of siliciclastic sediments from arid environments and to investigate their suitability as outcrop-analogues for the strata of the Southern Permian Basin. The report resulting from this investigation presents possible analogues and case-studies. Three Formations (Flechtingen Sandstone, Corrie Sandstone and Cedar Mesa Sandstone of the Cutler Group) are especially well suited to serve as outcrop analogue for the 'Rotliegend' Sediments of the Southern Permian Basin. Possible analogues are documented at various scales, ranging from bed-scale to formation scale. Also, special attention was paid to general trends and what factors control them. To make a comparison of Formations from different settings possible, criteria were elaborated to qualify the relevant controlling factors. The catalog itself is preceded by a comprehensive preface, that introduces to the subject and points out the connection between the primary sediment fabric and its petrophysical properties. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses DGMK Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Literaturstudie durchgefuehrt, welche die Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Sedimente darstellt und auf ihre Eignung als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog untersucht. Die vorliegende Dokumentation stellt verschiedene moegliche Analoge und Fallbeispiele dar, wobei drei Abfolgen als besonders geeignet erscheinen. Es wurden Kriterien erarbeitet, die relevante Kontrollfaktoren qualifizieren, um einen Vergleich verschiedener arid-klastischer Sedimentationsraeume zu ermoeglichen. Die Bandbreite der Darstellung moeglicher Analoge umfasst das gesamte Spektrum vom Gefuegemassstab bis hin zu genetischen Einheiten und beleuchtet die jeweiligen Steuerungsfaktoren der Ablagerung. Der eigentlichen Dokumentation wurde eine umfassende Einleitung vorangestellt, welche in die Thematik einfuehrt und Zusammenhaenge zwischen primaerem

  10. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  11. Facies-architecture of fossil arid siliciclastic depositional systems as outcrop analogue for Rotliegend reservoirs. Literature study; Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Ablagerungsraeume als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog. Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmen, A

    1999-08-01

    In this project a literature-based study was carried out in order to document the facies-architecture of siliciclastic sediments from arid environments and to investigate their suitability as outcrop-analogues for the strata of the Southern Permian Basin. The report resulting from this investigation presents possible analogues and case-studies. Three Formations (Flechtingen Sandstone, Corrie Sandstone and Cedar Mesa Sandstone of the Cutler Group) are especially well suited to serve as outcrop analogue for the 'Rotliegend' Sediments of the Southern Permian Basin. Possible analogues are documented at various scales, ranging from bed-scale to formation scale. Also, special attention was paid to general trends and what factors control them. To make a comparison of Formations from different settings possible, criteria were elaborated to qualify the relevant controlling factors. The catalog itself is preceded by a comprehensive preface, that introduces to the subject and points out the connection between the primary sediment fabric and its petrophysical properties. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses DGMK Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Literaturstudie durchgefuehrt, welche die Faziesarchitektur fossiler arid-klastischer Sedimente darstellt und auf ihre Eignung als Rotliegend-Reservoiranalog untersucht. Die vorliegende Dokumentation stellt verschiedene moegliche Analoge und Fallbeispiele dar, wobei drei Abfolgen als besonders geeignet erscheinen. Es wurden Kriterien erarbeitet, die relevante Kontrollfaktoren qualifizieren, um einen Vergleich verschiedener arid-klastischer Sedimentationsraeume zu ermoeglichen. Die Bandbreite der Darstellung moeglicher Analoge umfasst das gesamte Spektrum vom Gefuegemassstab bis hin zu genetischen Einheiten und beleuchtet die jeweiligen Steuerungsfaktoren der Ablagerung. Der eigentlichen Dokumentation wurde eine umfassende Einleitung vorangestellt, welche in die Thematik einfuehrt und Zusammenhaenge zwischen primaerem Sedimentgefuege und

  12. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto; Bando, Mitsuaki.

    1991-01-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.)

  13. Progress in computational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russek, A.

    1975-06-01

    Progress has been made in calculation of cross-sections for dielectronic and radiative recombination when hot electrons are incident on partially stripped impurity ions. Calculations were completed for the cases of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons incident on ions of arbitrary Z with ionization state consistent with a 1 keV plasma temperature. It was found that dielectronic recombination dominates radiative recombination by a factor of 100 at 1 keV incident electron energy to a factor of 1000 at 10 keV incident electron energy. The work is now being extended to other plasma temperatures and is being improved by more accurate calculation of the matrix elements involved. Progress was also made in the calculation of accurate bremsstrahlung and higher order radiative processes which also occur when hot electrons are incident on partially stripped impurity ions. Formal expressions for the matrix elements have been obtained for cross-sections in a fully relativistic partial wave analysis for bremsstrahlung radiation both with and without electron excitation of the target ion. Final evaluation now awaits the evaluation of the relativistic radial integrals involved in these matrix elements. (U.S.)

  15. Ghrelin and cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Hsiao, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function. Emerging evidences have revealed ghrelin's function in regulating several processes related to cancer progression, especially in metastasis and proliferation. We further show the relative GHRL and GHSR expression in pan-cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), suggesting the potential pathological role of the axis in cancers. This review focuses on ghrelin's biological function in cancer progression, and reveals its clinical significance especially the impact on cancer patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP 2 -800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment [fr

  17. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research efforts were concentrated on two main topics. One was to obtain a fit between single-mode nonlinear saturation theory and experimental observations on the PR-6 mirror device. A model of this experiment yields good agreement between predictions of the time variation of the fluctuating potential level, the floating potential, the mode wavelength and mode frequency, and observations. The second topic concerned single-mode Landau damping. The previous results of O-Neil-Morales were confirmed, but in much simpler form with no multiple sums. No longer-time corrections of any significant size were uncovered

  18. Ore horizons, ore facies, mineralogy and geochemistry of volconogenic massive sulfide (VMS deposits of the Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu deposit, southwest of Qamsar - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayeq Hashemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu deposits are located15 km southwest of the town of Qamsar and approximately 7 km south west of the Qazaan village, in the Urumieh- Dokhtar magmatic arc. The Kashan region that is situated in west-central Iran hosts several barite-base metal deposits and occurrences, the biggest ones are the Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu (case considered in this study and the Tapeh-Sorkh (Khalajmaasomi et al., 2010 and Dorreh Ba (Nazari, 1994 deposits. Previous researchers (Izadi, 1996; Farokhpey et al., 2010 have proposed an epithermal model for formation of the Varandan deposit. However, based on some feature of the deposit, it seems that this genetic model may not be correct. Therefore, it is necessary to do more precise research studies on the deposit. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the genesis of the Varandan deposit based on geological, ore facies, mineralogy, wall rock alterations, and geochemical studies. Materials and methods A field study and sampling was performed during the summer of 2013. To assess the geochemical characteristics of the deposit, about 17 systematic samples from different ore facies of the first, second and third sub-horizon were collected for petrography and mineralogy, and for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy(ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF geochemical analysis methods. The microscopic studies were done in the optics laboratory of the Shahrood University, and the geochemical analyzes were conducted in laboratories of the Center of Research and Mineral Processing Ore Minerals of Iran, Karaj, Iran. Results The host sequence in the Varandan deposit involves three units, from bottom to top: Unit1: grey, green siliceous tuff, brecciated tuff, crystal tuff and andesite; Unit2: white grey nummulitic limestone, limy tuff and marl: and Unit3: tuff breccia and crystal lithic tuff. Mineralization in the Varandan deposit has occurred as four ore sub

  19. Association for Progressive Communication : Institutional ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide Index. Orbicom's Digital Divide Index is a rigorous statistical tool for benchmarking access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), and monitoring progress toward the... View moreMonitoring Progress Toward the Information ...

  20. Fimbrial phase variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandige, Surabhi; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question if the fimb......Surface fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli facilitate sensing, adhesion and even invasion of host epithelial cells. While it is known that the pathogen has the potential to express a plethora of fimbrial variants susceptible to rapid phase ON/OFF variation, it is an open question...... if the fimbrial diversity seen at the population level is the product of random stochasticity or a concerted effort based on active communication. Here we discuss the possibility of a mechanism alternative to a stochastic fimbrial phase variation model affecting the dynamics of a heterogeneous population....

  1. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in linguistics: those that see linguistic norms as antithetical to a descriptive and variational linguistics. Once such a re-evaluation has taken place, however, the social recontextualization of cognition will enable linguistics (including sociolinguistics as an integral part), to eliminate the cracks...... that an evolutionary account can reintegrate the opposed fragments into a whole picture that puts each of them in their ‘ecological position’ with respect to each other. Empirical usage facts should be seen in the context of operational norms in relation to which actual linguistic choices represent adaptations....... Variational patterns should be seen in the context of structural categories without which there would be only ‘differences’ rather than variation. And emergence, individual choice, and flux should be seen in the context of the individual’s dependence on lineages of community practice sustained by collective...

  2. Ladder variational autoencoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...

  3. Ladder Variational Autoencoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...

  4. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  5. Cosmological constants and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates

  6. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND FACIES ARCHITECTURE OF THE CRETACEOUS MANCOS SHALE ON AND NEAR THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO-THEIR RELATION TO SITES OF OIL ACCUMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    Oil distribution in the lower part of the Mancos Shale seems to be mainly controlled by fractures and by sandier facies that are dolomite-cemented. Structure in the area of the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation consists of the broad northwest- to southeast-trending Chaco slope, the deep central basin, and the monocline that forms the eastern boundary of the San Juan Basin. Superimposed on the regional structure are broad low-amplitude folds. Fractures seem best developed in the areas of these folds. Using sequence stratigraphic principals, the lower part of the Mancos Shale has been subdivided into four main regressive and transgressive components. These include facies that are the basinal time equivalents to the Gallup Sandstone, an overlying interbedded sandstone and shale sequence time equivalent to the transgressive Mulatto Tongue of the Mancos Shale, the El Vado Sandstone Member which is time equivalent to part of the Dalton Sandstone, and an unnamed interbedded sandstone and shale succession time equivalent to the regressive Dalton Sandstone and transgressive Hosta Tongue of the Mesaverde Group. Facies time equivalent to the Gallup Sandstone underlie an unconformity of regional extent. These facies are gradually truncated from south to north across the Reservation. The best potential for additional oil resources in these facies is in the southern part of the Reservation where the top sandier part of these facies is preserved. The overlying unnamed wedge of transgressive rocks produces some oil but is underexplored, except for sandstones equivalent to the Tocito Sandstone. This wedge of rocks is divided into from two to five units. The highest sand content in this wedge occurs where each of the four subdivisions above the Tocito terminates to the south and is overstepped by the next youngest unit. These terminal areas should offer the best targets for future oil exploration. The El Vado Sandstone Member overlies the transgressive wedge. It produces most of

  7. Sedimentary facies analysis of a high-frequency, small-scale, peritidal carbonate sequence in the Lower Jurassic of the Tripolis carbonate unit (central western Crete, Greece: Long-lasting emergence and fossil laminar dolocretes horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A. Pomoni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a Lower Jurassic (late Liassic cyclic lagoonal–peritidal stratigraphic unit outcropping in central western Crete (Tripolis unit, which corresponds to the eastern (internal part of the mainland Gavrovo-Tripolis platform, the most significant external platform of the Hellenides. The studied Tripolis carbonate sequence consists of meter-scale, shallowing-upward successions of restricted inner-carbonate platform facies, including cyclically repeated subtidal, intertidal and supratidal facies, that are separated by erosion surfaces (elementary cycles. Each cycle starts with relatively open-marine facies, which are overlain by shallower, more restricted facies (tidal flat progradation. The lithofacies association includes dolomitic intraclastic–peloidal–bioclastic wackestones–packstones/floatstones and grainstones/rudstones dominated by a restricted shallow-marine fauna (bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and seldom benthic foraminifers, representing a shallow subtidal to intertidal, moderately high-energy environment within an inner-platform setting (peritidal environment to restricted lagoon. This lithofacies association has been intermittently subaerially exposed and has undergone diagenetic processes in an inter- or supratidal environment, exhibiting features of vadose diagenesis and pedogenesis due to long-lasting exposure along certain horizons. The peritidal facies are capped by dolocretes controlled by root-activities (laminar dolocretes, peloidal–pisoid dolocretes and massive dolocretes, marking the end of each depositional cycle, and, thus, distinguishing the successive episodes of a prolonged subaerial exposure period and birth of paleosol horizons. Dolocretes consist a diagenetic facies, characterized by several vadose and pedogenic fabrics, including fenestral cavities with geopetal structures, “flower spar” to blocky sparry cement in primary pores, micritic coatings, crudely pelleted walls, alveolar

  8. Progress report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The O.P.R.I. is in charge of environmental general surveillance and follow-up of natural exposures; To monitor the nuclear installations, it carries out samples campaigns. The technical follow-up of medical installations concerns it too. The workers radiation protection as well as the public protection are in its attributions. We find in particular, three sanitary studies: about the North Cotentin, (the question of excess of leukemia or not, and due or not to the facility of La hague) Nogent-sur-Marne (the case of a nursery school built on a old factory using radium), and the situation of populations living in French Polynesia, areas that have worried the public with alarmist announcements published in newspapers. All the results relative to the radiations measurements for 1998 appear in this progress report. (N.C.)

  9. Progress report 1981 - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, G.; Rauch, H.; Balcar, E.; Buchtela, K.; Schwertfuehrer, W.; Vana, N.

    1984-06-01

    This progress report describes the research activities of the Atom-institute of the Austrian Universities of the period 1981-1983. The chapter headings are: (1) Electron- and X-ray physics, thermoluminescence and archeometry. (2) Nuclear physics. (3) Nuclear techniques, electronics and EDP. (4) Neutron- and solid state physics with neutron scattering, low temperature physics, theoretical solid state physics and preparation technique. (5) Radiation chemistry. (6) Radiation protection and dosimetry. Each chapter gives a comprimated overview about the research work done in the described period, illustrated by diagrams and tables, a comprehensive list of publications, each citation provided with an (mostly English) Abstract and a comprehensive list of thesis, which are completed or under preparation in the corresponding working group. Additional chapters give lists of educational work, verbal presentation, cooperations with other institutions and personnel. An annex of photos gives an additional impression of the institute. (A.N.)

  10. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  11. Progressive amusia and aprosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confavreux, C; Croisile, B; Garassus, P; Aimard, G; Trillet, M

    1992-09-01

    We report a case of slowly progressive amusia and aprosody in association with orofacial and eyelid apraxias. The patient was independent in daily living activities. Insight, judgment, and behavior were intact. Her language was normal, and she demonstrated no limb, dressing, or constructional apraxia. She had no prosopagnosia, no visuospatial disturbances, and no memory impairment. Imaging studies (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography) indicated a selective disorder of the right frontal and temporal regions. Review of the literature shows an increasing number of reports of this degenerative syndrome affecting the left dominant hemisphere and language areas, whereas cases of the syndrome affecting the right hemisphere are rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which aprosody and amusia were associated with a focal cortical degeneration.

  12. 1985. Progress annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Tore Supra construction has been vigorously continued. The whole cryogenic system has been entirely delivered. On TFR priority has been given to electron cyclotron resonance heating; but also neutral heating mechanisms, pellet injection, plasma-wall interaction in the presence of pumped limiter, impurity transport and plasma turbulence have been studied and progress on diagnostics have been made. On Petula, with lower hybrid wave, the numerous results on ion heating, current drive, plasma stability in the presence of non-inductive current and on Tore Supra technical problems are important. At last, theoretical and numerical results are concerned with plasma equilibrium macroscopic evolution of plasma, RF heating, plasma instabilities, magnetic islands, turbulence, transport coefficients and spectroscopy [fr

  13. Vivitron - Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 activity report of the Strasbourg Nuclear Research, concerning the Vivitron project, is presented. After having mounted all the Van de Graaff elements of the Vivitron needed for the generator tests, the tank was closed in July 1990. It was then put under vacuum, leaks were searched for and repaired. Voltage tests started in December and a voltage of 17.6 MV was reached in February. Modifications on the charging system and to improvement of the column protection against sparks are necessary before the voltage tests can be carried on. Great progress has been made in the setting up of the new Vivitron injector and analysing magnet. In this report are included the description of project different development steps, the Vivitron budget and the list of publications, congress contributions and internal reports. 18 figs

  14. Progressive brain compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuomas, K.AA.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Vlajkovic, S.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Ganz, J.C.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Nilsson, P.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Bergstroem, K.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Ponten, U.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Zwetnow, N.N.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo

    1993-01-01

    Continuous recording of vital physiological variables and sequential MR imaging were performed simultaneously during continuous expansion of an epidural rubber balloon over the left hemisphere in anaesthetised dogs. Balloon expansion led to a progressive and slgithly nonlinear rise in intracranial CSF pressures and a full in local perfusion pressures. Changes in systemic arterial pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate usually appeared at a balloon volume of 4% to 5% of the intracranial volume (reaction volume), together with a marked transtentorial pressure gradient and MR imaging changes consistent with tentorial herniation. Respiratory arrest occurred at a balloon volume of approximately 10% of the intracranial volume (apnoea volume), which was associated with occulsion of the cisterna magna, consistent with some degree of foramen magnum herniation. Increase in tissue water was observed beginning at approximately the reaction volume, presumably due to ischaemic oedema, due to the fall in perfusion pressures. (orig.)

  15. Muon collider progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  16. Progress in nanophotonics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology and advanced systems. It reviews light-emitting diodes and lasers made of silicon bulk crystals in which the light emission principle is based on dressed-photon-phonons. Further topics include: theoretical studies of optoelectronic properties of molecular condensates for organic solar cells and light-emitting devices, the basics of topological light beams together with their important properties for laser spectroscopy, spatially localized modes emerging in nonlinear discrete dynamic systems and theoretical methods to explore the dynamics of nanoparticles by the light-induced force of tailored light fields under thermal fluctuations. These topics are reviewed by leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  17. Progress in nanophotonics 4

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the recent progress in the field of nanophotonics. It contains review-like chapters focusing on various but mutually related topics in nanophotonics written by the world’s leading scientists. Following the elaboration of the idea of nanophotonics, much theoretical and experimental work has been carried out, and several novel photonic devices, high-resolution fabrication, highly efficient energy conversion, and novel information processing have been developed in these years. Novel theoretical models describing the nanometric light-matter interaction, nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for photon breeding processes and near-field‐assisted chemical reactions as well as light‐matter interaction are also explained in this book. It describes dressed photon technology and its applications, including implementation of nanophotonic devices and systems, fabrication methods and performance characteristics of ultrathin, ultraflexible organic light‐emitting diodes, organic solar cells ...

  18. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  19. Isotopic variations in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.N.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1981-01-01

    The presence of large internal 16 O variability in ordinary chondrites greatly extends the range of meteorite types in which this phenomenon has been observed. These results may lead to identification of major gas and dust reservoirs in the cloud from which the Solar System formed. The demonstration that live 107 Pd was present in the differentiated parent bodies of some iron meteorites supports the million year time scale between a major nucleosynthetic event and Solar System formation, as implied by the presence of live 26 Al in carbonaceous chondrites. However, the variability of radiogenic 26 Mg abundances in these meteorites makes it clear that the data cannot be interpreted simply in terms of time variations. Models of nucleosynthesis for elements from calcium to the iron peak should be aided by the new observations of abundances of titanium isotopes. Progress has been made in establishing the carrier phases of isotopically anomalous xenon and krypton. The apparent location of anomalous xenon and 14 N-rich nitrogen in identical carriers supports the notion that nucleosynthetic anomalies in nitrogen are also present in Allende. (author)

  20. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  1. On exterior variational calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Exterior variational calculus is introduced through examples in field theory. It provides a very simple technique to decide on the existence of Lagrangians for given equations of motions and, in the case, to find them. Only local aspects are discussed but the analogy to exterior calculus on finite dimensional manifolds is complete, strongly suggesting its suitability to the study of topological aspects. (Author) [pt

  2. Variational transition state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces

  3. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  4. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  5. The variational spiked oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ullah, N.

    1992-08-01

    A variational analysis of the spiked harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian -d 2 / d x 2 + x 2 + δ/ x 5/2 , δ > 0, is reported in this work. A trial function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is suggested. The results are excellent for a large range of values of the coupling parameter. (author)

  6. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  7. The nonholonomic variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz

    2009-05-08

    A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic

  8. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  9. Progress in the leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galton, D.A.G.; Spiers, A.S.D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent work on the epidemiology of leukemia is reviewed in relation to factors of possible etiologic importance. There is still much geographic variation in the accuracy of diagnosis, the reliability of death certification, and the provision of national registries for classifying leukemia according to cytologic type. This variation and the low incidence of all types of leukemia make difficult the recognition of potentially significant distributions or trends that might suggest the operation of environmental leukemogens and their interaction with genetically determined susceptibility. Exposure to ionizing radiation remains the only predisposing factor beyond doubt for acute and chronic granulocytic leukemia, but its exact role remains obscure. There is no evidence that radiation plays a part in the etiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the population of survivors of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion of 1945, the incidence of leukemia (mainly CGL), though declining in the second 10-year period, was still higher than that of Japan as a whole. The suggestion that the exposure of women to radiation could increase the likelihood of leukemia in their still unconceived children was examined by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in a prospective study of 17,700 children, and no increase in the incidence of leukemia was found in the children of parents who had been heavily exposed to radiation before conception. In the 1960's a decline in the United States mortality rates for leukemia among the white population was recorded. This decline was most marked in children below age 5, and it was suggested that the decline could have resulted from a drop in the use of diagnostic radiology in pregnant women following the reports in 1956 of the Medical Research Council and the National Academy of Sciences on the biologic hazards of radiation. A similar decline in mortality was reported from Norway. (464 references) (U.S.)

  10. The Progress of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Introduction; 1. Scope of lectures. State of physics in 1875. Science of energy. Theory of gases. Elastic solid theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electricity. Training of students. Maxwell's view. Accurate measurement and discovery of Argon. German methods. Kirchhoff's laboratory. Wilhelm Weber's laboratory. The two laboratories of Berlin. Laboratory instruction at Manchester. Position of physics in mathematical tripos at Cambridge. Todhunter's views. The Cavendish laboratory. Spectrum analysis. The radiometer. Theory of vortex atom; 2. Action at a distance. Elastic solid of theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electrical action. Electro-magnetic theory. Verification of electromagnetic theory by Hertz. Electro-magnetic waves. Wireless telegraphy. First suggestion of molecular structure of electricity. Early experiments in the electric discharge through gases. Kathode rays. Works of Goldstein and Crookes. Hittorf's investigations. Own work on the discharge through gases. Ionization of gases. Magnetic deflexion of kathode rays. J. J. Thomson's experiments. Measurement of atomic charge; 3. Roentgen's discovery. Theories of Roentgen rays. Ionizing power of Roentgen rays. Conduction of electricity through ionized gases. Discovery of radio-activity. Discovery of radium. Magnetic deflexion of rays emitted by radio-active bodies. Discovery of emanations. Theory of radio-active change. Decay of the atom. Connexion between helium and the a ray. Helium produced by radium. Strutt's researches on helium accumulated in rocks. Electric inertia. Constitution of atom. J. J. Thomson's theory of Roentgen radiation. The Michelson-Morley experiment. Principle of relativity. The Zeeman effect. Other consequences of electron theory. Contrast between old and modern school of physics; 4. Observational sciences. Judgment affected by scale. Terrestrial magnetism. Existence of potential. Separation of internal and external causes. Diurnal variation. Magnetic storms. Their causes. Solar

  11. Impact of development and urbanization on variation of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial and temporal variations of the physico-chemical water quality parameters, microfauna and micro-flora composition of the Nima Creek in Accra vividly illustrate the environmental problems associated with water bodies in a community where development and urbanization are in progress. Monthly water and ...

  12. TLR5 signaling, commensal microbiota and systemic tumor promoting inflammation: the three parcae of malignant progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-08-01

    We have reported that TLR5-mediated recognition of commensal microbiota modulates systemic tumor-promoting inflammation and malignant progression of tumors at distal locations. Approximately 7-10% of the general population harbors a deleterious single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR5, implicating a novel role for genetic variation during the initiation and progression of cancer.

  13. Variational estimates for the mass gap of SU(2) Euclidean lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this letter is to report on the progress made in our understanding of series expansions for the masses in lattice gauge theories by the application of variational techniques to the Euclidean SU(2) lattice gauge theory. (Auth.)

  14. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  15. Productivity, facies and stable-isotope records of OAE2 (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the NW European epicontinental sea: from the English Chalk to North Sea black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Olde, Kate; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Gröcke, Darren

    2013-04-01

    The Late Cretaceous (100.5 - 66.0 Ma) provides perhaps the best example of how the Earth System may function under long-term extreme greenhouse conditions. Rapidly rising global temperatures indicate that we are heading 'back to the Cretaceous' within a few hundred years, so a better understanding of this time interval is essential. The beginning of the Late Cretaceous was characterized by a period of rapidly rising eustatic sea level, the Cenomanian transgression, which flooded continental margins and established large areas of new epicontinental sea that accumulated thick sequences of pelagic and hemipelagic carbonate (chalk). Highest global temperatures were reached during the early part of the Turonian Stage (93.9 - 89.8 Ma). This period of dramatic palaeoenvironmental change was accompanied by one the largest perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the Mesozoic: Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which was characterized by a 500 kyr episode of oceanic anoxia, widespread black shale deposition, biotic turnover, and a large global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion (2 - 6 ‰ ∂13C) recorded in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval exposed at Eastbourne, southern England, has become established as a European reference section for OAE2. Here, and elsewhere in Europe, the base of the ∂13C excursion is coincident with a marked facies change from rhythmically bedded grey chalks and marls, to a >8 m thick package of dark greenish-grey marl - the Plenus Marl. The termination of OAE2 occurs 6 m above, in a package of pale-yellow-weathering nodular chalks with prominent marl seams. Sediments are organic lean (10 wt%. The onshore equivalent in eastern England (the Black Band) is similarly organic-rich, as are comparable sections in northern Germany (e.g. Wunstorf), indicating likely fully anoxic episodes within some NW European basins. The exact stratigraphic equivalence between the onshore

  16. Application of titanium-in-quartz thermobarometry to greenschist facies veins and recrystallized quartzites in the Hsüehshan range, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kidder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy, reliability and best practises of Ti-in-quartz thermobarometry (TitaniQ in greenschist facies rocks have not been established. To address these issues, we measured Ti concentrations in rutile-bearing samples of moderately deformed, partially recrystallized quartzite and vein quartz from the Hsüehshan range, Taiwan. The spread of Ti concentrations of recrystallized grains in quartzite correlates with recrystallized grain size. Recrystallized quartz (grain size ~100–200 μm that formed during early deformation within the biotite stability field shows a marked increase in intermediate Ti-concentration grains (~1–10 ppm relative to detrital porphyroclasts (Ti ~0.1–200 ppm. Fine recrystallized quartz (~5% of the samples by area, grain size ~10–20 μm has a further restricted Ti concentration peaking at 0.8–2 ppm. This trend suggests equilibration of Ti in recrystallized quartz with a matrix phase during deformation and cooling. Unlike previously documented examples, Ti concentration in the quartzite is inversely correlated with blue cathodoluminescence. Deformation was associated with a minimum grain boundary diffusivity of Ti on the order of 10−22m2 s−1. Vein emplacement and quartzite recrystallization are independently shown to have occurred at 250–350 °C and 300–410 °C, respectively, with lithostatic pressure of 3–4 kbar (assuming a geothermal gradient of 25° km−1, and with hydrostatic fluid pressure. Estimates of the accuracy of TitaniQ at these conditions depend on whether lithostatic or fluid pressure is used in the TitaniQ calibration. Using lithostatic pressure and these temperatures, the Thomas et al. (2010 calibration yields Ti concentrations within error of concentrations measured by SIMS. If fluid pressure is instead used, predicted temperatures are ~30–40 °C too low. TitaniQ has potential to yield accurate PT information for vein emplacement and dynamic recrystallization of quartz at

  17. IPY Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2008-12-01

    We can summarize the IPY goals as: (a) make major advances in polar knowledge and understanding; (b) leave a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure; (c) excite a new generation of polar scientists and engineers, and (d) elicit exceptional interest and participation from polar residents, schoolchildren, the general public, and decision-makers, worldwide. This talk reports on the progress and prospects in each of those areas from an overall international view; separate talks will describe details of future researcher and the IPY outreach efforts. To achieve major advances in knowledge, IPY has entrained the intellectual resources of thousands of scientists, many more than expected, often from 'non- polar' nations, and representing an unprecedented breadth of scientific specialties; integration of those efforts across disciplines to achieve integrated system-level understanding remains a substantial challenge. Many national and international organizations prepare plans to sustain new and improved observational systems, but clear outcomes and the necessary resources remain elusive. International outreach networks gradually build breadth and strength, largely through IPY Polar Science Days and other internationally- coordinated IPY events. A new Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) devotes talent and energy to shaping the future of polar research. These activities and networks may, with time and with continued international coordination, achieve an exceptional level of interest and participation. In all areas, much work remains.

  18. CERN: LHC progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The push for CERN's next major project, the LHC proton collider to be built in the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel, is advancing on a wide front. For the machine itself, there has been considerable progress in the detailed design. While the main thrust is for proton-proton collisions, heavy ions are also on the LHC collision menu. On the experimental side, proposals are coming into sharper focus. For the machine, the main aim is for the highest possible proton collision energies and collision rates in the confines of the existing LEP tunnel, and the original base design looked to achieve these goals in three collision regions. Early discussions on the experimental programme quickly established that the most probable configuration would have two collision regions rather than three. This, combined with hints that the electronics of several detectors would have to handle several bunch crossings at a time, raised the question whether the originally specified bunch spacing of 15 ns was still optimal

  19. Progress in neuromorphic photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  20. Progress report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The report describes a number of areas of research at the TRIUMPH facility. Substantial progress has been made in the experiment to measure charge symmetry breaking in the n-p system. The investigations on polarized nucleon radiative capture on light nuclei have been ongoing with results of the excitation function for p + d→γ + 3 He reaction being published. Studies of the n + p→d + γ reactions are continuing. Results have been obtained in the determination of structure in the three nucleon system by studying the reaction anti d + p using tensor polarized deuterons. The Wolfenstein R-parameter in proton - 4 He elastic scattering has been measured at 500 MeV from 15 to 50 degrees (lab.) using the focal plane polarimeter on the MRS. Other experiments involving quasi-elastic scattering of polarized protons at 300 MeV, fission evaporation competition in heavy nuclei and proton-proton bremsstrahlung have been carried out. The status of the Bevelac heavy ion collaboration and the MWPC facility is also included