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Sample records for progress chicago il

  1. 78 FR 46810 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... portion of the Chicago River due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones are...-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Filming; Chicago River; Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing three temporary safety [[Page 46811

  2. 76 FR 58108 - Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ryder Cup Captain's Duel Golf Shot, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Chicago River during a golfing event that will involve hitting golf balls from land onto a... vessels from the hazards associated with golf balls being hit from land onto a stationary barge in the...

  3. 78 FR 27304 - Safety Zone; Melrose Pyrotechnics Fireworks Display; Chicago Harbor, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11. Indian Tribal... Pier in Chicago Harbor, Chicago, IL. The Captain of the Port, Lake Michigan, has determined that these fireworks displays will pose a significant risk to public safety and property. Such hazards include falling...

  4. 75 FR 41760 - Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... that will be performed during the filming of this movie. DATES: Effective Date: this rule is effective.... Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of...

  5. 75 FR 45478 - Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Transformers 3 Movie Filming, Chicago River, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the different types of stunts that will be performed during the filming of this movie. DATES... our analyses based on 13 of these statutes or executive orders. Regulatory Planning and Review This...

  6. 77 FR 55139 - Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may..., Chicago, IL. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that the Red Bull Flugtag event...

  7. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South...

  8. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the soil sampling efforts.

  9. Making Health Easier: Healthy Schools in Chicago, IL PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-21

    To help Chicago schools increase access to healthy food, Health Educator April Lillstrom utilized community partnerships to provide school gardens, salad bars, and nutrition education to students.  Created: 5/21/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/21/2013.

  10. 75 FR 435 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains were removed from the Channel Islands in Santa Barbara and.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Field Museum of Natural History professional... 407). The human remains were accessioned into the Field Museum of Natural History the same year. No...

  11. 75 FR 45659 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... possession of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL. The human remains and associated funerary... assessment of the human remains was made by the Field Museum of Natural History professional staff in... History have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(9), the human remains described above represent...

  12. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 3-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting... authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), located in Bolingbrook, Illinois. The...

  13. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ..., Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, IL, Area Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott) and AbbVie, Inc. (AbbVie) submitted a... Abbott facilities to AbbVie, now designated as Subzone 22S (S-66-2012). Abbott and Abbvie are now...

  14. 78 FR 34130 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in this... tribe or Native Hawaiian organization not identified in this notice that wish to claim these cultural....R50000] Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National...

  15. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY.... Construction on Barrier IIB has been completed. Operational and safety testing was conducted in February 2011... dispersal barrier IIA and IIB. This safety zone will be enforced daily from 7 a.m. to 11 a.m. and from 1 p.m...

  16. C. Walker-Said and J. D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Charlotte Walker-Said and John D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp.......Book review of: Charlotte Walker-Said and John D. Kelly (eds), Corporate Social Responsibility? Human Rights in the New Global Economy (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2015), 392 pp....

  17. 78 FR 21413 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... cultural items listed in this notice meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural... Natural History, Chicago, IL, that meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony... ``Apache's Medicine-man's effigy.'' Charles Owen had previously seen the figure on the Apache Reservation...

  18. 77 FR 65896 - Award of a Single-Source Replacement Grant to SOS Children's Villages Illinois in Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ....623] Award of a Single-Source Replacement Grant to SOS Children's Villages Illinois in Chicago, IL... (FYSB) announces the award of a single-source replacement grant to SOS Children's Villages Illinois in... grant. ACYF/FYSB has designated SOS Children's Villages Illinois, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T09-1080 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. 165.T09-1080 Section 165.T09-1080 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  20. 75 FR 36288 - Amended Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Coast Guard is revising its safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This revised temporary interim rule reduces the areas covered by the safety zone and RNA, and places additional restrictions on vessels that may transit the RNA.

  1. 75 FR 39460 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Chicago, IL; Fort Wayne-Marion, IN; Indianapolis, IN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...-AM21 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Chicago, IL; Fort Wayne-Marion, IN; Indianapolis, IN... wage area. These changes are based on recent consensus recommendations of the Federal Prevailing Rate... below. The Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), the national labor-management committee...

  2. 77 FR 47918 - Chicago Central and Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Central and Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, IL Chicago Central and... North Riverside, Cook County, Ill. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 60546 and... system. A copy of any petition filed with the Board should be sent to CCP's representative: Thomas J...

  3. 77 FR 17105 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: City of Chicago, IL Registration Emblem Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... section 31704; (2) Under the International Fuel Tax Agreement under section 31705 or under an applicable... through the International Fuel Tax Agreement; (3) Under a State law regarding motor vehicle license plates... Chicago Ground Transportation Tax is preempted by Federal law. Federal law prohibits States and their...

  4. Prevalence and covariates of food insecurity among residents of single-room occupancy housing in Chicago, IL, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Bowen, Sarah K; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika

    2016-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that food insecurity is a significant public health concern among people who are homeless or marginally housed. The present study assessed prevalence of food insecurity and its covariates among a group of marginally housed individuals living in single-room occupancy (SRO) dwellings, a population for which there is little extant health or nutrition research. Cross-sectional survey incorporating the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Ten private SRO residences in the Uptown neighbourhood of Chicago, IL, USA, 2013. SRO residents over 18 years of age who were able to communicate verbally in English (n 153). Food insecurity was widespread among SRO residents, with 75 % of the sample considered food insecure and 52 % meeting criteria for severe food insecurity. Bivariate analyses indicated that female gender, eating most meals at a soup kitchen, having a mental health condition, problem drinking, having at least one chronic health condition, and diabetes were all significantly associated with food insecurity. In the multivariate ordered logistic regression model, eating most meals at a soup kitchen remained as the only significant correlate of food insecurity (OR=10·13). SRO residents and other marginally housed populations face unique food access challenges. Although targeted assistance in the form of food stamps and congregate meal programmes remains critical, efforts to prevent and address food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed individuals should include policy interventions that recognize poverty as the root cause of food insecurity and aim to increase overall income and improve housing conditions.

  5. Current Research of the Roles of IL-35 in Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongbiao HUANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin(IL-35 is a new member of the interleukin-12 superfamily. Since its first report in 2007, IL-35 rapidly became a research highlight in the field of immunology. Like other IL-12 superfamily members, IL-35 was a heterodimer which was composed of an α chain P35 and a β chain Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 3 (EBI3. Recent research work revealed two distinct roles of IL-35. Firstly, IL-35 is highly expressed in some kinds of inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases and plays import roles in the pathogenesis. Secondly, IL-35 is positively expressed in some cancers and plays some roles in the process of tumor progression. Here we demonstrate the structure and the signalling of IL-35. We reviewed the the roles of IL-35 in promoting tumor progression.

  6. Increased IL-35 producing Tregs and CD19+IL-35+ cells are associated with disease progression in leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    The clinical forms of leprosy consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae; it provides an ideal model to study the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-10 and TGF-β producing Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression and M. leprae specific T cells anergy. In leprosy, involvement of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs remain unstudied. To study the role of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs in the human leprosy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA) for 48h. Intracellular cytokine IL-35 was evaluated in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells by FACS. Expression of PD-1 on CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells and its ligand (PD-L1) on B cells, CD11c cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS). Serum IL-35 level was estimated by ELISA. The frequency of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs cells were found to be high in leprosy patients (pleprosy patients. This study point out a shift in our understanding of the immunological features that mediate and regulate the immune suppression and the disease progression in leprosy patients with a new paradigm (IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs) that is beyond TGF-β and IL-10 producing Treg cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IL-4 Receptor Alpha Signaling through Macrophages Differentially Regulates Liver Fibrosis Progression and Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yen Weng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Macrophages play a key role in fibrosis progression and reversal. However, the signals that determine fibrogenic vs fibrolytic macrophage function remain ill defined. We studied the role of interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα, a potential central switch of macrophage polarization, in liver fibrosis progression and reversal. We demonstrate that inflammatory monocyte infiltration and liver fibrogenesis were suppressed in general IL-4Rα−/− as well as in macrophage-specific IL-4Rα−/− (IL-4RαΔLysM mice. However, with deletion of IL-4RαΔLysM spontaneous fibrosis reversal was retarded. Results were replicated by pharmacological intervention using IL-4Rα-specific antisense oligonucleotides. Retarded resolution was linked to the loss of M2-type resident macrophages, which secreted MMP-12 through IL-4 and IL-13-mediated phospho-STAT6 activation. We conclude that IL-4Rα signaling regulates macrophage functional polarization in a context-dependent manner. Pharmacological targeting of macrophage polarization therefore requires disease stage-specific treatment strategies. Research in Context: Alternative (M2-type macrophage activation through IL-4Rα promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis progression but speeds up fibrosis reversal. This demonstrates context dependent, opposing roles of M2-type macrophages. During reversal IL-4Rα induces fibrolytic MMPs, especially MMP-12, through STAT6. Liver-specific antisense oligonucleotides efficiently block IL-4Rα expression and attenuate fibrosis progression. Keywords: Fibrosis, IL-4 receptor alpha, Liver, Macrophage, MMP12, Progression, Reversal

  8. Increased systemic and epidermal levels of IL-17A and IL-1β promotes progression of non-segmental vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Supriya; Rani, Seema; Srivastava, Niharika; Kumar, Ravinder; Parsad, Davinder

    2017-03-01

    Non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) results from autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. The altered levels of various cytokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, the exact immune mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. To investigate the role of epidermal and systemic cytokines in active and stable NSV patients. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were checked in 42 active and 30 stable NSV patients with 30 controls. The lesional, perilesional and normal skin sections were subjected to H&E staining. The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and their respective receptors were assessed by quantitative PCR in lesional skin of both active and stable NSV skin. The MITF and IL-17A were immunolocalized in lesional, perilesional and normal skin tissue. Significant increase in the expression of inflammatory cytokines, IL-17A, IL-1β and TGF-β was observed in active patients, whereas no change was observed in stable patients. A marked reduction in epidermal thickness was observed in lesional skin sections. Significant increase in IL-17A and significant decrease in microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) expression was observed in lesional and perilesional skin sections. Moreover, qPCR analysis showed significant alterations in the mRNA levels of IL-17A, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TGF-β and their respective receptors in active and stable vitiligo patient samples. Increased levels of IL-17A and IL-1β cytokines and decreased expression of MITF suggested a possible role of these cytokines in dysregulation of melanocytic activity in the lesional skin and hence might be responsible for the progression of active vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Differences in the Relationship of IL-6 Signaling to Cancer Cachexia Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Hardee, Justin P.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Narsale, Aditi A.; Sato, Shuichi; Davis, J. Mark; Carson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating aspect of cancer cachexia is severe loss of muscle and fat mass. Though cachexia occurs in both sexes, it is not well-defined in the female. The Apc Min/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; circulating IL-6 is a critical regulator of cancer cachexia in the male Apc Min/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 signaling and cachexia progression in the female Apc Min/+ mouse. Male and female Apc Min/+ mice were examined during the initiation and progression of cachexia. Another group of females had IL-6 overexpressed between 12-14 weeks or 15-18 weeks of age to determine whether IL-6 could induce cachexia. Cachectic female Apc Min/+ mice lost body weight, muscle mass, and fat mass; increased muscle IL-6 mRNA expression was associated with these changes, but circulating IL-6 levels were not. Circulating IL-6 levels did not correlate with downstream signaling in muscle in the female. Muscle IL-6r mRNA expression and SOCS3 mRNA expression as well as muscle IL-6r protein and STAT3 phosphorylation increased with severe cachexia in both sexes. Muscle SOCS3 protein increased in cachectic females but decreased in cachectic males. IL-6 overexpression did not affect cachexia progression in female Apc Min/+ mice. Our results indicate that female Apc Min/+ mice undergo cachexia progression that is at least initially IL-6-independent. Future studies in the female will need to determine mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-6 response and cachexia induction. PMID:25555992

  10. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    carcinoma cell ines, respectively, were obtained from merican Type Culture Collection (Man- ssas, VA). Cells were maintained in Dul- ecco’s Modified...Whether the formation of these ulcers was prompted by prolonged irritation from an open wound, psychological /stress-induced defects in Il62/2 mice...Koyanagi, Y. Zhou, H. Miyamoto, Y. Tanaka, M. Waki, A. Matsumoto , M. Yamamoto, and N. Yamamoto. 1994. Soluble interleukin-6 receptors released from T cell or

  11. Solar pumped lasers: Work in progress at the University of Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    Of the variety of solar energy conversion schemes that have been explored, the conversion of solar flux to coherent laser radiation is relatively new. Solar flux at sufficiently high concentrations to overcome threshold for the really important laser materials has not been available. This technological inhibition has recently been overcome through the application of nonimaging optics through the demonstration of concentration levels of 84,000 suns at the University of Chicago in a refractive medium (sapphire) and of over 20,000 suns in air at the Solar Energy Research Institute High Flux Facility. A thermodynamic overview is presented of solar lasers including solid state lasers and dye lasers.

  12. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,142] World Color Mt. Morris... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on May 24, 2010, applicable to workers of World Color Mt... that on July 2, 2010, World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC was purchased by Quad/Graphics, Inc. and is...

  13. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. "Ghosts of Sociologies Past": Settlement Sociology in the Progressive Era at the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Vicky M.; Williams, Joyce E.

    2012-01-01

    This embedded case study of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (CSCP) illustrates the development of disciplinary boundaries during a transitional period of professionalization in the social sciences, particularly for the fields of sociology and social work. Drawing on archival data (e.g., reports, scholarly and autobiographical…

  15. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago: Progress report, April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.; Sachs, R.G.

    1987-12-01

    This paper briefly discusses the high energy physics work done at the University of Chicago. Certain topics discussed are: hadron spectroscopy, CP violation, neutral leptons, supersymmetry, magnetic moments of baryons and quarks, low energy effective field theories, electromagnetic properties of baryons and mass mixing of quarks and neutrinos

  16. Features of progression of chronic hepatitis C in children with different variants of polymorphism of the gene IL-28B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezenko V.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the features of the progression of chronic hepatitis C in children with different variants of polymorphism of the gene IL-28B. Materials and methods. The study involved 57 children aged 3–18 years with CHC. All patients were involved in clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination. The stage of fibrosis was assessed morphologicallyon a scale METAVIR, by the calculation method — Fibro Test, on APRI index, and by the concentration of hyaluronic acid (HA, transforming growth factor TGF- β1 in serum usingIFA. The SNP genotypes of rs8099917 and rs12979860 lociin IL-28B were determinedby the method of the polymer chain reaction (PCR. A statistical analysis of the data was conducted. Resume. Most of the patients were children with chronic hepatitis C who had genotype CT at rs12979860 locus of the gene IL-28B (54% and the TT geno-type at rs8099917 locus (60%. It was found that fibrogenesis in the liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C depends on the polymorphism of the gene IL-28B. Unfavorable genotypevariants for the development of liver fibrosis are: TT (rs12979860, CT (rs12979860 and TG/GG (rs8099917. Variants CC (rs12979860 and TT (rs8099917 have a beneficial effect on the course of chronic hepatitis C, including patients with a lower stage of fibrosis. To determine the risk of progression of chronic hepatitis C it may be sufficient to determine the polymorphism of rs12979860locusin the gene IL-28B. Conclusions.The polymorphism variants CC (rs12979860 and TT (rs8099917of the gene IL-28Bare more favorable (lower severity of fibrosis in the progression of chronic hepatitis C in children. Variant TT (rs12979860 in the polymorphism of the gene IL-28B is associated with the progression of hepatitis — faster development of liver fibrosis.

  17. IL-35, a hallmark of immune-regulation in cancer progression, chronic infections and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Manouchehr; Pirro, Matteo; Fallarino, Francesca; Gargaro, Marco; Sahebkar, Amirhosein

    2018-03-25

    Cytokine members of the IL-12 family have attracted enormous attention in the last few years, with IL-35 being the one of the most attractive-suppressive cytokine. IL-35 is an important mediator of regulatory T cell function. Regulatory T cells play key roles in restoring immune homeostasis after facing challenges such as infection by specific pathogens. Moreover, a crucial role for regulatory T cell populations has been demonstrated in several physiological processes, including establishment of fetal-maternal tolerance, maintenance of self-tolerance and prevention of autoimmune diseases. However, a deleterious involvement of immune regulatory T cells has been documented in specific inhibition of immune responses against tumor cells, promotion of chronic infections and establishment of chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we attempt to shed light on the concept of immune-homoeostasis on the aforementioned issues, taking IL-35 as the hallmark of regulatory responses. The dilemma between immune-mediated cancer treatment and inflammation is discussed. Histopathological indications of chronic vs. acute infections are elaborated. Moreover, the evidence that IL-35 requires additional immune-regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β, to induce effective and maximal anti-inflammatory effects suggest that immune-regulation requires multi-factorial analysis of many immune playmakers rather than a specific immune target. © 2018 UICC.

  18. Association between age, IL-10, IFN¿, stimulated C-peptide and disease progression in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, A; Pfleger, Claudia Christina; Kharagjitsingh, A V

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The relation of disease progression and age, serum interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFN¿) and their genetic correlates were studied in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-seven patients from the Hvidoere Study Group were...... classified in four different progression groups as assessed by change in stimulated C-peptide from 1 to 6 months. CA repeat variants of the IL-10 and IFN¿ gene were genotyped and serum levels of IL-10 and IFN¿ were measured at 1, 6 and 12 months. Results: IL-10 decreased (P...

  19. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanos, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    Steven P Stanos Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Center for Pain Management, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Current treatment guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis reflect the collective clinical knowledge of international experts in weighing the benefits of pharmacologic therapy options while striving to minimize the negative effects associated with them. Consideration of disease progression, pattern of flares, level of functional impairment or disabili...

  20. Association of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1ra, inducible protein 10, IL-6 and number of islet autoantibodies with progression patterns of type 1 diabetes the first year after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, A; Pfleger, Claudia Christina; Hansen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    The progression of type 1 diabetes after diagnosis is poorly understood. Our aim was to assess the relation of disease progression of juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes, determined by preserved beta cell function the first year after diagnosis, with systemic cytokine concentrations and number...... patients (P = 0·03 and P = 0·006). IL-1ra, IP-10 and IL-6 did not differ between the groups at any time-point. The number of autoantibodies differed significantly between the groups at 1 month (P = 0·04), where rapid progressers had the largest number. There was no difference between the groups in human...

  1. Association of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1ra, inducible protein 10, IL-6 and number of islet autoantibodies with progression patterns of type 1 diabetes the first year after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, A; Pfleger, Claudia Christina; Hansen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    progressers and remitters. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1ra, inducible protein 10 (IP-10), IL-6 and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), IA-2A and islet-cell antibodies (ICA) were measured at 1, 6 and 12 months. We found that adiponectin concentrations at 1 month predicted disease......The progression of type 1 diabetes after diagnosis is poorly understood. Our aim was to assess the relation of disease progression of juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes, determined by preserved beta cell function the first year after diagnosis, with systemic cytokine concentrations and number...

  2. Il workshop in architettura. Un processo di apprendimento in progress / The Workshop in Architecture. A learning process in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barros Matos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Si riconosce che il workshop costituisce un modello dinamico di apprendimento, in continua evoluzione e sperimentazione, e in grado di essere costantemente riformulato per giungere a nuove e stimolanti situazioni per insegnare la pratica dell'architettura. Si tratta infatti di un modello particolarmente adatto alla ricerca di un approccio globale e coerente al progetto architettonico, dato che evita di separare gli argomenti in frammenti isolati nel processo progettuale. Riunire i gruppi di lavoro nello stesso spazio e nel tempo limitato a disposizione richiede un pensiero intenso e un ritmo di produzione che aiuta a migliorare il rapporto tra i riferimenti teorici riportabili al soggetto trattato e gli aspetti relativi all'elaborazione e alla comunicazione del progetto architettonico. / We recognize the workshop as a dynamic model of learning, which is continuously changing and experimenting, and is able to be constantly redesigned to achieve new and stimulating situations for teaching the practice of architecture. In fact it is a particularly suitable model for seeking a global and coherent approach to the architectural project, while avoiding separating the topics into isolated fragments, throughout the project’s process. Bringing work teams together in the same space and within a reduced time limit requires intensive thought and a rhythm of production which helps improve the relation between the theoretical references of the subject’s production and the aspects related to producing work and communication elements for the architectural project.

  3. Chicago particle accelerator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Naturally, emphasis at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Chicago in March was on work in the US, just as the newly instituted European Particle Accelerator Conference places emphasis on work in the 'old continent'. All will come together at the international conference in Japan in August. The proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was highlighted in the opening talk at Chicago. Progress on this inchoate project to explore the TeV (1000 GeV) energy region by colliding 20 TeV proton beams was reported by the recently-appointed Director of the SSC Laboratory, Roy Schwitters. He reviewed the physics challenges and described progress and plans towards full authorization of construction.This year, the SSC conceptual design will be transformed into a 'site specific' report, now that the location at Waxahachie in Ellis County, Texas, has been selected. The Central Design Group, based in Berkeley for the past few years, will soon move to the Waxahachie region. The top management structure is taking shape and an International Advisory Committee is being formed

  4. Chicago particle accelerator conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Brian

    1989-06-15

    Naturally, emphasis at the Particle Accelerator Conference in Chicago in March was on work in the US, just as the newly instituted European Particle Accelerator Conference places emphasis on work in the 'old continent'. All will come together at the international conference in Japan in August. The proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was highlighted in the opening talk at Chicago. Progress on this inchoate project to explore the TeV (1000 GeV) energy region by colliding 20 TeV proton beams was reported by the recently-appointed Director of the SSC Laboratory, Roy Schwitters. He reviewed the physics challenges and described progress and plans towards full authorization of construction.This year, the SSC conceptual design will be transformed into a 'site specific' report, now that the location at Waxahachie in Ellis County, Texas, has been selected. The Central Design Group, based in Berkeley for the past few years, will soon move to the Waxahachie region. The top management structure is taking shape and an International Advisory Committee is being formed.

  5. Recent progress in host immunity to avian coccidiosis: IL-17 family cytokines as sentinels of the intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wongi; Kim, Woo H; Lillehoj, Erik P; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2013-11-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to immune protection against coccidiosis are complex and include multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunities. Innate immunity is mediated by various subpopulations of immune cells that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to the secretion of soluble factors with diverse functions. Adaptive immunity, which is important in conferring protection against subsequent reinfections, involves subtypes of T and B lymphocytes that mediate antigen-specific immune responses. Recently, global gene expression microarray analysis has been used in an attempt to dissect this complex network of immune cells and molecules during avian coccidiosis. These new studies emphasized the uniqueness of the innate immune response to Eimeria infection, and directly led to the discovery of previously uncharacterized host genes and proteins whose expression levels were modulated following parasite infection. Among these is the IL-17 family of cytokines. This review highlights recent progress in IL-17 research in the context of host immunity to avian coccidiosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 76 FR 56157 - University of Chicago, et al.; Notice of Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    .... Instrument: Magneto-optical Kerr Microscope System. Manufacturer: Evico Magnetics GmgH, Germany. Intended Use... Biology, Chicago, IL 60637. Instrument: Digital Scanned Laser Microscope. Manufacturer: Emblem GMBH...

  7. Tackling Absenteeism in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine; Evans, Shayne

    2016-01-01

    Incisive research from the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute on the prevalence and consequences of absenteeism in Chicago schools has highlighted the dramatic effects of even moderate amounts of absences on grades, graduation rates, and student success in college. These insights spurred not only an ambitious 98% attendance goal on…

  8. Downregulation of IL-17-producing T cells is associated with regulatory T cell expansion and disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Memarian, Ali; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sarrafnejad, Abdolfattah; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the immunobiology of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, the frequencies of Th17, Tc17, and CD39(+) Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral T cells isolated from 40 CLL patients and 15 normal subjects by flow cytometry. Our results showed a lower frequency of Th17 and Tc17 cells in progressive (0.99 ± 0.12 % of total CD3(+)CD4(+) cells; 0.44 ± 0.09 % of total CD8(+) cells) compared to indolent patients (1.57 ± 0.24 %, p = 0.042; 0.82 ± 0.2 %, p = 0.09) and normal subjects (1.78 ± 0.2 %, p = 0.003; 0.71 ± 0.09 %, p = 0.04). Decrease in IL-17-producing T cells was associated with CD39(+) Treg cells expansion. Variation of IL-17-producing cells and Treg cells in indolent and progressive patients was neither associated to the expression levels of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 nor to the frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in a selected number of samples. Additionally, suppressive potential of CD4(+) Treg was similar in CLL patients and normal subjects. Our data indicate that progression of CLL is associated with downregulation of IL-17-producing T cells and expansion of Treg cells, implying contribution of these subsets of T cells in the progression of CLL.

  9. Murine analogues of etanercept and of F8-IL10 inhibit the progression of collagen-induced arthritis in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Fabia; Schwager, Kathrin; Hemmerle, Teresa; Neri, Dario

    2013-09-27

    Etanercept is a fusion protein consisting of the soluble portion of the p75-tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and the Fc fragment of human IgG1, which is often used for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. F8-IL10 is a human immunocytokine based on the F8 antibody and interleukin-10, which is currently being investigated in rheumatoid arthritis with promising clinical results. We have aimed at expressing murine versions of these two fusion proteins, in order to assess their pharmaceutical performance in the collagen-induced model of rheumatoid arthritis in the mouse. Two fusion proteins (termed muTNFR-Fc and F8-muIL10) were cloned, expressed in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, purified and characterized. Biological activity of muTNFR-Fc was assessed by its ability to inhibit TNF-induced killing of mouse fibroblasts, while F8-muIL10 was characterized in terms of muIL10 activity, of binding affinity to the cognate antigen of F8, the alternatively-spliced EDA domain of fibronectin, by quantitative biodistribution analysis and in vivo imaging. The therapeutic activity of both fusion proteins was investigated in a collagen-induced mouse model of arthritis. Mouse plasma was analyzed for anti-drug antibody formation and cytokine levels were determined by bead-based multiplex technology. The association of F8-IL10 proteins with blood cells was studied in a centrifugation assay with radiolabeled protein. Both fusion proteins exhibited excellent purity and full biological activity in vitro. In addition, F8-muIL10 was able to localize on newly-formed blood vessels in vivo. When used in a murine model of arthritis, the two proteins inhibited arthritis progression. The activity of muTNFR-Fc was tested alone and in combination with F8-huIL10. The chimeric version of F8-IL10 was not better then the fully human fusion protein and showed similar generation of mouse anti-fusion protein antibodies. Incubation studies of F8-muIL10 and F8-huIL10 with blood

  10. Experimental study of changes of skin blister fluid NPY, IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF levels in patients with vitiligo in progressive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Mingye; Huang Haifen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of skin blister fluid NPY, IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF levels in patients with vitiligo in progressive stage. Methods: 80 patients with vitiligo in progressive stage were divided into two groups (vulgaris vitiligo groups : n=54, segmental vitiligo groups : n=26) Their blister fluid levels of NPY and GM-CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay(RIA), and IL-12 and sICAM-1 were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: The levels of skin blister fluid NPY were definitely higher in vitiliginous skin than those in non-vitiliginous patches in segmental vitiligo groups (P 0.05). The levels of skin blister fluid IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF were all obviously higher in vitiliginous skin than that in non-vitiliginous patches in vulgaris vitiligo groups (P 0.05). Conclusion: The changes of skin blister fluid NPY, IL-12, sICAM-1 and GM-CSF levels in vitiliginous skin may be closely related to development of difference type vitiligo patients with vitiligo, determination of 4 indexes might be helpful for studying the pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis of vitiligo. (authors)

  11. Inhibition of TC-1 tumor progression by cotransfection of Saxatilin and IL-12 genes mediated by lipofection or electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y S; Kim, K S; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Baek, J Y; Huang, L

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a number of reports have demonstrated that coexpression of therapeutic genes having different anticancer mechanisms is a more effective strategy for anticancer gene therapy than single gene expression. Saxatilin, a novel disintegrin from snake venom, has recently been shown to have potent antiangiogenic functions, such as inhibition of platelet aggregation, bFGF-induced proliferation of HUVEC, and vitronectin-induced smooth muscle cell migration. IL-12 is a well-known immune modulator that promotes Thl-type antitumor immune responses and inhibits angiogenesis as well. The saxatilin and/or IL-12 genes were transfected intratumorally into C57BL/6 mice carrying TC-1 transformed mouse lung endothelial cells by either lipofection or electroporation. The plasmids encoding saxatilin and IL-12 were administered to tumor tissues via novel cationic liposomes consisting of dimyristyl-glutamyl-lysine (DMKE). On the other hand, expression of the genes was also induced by electroporation after naked pDNA injection to the tumor tissues. Lipofection of saxatilin and/or IL-12 genes appeared to be slightly more effective in inhibition of tumor growth than electroporation of the same genes. Cotransfection of saxatilin and IL-12 genes was clearly more effective than individual administration of either gene. This result implies that cotransfection of saxatilin and IL-12 genes represents an innovative modality for anticancer gene therapy.

  12. Chicago arhitektuuribiennaal / Eve Komp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komp, Eve, 1982-

    2015-01-01

    Chicagos esimest korda korraldatud arhitektuuribiennaali nimi oli "The State of the Art of Architecture", mis toimus 03. oktoober 2015.a. - 03. jaanuar 2016.a. Biennaali eesmärk oli pakkuda rahvusvahelist arhitektuurisündmust kohalikule arhitektuurikogukonnale.

  13. 75 FR 64393 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Executive Airport, Prospect Heights and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Chicago Executive Airport, Prospect Heights and Wheeling, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on...

  14. Developing a Data Visualization System for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Taylor; Young, Sam; Smilowitz, Karen; Chiampas, George; Waskowski, David

    2016-10-01

    As one of the largest marathons worldwide, the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (BACCM; Chicago, Illinois USA) accumulates high volumes of data. Race organizers and engaged agencies need the ability to access specific data in real-time. This report details a data visualization system designed for the Chicago Marathon and establishes key principles for event management data visualization. The data visualization system allows for efficient data communication among the organizing agencies of Chicago endurance events. Agencies can observe the progress of the race throughout the day and obtain needed information, such as the number and location of runners on the course and current weather conditions. Implementation of the system can reduce time-consuming, face-to-face interactions between involved agencies by having key data streams in one location, streamlining communications with the purpose of improving race logistics, as well as medical preparedness and response. Hanken T , Young S , Smilowitz K , Chiampas G , Waskowski D . Developing a data visualization system for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):572-577.

  15. Infiltrating T Cells Promote Bladder Cancer Progression via Increasing IL1→Androgen Receptor→HIF1α→VEGFa Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Le; Qiu, Jianxin; Jiang, Ming; Song, Wenbin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Yu, Hong; Zang, Lijuan; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment impacts tumor progression and individual cells, including CD4(+) T cells, which have been detected in bladder cancer tissues. The detailed mechanism of how these T cells were recruited to the bladder cancer tumor and their impact on bladder cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using a human clinical bladder cancer sample survey and in vitro coculture system, we found that bladder cancer has a greater capacity to recruit T cells than surrounding normal bladder tissues. The consequences of higher levels of recruited T cells in bladder cancer included increased bladder cancer metastasis. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrating T cells might function through secreting the cytokine IL1, which increases the recruitment of T cells to bladder cancer and enhances the bladder cancer androgen receptor (AR) signaling that results in increased bladder cancer cell invasion via upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)/VEGFa expression. Interruption of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signals with inhibitors of HIF1α or VEGFa partially reversed the enhanced bladder cancer cell invasion. Finally, in vivo mouse models of xenografted bladder cancer T24 cells with CD4(+) T cells confirmed in vitro coculture studies and concluded that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells can promote bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signaling. Future clinical trials using small molecules to target this newly identified signaling pathway may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to better suppress bladder cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1943-51. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This proposed safety zone will cover 77.... This TIR established a 77 mile long safety zone from Brandon Road Lock to Lake Michigan in Chicago, IL...

  17. Chicago-metoden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    nærmeste medarbejder, stabschef Rahm Emmanuel, har begge trådt deres politiske børnesko i det rå miljø i Demokraternes Chicago, hvor korruption og politiske trusler hører til hverdagen for alle, der når toppen. I en tid, hvor der næsten ugentligt afsløres nye skandaler, og hvor Obama stik imod sine...

  18. Chicago exploration days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Single heavy atoms supported on thin carbon film were first imaged by Crewe, Wall and Langmore with their dark-field STEM. This glimpse into a hitherto invisible world we owe undeniably to Crewe's vision and determination, and to his gift to electrify, engage and encourage talented students. Since this successful event happened during my sabbatical stay in Crewe's group, the editors of this memorial volume asked me to write an account of its early history, which I gladly composed mostly from memory. The circumstances that led to my collaboration with Albert Crew in Chicago are reviewed, and the main project that we jointly embarked on the Chicago 1 MeV STEM is described. It is shown that the project was nearing completion and would have likely been successful, had funding been continued. The paper concludes with a tribute to Albert I wrote many years ago. -- Highlights: ►► Reasons and motivations for Crewe's interest in electron microscopy are reviewed. ► Reasons and motivations for Crewe's interest in electron microscopy are reviewed. ► Early theoretical work on STEM imaging is summarized. The design of the Chicago 1 MeV Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope is described. ► Construction details are illustrated. Reasons for the project not reaching a successful conclusion are given. ► Tribute is paid to Albert Crewe.

  19. Chicago exploration days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, Elmar, E-mail: zr@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Faradayweg 4-6 D-1000 Berlin 33 (Dahlem) (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Single heavy atoms supported on thin carbon film were first imaged by Crewe, Wall and Langmore with their dark-field STEM. This glimpse into a hitherto invisible world we owe undeniably to Crewe's vision and determination, and to his gift to electrify, engage and encourage talented students. Since this successful event happened during my sabbatical stay in Crewe's group, the editors of this memorial volume asked me to write an account of its early history, which I gladly composed mostly from memory. The circumstances that led to my collaboration with Albert Crew in Chicago are reviewed, and the main project that we jointly embarked on the Chicago 1 MeV STEM is described. It is shown that the project was nearing completion and would have likely been successful, had funding been continued. The paper concludes with a tribute to Albert I wrote many years ago. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reasons and motivations for Crewe's interest in electron microscopy are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reasons and motivations for Crewe's interest in electron microscopy are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early theoretical work on STEM imaging is summarized. The design of the Chicago 1 MeV Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Construction details are illustrated. Reasons for the project not reaching a successful conclusion are given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tribute is paid to Albert Crewe.

  20. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  2. Teaching about City Life in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBianco, Claudine R.

    These materials discuss the history of Chicago, Illinois, including prominent persons in the city's past, and landmarks for which Chicago is well known. A number of activities are suggested, some of which concern Chicago's industries, historical sites, architecture, newspapers, ethnic groups, and history. A list of books about Chicago for…

  3. 78 FR 55219 - Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision authorizes an agency to issue a rule without prior... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  4. 75 FR 57376 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... will ensure a safe flying environment for all aircraft flying in or near Area F. One commenter stated... enables the segregation of those aircraft from non-participating VFR aircraft and enhances safety system... aircraft not in communication with air traffic control. FAA Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, prescribes...

  5. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... between August 20 and September 30, 2013. Because of the possibility of bad weather on one or more of the... interfere with other agencies, will not adversely alter the budget of any grant or loan recipients, and will...

  6. Nature and the public: Urban ecology and the politics of transportation in Progressive - Era Chicago. / La naturaleza y el público: La ecología urbana y la política de transporte en la progresista - Era Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurovich W. Alberto (Presentador

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the model of urban ecology, as was formulated by Burgess, and McKenzie Park, comes from a uniquely local political context, in a city that had been the site of years of intense political agitation for reform. It shows how the specific model development will, in turn, used to intervene in this kind of "social laboratory of the nation ", to the extent that its principles will help identify priorities and dynamics of public policy Chicago in the decades following its publication. / Este artículo sostiene que el modelo de la ecología urbana, tal y como fuera formulado por Burgess, Park y McKenzie, surge de un contexto político específicamente local, en una ciudad que había sido el lugar de años de intensa agitación política de reforma. Se muestra cómo el específico desarrollo del modelo será, a su vez, utilizado para intervenir en esa suerte de "laboratorio social de la nación", en la medida en que sus postulados van a contribuir a determinar las prioridades y dinámicas de la política pública de Chicago en las décadas siguientes a su publicación.

  7. 78 FR 42692 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ..., 087[deg]35'26'' W; then west to 41[deg]53'09'' N, 087[deg]36'09'' W; then north to 41[deg]53'24'' N... Captain of the Port, Lake Michigan, or his or her on-scene representative to enter, move within or exit...

  8. 78 FR 59239 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., 087[deg]35'26.3'' W; then west to 41[deg]53'7.6'' N, 087[deg]36'23.2'' W; then north to 41[deg]53'26.5... or exit the safety zone. Vessels and persons granted permission to enter the safety zone shall obey...

  9. 76 FR 78159 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not concern an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may... the Captain of the Port Sector Lake Michigan or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  10. 77 FR 59749 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11... Boulevard bridges. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that this cable...

  11. 77 FR 18688 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... email MST2 Rebecca Stone, Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at 414-747-7154, email Rebecca.R.Stone@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the...

  12. 77 FR 25361 - Safety Zone; Chicago Harbor, Navy Pier Southeast, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... email MST2 Rebecca Stone, Prevention Department, Coast Guard Sector Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI at 414-747-7154, email Rebecca.R.Stone@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the...

  13. 75 FR 75145 - Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... water on board does not allow for inadvertent leakage. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the regulations. Furthermore, for those vessels that cannot avoid inadvertent leakage of non-potable water, they... any water taken on board to control or maintain trim, draft, stability or stresses of the vessel, or...

  14. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... corner of the Jardine Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. Entry into, transiting, or..., or Use. 13. Technical Standards This rule does not use technical standards. Therefore, we did not... Water Filtration Plant, then due west to the shore. (b) Enforcement period. This regulation is effective...

  15. Clinical value of determination of changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after transfusion of Red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingting; Li Xinghua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigation the changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 contents after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 (with RIA), serum IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with peptic ulcer and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion,the serum IL-2 level in the patients was significantly lower than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels is clinically useful for monitoring progress and favourable prognosis of patients with peptic ulcer possess important clinical value. (authors)

  16. Early history of cosmic rays at Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.

    2013-02-01

    Cosmic ray studies at the University of Chicago were started by Arthur Compton during the late 1920s. The high points of cosmic ray studies at Chicago under Compton and Marcel Schein are the focus of this report, which summarizes the research done at Chicago up to the end of World War II.

  17. Fisetin inhibits IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes through activating SIRT1 and attenuates the progression of osteoarthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenhao; Feng, Zhenhua; You, Shengban; Zhang, Hui; Tao, Zhenyu; Wang, Quan; Chen, Hua; Wu, Yaosen

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and inflammation. Fisetin, a polyphenol extracted from fruits and vegetables, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on OA both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, chondrocytes were pretreated with fisetin alone or fisetin combined with sirtinol (an inhibitor of SIRT1) for 2h before IL-1β stimulation. Production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 were evaluated by the Griess reaction and ELISAs. The mRNA (COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, Sox-9, aggrecan and collagen-II) and protein expression (COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5 and SIRT1) were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the expression of collagen-II and SIRT1. SIRT1 activity was quantified with SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit. The in vivo effect of fisetin was evaluated by gavage in mice OA models induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). We found that fisetin inhibited IL-1β-induced expression of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, iNOS, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5. Besides, fisetin remarkably decreased IL-1β-induced degradation of Sox-9, aggrecan and collagen-II. Furthermore, fisetin significantly inhibited IL-1β-induced SIRT1 decrease and inactivation. However, the inhibitory effect of fisetin was obvious abolished by sirtinol, suggesting that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory effects through activating SIRT1. In vivo, fisetin-treated mice exhibited less cartilage destruction and lower OARSI scores. Moreover, fisetin reduced subchondral bone plate thickness and alleviated synovitis. Taken together, these findings indicate that fisetin may be a potential agent in the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing Under Fire: Chicago's Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Manford, Jr.

    The history and development of city-wide testing programs in Chicago since 1936 are reviewed and placed in context with the impact on testing of Sputnik and the passage of the National Defense Education Act of 1958. Current testing problems include the time lag between events and curricular changes and new test construction, the time lag between…

  19. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  20. Probable Chemical Hypoxia Effects on Progress of CNV Through Induction of Promoter CpG Demethylation and Overexpression of IL17RC in Human RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2016-09-01

    To survey the changes of promoter CpG methylation status and mRNA expression of IL17RC (interleukin 17 receptor C) gene in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells under chemical hypoxia condition for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) modeling in vitro. RPE cells were cultured in both untreated as a control group and treated by cobalt chloride media as a hypoxia group for various concentrations (100-150μM) and times (24-36 hrs.) To confirm chemical hypoxia condition, mRNA expression of HIF (Hypoxia Inducible Factor) -1α, -2α, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was compared between two groups by Real-time PCR. Also, in normoxia and hypoxia conditions, IL17RC expression changes and promoter CpG methylation status were evaluated by Real-time PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) techniques, respectively. Overexpression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and VEGF was significant in hypoxia versus normoxia conditions. Our data showed overexpression of IL17RC (2.1- to 6.3-fold) and decreasing of its promoter methylation in comparison with hypoxia and normoxia conditions. It was found that there are significant association between promoter methylation status and expression of IL17RC in chemical hypoxia condition. Therefore, methylation of IL17RC could play as a marker in CNV and degeneration of RPE cells in vitro. Additionally, HIF-α and methylation phenomena may be considered as critical targets for blocking in angiogenesis of age-related degeneration in future studies.

  1. Il Gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beronio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chi si occupa di teatro incontra il gioco innanzitutto come una categoria estetica insita nei processi che caratterizzano l’atto teatrale. Ma dall’approfondimento di tali meccanismi emerge anche la potenzialità conoscitiva del gioco, come condizione umana di profonda consapevolezza di sé. Attraverso un percorso che passa attraverso Breton, Platone, Huizinga, e Alessandro Fersen, viene qui proposta una lettura del gioco come carattere fondamentale dell’arte e della conoscenza.

  2. Review of The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers by Jane E. Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Lutsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Miller, J. E. 2004. The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 304 pp. Cloth $45 ISBN: 9780226526300, Softcover $17. ISBN: 9780226526317.The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers is a reference work suitable for anyone interested in understanding, using, or promoting quantitative thinking. Its primary aim is to identify and illustrate ways in which information associated with numbers can be conveyed most effectively given a particular communication purpose and context. The book is directed at writers who incorporate numbers in verbal or visual displays in documents, in oral presentations, or on the Web. The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers identifies overarching principles, offers concrete advice, and presents illuminating examples and models. The book can be used for instructional purposes for undergraduates, and a means of doing so is described. The review concludes by considering the book’s contributions to a wider call to help citizens write or argue more effectively by using numbers.

  3. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  4. John Dewey as Administrator: The Inglorious End of the Laboratory School in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory School of the University of Chicago founded by John Dewey in 1896 is considered as one of the most innovative schools of progressive education. Its history, and specifically its sudden end, is still of general interest. In sympathy with Dewey, most historians tend to put the main blame for the tragedy on University President William…

  5. If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Marvin

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of issues as they relate to the city of Chicago during the late 19th and early 20th centuries are examined: race and the liberal agenda, the role of academics in public policy, the organization of teachers, and the ambiguities of progressive policy. (RM)

  6. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  7. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  8. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. McPherson; David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree

    1994-01-01

    Results of the 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project indicate that there are an estimated 50.8 million trees in the Chicago area of Cook and DuPage Counties; 66 percent of these trees rated in good or excellent condition. During 1991, trees in the Chicago area removed an estimated 6,145 tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing valued at $9.2 million...

  9. Chicago Operations Office: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities funded through the Chicago Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US Industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. OTD technologies addresses three specific problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets.

  10. Chicago Operations Office: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities funded through the Chicago Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US Industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. OTD technologies addresses three specific problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets

  11. Tappev kuulsus viib Chicago lavale / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Muusikafilm "Chicago", mille aluseks John Kanderi - Fred Ebb'i muusikal : režissöör Rob Marshall : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002. 1975.a. selle muusikali Broadwayl lavale toonud Bob Fosse mõjust filmi stiilile

  12. Teatrireisikiri. USA. Chicago. Aprill 2009 / Rednar Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Rednar, 1970-

    2009-01-01

    Chicago Improv Festivalist. Kahest nähtud lavastustest: William Gibsoni "The Miracle worker" ja Alan Bennetti "Ajaloopoisid". Kahest nähtud muusikalist: Michael Bennetti "A Corus Line" ja Disney ning Cameron Macintoshi "Mary Poppins"

  13. John Dewey and early Chicago functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, A

    2001-11-01

    John Dewey and James Angell are regarded respectively as the founder and systematizer of the Chicago school of functional psychology. The early Chicago school traditionally has been portrayed as a unified theoretical approach based primarily on William James's naturalist theory of mental processes. It is argued in this article that although the psychology systematized by Angell bore a close affinity to James's naturalism, Dewey's own psychology was based primarily on the neo-Hegelian philosophy of Thomas Hill Green. Through a review of a number of Dewey's major writings, Green's neo-Hegelian philosophy is shown to have influenced Dewey's views on psychological concepts such as reaction, emotion, and perception during the formative period of the Chicago school. The interpretation of Dewey's psychology developed in this article leads to the conclusion that early Chicago functionalism should not be regarded as a unified theoretical approach.

  14. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  15. Modulation of pulmonary fibrosis by IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Robert V; Worrell, Julie C; Boylan, Denise; Walsh, Sinead M; Cramton, Jennifer; Counihan, Ian; O'Beirne, Sarah; Medina, Maria Fe; Gauldie, Jack; Fabre, Aurelie; Donnelly, Seamas C; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disease that involves the remodeling of the distal airspace and the lung parenchyma, which results in compromised gas exchange. The median survival time once diagnosed is less than three years. Interleukin (IL)-13 has been shown to play a role in a number of inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. IL-13 modulates its effector functions via a complex receptor system that includes the IL-4 receptor (R) α, IL-13Rα1, and the IL-13Rα2. IL-13Rα1 binds IL-13 with low affinity, yet, when it forms a complex with IL-4α, it binds with much higher affinity, inducing the effector functions of IL-13. IL-13Rα2 binds IL-13 with high affinity but has a short cytoplasmic tail and has been shown to act as a nonsignaling decoy receptor. Transfection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells with IL-13Rα2 inhibited the IL-13 induction of soluble collagen, TGF-β, and CCL17. Adenoviral overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in the lung reduced bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Our work shows that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 inhibits the IL-13 induction of fibrotic markers in vitro and inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary our study highlights the antifibrotic nature of IL-13Ra2. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Learning from Millennium Park, Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guen, T. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper identified the value of creating green space for public use in an urban area in support of a sustainable environment. The inauguration of Chicago's Millennium Park in July 2004 marked a landmark civic achievement in greening an industrial urban centre. The Park was constructed on a 25-acre, previously vacant 100 year old rail property. In 2001, the first phase of the Park opened with the construction of the garages, train bridge, and infrastructure for future sculptural pieces. The green roof landscaping involved soil and drainage pathways, planting 11 acres of lawn and trees, and building a skating rink and restaurants. Phase 2 included new construction of donor enhancements. Among many benefits, this project stimulated investment in adjacent private development. This paper outlined the historic motivation for the park as a cultural and aesthetic benefit for the public. It reviewed the construction costs, the multiple sources of funding, and the multidisciplinary effort involving public agencies and private supporters. The landscape team included experts in soil, irrigation, planting, design and plant selection. Millennium Park has proven that current design and construction industries have the technical and physical ability to create cultural spaces of interest. 6 figs.

  17. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  18. 33 CFR 165.923 - Regulated Navigation Area between mile markers 296.1 and 296.7 of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area between mile markers 296.1 and 296.7 of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal located near Romeoville, IL. 165.923 Section 165.923 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED...

  19. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point 2,120 feet South of the intersection of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club... the first described line, passing 100 feet East of the Chicago Yacht Club bulkhead, 440 feet; thence.... Beginning at a point 145 feet North of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club bulkhead, as constructed in...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: City of Chicago Program Encourages Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    lacked the funds to support such a project, but officials worked with the Chicago Area Clean Cities (CACC networking opportunities. This photo shows a parked compressed natural gas van the City of Chicago's fleet Infrastructure: 11 private E85 fueling stations Related Links Ethanol Natural Gas Chicago Area Clean Cities

  1. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group experienced greater gains in total body LTM (0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.84 kg), leg LTM (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42 kg), and muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group also experienced a 10% greater increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (P < 0.05) and a 16% greater reduction in the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05) after 4 mo. There were no between-group differences for the change in blood lipids or blood pressure. A protein-enriched diet equivalent to ∼1.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ achieved through lean red meat is safe and effective for enhancing the effects of PRT on LTM and muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  2. 75 FR 62841 - Award of a Single-Source Grant to Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... and Resources, Cost, and Relevance to ACF. The Federal objective reviewers determined that the... operating within a reasonable budget. Reviewers found that the proposal would add value compared to past...

  3. A review on primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel C Léger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel C Léger1,2, Nancy Johnson31Neurology Service, Hôtel-Dieu du Centre Hospitalier de l’Univertité de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; 2Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; 3Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a neurodegenerative disease of insidious onset presenting with progressive isolated loss of language function, without significant impairment in other cognitive domains. Current diagnostic criteria require the language dysfunction to remain isolated for at least two years, and to remain the salient feature as the disease progresses, usually to involve other domains such as behavior, executive functions, and judgment. Although PPA in its early stages can usually be differentiated from probable Alzheimer’s disease (PRAD and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration by the absence of significant changes in memory and behavior, and the preservation of activities daily living, progression of the disease often leads to deficits more consistent with the latter. Underlying etiologies remain heterogeneous: the neuropathological characteristics associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, cortocobasal degeneration, and motor neuron disease are usually found. There is a strong genetic susceptibility with affliction of first-degree relatives with similar disease in up to 40 to 50% in some series. Pathogenic mutations in genes coding for the proteins tau and progranulin have been isolated. These are leading to a better understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms and hopefully targeted disease-modifying therapy. Current therapy is limited to improving mood symptoms and targeting behavior changes as they develop. Referral to specialized centers where speech therapy, counseling, and education

  4. Il secondo principio

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    L'asimmetria della Natura ; l'indicatore di una trasformazione ; scivolando verso il caos ; la quantificazione del caos ; la potenzialità del caos ; le trasformazioni del caos ; il dominio della temperatura ; caos costtrutivo ; le strutture del caos.

  5. Educators as Activists: Five Women from Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Petra

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that during the early 20th century the work of women teacher activists brought issues of social reform to the forefront. Describes the work of five Chicago women who helped advance women's rights, women's suffrage, and other social reform efforts. Contends that their work has not be adequately recognized. (CFR)

  6. Edificio de viviendas. Lake Meadows Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore - Owings y Merrill, Arquitectos

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available "Lake Meadows" es una amplia parcela, de cuatrocientos mil metros cuadrados, situada en las afueras de Chicago, con vistas dominantes sobre el lago Michigan. En tan bello emplazamiento se ha construido uno de los más atractivos conjuntos residenciales norteamericanos.

  7. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  8. Viva il GIS Day!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Redazione

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Il GIS Day è sponsorizzato oltre che da ESRI, dalla National Geographic Society, dalla Association of American Geographers, dalla UCGIS (University Consortium for Geographic Information Science, dalla United States Geological Survey e dalla Library of Congress. Il tutto nasce nel corso della Geography Awareness Week, terza settimana di novembre che nel 1987 il Presidente degli Stati Uniti Ronald Reagan stabilì dovesse essere dedicata alla diffusione della cultura geografica.

  9. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  10. The Chicago guide to communicating science

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Scott L

    2017-01-01

    For more than a decade, The Chicago Guide to Communicating Science has been the go-to reference for anyone who needs to write or speak about their research. Whether a student writing a thesis, a faculty member composing a grant proposal, or a public information officer crafting a press release, Scott Montgomery’s advice is perfectly adaptable to any scientific writer’s needs. This new edition has been thoroughly revised to address crucial issues in the changing landscape of scientific communication, with an increased focus on those writers working in corporate settings, government, and nonprofit organizations as well as academia. Half a dozen new chapters tackle the evolving needs and paths of scientific writers. These sections address plagiarism and fraud, writing graduate theses, translating scientific material, communicating science to the public, and the increasing globalization of research. The Chicago Guide to Communicating Science recognizes that writers come to the table with different needs and...

  11. Vecchia e nuova scuola di Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. TAVLAS

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolvement of monetary-policy proposals at Chicago from the early 1930s up until the appearance of Friedman’s classic “Restatement” of the quantity theory in 1956. First, the pragmatic nature of Chicagoan monetary economics during the depression-dominated 1930s is examined. The emergence of the Chicagoan affirmation in the efficiency of traditional monetary policy is then described. It is argued that rather than representing a transmogrification of the monetary views of his predecessors, Friedman’s “Restatement” more accurately reflects a culmination of post-Keynesian Chicago contributions on money. In addition, the interpretation of budget deficits financed by money creation as the implementation of monetary, as opposed to fiscal, policy is shown to be a common link among Chicagoans throughout the entire period under consideration. JEL: E51, E52, E40

  12. Vecchia e nuova scuola di Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. TAVLAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolvement of monetary-policy proposals at Chicago from the early 1930s up until the appearance of Friedman’s classic “Restatement” of the quantity theory in 1956. First, the pragmatic nature of Chicagoan monetary economics during the depression-dominated 1930s is examined. The emergence of the Chicagoan affirmation in the efficiency of traditional monetary policy is then described. It is argued that rather than representing a transmogrification of the monetary views of his predecessors, Friedman’s “Restatement” more accurately reflects a culmination of post-Keynesian Chicago contributions on money. In addition, the interpretation of budget deficits financed by money creation as the implementation of monetary, as opposed to fiscal, policy is shown to be a common link among Chicagoans throughout the entire period under consideration. JEL: E51, E52, E40

  13. Intensive cytokine induction in pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection accompanied by robust production of IL-10 and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Xi; Zhao, Baihui; Wang, Jiayu; Zhu, Zhaokui; Teng, Zheng; Shao, Junjie; Shen, Jiaren; Gao, Ye; Yuan, Zhengan; Wu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1)] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1) are ambivalent. In the present study we investigated host cytokine profiles in P(H1N1) patients and identified cytokines related to disease severity. We retrieved 77, 59, 26 and 26 sera samples from P(H1N1) and non-flu influenza like illness (non-ILIs) cases with mild symptoms (mild patients), P(H1N1) vaccinees and healthy individuals, respectively. Nine and 16 sera were from hospitalized P(H1N1) and non-ILIs patients with severe symptoms (severe patients). Cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed by cytokine bead array, IL-17 and IL-23 measured with ELISA. Mild P(H1N1) patients produced significantly elevated IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 versus to healthy controls. While an overwhelming IL-6 and IL-10 production were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Higher IL-10 secretion in P(H1N1) vaccinees confirmed our observation that highly increased level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression. A comprehensive innate immune response was activated at the early stage of P(H1N1) infection with a combine Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokines production. As disease progression, a systemic production of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in severe P(H1N1) patients. Further analysis found a strong correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 production in the severe P(H1N1) patients. IL-6 may be served as a mediator to induce IL-10 production. Highly elevated level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1) patients may lead to disease progression, but the underlying mechanism awaits further detailed investigations.

  14. Intensive cytokine induction in pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection accompanied by robust production of IL-10 and IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1 are ambivalent. In the present study we investigated host cytokine profiles in P(H1N1 patients and identified cytokines related to disease severity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved 77, 59, 26 and 26 sera samples from P(H1N1 and non-flu influenza like illness (non-ILIs cases with mild symptoms (mild patients, P(H1N1 vaccinees and healthy individuals, respectively. Nine and 16 sera were from hospitalized P(H1N1 and non-ILIs patients with severe symptoms (severe patients. Cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed by cytokine bead array, IL-17 and IL-23 measured with ELISA. Mild P(H1N1 patients produced significantly elevated IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 versus to healthy controls. While an overwhelming IL-6 and IL-10 production were observed in severe P(H1N1 patients. Higher IL-10 secretion in P(H1N1 vaccinees confirmed our observation that highly increased level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1 patients may lead to disease progression. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: A comprehensive innate immune response was activated at the early stage of P(H1N1 infection with a combine Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokines production. As disease progression, a systemic production of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in severe P(H1N1 patients. Further analysis found a strong correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 production in the severe P(H1N1 patients. IL-6 may be served as a mediator to induce IL-10 production. Highly elevated level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1 patients may lead to disease progression, but the underlying mechanism awaits

  15. The Berlin tradition in Chicago: Franz Alexander and the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Erika S

    2010-01-01

    Freud considered Franz Alexander, the first graduate of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and an assistant in the Berlin Polyclinic, to be "one of our strongest hopes for the future." Alexander went on to become the first director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1932 and modeled some of the Chicago Institute's mission on his Berlin experiences. He was also a researcher in psychosomatic medicine, a prolific writer about psychoanalysis and prominent in psychoanalytic organizations. As he proposed modifications in psychoanalytic technique, he became a controversial figure, especially in the elaboration of his ideas about brief therapy and the corrective emotional experience. This paper puts Alexander's achievements in historical context, draws connections between the Berlin and Chicago Institutes and suggests that, despite his quarrels with traditional psychoanalysis, Alexander's legacy may be in his attitude towards psychoanalysis, characterized by a commitment to scientific study, a willingness to experiment, and a conviction about the role of psychoanalysis within the larger culture.

  16. In vitro secretion profiles of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF alpha after selective infection with Escherichia coli in human fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida-Claros Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chorioamniotic membranes infection is a pathologic condition in which an abnormal secretion of proinflammatory cytokines halts fetal immune tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional response of human chorioamniotic membranes, as well as the individual contribution of the amnion and choriodecidua after stimulation with Escherichia coli, a pathogen associated with preterm labor. Methods Explants of chorioamniotic membranes from 10 women (37–40 weeks of gestation were mounted and cultured in a Transwell system, which allowed us to test the amnion and choriodecidua compartments independently. Escherichia coli (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL was added to either the amniotic or the choriodecidual regions or both; after a 24-h incubation, the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10 in both compartments was measured using a specific ELISA. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Results After stimulation with Escherichia coli, the choriodecidua compartment showed an increase in the secretion of IL-1beta (21-fold, IL-6 (2-fold, IL-8 (6-fold, and IL-10 (37-fold, regardless of which side of the membrane was stimulated; TNFalpha secretion augmented (22-fold also but only when the stimulus was applied simultaneously to both sides. When the amnion was stimulated directly, the level of IL-1beta (13-fold rose significantly; however, the increase in IL-8 secretion was larger (20-fold, regardless of the primary site of infection. TNFalpha secretion in the amnion compartment rose markedly only when Escherichia coli was simultaneously applied to both sides. Conclusion Selective stimulation of fetal membranes with Escherichia coli results in a differential production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10. These tissues were less responsive when the amnion side was stimulated. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that the choriodecidua may play a primary role during an ascending

  17. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  18. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  19. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  20. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Cardiovascular Associated Complications in HIV. Positive Zambians before ... compare plasma levels of IL-6 in HIV positive and. HIV negative .... cancer. Results from this study showed that IL-6 levels in. HIV positive ART naive individuals were significantly higher than in the HIV positive individuals on ART. Our findings ...

  1. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold-Petry, C.A.; Rudloff, I.; Baumer, Y.; Ruvo, M.; Marasco, D.; Botti, P.; Farkas, L.; Cho, S.X.; Zepp, J.A.; Azam, T.; Dinkel, H.; Palmer, B.E.; Boisvert, W.A.; Cool, C.D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, L.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Voelkel, N.F.; Nold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we

  2. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  3. Land of California?: The ambiguities of sweet home Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, John

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines some historical questions and cultural constructions surrounding the song Sweet Home Chicago and its composer Robert Johnson. Noting that while the song has enjoyed long life, Johnson's lyric (describing Chicago as a land of California) has not, the essay critiques primitivist readings of Johnson while posing an African American cultural myth-Chicago as promised land of the Great Migration-as the subtext of his puzzling line. Finally, it considers whether mundane-sounding revisions of Johnson's lyric indicate a reduction in Chicago's mythic status, from safe haven to same old place.

  4. Il Bosone di Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Poster di ATLAS sul bosone di Higgs indirizzato al pubblico generico, che spiega il meccanismo di Brout-Englert-Higgs e la sua importanza. Spiega anche il ruolo del Bosone di Higgs, come viene cercato, il percorso della sua scoperta e cosa viene dopo la scoperta. Disponibile anche in Francese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501) e Inglese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697389). Non esitate a utilizzarlo nelle sedi dei vostri Istituti e negli eventi divulgativi! Il poster è in formato A0. Cliccate sull'immagine per scaricare il .pdf ad alta qualità e stamparlo dove preferite. Per qualisasi domanda o commento potete contattare atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch

  5. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanos SP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Stanos Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Center for Pain Management, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Current treatment guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis reflect the collective clinical knowledge of international experts in weighing the benefits of pharmacologic therapy options while striving to minimize the negative effects associated with them. Consideration of disease progression, pattern of flares, level of functional impairment or disability, response to treatment, coexisting conditions such as cardiovascular disease or gastrointestinal disorders, and concomitant prescription medication use should be considered when creating a therapeutic plan for a patient with osteoarthritis. Although topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs historically have not been prevalent in many of the guidelines for osteoarthritis treatment, recent evidence-based medicine and new guidelines now support their use as a viable option for the clinician seeking alternatives to typical oral formulations. This article provides a qualitative review of these treatment guidelines and the emerging role of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a therapy option for patients with localized symptoms of osteoarthritis who may be at risk for oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related serious adverse events. Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, guidelines, topical analgesics, diclofenac

  6. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  7. Il corpo narratore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Gamelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Sapere cosa provo attraverso il mio corpo di fronte all’altro mi permette non solo di capire cosa l'altro prova, soprattutto di generare naturalmente un’effettiva sintonizzazione, di evidenziare e nominare emozioni e sentimenti che in-formano la relazione con quel particolare bambino, adolescente o adulto che sia. Il rapporto con il linguaggio del corpo, prima ancora di divenire pratica psicopedagogica, è una 'pedagogia dell'esistenza'. Una pratica della nostra quotidianità che possiamo affinare oltre e prima che essa diventi pratica psicopedagogica.

  8. IL-34 Upregulated Th17 Production through Increased IL-6 Expression by Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing; Ma, Zijian; Wang, Miaomiao; Sun, Xiaotong; Tang, Yawei; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Fang; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by synovial inflammation and cartilage damage for which causes articular dysfunction. Activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is a critical step that promotes disease progression. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of interleukin-34 (IL-34) on RA FLS as a proinflammatory factor and IL-34-stimulated FLS on the production of Th17. We found that serum IL-34 levels were increased compared to those...

  9. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  10. Il Primo Dizionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne G. de Boer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recensione e commento a: Il Primo Dizionario italiano-olandese/Het Eerste Woordenboek Nederlands-Italiaans, Amsterdam 1672/2014, a cura di Vincenzo Lo Cascio. Amstelveen: Fondazione

  11. Estilo Chicago [Actualización 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca Universitaria

    2017-01-01

    Mediante el estudio de este tema aprenderás a gestionar adecuadamente tu bibliografía adquiriendo una serie de competencias que te permitirán: - Actuar de manera responsable, ética y legal en el uso de la información empleada para realizar un trabajo académico. - Identificar el estilo de cita más adecuado para cada disciplina científica. - Identificar correctamente y elaborar las referencias bibliográficas correspondientes a distintos tipos de documentos, de acuerdo con el estilo Chicago. - A...

  12. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  13. Cesium-137 in various Chicago foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1961, the 137 Cs and potassium content of the Chicago portion of the Tri-City Diet Sampling Program has been determined in bulk food samples by gamma-ray spectrometry using a 4'' x 4'' NaI (TI) crystal. Each variety of food (all fresh vegetables, all fresh fruit, etc.) is composited before measurement, and each sample is counted 400 to 1000 minutes. From these measurements composite daily and yearly food intakes are obtained. The results for the October 1978 semi-annual sampling are tabulated

  14. Summer 1942 in Chicago: Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1982-01-01

    On 2 December 1942 the first man-made nuclear reactor went critical. The nuclear age was born. In his recently completed 'political history of nuclear energy' M. Goldschmidt traces the whole story of the nuclear age from the discovery of fission to the present day. In the extract from his book printed below, M. Goldschmidt tells of his personal involvement in the US nuclear research programme and of his contact with the workers at the University of Chicago; he reminds us that Fermi's achievement, historic as it was, was not the first chain reaction to take place on earth

  15. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  16. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the ...

  17. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33 and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Farahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR, mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interleukin (IL-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33 in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

  18. Chicago transit authority train noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Linh T; Jones, Rachael M

    2017-06-01

    To characterize noise exposure of riders on Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) trains, we measured noise levels twice on each segment of 7 of the 8 CTA train lines, which are named after colors, yielding 48 time-series measurements. We found the Blue Line has the highest noise levels compared to other train lines, with mean 76.9 dBA; and that the maximum noise level, 88.9 dBA occurred in the tunnel between the Chicago and Grand stations. Train segments involving travel through a tunnel had significantly higher noise levels than segments with travel on elevated and ground level tracks. While 8-hr doses inside the passenger cars were not estimated to exceed occupational exposure limits, train operators ride in a separate cab with operational windows and may therefore have higher noise exposures than riders. Despite the low risk of hearing loss for riders on CTA trains, in part because transit noise accounts for a small part of total daily noise exposure, 1-min average noise levels exceeded 85 dBA at times. This confirms anecdotal observations of discomfort due to noise levels, and indicates a need for noise management, particularly in tunnels.

  19. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between free radical generation, interleukins (IL-6 & IL-8), apoptotic marker soluble Fas (sFas), and the level of ... IL-6, IL-8 and sFas whereas serum fatty acid revealed that Linoleicacid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly decreased in the studied cases .

  20. 75 FR 754 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... transport all viable eggs, gametes, as well as live Silver or Asian carp. Historically, vessels, including... ensure no fish were able to transit the barrier. One Silver Carp was found in the area immediately south..., they must wear a Coast Guard approved personal flotation device; (10) Vessels may not moor or lay up on...

  1. 77 FR 13232 - Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... political figures, the G8/NATO Summit is expected to draw significant domestic and international media... mitigate the threat of violence and ensure the safety and security of those who attend, participate, and... NATO; the high concentration of dignitaries and political figures; the expected interest of domestic...

  2. 78 FR 36429 - Safety Zone; Private Party Fireworks; Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision authorizes an agency to issue a rule without prior... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  3. 78 FR 54576 - Safety Zone; LK Events Fireworks; Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision authorizes an agency to issue a rule without prior... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  4. 76 FR 77121 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... mitigate the threat of such transportation. For a fuller discussion on the history of the electrical...) vessel must not be a personal watercraft of any kind (i.e. jet skis, wave runners, kayak, etc.); (3) all.... Energy Effects We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations...

  5. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... this rule because doing so would be impracticable and contrary to the public interest. The movie... statutes and executive orders. 1. Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, as supplemented by...

  6. 77 FR 39508 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... the minimum number of individuals removed from Fresno County from six to four. Field Museum staff also...) comprised of one larger piece of shell and its fragments. In the Federal Register (76 FR 80393-80394...

  7. 76 FR 80393 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... the Remains In March 1901, human remains representing, at minimum, six individuals (catalog numbers... child's basket (catalog number 70830) and an abalone shell comprised of one larger piece of shell and...

  8. 75 FR 65448 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Application for Subzone Baxter Healthcare Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... make the I.V. bags (HTSUS 3920.10, duty rate: 4.2%), representing some 7.5 percent of the finished product's value. FTZ procedures could exempt Baxter from customs duty payments on the foreign laminated...

  9. 76 FR 35000 - Award of an Urgent Single-Source Grant to Heartland Alliance, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Section 412 (c)(1)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (8 U.S.C. 1522(c)(1)(A), as amended... refugees. Heartland Alliance will have the opportunity to receive a continuation award at the same amount...

  10. 78 FR 42012 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... is issuing this Interim Rule to address two omissions from the regulatory text of the Safety zone and... boats, etc.). This revision is intended to make the regulatory text consistent with the discussion of... of Homeland Security IR Interim Rule NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation Area...

  11. 75 FR 27229 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Operations, M-30, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC 20590...., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202) 267-8783. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited Interested... MSL to 10,000 feet MSL, with the western boundary extended to a uniform 25 nautical mile arc of the...

  12. Il corpo della strega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Come già evidenziato a proposito di altre pratiche, il sabba, attività ludica profana, religiosa, conferiva a ciascuno la possibilità di giocare efficacemente con la dinamica di un mondo da cui emergeva una figura archetipica, la strega, principale attore di questa danza in tondo. Il sabba era, dunque, uno dei luoghi ove si cristallizzavano le figure del proibito, questo per il suo carattere sacro, per la violenza istituzionale che presiedeva alla formazione dei rapporti sociali, e conferiva anche, per le caratteristiche di protesta che rivela, un'immagine sempre esaltante della capacità delle società a resistere. Il problema della nostra epoca ove rifioriscono le streghe nelle più svariate forme è, forse, quello di riallacciarsi con la dimensione gruppale dei nostri svaghi, nelle loro differenti forme e, contemporaneamente, con perdita di energia, a quanto presiedeva ai sabba e alla loro risoluzione sacrificale. In contro-corrente ai modelli meccanici che assegnano dei limiti precisi e funzionali ai corpi asserviti ad un ideale di controllo, il corpo sabbatico con la sua enfasi sulle posizioni limite (ciò che si rimproverava d'altronde alle streghe, era veramente corpo mistico.

  13. IL-17 for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschus, Florian C; Moos, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    The cytokine IL-17 is now a target for an array of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies supposed to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. The forerunner Secukinumab, an IL-17A neutralizing antibody, is meanwhile approved as first-line treatments for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and as second-line treatment for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ixekizumab and Brodalumab, both also targeting the IL-17 pathway, were also recently approved by the FDA for plaque psoriasis. Using mice overexpressing IL-17A in a tissue of choice, we showed that the ectopic expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes resulted in a spontaneous and very strong form of psoriasis-like dermatitis. Interestingly, this model showed some typical comorbidities found in humans with psoriasis. In this review, we will discuss why IL-17 is a good target especially in psoriasis and what we learned from mouse models about its functions in pathological situations. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  15. IL-25 inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni T Mantani

    Full Text Available IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice.Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apoE deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease.The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses.

  16. Dostoevskij e il sillogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Peace

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta di seguito la prima traduzione italiana del saggio di Richard Peace Dostoevsky and the Syllogism, pubblicato in lingua originale nel volume IX (2005 della collana Dostoevsky Studies, New Series. Il saggio è dedicato alla rielaborazione del sillogismo aristotelico da parte dei personaggi dostoevskiani nell’ambito del dibattito fra le due principali correnti filosofiche della Russia ottocentesca: l’ «occidentalismo» e lo «slavofilismo». Peace evidenzia come Dostoevskij miri a dimostrare che il ragionamento sillogistico sia estraneo alla forma mentis russa attraverso i fallimenti argomentativi dei suoi «ideofori»

  17. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  18. Elderly homicide in Chicago: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Bond, Mieko; Gulati, Gautam; O'Donnell, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a body of knowledge about elderly crime victims, but we know little about the characteristics of elderly perpetrators, especially of homicide. The few studies that have been published are based on small samples and are somewhat dated. In an examination of homicides committed in Chicago over a 31-year period, we compared cases involving perpetrators aged over 60 years (n = 443) with those involving younger perpetrators (n = 24,066). There were a number of significant differences. Elderly killers were more likely to be White and to commit suicide afterwards. Their victims were more likely to be spouses, females, and aged over 60 years. Inter-racial homicide was more common for younger offenders. The low number of homicides involving the elderly is explained by reference to routine activity theory. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cimentaciones actuales de los rascacielos de Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Ruiz, Álvaro

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of the land and the supporting rock are given, and the pattern of present performance of Chicago's deep foundations is briefly described. This city probably has some of the highest skyscrapers in the world with deep foundations resting on rock, and possibly as well, the highest building with foundations resting on soil. The construction of piles of large diameter, resting on rock and concreted dry, as prescribed by the City Code, is the weak point which sometimes makes it necessary to insert a permanent lining tube deep into the rock in order to obtain the required leaktightness, or to pump out significant quantities of water from the bottom of the excavations. The latter can cause the dragging away of earth from adjacent foundations resting on soil at a higher level, as with the drift of the phreatic level, with the consequent risk of producing appreciable subsidence, and even undermining. To overcome this problem we carried out for the first time in Chicago, a pre-sealing, by means of chemical injections, of the supporting rock of the periphery piles of some deep foundations, by drilling into the centre of each pile, which has also been useful as a means of examining the subsoil before proceeding to the perforation of each pile. This operation was carried out on the large diameter piles of the foundations of the Northern Trust Bank skyscraper, at present under construction, with very satisfactory results. The method of pre-sealing the rock used and the results obtained are described.Se presentan las características principales del terreno y de la roca de apoyo y se describe someramente la forma de ejecución actual de las cimentaciones profundas de Chicago. Esta ciudad tendrá (en breve varios de los rascacielos más altos del mundo apoyados en cimentaciones profundas sobre roca y, posiblemente, también el edificio más alto apoyado sobre suelo. La construcción de pilotes de gran diámetro apoyados sobre roca y

  20. Gentrification and community fabric in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, John

    2011-01-01

    Critical authors of gentrification point to its deleterious impacts on displaced residents. Research on the nature or actual forms of impacts has not advanced much, however. This paper attempts to specify impacts on low-income racial/ethnic groups (Latinos in particular) in five Chicago neighbourhoods, with a particular focus on neighbourhood-based fabrics of support and advancement. Limited in their mobility and exchange value resources, lower-income groups depend on such fabrics far more than do the higher income. In fact, they have fewer choices and are most vulnerable to place-based shifts. The case seems especially challenging for minorities who, like European immigrants before them, depend largely on place-based platforms/social fabrics but, unlike them, confront the added factors of race and urban restructuring.

  1. IL-7 splicing variant IL-7δ5 induces human breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Deshun; Liu, Bing; Jin, Xiaobao; Zhu, Jiayong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study confirms the role of IL-7δ5 in breast cancer cell proliferation. ► IL-7δ5 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. ► IL-7δ5 promotes cell proliferation via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. -- Abstract: Various tumor cells express interleukin 7 (IL-7) and IL-7 variants. IL-7 has been confirmed to stimulate solid tumor cell proliferation. However, the effect of IL-7 variants on tumor cell proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of IL-7δ5 (an IL-7 variant lacking exon 5) on proliferation and cell cycle progression of human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results showed that IL-7δ5 promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression from G1 phase to G2/M phase, associated with upregulation of cyclin D1 expression and the downregulation of p27 kip1 expression. Mechanistically, we found that IL-7δ5 induced the activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 reversed the proliferation and cell cycle progression of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells induced by IL-7δ5. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that IL-7δ5 variant induces human breast cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, IL-7δ5 may be a potential target for human breast cancer therapeutics intervention.

  2. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  3. Il Raffrescamento per Ventilazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    termicamente e sempre più a tenuta d'aria. Tali misure hanno consentito indubbiamente di ridurre la domanda energetica per il riscaldamento invernale, ma hanno determinato delle crescenti problematiche di surriscaldamento dell'ambiente interno. Molti degli edifici ad alta efficienza energeti-ca di nuova...

  4. Helping You Buy ILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  5. Il pericolo degli ebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I libri stampati: si possono acquistare anonimamente in contanti; quindi se ne è proprietari: non dobbiamo firmare una licenza che ne restringe l’uso: il loro formato è noto e per leggerli non occorrono tecnologie proprietarie; si possono dare, prestare o...

  6. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  7. IL-6/IL-12 Cytokine Receptor Shuffling of Extra- and Intracellular Domains Reveals Canonical STAT Activation via Synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, D M; Schönberg, M; Franke, M; Horstmeier, F C; Engelowski, E; Schneider, A; Rosenfeldt, E M; Scheller, J

    2017-11-09

    IL-35 and IL-39 are recently discovered shared members of the IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine family with immune-suppressive capacity. IL-35 has been reported to induce the formation of four different receptor complexes: gp130:IL-12β2, gp130:gp130, IL-12β2:IL-12β2, and IL-12β2:WSX-1. IL-39 was proposed to form a gp130:IL-23R receptor complex. IL-35, but not IL-39, has been reported to activate non-conventional STAT signaling, depending on the receptor complex and target cell. Analyses of IL-35 and IL-39 are, however, hampered by the lack of biologically active recombinant IL-35 and IL-39 proteins. Therefore, we engineered chimeric cytokine receptors to accomplish synthetic IL-35 and IL- 39 signaling by shuffling the extra- and intracellular domains of IL-6/IL-12-type cytokine receptors, resulting in biological activity for all previously described IL-35 receptor complexes. Moreover, we found that the proposed IL-39 receptor complex is biologically active and discovered two additional biologically active synthetic receptor combinations, gp130/IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R/IL-12Rβ2. Surprisingly, synthetic IL-35 activation led to more canonical STAT signaling of all receptor complexes. In summary, our receptor shuffling approach highlights an interchangeable, modular domain structure among IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine receptors and enabled synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 signaling.

  8. IL-22R Ligands IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 Promote Wound Healing in Diabetic db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Wu, Xiumin; Lee, Wyne P; Hackney, Jason A; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Gandham, Vineela; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Arora, Puneet; Wang, Xiaoting; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, when compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU.

  9. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses research being done at the University of Chicago in High Energy Physics. Some topic covered are: CP violation; intermediate vector bosons; string models; supersymmetry; and rare decay of kaons

  10. Chicago Classification of Esophageal Motility Disorders: Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O. A.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) is increasingly performed worldwide, to study esophageal motility. The Chicago classification is subsequently applied to interpret the manometric findings and facilitate a diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders. This review will discuss new insights regarding the

  11. Teaching Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Michael J.; Klegerman, Melvin E.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Illinois at Chicago has been carrying out research in pharmaceutical biotechnology that has allowed unique student involvement and promises further interdisciplinary research and instructional activities. (MSE)

  12. Creating a marketplace for green roofs in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitt Sale, L.; Berkshire, M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2003, the Chicago Department of Planning and Development has been encouraging city developers to consider installing green roofs on buildings in Chicago, with the belief that this practice results in mitigation of the urban heat island effect, cleaner runoff leaving green roofs, sound attenuation, aesthetic value, oxygen production, and mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, the benefits to developers, which include reduced stormwater runoff, extended roof life and energy savings, in total do not offset the first cost premium of a green roof. Despite this, and with no mandate requiring green roofs, the marketplace is growing. After seeing green roofs on a tour in Europe, the mayor of Chicago encouraged the first design and installation of a 20,300 square foot demonstration green roof in Chicago, and other city-sponsored pilot projects followed shortly after. Since then, the number of green roofs in Chicago has grown to over one million square feet. A map of Chicago showing locations of most of the projects was presented. It was suggested that lower prices for green roofs, higher energy costs and an inclination to invest in long-term strategies would accelerate the market. In an effort to engage the public in dialogue, the Department of Planning and Development held seminars to promote the benefits of green roofs . Participants had many questions about the applicability of green roofs to Chicago, expressing skepticism that Chicago's climate would provide the same benefits as in Europe. Other concerns were expressed regarding the devaluation of property values resulting from placing green roofs on buildings; doubts about roof leaks; maintenance practices; and, bugs and mold. Since the first cost premium of the system remains a question, most participants expressed interest in some kind of incentive program, but remained open-minded if benefits could be proved. 6 figs

  13. Urban trees and forests of the Chicago region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Daniel E. Crane; John F. Dwyer; Veta Bonnewell; Gary Watson

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of trees in the Chicago region of Illinois reveals that this area has about 157,142,000 trees with tree and shrub canopy that covers 21.0 percent of the region. The most common tree species are European buckthorn, green ash, boxelder, black cherry, and American elm. Trees in the Chicago region currently store about 16.9 million tons of carbon (61.9 million...

  14. Creating a marketplace for green roofs in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitt Sale, L. [Wright and Co. Chicago, IL (United States); Berkshire, M. [City of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since 2003, the Chicago Department of Planning and Development has been encouraging city developers to consider installing green roofs on buildings in Chicago, with the belief that this practice results in mitigation of the urban heat island effect, cleaner runoff leaving green roofs, sound attenuation, aesthetic value, oxygen production, and mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions. However, the benefits to developers, which include reduced stormwater runoff, extended roof life and energy savings, in total do not offset the first cost premium of a green roof. Despite this, and with no mandate requiring green roofs, the marketplace is growing. After seeing green roofs on a tour in Europe, the mayor of Chicago encouraged the first design and installation of a 20,300 square foot demonstration green roof in Chicago, and other city-sponsored pilot projects followed shortly after. Since then, the number of green roofs in Chicago has grown to over one million square feet. A map of Chicago showing locations of most of the projects was presented. It was suggested that lower prices for green roofs, higher energy costs and an inclination to invest in long-term strategies would accelerate the market. In an effort to engage the public in dialogue, the Department of Planning and Development held seminars to promote the benefits of green roofs . Participants had many questions about the applicability of green roofs to Chicago, expressing skepticism that Chicago's climate would provide the same benefits as in Europe. Other concerns were expressed regarding the devaluation of property values resulting from placing green roofs on buildings; doubts about roof leaks; maintenance practices; and, bugs and mold. Since the first cost premium of the system remains a question, most participants expressed interest in some kind of incentive program, but remained open-minded if benefits could be proved. 6 figs.

  15. Il nucleo terrestre: il cuore magnetico della Terra

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Il campo magnetico terrestre è una proprietà intrinseca del nostro pianeta e di altri oggetti del sistema solare. Il Sole stesso possiede un forte campo magnetico che si inverte quasi ciclicamente ogni 10-11 anni; tale comportamento è visibile attraverso la medesima ciclicità delle macchie solari che denotano sulla superficie l’intensa attività magnetica della nostra stella. Il campo magnetico terrestre è importantissimo per la vita sulla Terra. Esso protegge il pianeta dalle p...

  16. Reversal of experimental colitis disease activity in mice following administration of an adenoviral IL-10 vector

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Makoto; Mathis, J Michael; Jennings, Merilyn H; Jordan, Paul; Wang, Yuping; Ando, Tomoaki; Joh, Takashi; Alexander, J Steven

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Genetic deficiency in the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with the onset and progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical significance of IL-10 expression is supported by studies showing that immune-augmentation of IL-10 prevents inflammation and mucosal damage in animal models of colitis and in human colitis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating cytokine, has been shown to prevent some inflammat...

  17. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  18. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    compared with saline infusion. In addition, C-reactive protein increased 3 h post-rhIL-6 infusion and was further elevated 16 h later compared with saline infusion. rhIL-6 induced increased levels of plasma cortisol and, consequently, an increase in circulating neutrophils and a decrease in the lymphocyte......-alpha, enhances the levels not only of IL-1ra but also of IL-10. Furthermore, IL-6 induces an increase in cortisol and, consequently, in neutrocytosis and late lymphopenia to the same magnitude and with the same kinetics as during exercise, suggesting that muscle-derived IL-6 has a central role in exercise...

  19. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongwu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α(with RIA) levels were determined in 36 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels might reflect the progress of disease in patients with periodontitis and might be of important clinical value. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Limin; Liu Hongshu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, M -CSF(with RIA), hs-CRP(with immuneturbidity method)levels were determined in 33 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  1. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  2. A preliminary study on the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 4 (IL4, IL13, IL4 receptor alpha (IL4Rα & Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 genes with asthma in Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Davoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Interleukin 4 (IL4 and IL13 genes are believed to be responsible for inflammation of the airways in asthmatics. These share a common receptor component called IL4Rα which is another potentially important candidate gene linked to asthma phenotypes. Another gene Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 might affect the incidence or progression of asthma through the expression of proinflammatory genes. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4, IL13, IL4Rα and TLR4 have been reported to be linked to asthma or related phenotypes in several ethnic populations using linkage studies and association studies. However, the results have not been consistent. We investigated five SNPs (C-589T and C-33T of IL4, G+2044A of IL13, A+1902G of IL4Rα, and A+896G of TLR4 in patients with adult onset asthma to evaluate their role in manifestation and severity of asthma. Methods: Adult (>18 yr of age patients with asthma (n=100 and healthy controls (n=50 were included in the study. Genotyping was performed using sequenom MassARRAY technology. Results: The mutant alleles of the C-589T and C-33T SNPs in the promoter region of IL4 were present in 4 per cent patients with asthma but absent from the control group suggesting that the variations in IL4 may contribute to asthma occurrence. The SNPs of other genes were seen in both controls and patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest the possible association between the genetic distribution of C-589T and C-33T SNPs of IL4 with asthma in Indian adults.

  3. IL-6 signaling in diabetic nephropathy: From pathophysiology to therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigerlová, Eva; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyue-Fang

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling participates in inflammation responses central to the progression of DN. Current evidence suggests that these IL-6 responses are mediated via gp130-STAT3 dependent mechanisms which, on one hand, trigger globally the transition from innate to adaptive immune response, and on the other hand act locally for tissue remodeling and immune cell infiltration. In diabetic conditions the role of IL-6 is not well elucidated. Both IL-6 classical signaling pathway via receptor IL-6R (IL-6R) and IL-6 trans-signaling pathway via soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) were shown to participate in the pathogenesis and progression of DN, and IL-6 appears to influence renal cells also in an autocrine manner. To date, evidence is limited. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of our current understanding on the role of IL-6 signaling in DN and to delineate challenges for future research. Putative sequential events related to IL-6 secretion by different cell populations in diabetic conditions are outlined. Further, we discuss potential applications of anti-IL-6 therapy in the context of DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.

    1994-12-31

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called {open_quotes}greenfields,{close_quotes} fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of `sustainable development.` This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city.

  5. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, H.

    1994-01-01

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called open-quotes greenfields,close quotes fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of 'sustainable development.' This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city

  6. IL17/IL17RA as a Novel Signaling Axis Driving Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapeutic Function in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Kurte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in multiple sclerosis (MS and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model has been well described. This effect is, in part, mediated through the inhibition of IL17-producing cells and the generation of regulatory T cells. While proinflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ, TNFα, and IL1β have been shown to enhance MSCs immunosuppressive function, the role of IL17 remains poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the role of the IL17/IL17R pathway on MSCs immunoregulatory effects focusing on Th17 cell generation in vitro and on Th17-mediated EAE pathogenesis in vivo. In vitro, we showed that the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs on Th17 cell proliferation and differentiation is partially dependent on IL17RA expression. This was associated with a reduced expression level of MSCs immunosuppressive mediators such as VCAM1, ICAM1, and PD-L1 in IL17RA−/− MSCs as compared to wild-type (WT MSCs. In the EAE model, we demonstrated that while WT MSCs significantly reduced the clinical scores of the disease, IL17RA−/− MSCs injected mice exhibited a clinical worsening of the disease. The disability of IL17RA−/− MSCs to reduce the progression of the disease paralleled the inability of these cells to reduce the frequency of Th17 cells in the draining lymph node of the mice as compared to WT MSCs. Moreover, we showed that the therapeutic effect of MSCs was correlated with the generation of classical Treg bearing the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ signature in an IL17RA-dependent manner. Our findings reveal a novel role of IL17RA on MSCs immunosuppressive and therapeutic potential in EAE and suggest that the modulation of IL17RA in MSCs could represent a novel method to enhance their therapeutic effect in MS.

  7. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'ultimo decennio gli straordinari sforzi tecnologici hanno evoluto il settore geomatico e portato enormi vantaggi nell'ambito dei cosiddetti servizi a valore aggiunto. Tuttavia la svalutazione commerciale del sistema di navigazione satellitare ha fatto del navigatore un oggetto di uso comune, quasi alla pari del più quotato telefono cellulare. Scemata la corsa al cellulare più modaiolo è subentrata quella al navigatore satellitare più tecnologico con cartografia e punti di interesse più aggiornati. E' assai frequente trovare commercializzazioni degli operatori di telefonia che unisconoal dispositivo mobile il sistema di navigazione, grazie anche apolitiche di businness agreement tra le varie major. L'utilizzo dei dispositivi GPS è davvero ancora arenato alla semplice ricerca di un percorso o di un indirizzo da raggiungere? L'usodi tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  8. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  9. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  10. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  11. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-01-01

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  12. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya A MacParland

    Full Text Available Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control.We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels.In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21.These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.

  13. Il bilinguismo disegnato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  14. IL-23 Is Essential for the Development of Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Utako; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Waseda, Koichi; Morichika, Daisuke; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Koga, Hikari; Kataoka, Mikio; Gelfand, Erwin W; Cua, Daniel J; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that IL-17A plays a critical role in the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema. The proliferation of T-helper type 17 (Th17) cells was induced by IL-23. To determine the contribution of IL-23 to the development of pulmonary emphysema, a mouse model of PPE-induced emphysema was used in which responses of IL-23p19-deficient (IL-23 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice were compared. Intratracheal instillation of PPE induced emphysematous changes in the lungs and was associated with increased levels of IL-23 in lung homogenates. Compared with WT mice, IL-23 -/- mice developed significantly lower static compliance values and markedly reduced emphysematous changes on histological analyses after PPE instillation. These changes were associated with lower levels of IL-17A and fewer Th17 cells in the lung. The neutrophilia seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of WT mice was attenuated in IL-23 -/- mice, and the reduction was associated with decreased levels of keratinocyte-derived cytokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with anti-IL-23p40 monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated PPE-induced emphysematous changes in the lungs of WT mice. These data identify the important contributions of IL-23 to the development of elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema, mediated through an IL-23/IL-17 pathway. Targeting IL-23 in emphysema is a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression.

  15. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment.

  16. Chicago classification criteria of esophageal motility disorders defined in high resolution esophageal pressure topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Fox, M.; Kahrilas, P. J.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Schwizer, W.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Conklin, Jeffrey L.; Cook, Ian J.; Gyawali, C. Prakash; Hebbard, Geoffrey; Holloway, Richard H.; Ke, Meiyun; Keller, Jutta; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Peters, Jeff; Richter, Joel; Roman, Sabine; Rommel, Nathalie; Sifrim, Daniel; Tutuian, Radu; Valdovinos, Miguel; Vela, Marcelo F.; Zerbib, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chicago Classification of esophageal motility was developed to facilitate the interpretation of clinical high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) studies, concurrent with the widespread adoption of this technology into clinical practice. The Chicago Classification has been

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum EMAb, IL-2, IL-2R and VEGF levels in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Jieyan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the progress of the disease process and changes of serum antiendome-trium antibody (EMAb), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum EMAb (with ELISA) and VEGF, IL-2, IL-2R (with RIA) levels were measured in 45 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment with integrated traditional and western medicine, the positive rate of serum EMAb were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis than that in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum EMAb, IL-2, IL-2R and VEGF levels in patients with endometriosis were helpful for assessment of the progress of disease process and outcome prediction. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Congjiang; Li Fen; Zhang Lei; Liu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 levels were determined with RIA and IL-18 levels with ELISA in 32 patients with chronic renal diseases both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum IL -6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After 6 months of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Levels of serum IL-6, IL- 8, IL-10 and IL-18 increased significantly in patients with chronic renal diseases, especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  19. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  20. Internalization of interleukin 1 (IL 1) correlates with IL 1-induced IL 2 receptor expression and IL 2 secretion of EL4 thymoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Von Hoegen, I.; Falk, Werner; Kojouharoff, G.; Krammer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL 1) plays an important role in the induction of IL 2 secretion and high-affinity IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) expression by T cells. The events that follow binding of IL 1 to IL 1R, however, are still unknown. In this study we describe two variants of the murine thymoma EL4 (5D3 and D6/76) that express comparable numbers of cell surface IL 1 receptors and bind IL 1 with the same affinity, but show distinct IL 1-dependent IL 2 secretion and IL 2R expression. In the prese...

  1. Il danno alla persona del lavoratore: il mobbing orizzontale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gentile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sommario:1. Il mobbing tra diritto civile e diritto del lavoro – 2. Il fenomeno mobbing: gli studi iniziali e la definizione – 3. Le concrete condotte integranti fattispecie di mobbing – 4. Onere della prova – 5. Il mobbing orizzontale – 6. L’elemento soggettivo di colpevolezza del da­tore di lavoro nella responsabilità ex art. 2087 c.c. per mobbing orizzontale

  2. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in human papillomavirus-associated epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Bridge, Jennifer A; Frazer, Ian H; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin-grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3(+) T cells, predominantly CD4(+) T cells in human, and CD4(+) and γδ T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1β, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. IL6 induces TAM resistance via kinase-specific phosphorylation of ERα in OVCA cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Niu, Xiu Long; Guo, Xiao Qin; Yang, Jing; Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Xiu Hu, Cun; Mao, Li Qun; Wang, Dan

    2015-06-01

    About 40-60% of ovarian cancer (OVCA) cases express ERα, but only a small proportion of patients respond clinically to anti-estrogen treatment with estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist tamoxifen (TAM). The mechanism of TAM resistance in the course of OVCA progression remains unclear. However, IL6 plays a critical role in the development and progression of OVCA. Our recent results indicated that IL6 secreted by OVCA cells may promote the resistance of these cells to TAM via ER isoforms and steroid hormone receptor coactivator-1. Here we demonstrate that both exogenous (a relatively short period of treatment with recombinant IL6) and endogenous IL6 (generated as a result of transfection with a plasmid encoding sense IL6) increases expression of pERα-Ser118 and pERα-Ser167 in non-IL6-expressing A2780 cells, while deleting endogenous IL6 expression in IL6-overexpressing CAOV-3 cells (by transfection with a plasmid encoding antisense IL6) reduces expression of pERα-Ser118 and pERα-Ser167, indicating that IL6-induced TAM resistance may also be associated with increased expression of pERα-Ser118 and pERα-Ser167 in OVCA cells. Results of further investigation indicate that IL6 phosphorylates ERα at Ser118 and Ser167 by triggering activation of MEK/ERK and phosphotidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling, respectively, to activate the ER pathway and thereby induce OVCA cells resistance to TAM. These results indicate that IL6 secreted by OVCA cells may also contribute to the refractoriness of these cells to TAM via the crosstalk between ER and IL6-mediated intracellular signal transduction cascades. Overexpression of IL6 not only plays an important role in OVCA progression but also promotes TAM resistance. Our results indicate that TAM-IL6-targeted adjunctive therapy may lead to a more effective intervention than TAM alone. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Il bizzarro mondo dei quanti

    CERN Document Server

    Camejo, Silvia Arroyo

    2008-01-01

    Scritto prima dell'esame di maturità da una giovane di eccezionale talento, questo libro colma il vuoto esistente tra la letteratura divulgativa sulla fisica quantistica, che normalmente evita ogni formula matematica, e la letteratura specialistica, ben farcita, invece, di matematica avanzata. L'autrice, appena diciannovenne, con l'ausilio della sola matematica della scuola superiore, introduce il lettore ai principi della fisica dei quanti. Se ne ricava uno sguardo profondo sul microcosmo, il regno affascinante delle particelle elementari: oggetti il cui comportamento si distingue in modo drastico e fondamentale da tutto ciò a cui è avvezzo il nostro umano buonsenso. "Un libro... che avrei desiderato avere a 17 anni". Silvia Arroyo Camejo "In modo assolutamente preciso dal punto di vista fisico, l'autrice spiega con grande passione e divertimento i fondamenti della moderna fisica quantistica ... " Prof. Reinhold A. Bertlmann "Un libro stupefacente di un'autrice straordinaria! Si avverte il suo entusiasmo ...

  5. Il paesaggio dell’architettura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zermani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available l saggio si articola come un’itinerario tra alcuni progetti italiani proposti come “occasioni di applicazione di un modo d’intendere l’architettura nel rapporto con il paesaggio smarrito, che cambia, ma potrebbe custodire ancora i valori di ciò che Heidegger definiva il “soggiorno”: la riconoscibilità intesa come misura”. Le architetture, come strumenti di conoscenza dello spazio, entrano nel paesaggio per diventarne speciali “misuratori”.Partendo dai luoghi del paesaggio padano, Noceto, con il Nuovo Municipio, con la minimale Cappella della Madonna, con il Padiglione privato, e Varano, con la Casa dal grande occhio spalancato sul bosco, alle terre umbre, con la Chiesa ed il Centro Parrocchiale di Perugia ed il Cimitero di Sansepolcro, si propone un percorso di ricerca di una identità dell’architettura italiana contemporanea nella dimensione paesaggistica. 

  6. Mimesis e il giallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne de Boer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di: Ilaria Marzia Orsini, Donne in giallo: la detective story tra genere e gender, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere – USB Ultra Slim Books, 2014, 128 p., ISBN: 97888575245680, € 11,00. Bruna Durante, Specchio delle mie trame: la vita secondo dieci scrittori italiani. Con interviste a Eraldo Baldini, Gianni Biondillo, Giancarlo De Cataldo, Giorgio Faletti, Marcello Fois, Carlo Lucarelli, Raul Montanari, Santo Piazzese, Andrea G. Pinketts, Gaetano Savatteri, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2014, 180 p., ISBN: 9788857518176, € 13,60.Carlo Oliva, Giallo popolare: il poliziesco alla radio, a cura di Nicoletta Di Ciolla e Nicoletta Vallorani, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2013, 150 p., ISBN: 9788857518183, € 12,00.

  7. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    di tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  8. Il cumulo dei redditi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. BARATTIERI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available L’imposizione dei redditi familiari è diffusa nella maggior parte dei paesi sviluppati, seppure con varianti profondamente diverse per mitigare l’onere. La tassazione separata è in vigore solo in Canada, Grecia e Nuova Zelanda, on chè , tra i paesi latini, in Argentina. Non sempre però la tassazione separata risulta più favorevole, in quanto alcune forme peculiari del cumulo, quali “splitting” ed il quoziente familiare, consentono un trattamento preferenziale per le famiglie rispetto ai nn coniugati. I vantaggi del quoziente familiare sono ancora maggiori , specie per le famiglie numerose, e questo sembra anacronistico in un momento in cui vi è larga convergenza d’opinioni sull’opportunità di non incoraggiare l’espansione demografica.

  9. Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in Chicago, 2008-2011: The Role of Public Health Departments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Fletcher

    Full Text Available Evaluate differences in TB outcomes among different provider types in Chicago, IL.We retrospectively reviewed all TB cases reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH from 2008 through 2011. Provider type was stratified into three groups: public, public-private, and private providers. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate treatment duration and time to sputum culture conversion. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess treatment completion.Of 703 cases, 203 (28.9%, 314 (44.7%, and 186 (26.5% were treated by public, public-private and private providers, respectively. Adjusted regression showed private provider patients had a 48-day (95% CI 22.0-74.3 increase in treatment duration and a 30-day (95% C.I. 9.5-51.1 increase in time to sputum culture conversion. Cox model showed increased risk of remaining on treatment was associated with extra-pulmonary TB (aHR 0.78, 95% C.I. 0.62-0.98, being foreign-born (aHR 0.74, 95% C.I. 0.58-0.95, and any drug resistance (aHR 0.59, 95% C.I. 0.46-0.76. There were no differences in outcomes between public and public-private providers.Patients treated solely in the private sector had prolonged time to sputum culture conversion and treatment duration which lead to increased cost for treatment, prolonged infectiousness, potential for transmission, and the possibility for increased medication side effects.

  10. The Chicago classification of motility disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sabine; Gyawali, C Prakash; Xiao, Yinglian; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    The Chicago Classification defines esophageal motility disorders in high resolution manometry. This is based on individual scoring of 10 swallows performed in supine position. Disorders of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction are defined by a median integrated relaxation pressure above the limit of normal and divided into 3 achalasia subtypes and EGJ outflow obstruction. Major motility disorders (aperistalsis, distal esophageal spasm, and hypercontractile esophagus) are patterns not encountered in controls in the context of normal EGJ relaxation. Finally with the latest version of the Chicago Classification, only two minor motor disorders are considered: ineffective esophageal motility and fragmented peristalsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Il fiore e la pietra

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Debora

    2012-01-01

    Il fiore e la pietra è un progetto di scultura urbana per una piazza della città di Torino. Il tema trae la sua prima ispirazione dal fumetto B.C. di Johnny Hart: un fragile fiore dialoga con una pietra. Lʼambiguità tra solidità e fragilità è simbolicamente accostata alla situazione avversa in cui si trova lʼindustria torinese per eccellenza, FIAT, e al problema dei quartieri dormitori. Il contesto nel quale venne realizzato il progetto è tuttora sintomatico di una situazione ...

  12. Role of periostin, FENO, IL-13, lebrikzumab, other IL-13 antagonist and dual IL-4/IL-13 antagonist in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Swati; Townley, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity, absences from work or school and hospitalizations. Patients with severe asthma which are not controlled despite taking effective therapy are most in need of new treatment approaches. IL-13 was demonstrated as 'central mediator of allergic asthma'. IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. IL-13 levels in the sputum and bronchial biopsy samples remain elevated in severe asthma despite the use of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids. Thus, IL-13 is a mediator involved in corticosteroid resistance. Periostin enhances profibrotic TGF-β signaling in subepithelial fibrosis associated with asthma. IL-13 induces bronchial epithelial cells to secrete periostin. Periostin may be a biomarker for Th2 induced airway inflammation. Lebrikizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-13. Lebrikizumab improved lung function in asthmatics who were symptomatic despite treatment with long acting beta agonist and inhaled corticosteroids and provided benefit in the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma. Lebrikizumab block IL-13 signaling through the IL-13Rα1/IL-4Rα receptor. There was a larger reduction in FENO in the high periostin subgroup than in the low periostin subgroup (34.4 vs 4.3%). Serum CCL17, CCL13 and total IgE levels decreased in the lebrikizumab group.

  13. IL-5 and IL-5 receptor in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATC Kotsimbos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils, along with mast cells are key cells involved in the innate immune response against parasitic infection whereas the adaptive immune response is largely dependent on lymphocytes. In chronic parasitic disease and in chronic allergic disease, IL-5 is predominantly a T cell derived cytokine which is particularly important for the terminal differentiation, activation and survival of committed eosinophil precursors. The human IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 5 in a gene cluster that contains the evolutionary related IL-4 family of cytokine genes. The human IL-5 receptor complex is a heterodimer consisting of a unique a subunit (predominantly expressed on eosinophils and a beta subunit which is shared between the receptors for IL-3 & GM-CSF (more widely expressed. The a subunit is required for ligand-specific binding whereas association with the beta subunit results in increased binding affinity. The alternative splicing of the alphaIL-5R gene which contains 14 exons can yield several alphaIL-5R isoforms including a membrane-anchored isoform (alphaIL-5Rm and a soluble isoform (alphaIL-5Rs. Cytokines such as IL-5 produce specific and non-specific cellular responses through specific cell membrane receptor mediated activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways which, to a large part, regulate gene expression. The major intracellular signal transduction mechanism is activation of non-receptor associated tyrosine kinases including JAK and MAP kinases which can then transduce signals via a novel family of transcriptional factors named signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATS. JAK2, STAT1 and STAT 5 appear to be particularly important in IL-5 mediated eosinophil responses. Asthma is characterized by episodic airways obstruction, increased bronchial responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Several studies have shown an association between the number of activated T cells and eosinophils in the airways and abnormalities

  14. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program post-remedial-action radiological survey of Kent Chemical Laboratory, the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1983-05-01

    A comprehensive radiological assessment of Kent Laboratory was conducted during September 1977, by the ANL Radiological Survey Group to determine if any radioactive contamination remained. The results of the assessment indicated the need for remedial action. Since 1977, the University has decontaminated this laboratory building, and in May 1983, the Department of Energy requested the ANL Radiological Survey Group to conduct a post-remedial-action survey. All the contaminated areas identified during the 1977 assessment were rechecked. Contamination remained in six of the rooms. Further decontamination of these areas was conducted by university personnel, and as a result, these areas are now free of contamination. However, a contaminated clay pipe in the attic remained. The clay pipe has since been removed and disposed of as solid radioactive waste. During the post-remedial-action survey, six soil samples were collected from excavation trenches dug in Rooms 1 and 2 as part of the University's remedial action efforts. Also, four sludge samples were taken from below the manhole covers in the basement of Kent Chemical Laboratory to assess the radiological condition of the sewer system. A radiological assessment of the sewer system had not been accomplished during the 1977 survey as per program direction. Radiochemical (fluorometric) and gamma-spectral analyses indicated that eight out of ten soil and sludge samples contained levels of radioactivity above expected background concentrations. The soil has since been further excavated. The building is now free of radioactive contamination in excess of background levels; however, the sewers do contain radioactive materials above background levels since contamination was found at appropriate access points. 6 references, 16 figures, 7 tables

  15. Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Julia Sniderman; Nathan, Jo Ann

    Twenty-four year old Jens Jensen came to the United States, settled in Chicago (Illinois), and promptly fell in love with the Midwest's prairie landscape. Although some thought that prairie was boring, monotonous, and ordinary, Jensen saw great beauty in the tree-filled groves, long winding rivers, natural rock formations and waterfalls, and the…

  16. School Violent Crime and Academic Achievement in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Educational outcomes vary dramatically across schools in the United States. Many under-performing schools, especially in Chicago, also deal with high levels of violent crime on school grounds. Exposure to this type of frequent violence may be an important factor shaping already disadvantaged students' educational experiences. However, estimating the effect of school violence on learning is difficult due to potential selection bias and the confounding of other school-level problems. Using detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department, complete administrative records from the Chicago Public Schools, and school climate surveys conducted by the Consortium on Chicago School Research (2002-10), this study exploits variation in violent crime rates within schools over time to estimate its effect on academic achievement. School and neighborhood fixed-effects models show that violent crime rates have a negative effect on test scores, but not on grades. This effect is more likely related to direct reductions in learning, through cognitive stress and classroom disruptions, than changes in perceived safety, general school climate, or discipline practices.

  17. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  18. Creating Chicago History: Making Outreach Craft Activities Meaningful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to having a traveling outreach activity for a museum, a craft can seem like the perfect solution. It can seemingly be all things at once--educational, quick and fun. But, if poorly constructed, crafts can also have serious fallbacks. Using the Chicago History Museum and the Millennium Park Family Fun Festival as a case study, this…

  19. Brighter future predicted at nuclear meetings in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the future of nuclear power in the United States and the rest of the world. It is a summary of a meeting of the American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society in Chicago. Some topics discussed include advanced reactor design, public relations, and nuclear safety

  20. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.L.; Keffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  1. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1989-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on theoretical High Energy Physics research done by the researchers at University of Chicago. Some topics covered are: lepton production; kaon decay; Higgs boson production; electric dipole moment of the neutron; string models; supersymmetry; and cosmic ray shower

  2. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinec, Emil J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    2013-06-27

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  3. Shared principles of restoration practice in the Chicago wilderness region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy Watkins; Lynne M. Westphal; Paul H. Gobster; Joanne Vining; Alaka Wali; Madeleine Tudor

    2015-01-01

    We describe the rules, norms, and strategies (institutional statements) that characterize ecological restoration across 10 organizations in the Chicago Wilderness region. Our use of Ostrom's IAD ADICO grammar tool is novel in both context (non-extractive resource management) and data type (qualitative interviews). Results suggest that, in contrast to a focus on...

  4. The changes of IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in serum of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Liu Deyi; Hou Guihua; Wang Haodan

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship and the clinical significance between the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in patients with asthma, the serum IL-8, IL-10 are measured by radioimmunoassay method and the serum IL-12, IgE by ELISA in 55 patients with asthma. The level of serum IL-8, IgE at stage of episode are significantly higher than that at stage of remission (P<0.01); the level of serum IL-10, IL-12 at stage of episode are significantly lower than that at stage of remission (P<0.01). Linear regression shows that the decrease of IL-12 relate to the increase of IgE. The results suggests that the change of the level of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE could be a maker for the aggravation of asthma

  5. Study on the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenjing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels were measured with RIA in 38 patients with diabetic nephrosis and 36 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephrosis than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephrosis. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the disease. (authors)

  6. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: A proposed model

    OpenAIRE

    Argaman, M; Gidron, Y; Ariad, S

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1β. Elevated cerebral IL-1β increased ca...

  7. IL CAMPO GEOMAGNETICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MOLINA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro non è un trattato sul campo geomagnetico e nemmeno
    una rassegna sull'argomento, almeno nel significato che normalmente
    si attribuisce al termine « rassegna »; esso è semplicemente
    un tentativo di condensare in termini comprensibili agli studiosi non
    specializzati ciò che oggi si sa o si ipotizza sul magnetismo terrestre
    e sulle sue cause. Chi scrive si è sempre trovato a disagio di fronte
    alle richieste di una spiegazione sull'origine del campo magnetico
    terrestre: o si cerca di cavarsela con poche parole (« si tratta di correnti
    elettriche indotte nell'interno della Terra » che possono forse accontentare
    chi non si occupa in modo particolare di problemi scientifici
    ma non possono soddisfare un fisico, oppure ci si sente obbligati a
    tentare faticosamente di approfondire, sia per capirli personalmente
    che per poterli poi spiegare agli altri, argomenti e ragionamenti che
    sono in realtà accessibili solo a un fisico teorico ben preparato. Apparentemente
    non esiste una via di mezzo, come del resto in molti altri
    campi della fisica contemporanea.
    La presente monografia rappresenta appunto il tentativo di trovare
    questa via di mezzo: nel terzo capitolo, dedicato alle teorie sull'origine
    del campo geomagnetico, si cerca di descrivere qualitativamente
    i principali processi fisici proposti come sorgenti del campo,
    dopo un accenno ai fondamenti fisici e matematici sui quali sono state
    elaborate le varie teorie. Senza farmi soverchie illusioni di essere riuscito
    nell'intento, mi dichiarerei tuttavia soddisfatto se questo lavoro
    destasse sull'argomento l'interesse di qualche giovane ricercatore, incoraggiandolo
    ad un approfondimento.

  8. IL-36 receptor deletion attenuates lung injury and decreases mortality in murine influenza pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, T; Newstead, M W; Zeng, X; Kunkel, S L; Kaku, M; Standiford, T J

    2017-07-01

    Influenza virus causes a respiratory disease in humans that can progress to lung injury with fatal outcome. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are newly described IL-1 family cytokines that promote inflammatory responses via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). The mechanism of expression and the role of IL-36 cytokines are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of IL-36 cytokines in modulating the innate inflammatory response during influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice. The intranasal administration of influenza virus upregulated IL-36α mRNA and protein production in the lungs. In vitro, influenza virus-mediated IL-36α but not IL-36γ is induced and secreted from alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) through both a caspase-1 and caspase-3/7 dependent pathway. IL-36α was detected in microparticles shed from AECs and promoted the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in respiratory cells. IL-36R-deficient mice were protected from influenza virus-induced lung injury and mortality. Decreased mortality was associated with significantly reduced early accumulation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, activation of lymphocytes, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier in despite impaired viral clearance. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-36 ligands exacerbate lung injury during influenza virus infection.

  9. The 9th International Countercurrent Chromatography Conference held at Dominican University, Chicago, USA, August 1-3, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J Brent; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2017-10-20

    The 9th International Countercurrent Chromatography Conference (CCC 2016) was held at Dominican University near Chicago, IL (USA), from August 1st-3rd, 2016. The biennial CCC 20XX conferences provide an opportunity for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography (CCC/CPC) manufactures, marketers, theorists, and research scientists to gather together socially, learn from each other, and advance countercurrent separation technology. A synopsis of the conference proceedings as well as a series of short reviews of the special edition articles is included in this document. Many productive discussions and collegial conversation at CCC 2016 attested to the liveliness, connectivity, and productivity of the global countercurrent research community and bodes well for the success of the 10th conference at the University of Braunschweig, Germany on August 1-3, 2018. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F Murphy

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  11. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Done, Joseph; Wong, Larry; Bell-Cohn, Ashlee; Roman, Kenny; Cashy, John; Ohlhausen, Michelle; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS.

  12. Il discreto e il continuo complementarita in matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyk, Willem

    1982-01-01

    Nato dall'esperienza didattica dell'autore, il libro si presenta come un testo interdisciplinare di matematica e di filosofia, inteso a fornire un quadro complessivo dello stato attuale dei fondamenti della matematica.

  13. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michoud Marie-Claire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-13 is a critical mediator of allergic asthma and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-13 acts through a receptor complex comprised of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα subunits with subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. The IL-13Rα2 receptor may act as a decoy receptor. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM cells, IL-13 enhances cellular proliferation, calcium responses to agonists and induces eotaxin production. We investigated the effects of pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ on the responses of HASM cells to IL-13. Methods Cultured HASM were examined for expression of IL-13 receptor subunits using polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Effects of cytokine pre-treatment on IL-13-induced cell responses were assessed by looking at STAT6 phosphorylation using Western blot, eotaxin secretion and calcium responses to histamine. Results IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2 subunits were expressed on HASM cells. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of STAT6 which reached a maximum by 30 minutes. Pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and, to a lesser degree, IFN-γ reduced peak STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. IL-13, but not IFN-γ, pre-treatment abrogated IL-13-induced eotaxin secretion. Pre-treatment with IL-4 or IL-13 abrogated IL-13-induced augmentation of the calcium transient evoked by histamine. Cytokine pre-treatment did not affect expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα but increased expression of IL-13Rα2. An anti-IL-13Rα2 neutralizing antibody did not prevent the cytokine pre-treatment effects on STAT6 phosphorylation. Cytokine pre-treatment increased SOCS-1, but not SOCS-3, mRNA expression which was not associated with significant increases in protein expression. Conclusion Pre-treatment with IL-4 and IL-13, but not IFN-γ, induced desensitization of the HASM cells to IL-13 as measured by eotaxin secretion and calcium transients to histamine

  14. Salivary Levels of IL-6 and IL-17 Could Be an Indicator of Disease Severity in Patients with Calculus Associated Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Batool

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of gums that causes loss of supporting structures of teeth, that is, gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. Levels of various cytokines in the serum, gingival tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis have been studied, but limited data are available on the level of cytokines in saliva. Therefore, a study was designed to determine levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 in patients with calculus associated chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods. It was a comparative, cross-sectional study that is comprised of 41 healthy controls and 41 calculus associated chronic periodontitis patients (CP patients. According to the degree of attachment loss, CP patients were subcategorized as mild (CAL 1-2 mm, moderate (CAL 3-4 mm, and severe (CAL > 5 mm forms of periodontitis. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Results. Between healthy controls and CP patients (moderate and severe disease, a statistically significant difference was observed in the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-17. In CP patients, the highest mean ± SD of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 was observed in severe CP, followed by moderate and mild CP. Regarding level of IL-6, a statistically significant difference was observed between mild and severe disease and between moderate and severe subcategories of CP patients. Similarly, statistically significant difference was observed in the level of IL-17 between mild and moderate, mild and severe disease, and moderate and severe disease. Conclusion. The levels of salivary IL-6 and IL-17 were increased significantly in calculus associated CP patients as compared to healthy controls and these levels increased with the progression of CP. Clinical Significance. Salivary levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may help in the subcategorization

  15. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  16. Il marketing del nuovo millennio

    OpenAIRE

    M. Addis

    2007-01-01

    Con la consueta maestria, Kolter, supportato da Keller, mette a disposizione dei suoi numerosi lettori uno strumento di grande efficacia, dalla struttura estremamente agile, che potrà essere apprezzato da coloro che il marketing lo insegnano e dai professionisti che cercano un'opera di riferimento autorevole e aggiornata ma al contempo di facile consultazione, che possa accompagnarli nello svolgimento delle attività quotidiane. Il testo è una guida essenziale alla disciplina del marketing,...

  17. IL-1Ra (recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: the efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cozzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra is a naturally occurring IL-1 inhibitor, acting as a “receptor antagonist”, which blocks IL-1 mediated signal transduction. In 1990 IL-1Ra was cloned and later on, a large numbers of studies led to disclosure of the crucial importance of the imbalance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In 1991, almost 8 years after the initial isolation of IL-1, recombinant IL-1Ra (IL-1ra, Kineret was introduced in clinical trials involving patients with RA. Between 2001 and 2002 IL-1ra was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and by the European Agency for the Evaluation of the Medicinal Products and in 2003 it was registered in Italy, too. In RA recombinant IL-1ra has been evaluated in 5 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials involving more than 2900 patients. Two of the trials involved the use of IL-1ra as monotherapy versus placebo and two trials in combination with methotrexate (MTX; the last trial explored the use of a fixed 100 mg/day IL-1ra dosage in a RA patient population including a wide array of co-morbid conditions as well as concomitant medications. The studies confirmed both the efficacy and the safety of IL-1ra in patients with active and severe RA. 43% of patients receiving 150 mg/day IL-1ra achieved a 20% response according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20, compared to 27% in the placebo group. In the MTX combination therapy study, 42% of the patients receiving 1 mg/Kg/day of IL-1ra achieved an ACR20, 24% an ACR50 and 10% an ACR70. In each study, significant improvements in the Health Assessment Questionnaire scores (HAQ were observed. There were rapid gains in the number of days at work or domestic activity in the treated patients, and the increases in productivity were dose related. At early 24 weeks, there was significant reduction of both the score for progression of joint space narrowing (JSN and the Total modified

  18. Heaven on Earth: Swedenborgian Correspondences in the Plan of Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Schaffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Hudson Burnham, the Chicago architect and city planner, is recognized for his work on the development of American tall office building; for the construction of World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893; and for his city plans for Washington, D.C., Cleveland, San Francisco, and Chicago. He is also remembered for the quote “Make no little plans.” What is not recalled is his Swedenborgian faith nor how it influenced his work. Emanuel Swedenborg was a Swedish scientist and engineer who, beginning in the mid 1730s, underwent a spiritual awakening. The focus of his work changed to the mystical aspects of human experience. He believed that all Christian churches were dead and in need of revitalization and the key to revitalization was to be found in a new interpretation of scripture. His followers founded the Church of the New Jerusalem, sometimes referred to as the New Church or the Swedenborgian Church.

  19. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  20. Enno Toomsalu 30 aastat Chicago Eesti Maja president / Endel Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Endel

    2006-01-01

    1976. aastast Eesti Maja juhtinud Enno on kujundanud selle "väikeseks Eestiks", kus on korraldatud palju kultuuriüritusi. 19. märtsi koosolekul andis ta ameti nooremale, samas valiti ta Chicago Eesti Maja auliikmeks. Akadeemiliselt kuulub ta Korp! Frat. Estica´sse, teda on autasustatud korporatsiooni Kuldmärgiga teenete eest eestlusele ja Valgetähe 4. järgu ordeniga

  1. vPlants: a Virtual Herbarium of the Chicago Region

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, Matthew; Dunn, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Three major botanical institutions, the Morton Arboretum, Field Museum of Natural History, and Chicago Botanic Garden, are developing an online searchable herbarium (vPlants, or "virtual plants") that will provide herbarium specimen data and digital images of specimens and labels to anyone with Internet access. This Web-based system will include a "portal," housed at the Morton Arboretum, and three separate databases housed at and maintained by each participating institution. This virtual her...

  2. Disability inquiries shorn from Chicago's judicial review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-07

    The Chicago Bar Association changed the wording of the questions it routinely asks judicial candidates for election and appointment to the bench. Prior to the change, the request for information was so broad that the bar association could learn the candidate's HIV status through a questionnaire that gave the result of the candidate's last physical examination. The new wording better reflects the spirit and intent of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  3. Philanthropy and race relations in 1920s Chicago

    OpenAIRE

    Atabay, Pırıl

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of History and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references leaves 90-93. Tliis thesis is a study on the nature of philantluopy and its reflection on improving relations between races in 1920s Chicago. Julius Roscnwald played a pivotal role in helping create links between white philantlu'opists and a black elite. Chicago’s African American elite cons...

  4. IL-22 Defect During Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection Triggers Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Pichavant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is linked to episodes of exacerbations caused by bacterial infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our objective was to identify during COPD, factors of susceptibility to bacterial infections among cytokine network and their role in COPD exacerbations. S. pneumoniae was used to sub-lethally challenge mice chronically exposed to air or cigarette smoke (CS and to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients. The immune response and the cytokine production were evaluated. Delayed clearance of the bacteria and stronger lung inflammation observed in infected CS-exposed mice were associated with an altered production of IL-17 and IL-22 by innate immune cells. This defect was related to a reduced production of IL-1β and IL-23 by antigen presenting cells. Importantly, supplementation with recombinant IL-22 restored bacterial clearance in CS-exposed mice and limited lung alteration. In contrast with non-smokers, blood NK and NKT cells from COPD patients failed to increase IL-17 and IL-22 levels in response to S. pneumoniae, in association with a defect in IL-1β and IL-23 secretion. This study identified IL-17 and IL-22 as susceptibility factors in COPD exacerbation. Therefore targeting such cytokines could represent a potent strategy to control COPD exacerbation.

  5. IL18 and IL18R1 polymorphisms, lung CT and fibrosis: a longitudinal study in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Mintz, M.; Marzec, J.; Jedlicka, A.; Kauffmann, F.; Kleeberger, S.R. [INSERM, U780, Villejuif (France)

    2006-12-15

    It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-18 plays a role in the development of inflammatory and fibrosing lung diseases. Associations of polymorphisms in the genes coding for IL-18 (108 /G-656T, C-607A, G-137C, T113G, C127T) and its receptor (IL8R1/C-69T) with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were studied in 200 miners who were examined in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Coal-dust exposure was assessed according to job history and ambient measures. The main health outcome was lung computed tomography (CT) score in 1990. Internal coherence was assessed by studying CT score in 1994, 4-yr change in CT score and CWP incidence and prevalence. CT score in 1990 was a good predictor of radiographic grade in 1999 and, therefore, an appropriate subclinical quantitative trait. The IL18 -137C allele was associated with lower CT score in 1990 and 1994 (11.24 versus 1.69 and 1.57 versus 2.46, respectively), slower progression of CT score between 1990 and 1994 and lower pneumoconiosis prevalence in 1999 relative to the G allele (0.33 versus 0.77 and 8.2 versus 19.6%, respectively). Smoking- or dust-adjustment, and stratification on IL18R1 genotype and adjustment for haplotype effects did not change the conclusions. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest a role for IL18 in reducing the development of this fibrosing lung disease.

  6. Getting to the CORE of the Chicago Teachers’ Union Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brogan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a comparative study of urban change and rank-and-file teacher rebellion in New York City and Chicago, to explore the contemporary dynamics of what Jamie Peck (2013 calls “austerity urbanism” and its relationship to a rebirth of a social justice, grassroots teacher unionism in US urban centres. Tracing the trajectories of one group of rank-and-file teacher dissidents in Chicago, it argues that municipal unions are uniquely situated to lead the fight against austerity urbanism and the crisis tendencies of contemporary capitalism. To do this, however, trade unions will need to be reinvented and a different form of working class politic forged, grounded both in and outside of the trade union movement. Only then may we see organized labour in North America contribute to a movement for radical and systemic change, which is key to building a more socially just urbanism and society more broadly. The case of the Chicago teachers is highly instructive for activists, both inside and outside of the North American labour movement.

  7. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  8. ADCP measurements of gravity currents in the Chicago River, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.M.; Oberg, K.; Garcia, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    A unique set of observations of stratified flow phenomena in the Chicago River was made using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) during the period November 20, 2003 to February 1, 2004. Water density differences between the Chicago River and its North Branch (NB) seem to be responsible for the development of gravity currents. With the objective of characterizing the occurrence, frequency, and evolution of such currents, the ADCP was configured to continuously collect high-resolution water velocity and echo intensity profiles in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive. During the observation period, 28 gravity current events were identified, lasting a total of 77% of the time. Sixteen of these events were generated by underflows from the NB and 12 of these events were generated by overflows from the NB. On average, the duration of the underflow and overflow events was 52.3 and 42.1 h, respectively. A detailed analysis of one underflow event, which started on January 7, 2004, and lasted about 65h, was performed. This is the first time that ADCP technology has been used to continuously monitor gravity currents in a river. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  9. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Ponce

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM. This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc. However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  10. Direct regulation of IL-2 by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Gyo; Hwang, Da-Jeong; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a crucial growth factor for both regulatory and effector T cells. Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the stimulation and suppression of immune responses. Recently, anti-IL-2 antibodies (Abs) have been shown to possess strong IL-2 modulatory activities by affecting the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. In this study, we screened an herbal library to identify a compound that regulates IL-2, which resulted in the identification of curcumin as a direct binder and inhibitor of IL-2. Curcumin is a phytochemical with well-known anti-cancer properties. In this study, curcumin mimicked or altered the binding pattern of anti-IL-2 Abs against IL-2 and remarkably inhibited the interaction of recombinant IL-2 with the IL-2 receptor α, CD25. Interestingly, curcumin neutralized the biological activities of IL-2 both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we elucidated the unsolved mechanism of the anti-cancer effect of curcumin by identifying IL-2 as a direct molecular target. Curcumin, as a small molecule IL-2 modulator, has the potential to be used to treat IL-2 related pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Il libro agente della socializzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sideri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga il ruolo del libro come agente di socializzazione, con particolare riferimento al pubblico dei lettori ragazzi e bambini e alle specifiche funzioni formative della “lettura della letteratura” in età pre-scolare e scolare fino ai 14 anni. La ricerca di matrice socio-culturale si è occupata per lo più del libro in qualità di prodotto eminentemente sociale (sociologia della letteratura, contenitore di testi significanti (semiotica, e bene di consumo dell’industria culturale (cultural studies: lo studio proposto richiama le conclusioni fondamentali di decenni di studi intorno al libro, con l’intento di rintracciare i criteri adeguati (tema, target, identità visiva, funzione pratica e utopica a guidare una classificazione dei generi 0-14 che evidenzi il valore socializzante di ciascuno, proponendo così una originale tipologia, che giustifica l’inserimento del libro tra quelle definite “agenzie testuali” della socializzazione.

  12. Regulation of IL-17 family members by adrenal hormones during experimental sepsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmann, Markus; Meta, Fabien; Ruemmler, Robert; Haggadone, Mikel D; Sarma, J Vidya; Zetoune, Firas S; Ward, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Severe sepsis is a life-threatening disease that causes major morbidity and mortality. Catecholamines and glucocorticoids often have been used for the treatment of sepsis. Several recent studies have suggested a potential role of IL-17 during the development and progression of sepsis in small animal models. In this study, the cross-talk of catecholamines and glucocorticoids with members of the IL-17 family was investigated during sepsis in C57BL/6 mice. The concentrations in plasma of IL-17A, IL-17F, and the IL-17AF heterodimer all were increased greatly in mice after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture as compared with sham mice. Surprisingly, when compared with IL-17A (487 pg/mL), the concentrations of IL-17F (2361 pg/mL) and the heterodimer, IL-17AF (5116 pg/mL), were much higher 12 hours after endotoxemia. After surgical removal of the adrenal glands, mice had much higher mortality after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture. The absence of endogenous adrenal gland hormones (cortical and medullary) was associated with 3- to 10-fold higher concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17AF, and IL-23. The addition of adrenaline, noradrenaline, hydrocortisone, or dexamethasone to lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages dose-dependently suppressed the expression and release of IL-17s. The production of IL-17s required activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, which was antagonized by both catecholamines and glucocorticoids. These data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune modulation by catecholamines and glucocorticoids during acute inflammation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Il potere di Prometeo e il dovere di Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picchetti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant ci suggerisce qualcosa che Prometeo e il mito greco avevano già accennato. L'imperativo che pone freno al fare, è già in sé nel soggetto ed è per questo che egli che egli è responsabile delle proprie azioni, indipendentemente dalla legge scritta.

  14. Il Sole, il genoma e Internet strumenti delle revoluzioni scientifiche

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2000-01-01

    In queste appassionate conferenze «di soglia» Dyson si sporge sul domani con la visionarietà di un Verne o di un Wells, consapevole però di abbozzare «solo uno dei corsi possibili, tra i milioni di altri che il futuro potrà riservarci». Il nuovo trivio di forze rivoluzionarie che, secondo il modello di Dyson, muoverà lo sviluppo ha nomi noti a tutti, e disputati da molti: energia solare, ingegneria genetica, rete di comunicazione globale. Un loro utilizzo flessibile e sinergico arriverebbe a ridisegnare il paesaggio sociale del pianeta, facendo affluire verso aree depresse risorse ora concentrate in pochi paesi, e ridando vita ovunque all'economia di villaggio. La raccolta di energia da una fonte equidistribuita come la luce solare potrebbe infatti avvenire attraverso coltivazioni arboree manipolate genetica mente allo scopo, con costi sostenibili e senza pregiudizio della ecodiversità. Sia che guardi al prossimo futuro terrestre sia che contempli la prospettiva non troppo lontana di insediamenti uma...

  15. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heon, Elise K. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wulan, Hasi [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Macdonald, Loch P.; Malek, Adel O.; Braunstein, Glenn H.; Eaves, Connie G.; Schattner, Mark D. [Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Allen, Peter M.; Alexander, Michael O.; Hawkins, Cynthia A.; McGovern, Dermot W.; Freeman, Richard L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Amir, Eitan P.; Huse, Jason D. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.; Kauff, Noah P.; Meyers, Paul G. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gleason, Michelle H., E-mail: GleasonM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Overholtzer, Michael G., E-mail: OverholtzerM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wiseman, Sam S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2015-08-14

    IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8{sup +} memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors. We found that neither IL-2 nor IL-15 induced intratumoral CD8 T cell proliferation by itself, but after CD3/CD28-stimulation, IL-15 induced significantly higher proliferation than IL-2 during early time points, at day 2, day 3 and day 6. However, the IL-15-induced proliferation leveled off at day 9 and day 12, whereas IL-2 induced lower but progressive proliferation at each time point. Furthermore, IL-15 caused an early and robust increase of IFN-γ in the supernatant of TI cell cultures, which diminished at later time points, while the IL-2-induced IFN-γ production remained constant over time. In addition, the IL-15-costimulated CD8 T cells presented higher frequencies of apoptotic cells. The diminishing IL-15-induced response was possibly due to regulatory and/or exhaustion mechanisms. We did not observe increased IL-10 or PD-1 upregulation, but we have found an increase of Tim-3 upregulation on IL-15-, but not IL-2-stimulated cells. Blocking Tim-3 function using anti-Tim-3 antibodies resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production for a prolonged period of time, whereas adding Tim-3 ligand galectin 9 led to reduced proliferation and IFN-γ production. Our results suggest that IL-15 in combination of Tim-3 blocking antibodies could potentially act as an IL-2 alternative in tumor CD8 T cell expansion in vitro, a crucial step in adoptive T cell therapy. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells of breast cancer. • IL-15

  16. Il programma dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Da quando l'universo ha avuto inizio, ha cominciato a calcolare il proprio comportamento. All'inizio il computer-universo produceva strutture semplici, particelle elementari e leggi elementari della fisica; col passare del tempo ha processato "informazioni" sempre più complesse, producendo strutture sempre più intricate (galassie, stelle, pianeti), ma sempre secondo leggi semplici. Ogni cosa deve quindi la propria esistenza alla capacità intrinseca della materia e dell'energia di processare informazione. Se si decifrasse fino in fondo si potrebbe, con un computer quantistico di dimensioni ridotte, comprendere l'universo nel suo insieme.

  17. Endogenous IL-22 Plays a Dual Role in Arthritis: Regulation of Established Arthritis via IFN-γ Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justa, Shivali; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Sarkar, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Objective IL-22 is elevated in patients with inflammatory arthritis and correlates with disease activity. IL-22 deficient mice have reduced incidence of arthritis. Recombinant IL-22 restrains progression of arthritis via increase in IL-10 responses when administered prior to onset of arthritis. These findings imply a possible dual role of IL-22 in inflammatory arthritis depending on the phase of arthritis. Experiments outlined here were designed to elucidate the contribution of endogenous IL-22 before and after the onset of arthritis. Methods Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in DBA1 or IFN-γ deficient mice following immunization with collagen and complete Freund's adjuvant. Anti-IL-22 antibody or isotype control were administered prior to or after onset of arthritis and disease progression assessed by clinical scoring and histopathology. IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ responses were measured by ELISA and flowcytometry. Anti-collagen antibody responses were analyzed by ELISA. Expression of IL-22R1 in CD4+ cells was elucidated by flowcytometry and real time PCR. Results Collagen specific IL-22 responses were expanded during arthritis and IL-22 producing cells were discrete from IL-17 or IFN-γ producing cells. Neutralization of IL-22 after onset of arthritis resulted in significant increase in Th1 responses and significantly reduced severity of arthritis. CD4+ cells from arthritic mice showed increased surface expression of IL-22R1. In vitro, CD4+T cells cultured with antigen presenting cells in the presence or absence of IL-22 suppressed or induced IFN-γ, respectively. The protective effect of anti-IL-22 was reversed in IFN-γ deficient mice. Moreover, administration of anti-IL-22 prior to onset of arthritis augmented arthritis severity. Conclusion We show for the first time that IL-22 plays a dual role: protective prior to the onset of arthritis and pathogenic after onset of arthritis. The pathogenic effect of IL-22 is dependent on suppression of IFN

  18. The SNP at −592 of human IL-10 gene is associated with serum IL-10 levels and increased risk for human papillomavirus cervical lesion development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Poveda Kirvis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV persistence are characterized by high levels of IL-10 at cervix. We have determined whether polymorphisms of IL-10 gene promoter might be associated with increased risk of squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions (SICL and whether exist significative differences of IL-10 mRNA expression at cervix and systemic and serum IL-10 protein between SICL cases and non-Cervical Lesions (NCL. Methods Peripheral blood samples from SICL (n = 204 and NCL (n = 166 were used to detect IL-10 promoter polymorphisms at loci -592A/C (rs1800872, -819C/T (rs1800871, -1082A/G (rs1800896, -1352A/G (rs1800893, by allelic discrimination and to evaluate serum IL-10 protein. Cervical epithelial scrapings from NCL and biopsies from SICLs were used for HPV-typing and to evaluate IL-10 mRNA expression level. The systemic and local IL-10 mRNA expression levels were measured by real time-PCR. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of the selected polymorphisms were analyzed by logistic regression, adjusting by age and HPV-genotype, to determine the association with SICL. Results No significant differences were found between genotype frequencies at loci −819, -1082, and −1352. Individuals carrying at least one copy of risk allele A of polymorphism −592 had a two-fold increased risk of developing SICL [adjusted odds ratio (OR, 2.02 (95% CI, 1.26-3.25, p = 0.003], compared to NCL. The IL-10 mRNA expression and serum IL-10 protein, were significantly higher in SICL cases (p  Conclusions The −592 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of SICL and can serve as a marker of genetic susceptibility to SICL among Mexican women. According to IL-10 levels found in SICL, IL-10 can be relevant factor for viral persistence and progression disease.

  19. Psoriasis is not associated with IL-12p70/IL-12p40 production and IL12B promoter polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a type-1 T cell-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease. Since interleukin (IL)-12p70 promotes the development of type-1 T cells, we investigated whether psoriasis is associated with an increased production of this cyctokine by blood cells. Results revealed that the production of IL-12p....... The frequencies of the various genotypes for the promoter region of the gene encoding IL-12p40 (IL12B) did not differ between psoriasis patients and controls. No association was observed between the various IL12B promoter genotypes and the LPS-stimulated production of IL-12p70 or IL-12p40 by blood cells. Together......, psoriasis is not associated with a promoter polymorphism in the IL12B gene nor with the production of IL-12p70 by LPS-stimulated blood cells....

  20. 75 FR 52013 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... points, 1 stone point or knife, and 1 obsidian point or knife. In 1901, Dr. Merton Miller removed the 12... knife, and obsidian point or knife were each removed from Native American graves located along the... measures 8.8 cm x 3.4 cm. The obsidian point or knife (Field Museum catalog number 69279) has slightly...

  1. 77 FR 53252 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL, to Detroit-Pontiac, MI, Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... intercity travel throughout the Midwest between 2010 and 2020 and a further 28 percent increase by 2040... make decisions regarding future improvements to intercity passenger rail service provided in the... business and leisure travelers shorter travel times, additional train frequencies, improved reliability and...

  2. 76 FR 8397 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Program Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... transportation modes, such as auto, air travel, intercity bus, and existing rail, and the physical... regional travel needs through significant improvements to the level and quality of passenger rail service... would divert intercity passenger rail service from the larger populations currently served in the...

  3. 78 FR 48902 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... published, the Field Museum staff determined that the objects meet the NAGPRA definitions for sacred objects... sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony under 25 U.S.C. 3001. In the Federal Register (72 FR... notice are specific ceremonial objects needed by traditional Native American religious leaders for the...

  4. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., vinyl protective packaging sheets (duty rate ranges from duty free to 5.8%). T/IM authority could be... information presented in the application and case record and to report findings and recommendations pursuant...

  5. 76 FR 82031 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-use Assurance; DuPage Airport, West Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... retained by the DAA. Parcel A includes portions of Parcels 209A (SOUTH OF THE Union Pacific Railroad, 231 (south of the Union Pacific Railroad) and all of Parcels 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 314 and 315 as per the... AT THE FOUND CAST IRON MONUMENT MARKING THE WEST QUARTER CORNER OF SAID SECTION 18, PER DOCUMENT NO...

  6. 1992 American Control Conference, 11th, Chicago, IL, June 24-26, 1992, Proceedings. Vols. 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on control are presented. The general topics addressed include: neural networks; robust stability; process control; large-scale and parallel computations in control; optimal control; mechanical and electrical control applications; identification of feedback systems; linear multivariable systems; advanced weapon control technology; numerical methods and computation; sampled data systems; l1, l2, H2, and H(infinity) control; force control; alpha-beta target tracking systems; variable structure control; robust control; stochastic systems; discrete time systems; H(infinity) control; decentralized systems; robotics; identification of multivariable systems; control of advanced aircraft; applications in nonlinear control; mixed H2/H(infinity) control; motion planning and trajectory control; aircraft flight guidance and control; model predictive control; parallel computing for power systems analysis; energy systems. Also addressed are: tracking and estimation; learning control; intelligent process control; analysis of systems with delay; spacecraft attitude dynamics and control; benchmark problems for robust control design; large power systems; fault-tolerant systems; modelling and control of distributed systems; estimation and hypothesis testing; chaotic systems; fuzzy control; intelligent control applications; identification and output error estimation; control of flexible structures; nonlinear process control; learning control and neural networks; repetitive control; discrete-event systems; interplay between identification and control design; covariance and Lyapunov-based control; robust stabilization and performance; nonlinear systems; identification and interpolation; estimation and filtering

  7. 75 FR 71525 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Chicago, IL; Fort Wayne-Marion, IN; Indianapolis, IN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... economic impact on a substantial number of small entities because they will affect only Federal agencies... * * * * * PENNSYLVANIA * * * * * PITTSBURGH Survey Area Pennsylvania: Allegheny Beaver Butler Washington Westmoreland...

  8. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RETROFIT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WATER RESOURCE PROTECTION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: PROCEEDINGS, CHICAGO, IL, FEBRUARY 9-12, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water resource managers have been successful in developing approaches for reducing nonpoint source pollution in newly developing urban areas. Issues become increasingly complex, however, when managers are faced with the challenge of reducing nonpoint source impacts within previo...

  9. Annual Conference on Human Retrovirus Testing (7th) held in Chicago, IL on March 3-5, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-05

    Ph.D.; Charles Sehable, M.S.; Judith Wethers , M.S.; Judith Wilber, Ph.D. This conference was supported, in part, by a firancial graot from the...Westerman Bill Roberts Judith Wethers , M.S. U Col Chester Roberts, Ph.D. Julianne Wiese Jeanette V Roman Helen Wiprud Gene F Robertson, Ph.D. JoAnn L Yee...RHgmor Thorstensson, Ph.D., National Judith Wethers , M.S., Director of Testing Bacteriological Lab Services. Retrovirology Lab.. New York Ralph

  10. 75 FR 5146 - Tempel Steel Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Staffing Chicago, IL; Tempel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... the production of lamination sheet steel for electric motors and transformers. New findings show that... affected by a shift in production of lamination sheet steel for electric motors and transformers to Mexico...

  11. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  12. The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis: novel links between disease-associated autoantibodies and radiographic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Nielsen, Morten Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and bone erosions. Current therapies can compromise immunity, leading to risk of infection. The interleukin-20 receptor (IL-20R) axis comprising IL-19, IL-20...... the production of the IL-20R cytokines by monocytes/macrophages. Increased baseline plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were associated with Sharp-van der Heijde score progression after 24 months (Spearman's rho = 0.19 and 0.26, both P ... by osteoclast precursors and in multinucleated osteoclasts. IL-20 and IL-24 increased the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 by these cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that IL-20 and IL-24 link RA-associated autoantibodies with radiographic progression via the IL-22R1. Modulation of this axis...

  13. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  14. Chicago Business Leadership and School Reform. Supporting Leaders for Tomorrow, Occasional Paper #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarik, David

    Chicago's city leaders, unlike other city leaders, are going after fundamental and radical restructuring of the nation's third largest school system, but have found that it is hard to achieve. This paper provides a snapshot of the growing political involvement of Chicago's business leadership with the city's troubled school system. The need for…

  15. 77 FR 4844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66235; File No. SR-CBOE-2011-114] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Complex Order Processing in Hybrid 3.0 Classes January 25, 2012. I. Introduction On November 29, 2011, the Chicago Board Options...

  16. Constructing nature as constructing science: expertise, activist science, and public conflict in the Chicago wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid M. Helford

    2000-01-01

    In April 1996 an exciting new project was announced, an unprecedented conservation undertaking in one of the nation's most densely populated regions. Chicago Wilderness is a collaborative effort among the more than 90 organizations that make up the Chicago Region Biodiversity Council (CRBC) to protect, restore, and manage the region's natural landscapes...

  17. 76 FR 56246 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule..., 2011, the Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc. (``CHX'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... methodology is less subject to manipulation and will allow the Exchange to recoup some of the costs of...

  18. 78 FR 20160 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change Related to the Liquidity Factor of CME's CDS Margin Methodology March 28, 2013. On December 10, 2012, Chicago Mercantile... Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule...

  19. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-91-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc...

  20. At University of Chicago, Dispute over Friedman Center Continues to Simmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the dispute about the creation of an institute named for the late economist and free-market advocate Milton Friedman at the University of Chicago. Five months after the University of Chicago announced plans to invest $200-million in an economics institute named for the late Milton Friedman, the project is still generating…

  1. A Challenge to Change: Necessary Changes in the Library Classification System for the Chicago Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Florence M.

    This report addresses the feasibility of changing the classification of library materials in the Chicago Public School libraries from the Dewey Decimal classification system (DDC) to the Library of Congress system (LC), thus patterning the city school libraries after the Chicago Public Library and strengthening the existing close relationship…

  2. Cesium-137 in various Chicago foods: collection month, April 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, J.O.

    1981-01-01

    Since April 1961, the 137 Cs and potassium content of the Chicago portion of the Tri-City Diet Sampling Program has been determined in bulk food samples by gamma-ray spectrometry using a 4 x 4 in. NaI (Ti) crystal. Each variety of food (all fresh vegetables, all fresh fruit, etc.) is composited before measurement, and each sample is counted 400 to 1000 minutes. From these measurements composite daily and yearly food intakes are obtained. The results for the April 1981 semi-annual sampling are tabulated

  3. Cesium-137 in various Chicago foods. Collection month, October 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Since April 1961, the 137 Cs and potassium content of the Chicago portion of the Tri-City Diet Sampling Program has been determined in bulk food samples by gamma-ray spectrometry using a 4'' x 4'' NaI (TI) crystal. Each variety of food (all fresh vegetables, all fresh fruit, etc.) is composited before measurement and each sample is counted 400 to 1000 minutes. From these measurements composite daily and yearly food intakes are obtained. The results for the October 1981 semi-annual sampling are tabulated

  4. Reversal of experimental colitis disease activity in mice following administration of an adenoviral IL-10 vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Mathis, J Michael; Jennings, Merilyn H; Jordan, Paul; Wang, Yuping; Ando, Tomoaki; Joh, Takashi; Alexander, J Steven

    2005-10-31

    Genetic deficiency in the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with the onset and progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical significance of IL-10 expression is supported by studies showing that immune-augmentation of IL-10 prevents inflammation and mucosal damage in animal models of colitis and in human colitis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating cytokine, has been shown to prevent some inflammation and injury in animal and clinical studies, but the efficacy of IL-10 treatment remains unsatisfactory. We found that intra-peritoneal administration of adenoviral IL-10 to mice significantly reversed colitis induced by administration of 3% DSS (dextran sulfate), a common model of colitis. Adenoviral IL-10 (Ad-IL10) transfected mice developed high levels of IL-10 (394 +/- 136 pg/ml) within the peritoneal cavity where the adenovirus was expressed. Importantly, when given on day 4 (after the induction of colitis w/DSS), Ad-IL10 significantly reduced disease activity and weight loss and completely prevented histopathologic injury to the colon at day 10. Mechanistically, compared to Ad-null and DSS treated mice, Ad-IL10 and DSS-treated mice were able to suppress the expression of MAdCAM-1, an endothelial adhesion molecule associated with IBD. Our results suggest that Ad-IL10 (adenoviral IL-10) gene therapy of the intestine or peritoneum may be useful in the clinical treatment of IBD, since we demonstrated that this vector can reverse the course of an existing gut inflammation and markers of inflammation.

  5. Reversal of experimental colitis disease activity in mice following administration of an adenoviral IL-10 vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ando Tomoaki

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic deficiency in the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10 is associated with the onset and progression of experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The clinical significance of IL-10 expression is supported by studies showing that immune-augmentation of IL-10 prevents inflammation and mucosal damage in animal models of colitis and in human colitis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10, an endogenous anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating cytokine, has been shown to prevent some inflammation and injury in animal and clinical studies, but the efficacy of IL-10 treatment remains unsatisfactory. We found that intra-peritoneal administration of adenoviral IL-10 to mice significantly reversed colitis induced by administration of 3% DSS (dextran sulfate, a common model of colitis. Adenoviral IL-10 (Ad-IL10 transfected mice developed high levels of IL-10 (394 +/- 136 pg/ml within the peritoneal cavity where the adenovirus was expressed. Importantly, when given on day 4 (after the induction of colitis w/DSS, Ad-IL10 significantly reduced disease activity and weight loss and completely prevented histopathologic injury to the colon at day 10. Mechanistically, compared to Ad-null and DSS treated mice, Ad-IL10 and DSS-treated mice were able to suppress the expression of MAdCAM-1, an endothelial adhesion molecule associated with IBD. Our results suggest that Ad-IL10 (adenoviral IL-10 gene therapy of the intestine or peritoneum may be useful in the clinical treatment of IBD, since we demonstrated that this vector can reverse the course of an existing gut inflammation and markers of inflammation.

  6. The role of IL-6 on apical periodontitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, M M; Samuel, R O; Gomes-Filho, J E; Dezan-Junior, E; Cintra, L T A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this review was to examine current knowledge of the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in apical periodontitis (AP) pathogenesis as an inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cytokine. It also looked at whether IL-6 could serve as a measure for differential diagnosis or as a biomarker that can further predict the progression of bone resorption. A systematic review relating to AP and IL-6 was made via PubMed, BIOSIS, Cochrane, EMBASE and Web of Science databases using keywords and controlled vocabulary. Two independent reviewers first screened titles and abstracts and then the full texts. The reference lists of the identified publications were examined for additional titles. Eighteen papers were studied in total. In vitro studies (n = 6) revealed that IL-6 is present in AP, and its levels are proportional to the size of the periapical lesions. Neutrophils and macrophages resident in these lesions can produce IL-6 in vitro after a bacterial stimulus. Animal studies (n = 5) showed that IL-6 is present in AP and that osteoblasts can produce IL-6 in vivo. On the other hand, two studies using IL-6 knockout mice revealed larger periapical lesions when compared with control groups, demonstrating IL-6's role as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In human studies (n = 7), IL-6 was identified in AP, and its levels were higher in symptomatic, epithelialized and large lesions than in asymptomatic and small lesions. These data lead to the conclusion that IL-6 may play a pro-inflammatory role, increasing its levels and reabsorbing bone in the presence of infections. When IL-6 is not present, other cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-α induce bone resorption. Further studies about the relationship between AP development and the cytokine network must be performed to establish the exact role of each cytokine in the inflammatory process. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  8. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  9. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...

  10. 76 FR 65609 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  11. The Chicago Landscape of Career and Technical Education. Feature on Research and Leadership. Vol. 2, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Devean R.; Welton, Anjalé D.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief, Owens and Welton provide an introductory overview of career and technical education (CTE) programs in both Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and the City Colleges of Chicago (CCC). They report that the State of Illinois, and the City of Chicago in particular, have some of the highest unemployment rates in the country for youth ages 16 to…

  12. The IL-6/JAK/Stat3 feed-forward loop drives tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Bournazou, Eirini; Sansone, Pasquale; Berishaj, Marjan; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Daly, Laura; Wels, Jared; Theilen, Till; Granitto, Selena; Zhang, Xinmin; Cotari, Jesse; Alpaugh, Mary L; de Stanchina, Elisa; Manova, Katia; Li, Ming; Bonafe, Massimiliano; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Taffurelli, Mario; Santini, Donatella; Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire; Kaplan, Rosandra; Norton, Larry; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Huszar, Dennis; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In human primary breast cancers, increased levels of IL-6 were found at the tumor leading edge and positively correlated with advanced stage, suggesting a mechanistic link between tumor cell production of IL-6 and invasion. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that the IL-6/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway drives tumor progression through the stroma and metastatic niche. Overexpression of IL-6 in tumor cell lines promoted myeloid cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and induced metastases. We demonstrated the therapeutic potential of interrupting this pathway with IL-6 receptor blockade or by inhibiting its downstream effectors JAK1/2 or Stat3. These clinically relevant interventions did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro but had profound effects in vivo on tumor progression, interfering broadly with tumor-supportive stromal functions, including angiogenesis, fibroblast infiltration, and myeloid suppressor cell recruitment in both the tumor and pre-metastatic niche. This study provides the first evidence for IL-6 expression at the leading edge of invasive human breast tumors and demonstrates mechanistically that IL-6/JAK/Stat3 signaling plays a critical and pharmacologically targetable role in orchestrating the composition of the tumor microenvironment that promotes growth, invasion, and metastasis.

  13. The IL-6/JAK/Stat3 Feed-Forward Loop Drives Tumorigenesis and Metastasis12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Bournazou, Eirini; Sansone, Pasquale; Berishaj, Marjan; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Daly, Laura; Wels, Jared; Theilen, Till; Granitto, Selena; Zhang, Xinmin; Cotari, Jesse; Alpaugh, Mary L; de Stanchina, Elisa; Manova, Katia; Li, Ming; Bonafe, Massimiliano; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Taffurelli, Mario; Santini, Donatella; Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire; Kaplan, Rosandra; Norton, Larry; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Huszar, Dennis; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In human primary breast cancers, increased levels of IL-6 were found at the tumor leading edge and positively correlated with advanced stage, suggesting a mechanistic link between tumor cell production of IL-6 and invasion. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that the IL-6/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway drives tumor progression through the stroma and metastatic niche. Overexpression of IL-6 in tumor cell lines promoted myeloid cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and induced metastases. We demonstrated the therapeutic potential of interrupting this pathway with IL-6 receptor blockade or by inhibiting its downstream effectors JAK1/2 or Stat3. These clinically relevant interventions did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro but had profound effects in vivo on tumor progression, interfering broadly with tumor-supportive stromal functions, including angiogenesis, fibroblast infiltration, and myeloid suppressor cell recruitment in both the tumor and pre-metastatic niche. This study provides the first evidence for IL-6 expression at the leading edge of invasive human breast tumors and demonstrates mechanistically that IL-6/JAK/Stat3 signaling plays a critical and pharmacologically targetable role in orchestrating the composition of the tumor microenvironment that promotes growth, invasion, and metastasis. PMID:23814496

  14. The IL-6/JAK/Stat3 Feed-Forward Loop Drives Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 (IL-6 in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In human primary breast cancers, increased levels of IL-6 were found at the tumor leading edge and positively correlated with advanced stage, suggesting a mechanistic link between tumor cell production of IL-6 and invasion. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that the IL-6/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 pathway drives tumor progression through the stroma and metastatic niche. Overexpression of IL-6 in tumor cell lines promoted myeloid cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and induced metastases. We demonstrated the therapeutic potential of interrupting this pathway with IL-6 receptor blockade or by inhibiting its downstream effectors JAK1/2 or Stat3. These clinically relevant interventions did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro but had profound effects in vivo on tumor progression, interfering broadly with tumor-supportive stromal functions, including angiogenesis, fibroblast infiltration, and myeloid suppressor cell recruitment in both the tumor and pre-metastatic niche. This study provides the first evidence for IL-6 expression at the leading edge of invasive human breast tumors and demonstrates mechanistically that IL-6/JAK/Stat3 signaling plays a critical and pharmacologically targetable role in orchestrating the composition of the tumor microenvironment that promotes growth, invasion, and metastasis.

  15. Pauropolis. Pianificare il controllo attraverso il progetto della sicurezza.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonese, Marco

    2008-01-01

    2006/2007 “Il grado di sicurezza misura la democrazia di un paese”, con questa frase un esponente della destra salutava l’approvazione nel parlamento italiano del nuovo pacchetto di norme in tema, appunto, di sicurezza. L’affermazione indica sintomaticamente come la questione, seppur non nuova, abbia acquisito un ruolo centrale nel dibattito contemporaneo, facilitata da una perfusione mediatica che ha trasformato l’evento dei primi giorni del settembre 2001 nel simbolo controverso della cr...

  16. IL-10 and IL-28B gene variants as predictors of sustained response to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Ikram; Mouelhi, Leila; Rabia, Noor A; Ghazoueni, Ezzedine; Almawi, Wassim Y; Loueslati, Besma Yacoubi

    2017-04-05

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays an important role in the immunity to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Insofar as IL-10 variants are associated with altered levels of IL-10, previous studies that examined the association of IL-10 polymorphisms with the susceptibility to and progression of chronic HCV, and response to anti-viral treatment were inconsistent. We investigated the association between common IL-10 variants in the intron and the promotor region with HCV and associated features. Study subjects comprised 120 patients infected with HCV-1b, and treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Genotyping of six IL-10 promoter variants in the intron region (rs1878672, rs1554286, rs1518111) and promotor region (rs1800872, rs1800871, rs1800896) were done by real-time PCR. Compared to G/G, carriage of IL-10 rs1800896 (-1082A/G) A/A genotype was more frequent in patients with sustained virological response (SVR). The decline in viral load over the first 12weeks of treatment was more pronounced in rs1800896 A/A genotype carriers, compared to G/G genotype carriers, and was irrespective of the treatment dosage. Carriage of rs1800896 A/A genotype was positively associated with improvement in viral load decline, which was simultaneous, with and without carriage of the common favourable IL-28B variant. Carriage of both IL-10 rs1800896 G/G and IL-28B non-favourable genotype was associated with twice the risk of getting slow decline of viral load during treatment. Haploview analysis identified ACGCTA and CCGCTG haplotypes to be linked with excellent PegIFN/RBV cure rate, and complete HCV eradication. On the other hand, ACGCTG and CCGCTA haplotypes were associated with resistance to PegIFN/RBV treatment. IL-10 rs1800896 variant markedly influences the clinical outcome of HCV infection, and is a determinant of the response to HCV treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Han

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between progress of the disease and the changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Methods: Serum TGF-β(with RIA) and IL-2, sIL-2R(with ELISA) levels were determined in 30 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy both before and after six months' treatment with prednisonlone as well as in 30 controls. Results: The serum IL-2 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After treatment, the levels dropped markedly, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy might be helpful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  18. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  20. The role of IL-17 in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Mona; Brown, Gabrielle Elena; Wang, Eva; Koo, John; Levin, Ethan C

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition traditionally believed to involve the Th1 pathway. Recently, the IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. From a clinician's perspective, we sought to review the basic science data relevant to IL-17's role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We performed a Pubmed and Web of Knowledge search for English articles starting from 1990 that discussed the Th17 pathway. Search terms such as "IL-17" and "psoriasis" were utilized. The IL-17 pathway is regulated by IL-23, a cytokine that is vital for the expansion and maintenance of the Th17 cell population. Th17 derived cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17A/F and IL-22) were elevated in both psoriasis-like murine models and human psoriatic lesional biopsies. Ixekizumab (anti-IL-17A) treatment of psoriasis was found to normalize levels of IL-17 downstream gene products. Both preclinical and clinical studies support the central role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  1. Becoming a uCity: The Case of Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Nedovic-Budic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The concept of a ubiquitous city, or uCity, is gaining attention worldwide. In a uCity, anyone is enabled by information and communication technologies (ICT to do anything, anywhere, at any time. The uCity concept has spread more quickly than its implementation, which relies on a complex set of interrelated technologies, practices, and actors, including but not limited to the provision of ICT infrastructure, the availability and accessibility of information and services, and the adoption of mobile communication devices by a variety of users. To aid in measuring and implementing a uCity, we explore ways to measure the “ubiquity” of a city, with particular attention given to the first “A” above – i.e., “anyone”. Empirical findings from Chicago highlight: 1 ICT access, 2 the connectivity of institutions and individuals, and 3 the ubiquity of virtuality. A socio-technical perspective and social network and social capital theories guide this study. The underlying social and motivational processes are essential to all aspects of becoming a uCity. KEYWORDS: Ubiquitous city, urban planning, community informatics, Chicago

  2. Design and implementation of a privacy preserving electronic health record linkage tool in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Abel N; Cashy, John P; Jackson, Kathryn L; Pah, Adam R; Goel, Satyender; Boehnke, Jörn; Humphries, John Eric; Kominers, Scott Duke; Hota, Bala N; Sims, Shannon A; Malin, Bradley A; French, Dustin D; Walunas, Theresa L; Meltzer, David O; Kaleba, Erin O; Jones, Roderick C; Galanter, William L

    2015-09-01

    To design and implement a tool that creates a secure, privacy preserving linkage of electronic health record (EHR) data across multiple sites in a large metropolitan area in the United States (Chicago, IL), for use in clinical research. The authors developed and distributed a software application that performs standardized data cleaning, preprocessing, and hashing of patient identifiers to remove all protected health information. The application creates seeded hash code combinations of patient identifiers using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant SHA-512 algorithm that minimizes re-identification risk. The authors subsequently linked individual records using a central honest broker with an algorithm that assigns weights to hash combinations in order to generate high specificity matches. The software application successfully linked and de-duplicated 7 million records across 6 institutions, resulting in a cohort of 5 million unique records. Using a manually reconciled set of 11 292 patients as a gold standard, the software achieved a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100%, with a majority of the missed matches accounted for by patients with both a missing social security number and last name change. Using 3 disease examples, it is demonstrated that the software can reduce duplication of patient records across sites by as much as 28%. Software that standardizes the assignment of a unique seeded hash identifier merged through an agreed upon third-party honest broker can enable large-scale secure linkage of EHR data for epidemiologic and public health research. The software algorithm can improve future epidemiologic research by providing more comprehensive data given that patients may make use of multiple healthcare systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities are briefly reported in the aras of quarkonium physics, e +- annihilations, neutral heavy leptons, magnetic monopoles, heavy vector bosons beyond the W and Z, supersymmetry, branching ratios in proton decay, and baryon magnetic moments publications are listed. 26 references

  4. Technical progress report. Theoretical high-energy-physics research at the University of Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Research activities are briefly reported. Topics include grand unified models, gluonic bound states, radiative decays of quarkonium, composite quarks and leptons, supersymmetry, magnetic monopoles in grand unified theories, and accelerator physics

  5. The dichotomous pattern of IL-12r and IL-23R expression elucidates the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Chognard

    Full Text Available IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines respectively drive Th1 and Th17 type responses. Yet, little is known regarding the biology of these receptors. As the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors share a common subunit, it has been assumed that these receptors are co-expressed. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of each of these receptors is restricted to specific cell types, in both mouse and human. Indeed, although IL-12Rβ2 is expressed by NK cells and a subset of γδ T cells, the expression of IL-23R is restricted to specific T cell subsets, a small number of B cells and innate lymphoid cells. By exploiting an IL-12- and IL-23-dependent mouse model of innate inflammation, we demonstrate an intricate interplay between IL-12Rβ2 NK cells and IL-23R innate lymphoid cells with respectively dominant roles in the regulation of systemic versus local inflammatory responses. Together, these findings support an unforeseen lineage-specific dichotomy in the in vivo role of both the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways in pathological inflammatory states, which may allow more accurate dissection of the roles of these receptors in chronic inflammatory diseases in humans.

  6. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. A Paracrine Role for IL6 in Prostate Cancer Patients: Lack of Production by Primary or Metastatic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Han; Zheng, Qizhi; Esopi, David; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Luo, Jun; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Drake, Charles G.; Vessella, Robert; Morrissey, Colm; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Sfanos, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Correlative human studies suggest that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL6) contributes to the development and/or progression of prostate cancer. However, the source of IL6 production in the prostate microenvironment in patients has yet to be determined. The cellular origin of IL6 in primary and metastatic prostate cancer was examined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues using a highly sensitive and specific chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay that underwent extensive analytical validation. Quantitative RT-PCR (q-RT-PCR) showed that benign prostate tissues often had higher expression of IL6 mRNA than matched tumor specimens. CISH analysis further indicated that both primary and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma cells do not express IL6 mRNA. IL6 expression was highly heterogeneous across specimens and was nearly exclusively restricted to the prostate stromal compartment – including endothelial cells and macrophages among other cell types. The number of IL6-expressing cells correlated positively with the presence of acute inflammation. In metastatic disease, tumor cells were negative in all lesions examined and IL6 expression was restricted to endothelial cells within the vasculature of bone metastases. Finally, IL6 was not detected in any cells in soft tissue metastases. These data suggest that, in prostate cancer patients, paracrine rather than autocrine IL6 production is likely associated with any role for the cytokine in disease progression. PMID:26048576

  8. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  9. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  10. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  11. Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Dam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma.

  12. Serum IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels as "bioumoral bridges" between dyslipidemia and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, S; Leonardi, S; Panasiti, I; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies suggest a possible link between dyslipidemia and atopy, literature findings are still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and atopy in a pediatric population affected by dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia/atopic predisposition. Children with dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia and atopy as well as healthy children were recruited. Serum total IgE, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 levels as well as fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) were performed on all enrolled children. The present study evaluated 23 patients affected by dyslipidemia, 26 patients affected by atopy and dyslipidemia and, 22healthy children. Serum total IgE levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: positively with total cholesterol (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia and atopic predisposition share the same immune pathways as well as they offer new insights in the complex crosstalk between hyperlipidemia and atopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Partnering with diabetes educators to improve patient outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Burke SD; Sherr D; Lipman RD

    2014-01-01

    Sandra D Burke,1,2 Dawn Sherr,3 Ruth D Lipman3 1American Association of Diabetes Educators, Chicago, IL, USA; 2University of Illinois at Chicago College of Nursing, Urbana, IL, USA; 3Science and Practice, American Association of Diabetes Educators, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease that affects millions worldwide. The paradigm of diabetes management has shifted to focus on empowering the person with diabetes to manage the disease successfully and to improv...

  14. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  15. Cytotoxic potential of lung CD8(+) T cells increases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity and with in vitro stimulation by IL-18 or IL-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christine M; Han, MeiLan K; Martinez, Fernando J; Murray, Susan; Liu, Lyrica X; Chensue, Stephen W; Polak, Timothy J; Sonstein, Joanne; Todt, Jill C; Ames, Theresa M; Arenberg, Douglas A; Meldrum, Catherine A; Getty, Christi; McCloskey, Lisa; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Lung CD8(+) T cells might contribute to progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) indirectly via IFN-gamma production or directly via cytolysis, but evidence for either mechanism is largely circumstantial. To gain insights into these potential mechanisms, we analyzed clinically indicated lung resections from three human cohorts, correlating findings with spirometrically defined disease severity. Expression by lung CD8(+) T cells of IL-18R and CD69 correlated with severity, as did mRNA transcripts for perforin and granzyme B, but not Fas ligand. These correlations persisted after correction for age, smoking history, presence of lung cancer, recent respiratory infection, or inhaled corticosteroid use. Analysis of transcripts for killer cell lectin-like receptor G1, IL-7R, and CD57 implied that lung CD8(+) T cells in COPD do not belong to the terminally differentiated effector populations associated with chronic infections or extreme age. In vitro stimulation of lung CD8(+) T cells with IL-18 plus IL-12 markedly increased production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, whereas IL-15 stimulation induced increased intracellular perforin expression. Both IL-15 and IL-18 protein expression could be measured in whole lung tissue homogenates, but neither correlated in concentration with spirometric severity. Although lung CD8(+) T cell expression of mRNA for both T-box transcription factor expressed in T cells and GATA-binding protein 3 (but not retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma or alpha) increased with spirometric severity, stimulation of lung CD8(+) T cells via CD3epsilon-induced secretion of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF, but not IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17A. These findings suggest that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules by lung-resident CD8(+) T cells contributes to COPD pathogenesis.

  16. Identification of Avian and Hemoparasite DNA in Blood-Engorged Abdomens of Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) from a West Nile Virus Epidemic region in Suburban Chicago, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Emily; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-05-01

    Multiple mosquito-borne parasites cocirculate in nature and potentially interact. To understand the community of parasites cocirculating with West Nile virus (WNV), we screened the bloodmeal content of Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes for three common types of hemoparasites. Blood-fed Cx. pipiens were collected from a WNV-epidemic area in suburban Chicago, IL, from May to September 2005 through 2010. DNA was extracted from dissected abdomens and subject to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate host. RNA was extracted from the head or thorax and screened for WNV using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Seventy-nine engorged females with avian host origin were screened using PCR and amplicon sequencing for filarioid nematodes, Haemosporida, and trypanosomatids. Filarioid nematodes were identified in 3.8% of the blooded abdomens, Plasmodium sp. in 8.9%, Haemoproteus in 31.6%, and Trypanosoma sp. in 6.3%. The sequences from these hemoparasite lineages were highly similar to sequences from birds in prior studies in suburban Chicago. Overall, 50.6% of blood-fed Culex pipiens contained hemoparasite DNA in their abdomen, presumably from current or prior bloodmeals. Additionally, we detected hemoparasite DNA in the blooded abdomen of three of 10 Cx. pipiens infected with WNV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  18. IL-17A, IL-17RC polymorphisms and IL17 plasma levels in Tunisian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbi, Mayssa; Haouami, Youssra; Sfar, Imen; Abdelmoula, Leila; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gorgi, Yousr

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a cytokine mainly secreted by Th17 cells, seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional genetic polymorphisms in IL-17 and its receptor genes can influence either qualitatively or quantitatively their functions. Therefore, we aimed to study the impact of IL17-A and IL17RC polymorphisms on plasma level of IL-17 and RA susceptibility and severity. Methods In this context, IL-17A*rs2275913 and IL-17RC*rs708567 polymorphisms were investigated together with the quantification of IL17 plasma level in 115 RA patients and 91 healthy control subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic origin. Results There were no statistically significant associations between IL-17A and IL-17RC studied polymorphisms and RA susceptibility. In contrast, IL-17A plasma levels were significantly higher in patients (55.07 pg/ml) comparatively to controls (4.75 pg/ml), p<10E-12. A ROC curve was used to evaluate the performance of plasma IL-17 in detecting RA. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity of plasma IL-17A was 61.7% at a cut-off value of 18.25 pg/ml; p < 10E-21, CI = [0.849–0.939]. Analytic results showed that the IgM-rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies were significantly less frequent in patients with the IL-17RC*A/A genotype than those carrying *G/G and *G/A genotypes; p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively. Otherwise, IL-17 plasma levels’ analysis showed a significant association with the activity of RA (DAS28≥5.1 = 74.71 pg/ml vs. DAS28<5.1 = 11.96 pg/ml), p<10E-6. Conclusion IL-17A*rs2275913 (G/A) and IL-17RC*rs708567 (G/A) polymorphisms did not seem to influence RA susceptibility in Tunisian population. This result agrees with those reported previously. Plasma IL-17A level seems to be predictive of severe RA occurrence. PMID:29584788

  19. "Something good can grow here": chicago urban agriculture food projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.

  20. Vitiligo inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches due to loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may play a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP) and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH), known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), are increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators interleukin-6 (IL6) and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while over-expression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity. PMID:22696056

  1. Vitiligo-inducing phenols activate the unfolded protein response in melanocytes resulting in upregulation of IL6 and IL8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Siavash; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2012-11-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity.

  2. Asthma and food allergy management in Chicago Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Rivkina, Victoria; DeSantiago-Cardenas, Lilliana; Smith, Bridget; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize asthma and food allergy reporting and management in Chicago Public Schools. Demographic and health data for students who have asthma and food allergy were extracted from the Chicago Public Schools database. Demographic and geographic variability and the existence of school health management plans were analyzed, and multiple logistic regression models were computed. Home addresses were geocoded to create maps of case counts per community area. Approximately 18,000 asthmatic and 4000 food allergic students were identified. Of asthmatic students, 9.3% had a food allergy; of food allergic students, 40.1% had asthma. Asthma odds were significantly higher among black and Hispanic students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3 and 1.3, respectively), whereas food allergy odds were significantly higher among black students (OR = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.3) and significantly lower among Hispanic students (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9). Only 24.3% of students who had asthma and 50.9% of students who had food allergy had a school health management plan on file. Odds of having a school health management plan were significantly higher among students with both conditions, but the likelihood of having a plan on file was significantly lower among racial/ethnic minority and low-income students, regardless of medical condition. Only 1 in 4 students who have asthma and half of food allergic students have health management plans in schools, with lower numbers among minority and low-income students. Improving chronic disease reporting and access to school health management plans is critical. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Interaction of osteopontin with IL-18 in obese individuals: implications for insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Ahmad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN and IL-18 are known inflammatory mediators and both participate in a wide range of biological processes linked to immunological disorders. Since an interaction between OPN and IL-18 has not been studied in obesity, we investigated whether: (i their levels were simultaneously elevated in obese individuals; (ii OPN was associated with IL-18 in obese individuals and (iii their levels associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG and BMI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: PBMCs and plasma samples were isolated from 60 individuals including lean as well as overweight and obese individuals. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained. OPN and IL-18 were measured by ELISA. OPN and IL-18 mRNA expression was quantified by real time quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Obese individuals exhibited significantly increased circulating OPN levels as compared with lean individuals (obese 2865±101; lean 1681±116 pg/ml; P<0.0001. IL-18 levels were also high in obese individuals (obese 491±39, lean 301±26 pg/ml; P = 0.0009. OPN and IL-18 expression were simultaneously up-regulated (OPN: 5.4-Fold; IL-18: 8.9-Fold; P<0.05 in PBMCs from obese individuals compared to lean group. Adipose tissue from obese individuals had high expression of OPN (7.3-Fold and IL-18 (9.6-Fold. Plasma OPN levels correlated positively with FBG levels (r = 0.32, P = 0.02. Similarly, IL-18 correlated positively with FBG levels (r = 0.406, P = 0.0042. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed an independent association of BMI with OPN and IL-18. Interestingly, OPN levels increased progressively with an increase in IL-18 levels (r = 0.52, P = 0.0004. We also examined the regulatory role of IL-18 in OPN secretion from PBMCs. Neutralizing anti-IL-18Rα mAb reduced OPN secretion. CONCLUSION: These findings represent the first observation that plasma, PBMC and adipose tissue OPN and IL-18 are simultaneously increased and correlate with each

  4. B cell activating factor is central to bleomycin- and IL-17-mediated experimental pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Antoine; Gombault, Aurélie; Villeret, Bérengère; Alsaleh, Ghada; Fanny, Manoussa; Gasse, Paméla; Adam, Sylvain Marchand; Crestani, Bruno; Sibilia, Jean; Schneider, Pascal; Bahram, Seiamak; Quesniaux, Valérie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Wachsmann, Dominique; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Couillin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive devastating, yet untreatable fibrotic disease of unknown origin. We investigated the contribution of the B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a TNF family member recently implicated in the regulation of pathogenic IL-17-producing cells in autoimmune diseases. The contribution of BAFF was assessed in a murine model of lung fibrosis induced by airway administered bleomycin. We show that murine BAFF levels were strongly increased in the bronchoalveolar space and lungs after bleomycin exposure. We identified Gr1(+) neutrophils as an important source of BAFF upon BLM-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Genetic ablation of BAFF or BAFF neutralization by a soluble receptor significantly attenuated pulmonary fibrosis and IL-1β levels. We further demonstrate that bleomycin-induced BAFF expression and lung fibrosis were IL-1β and IL-17A dependent. BAFF was required for rIL-17A-induced lung fibrosis and augmented IL-17A production by CD3(+) T cells from murine fibrotic lungs ex vivo. Finally we report elevated levels of BAFF in bronchoalveolar lavages from IPF patients. Our data therefore support a role for BAFF in the establishment of pulmonary fibrosis and a crosstalk between IL-1β, BAFF and IL-17A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of the IL-6 Gene in the Etiopathogenesis of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Nikolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scoliotic human nuclei pulposi can respond to exogenous proinflammatory stimuli by secreting increased amounts of interleukin-6 (IL-6. The G/C polymorphism of the promoter region of IL-6 gene influences levels and functional activity of the IL-6 protein. We conducted a case-control study of eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS and one hundred sixty healthy unrelated gender-matched controls trying to investigate the association between IS and the IL-6 promoter polymorphism at -174 position (rs1800795 G/C in Bulgarian population. Molecular detection of the IL-6 genotypes was performed by amplification followed by restriction technology. The statistical analysis was performed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. Our case-control study revealed a statistically significant association between the IL-6 (-174 G/C functional polymorphism and susceptibility to IS. In addition, a significant association between the IL-6 (-174 G/C polymorphism and curve severity was detected. IL-6 gene could be considered as susceptibility and modifying factor of idiopathic scoliosis. The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful for early detection of children at risk for the development of scoliosis and for prognosis of the risk for a rapid deformity progression. That would facilitate the therapy decisions and early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures.

  6. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  7. I lectores medioevali tra il libro e il testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Riviello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’intento del lavoro è di problematizzare alcuni aspetti, generalmente ritenuti emblematici, della relazione tra i litterati medievali e il libro – nelle sue declinazioni di Testo sacro, Libro della natura e auctoritates. L’impiego, come strumenti di lavoro, di concetti di recente elaborazione e di osservazioni di pensatori contemporanei sull’argomento, non è finalizzato ad attualizzare tale relazione, quanto piuttosto ad ampliare i punti di vista su di essa e a metterne alla prova la capacità di offrire originali spunti di riflessione. Le proposte teoriche di Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault e Roland Barthes sono qui adoperate come esemplificazioni di un’interpretazione che ha storicamente reso quasi paradigmatico il modo di leggere dei docti, specialmente altomedievali. Tuttavia, alcune definizioni della Scrittura – il libro per eccellenza – proposte da questi ultimi, nonché la teorizzazione del suo quadruplice senso sembrano smussare la radicalità di queste osservazioni. Concetti quali “funzione-autore” di Foucault e “testo” di Barthes sono invece adottati per considerare all’interno di una diversa cornice teorica il confronto dei doctores, in particolare bassomedievali, con le cosiddette auctoritates. Nella visione ordinaria la reverenza nei confronti dell’autore, divino o umano, la ricerca e la riproposizione fedele di un significato univoco dell’opera aldilà dei segni, naturali o culturali, che lo veicolano costituiscono tratti tipici dell’atteggiamento dei lettori medievali. A fronte di questi aspetti, tuttavia, è possibile sottolinearne altri eterodossi e perlopiù trascurati, quali la rilevanza attribuita all’interpretazione, prassi ineludibile e da disciplinare, al ruolo del lettore e alla sua fruizione attiva e produttiva dei testi. The aim of the work is to problematize some aspects generally considered representative of the relationship between medieval savants and the book - in its variations

  8. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  9. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.

  10. 75 FR 26225 - Adequacy Status of the Chicago, Illinois Area Submitted 8-Hour Ozone Redesignation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Agency, Region 5, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604 (312) 353-6680, leslie.michael@epa..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Leslie, Environmental Engineer, Criteria Pollutant...

  11. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  12. School Finance Crisis in Chicago: A Study of Failure in the City that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. Howard

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the effects of patronage politics on Chicago schools. Cites overtime abuse, poor job and program cost control, favoritism in contractual building maintenance, and capital building programs as some of the costs that political patronage imposes. (GC)

  13. CATS Household Travel Survey, Volume One: Documentation for the Chicago Central Business District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the surveying concepts, the editing and : coding logic, the data base structure, several summary tables and the data base : for the Chicago Central Business District. Also, because the data at this time : are unfa...

  14. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Rauch

    Full Text Available IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/- TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  15. The IL-17F/IL-17RC Axis Promotes Respiratory Allergy in the Proximal Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin 17 (IL-17 cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, following infection with the upper respiratory pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, the IL-17F/IL-17RC axis mediated protection. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F exert distinct biological effects during pulmonary infection; the IL-17F/IL-17RC signaling axis has the potential to significantly worsen pathogen-associated inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in particular, and should be investigated further as a therapeutic target for treating pathological inflammation in the lung.

  16. IL-17 mediates immunopathology in the absence of IL-10 following Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez-Lombana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, resulting from infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, consists of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. A particularly severe form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, termed mucosal leishmaniasis, exhibits decreased IL-10 levels and an exaggerated inflammatory response that perpetuates the disease. Using a mouse model of leishmaniasis, we investigated what cytokines contribute to increased pathology when IL-10-mediated regulation is absent. Leishmania major infected C57BL/6 mice lacking IL-10 regulation developed larger lesions than controls, but fewer parasites. Both IFN-γ and IL-17 levels were substantially elevated in mice lacking the capacity to respond to IL-10. IFN-γ promoted an increased infiltration of monocytes, while IL-17 contributed to an increase in neutrophils. Surprisingly, however, we found that IFN-γ did not contribute to increased pathology, but instead regulated the IL-17 response. Thus, blocking IFN-γ led to a significant increase in IL-17, neutrophils and disease. Similarly, the production of IL-17 by cells from leishmaniasis patients was also regulated by IL-10 and IFN-γ. Additional studies found that the IL-1 receptor was required for both the IL-17 response and increased pathology. Therefore, we propose that regulating IL-17, possibly by downregulating IL-1β, may be a useful approach for controlling immunopathology in leishmaniasis.

  17. IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Chung-Hao; Wang, Lin; Huang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ko; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-06-01

    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were collected from every patient. We investigated IL-28 and IL-29 levels in serum by ELISA. The concentrations of serum IL-28 and IL-29 were significantly higher in subjects with dengue when compared to those of control group. The patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels had significantly lower ALAT and peripheral blood neutrophil percentage, but higher peripheral platelet, total white blood cell (WBC), monocyte, and lymphocyte counts. Patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels also had more flu-like symptoms, but less vomiting. Increased level of IL-28 and IL-29 was associated with better liver function, platelet and WBC numbers and clinical symptom in subjects with dengue and could potentially serve as a protective marker.

  18. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bonanno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC, 11 allergic rhinitis (AR patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH Vit D. In AAR 25(OH Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.

  19. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  20. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  1. What caused Chicago bank failures in the Great Depression? A look at the 1920s.

    OpenAIRE

    Natacha Postel-Vinay

    2015-01-01

    This paper reassesses the causes of Chicago bank failures during the Great Depression by tracking the evolution of their balance sheets in the 1920s. I find that all Chicago banks suffered tremendous deposit withdrawals; however banks that failed earlier in the 1930s had invested more in mortgages in the 1920s. The main problem with mortgages was their lack of liquidity, not their quality. Banks heavily engaged in mortgages did not have enough liquid assets to face the withdrawals and failed....

  2. TO THE 70TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Neradyiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the prerequisite for the development and adoption of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944. There are given the appreciation of the contents of the convention, it is shown its place and importance in the field of international air law. There is shown the current importance of the Chicago Convention for the development of international civil aviation.

  3. Il Gambling Compulsivo: rilevanza epidemiologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coacci

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: il gioco d’azzardo ha profonde radici nella storia e nella cultura di ogni popolo. Si stima che circa l’80% della popolazione adulta nel nostro Paese giochi d’azzardo. Esso, pur rappresentando per la maggior parte di queste persone solo un innocuo passatempo, si trasforma talora in una vera e propria malattia (gambling compulsivo, con comportamenti che denotano forme estreme di rischio, sino a forme che portano alla distruzione della famiglia e persino della propria vita.

    Si tratta un disturbo poco conosciuto e spesso non diagnosticato. Infatti, benché sia largamente diffuso e comporti rilevanti costi umani e sociali, il gambling compulsivo solo di recente è stato incluso nelle classificazioni diagnostiche internazionali.

    Obiettivi: valutare l’impatto epidemiologico del gambling compulsivo (gioco d’azzardo patologico in una ASL/provincia.

    Materiali e metodi: è stato inviato un questionario ai 190 Medici di Medicina Generale della provincia di Grosseto (ASL 8, per raccogliere informazioni su: sistema di cura, numero di soggetti che si sono rivolti al proprio medico di famiglia per tale problema, eventuale coesistenza di problemi e comportamenti di dipendenza e di abuso (alcool, psicofarmaci, droghe illegali, ecc.

    Risultati: sono pervenuti 127 (pari al 66,8% questionari compilati. L’elaborazione dei dati è tuttora in corso.

    Conclusioni: dai risultati preliminari sembra emergere che il numero di persone che chiede aiuto al medico e al SSN, differentemente da quanto accade per i tossicodipendenti, è molto limitato e, quindi, intuitivamente poco indicativo della massa di soggetti realmente coinvolti dalla problematica studiata. Si discute del ruolo nella promozione della salute potenzialmente svolto dai Medici di Medicina Generale. Per quanto la tecnica di rilevazione appaia relativamente poco sensibile

  4. High resolution esophageal manometry--the switch from "intuitive" visual interpretation to Chicago classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, M; Balakumaran, T A; Palaniappan, S; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Batcha, M; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2014-03-01

    High resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) has been interpreted all along by visual interpretation of color plots until the recent introduction of Chicago classification which categorises HREM using objective measurements. It compares HREM diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders by visual interpretation and Chicago classification. Using software Trace 1.2v, 77 consecutive tracings diagnosed by visual interpretation were re-analyzed by Chicago classification and findings compared for concordance between the two systems of interpretation. Kappa agreement rate between the two observations was determined. There were 57 males (74 %) and cohort median age was 41 years (range: 14-83 years). Majority of the referrals were for gastroesophageal reflux disease, dysphagia and achalasia. By "intuitive" visual interpretation, the tracing were reported as normal in 45 (58.4 %), achalasia 14 (18.2 %), ineffective esophageal motility 3 (3.9 %), nutcracker esophagus 11 (14.3 %) and nonspecific motility changes 4 (5.2 %). By Chicago classification, there was 100 % agreement (Kappa 1) for achalasia (type 1: 9; type 2: 5) and ineffective esophageal motility ("failed peristalsis" on visual interpretation). Normal esophageal motility, nutcracker esophagus and nonspecific motility disorder on visual interpretation were reclassified as rapid contraction and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction by Chicago classification. Chicago classification identified distinct clinical phenotypes including EGJ outflow obstruction not identified by visual interpretation. A significant number of unclassified HREM by visual interpretation were also classified by it.

  5. Increased IL-20 and IL-24 target osteoblasts and synovial monocytes in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Andersen, Morten Nørgaard; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) involves activation of the innate immune system, inflammation and new bone formation. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-20 and IL-24 have been shown to link innate immune activation and tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that these two cytokines...... are secreted as part of activation of the innate immune system and affect bone homeostasis in SpA. IL-20 and IL-24 were measured in plasma from axial SpA patients (n = 83). Peripheral SpA patients (n = 16) were included for in-vitro cell culture studies. The plasma IL-20 and IL-24 levels were increased in Sp...

  6. The role of CD40L, IL-10 and IL-17 in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting

    2003-01-01

    CD40L/CD40 interaction is central to the control of thymus-dependent humoral immunity and cell mediated immune responses. IL-17 has been shown to induce the production of IL-6 and G-CSF, which can induce proliferation and differentiation of CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors. IL-10 can interfere with up-regulation of costimulatory molecules, thus suppressing the production of costimulatory cytokines, such as IL-12. IL-10 has been implicated as an essential mediator in the induction of systemic immune suppression following ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Treating UV-irradiated mice with anti-IL-10 blocks the induction of immune suppression

  7. Il fuoco della fusione termonucleare controllata

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero; Sindoni, Elio

    1984-01-01

    Per realizzare la fusione termonucleare controllata, cioè catturare e dominare il fuoco che accende gli astri, e ottenere così una nuova fonte di energia praticamente illimitata e a basso costo, si richiede uno sforzo collettivo e unitario globale: non esiste infatti nazione al mondo che sia in grado, singolarmente presa, di affrontare il problema, sia per le risorse finanziarie necessarie all'impresa sia per il numero dei ricercatori che dovranno dedicarvisi.

  8. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    grown these cells in culture and have generated stable cell clones which express Tomato Red so that these cells can be followed through fluorescent...occurring in ovarian cell lines, we examined the effect of IL6 and IL6Ra expression on cell migration in vitro . Migration through uncoated cell culture ...or IL6R were plated on tissue culture plates and scratch wounds were made. Over the course of the experiment, photographs of the cultures were

  9. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli.

    OpenAIRE

    Salarelli, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura. Paolo Monelli‟s Il ghiottone errante (The Wand...

  10. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1ß, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1ß, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-¿. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted...... in increased IFN-¿ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Ra, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33...

  11. Sinergetica il segreto del successo della natura

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione e sommario ; il disordine cresce sempre? la morte termica dell'universo ; i cristalli : strutture ordinate, ma morte ; strutture ordinate nei liquidi e nelle nubi e formazioni geologiche ; fiat lux! la luce del laser ; configurazioni chimiche ; l'evoluzione biologica e la sopravvivenza del migliore ; sopravvivi anche senza essere il migliore : specializzati, scavati una nicchia ecologica ; come si formano gli organismi biologici ; talvolta i conflitti sono ineluttabili ; il caos, il caso e la concezione meccanicistica del mondo ; gli effetti sinergetici nell'economia ; si possono prevedere le rivoluzioni ? ; le allucinazioni comprovano le teorie sul cervello.

  12. Il caso Lautsi contro l’Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégor Puppinck

    2012-02-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse – 2. Il ragionamento della Seconda Sezione - 2.1. La ridefinizione dalla finalità del sistema educativo pubblico - 2.2. Il pluralismo educativo come finalità – 2.3. Sintesi del ragionamento della Sezione – 2.4.  Una sentenza contestata - 3.  Il ragionamento sviluppato dalla Grande Camera - 3.1. La sussidiarietà e il margine di apprezzamento – 3.2.  Il laicismo è una convinzione filosofica non neutra – 3.3. La neutralità si applica all’ “agire” e non all' "essere” dello  Stato – 3.4.  Democrazia, neutralità confessionale e laicità – 3.5.  L’educazione pubblica  nel senso della Grande Camera – 3.6.  Il crocefisso: un simbolo passivo – 3.7.  L’assenza d’ingerenza dello Stato - 4.  Gli sviluppi supplementari alla sentenza della Grande Camera – 4.1.  Il crocefisso e il velo islamico – 4.2.  La libertà negativa di religione dei non credenti – 4.3. La falsa soluzione bavarese – 4.4.  La tradizione – 4.5. La religione maggioritaria – 4.6.  Il dibattito religioso e politico – 4.7. Le conseguenze del caso Lautsi.

  13. Counterbalancing of TH2-driven allergic airway inflammation by IL-12 does not require IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournoy, K G; Kips, J C; Pauwels, R A

    2001-03-01

    Asthma is characterized by allergen-induced airway inflammation orchestrated by TH2 cells. The TH1-promoting cytokine IL-12 is capable of inhibiting the TH2-driven allergen-induced airway changes in mice and is therefore regarded as an interesting strategy for treating asthma. The antiallergic effects of IL-12 are only partially dependent of IFN-gamma. Because IL-12 is a potent inducer of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo whether the antiallergic effects of IL-12 are mediated through IL-10. C57BL/6J-IL-10 knock-out (IL-10(-/-)) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently exposed from day 14 to day 21 to aerosolized OVA (1%). IL-12 was administered intraperitoneally during sensitization, subsequent OVA exposure, or both. IL-12 inhibited the OVA-induced airway eosinophilia, despite the absence of IL-10. Moreover, a shift from a TH2 inflammatory pattern toward a TH1 reaction was observed, with concomitant pronounced mononuclear peribronchial inflammation after IL-12 treatment. Allergen-specific IgE synthesis was completely suppressed only when IL-12 was administered along with the allergen sensitization. Furthermore, treating the animals with IL-12 at the time of the secondary allergen challenge resulted not only in a significant suppression of the airway responsiveness but also in an important IFN-gamma-associated toxicity. These results indicate that IL-12 is able to inhibit allergen-induced airway changes, even in the absence of IL-10. In addition, our results raise concerns regarding the redirection of TH2 inflammation by TH1-inducing therapies because treatment with IL-12 resulted not only in a disappearance of the TH2 inflammation but also in a TH1-driven inflammatory pulmonary pathology.

  14. Pro-inflammatory signaling by IL-10 and IL-22: bad habit stirred up by interferons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eMühl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 and IL-22 are key members of the IL-10 cytokine family that share characteristic properties such as defined structural features, usage of IL-10R2 as one receptor chain, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 as dominant signaling mode. IL-10, formerly known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is key to deactivation of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Accordingly, pre-clinical studies document its anti-inflammatory capacity. However, the outcome of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of IL-10 in prototypic inflammatory disorders has been disappointing. In contrast to IL-10, IL-22 acts primarily on non-leukocytic cells, in particular epithelial cells of intestine, skin, liver, and lung. STAT3-driven proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial tissue protection is regarded a principal function of IL-22 at host/environment interfaces. In this hypothesis article, hidden/underappreciated pro-inflammatory characteristics of IL-10 and IL-22 are outlined and related to cellular priming by type I interferon. It is tempting to speculate that an inherent inflammatory potential of IL-10 and IL-22 confines their usage in tissue protective therapy and beyond that determines in some patients efficacy of type I interferon treatment.

  15. Role of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Olivier; Rivière, Elodie; Seror, Raphaèle; Nocturne, Gaetane; Boudaoud, Saida; Ly, Bineta; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Le Guern, Véronique; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Nititham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Chanson, Philippe; Dieudé, Philippe; Criswell, Lindsey A; Jagla, Bernd; Thai, Alice; Mingueneau, Michael; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2017-09-12

    An interferon signature is involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), but whether the signature is type 1 or type 2 remains controversial. Mouse models and genetic studies suggest the involvement of T H 1 and type 2 interferon pathways. Likewise, polymorphisms of the IL-12A gene (IL12A), which encodes for IL-12p35, have been associated with pSS. The IL-12p35 subunit is shared by 2 heterodimers: IL-12 and IL-35. We sought to confirm genetic association of the IL12A polymorphism and pSS and elucidate involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with pSS by using functional studies. The genetic study involved 673 patients with pSS from 2 French pSS cohorts and 585 healthy French control subjects. Functional studies were performed on sorted monocytes, irrespective of whether they were stimulated. IL12A mRNA expression and IL-12 and IL-35 protein levels were assessed by using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA and a multiplex kit for IL-35 and IL-12, respectively. We confirmed association of the IL12A rs485497 polymorphism and pSS and found an increased serum protein level of IL-12p70 in patients with pSS carrying the risk allele (P = .016). Serum levels of IL-12p70 were greater in patients than control subjects (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05); conversely, IL-35 levels were decreased in patients (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05). In blood cellular subsets both IL12p35 and EBV-induced gene protein 3 (EBI3) mRNAs were detected only in B cells, with a trend toward a lower level among patients with pSS. Our findings emphasize involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in the pathogenesis of pSS. Serum IL-35 levels were associated with low disease activity, in contrast with serum IL-12p70 levels, which were associated with more active disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxia promotes IL-32 expression in myeloma cells, and high expression is associated with poor survival and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Westhrin, Marita; Aass, Kristin Roseth; Moen, Siv Helen; Misund, Kristine; Psonka-Antonczyk, Katarzyna Maria; Giliberto, Mariaserena; Buene, Glenn; Sundan, Anders; Waage, Anders; Sponaas, Anne-Marit; Standal, Therese

    2017-12-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer characterized by expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Most patients develop an osteolytic bone disease, largely caused by increased osteoclastogenesis. The myeloma bone marrow is hypoxic, and hypoxia may contribute to MM disease progression, including bone loss. Here we identified interleukin-32 (IL-32) as a novel inflammatory cytokine expressed by a subset of primary MM cells and MM cell lines. We found that high IL-32 gene expression in plasma cells correlated with inferior survival in MM and that IL-32 gene expression was higher in patients with bone disease compared with those without. IL-32 was secreted from MM cells in extracellular vesicles (EVs), and those EVs, as well as recombinant human IL-32, promoted osteoclast differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The osteoclast-promoting activity of the EVs was IL-32 dependent. Hypoxia increased plasma-cell IL-32 messenger RNA and protein levels in a hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-dependent manner, and high expression of IL-32 was associated with a hypoxic signature in patient samples, suggesting that hypoxia may promote expression of IL-32 in MM cells. Taken together, our results indicate that targeting IL-32 might be beneficial in the treatment of MM bone disease in a subset of patients.

  17. Mechanism of subdural effusion evolves into chronic subdural hematoma: IL-8 inducing neutrophil oxidative burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiqiang; Lin, Yingying; Hu, Maotong; Ding, Shenghong; Li, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is still a mysterious disease. Though great success has been has achieved by neuro-surgery treatment, the origin and development of CSDH remains unknown. Tremendous clinical observations have found the correlation of subdural effusion (SDE) and CSDH. However, systematic elucidation of CSDH's origin and progression is lacking while almost all the current hypothesis only explained partial phenomenon. This hypothesis proposes Interleukin (IL)-8 inducing neutrophil respiratory burst is the crucial impact when SDE evolves into CSDH. IL-8 initially secreted by dural border layer cells, accumulates and the concentration of IL-8 rises in the SDE cavity. Accompanied by the formation of neo-membrane under the dura meninges, IL-8 firstly prompts to establish the neo-vasculature in it, and then attracts lymphocytes aggregation in the neo-membrane. Both the newly recruited lymphocytes and endothelial cells assist the further elevation of local IL-8 concentration. When the IL-8 concentration elevated to a particular level, it attracts neutrophils to the inner wall of neo-vessels and primes them to oxidative burst. Lysosomes and superoxide released by these neutrophils make the fragile neo-capillary became leaky, and subsequently the plasma and blood cells run into SDE. However, as long as the erythrocytes come into the cavity, they shall bind large quantity of IL-8 and decrease IL-8 concentration to a lower level relatively that reduce the neutrophils recruit. When this negative feedback is stagnancy, for example, the SDE space is so large in elder man who is experiencing brain atrophy, the neo-vessels have to release more erythrocytes to bind IL-8, the liquid cavity will expand and the high intracranial pressure symptoms appeared. Our hypothesis holds potential for the proper therapeutic intervention of CSDH. IL-8 antagonist and other anti-inflammation drugs like macrolides antibiotics, glucocorticoid and atorvastatin might be optional to resist

  18. Development of a quick serum IL-6 measuring system in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kensuke; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ishii, Kentaro; Jung, Giman; Haro, Hirotaka; Matsuda, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both fulfillment of remission criteria and assessment of other methods of evaluation of RA are important for preventing joint damage progression. Measurement of serum IL-6 concentrations has been reported to be useful for monitoring RA disease activity. However, it takes at least 4-5h to measure serum IL-6 concentrations using traditional methods, which limits its utility during routine assessment in daily clinical practice settings. We established a novel method that enables measurement of serum IL-6 within 24min and requires a very small blood volume. We investigated the accuracy and efficacy of this system in RA patients. One hundred fifty blood samples collected from 76 patients were measured using the two systems. We first developed the prototype of the Human IL-6 RAYFAST. Then, we examined the correlation between the prototype RAYFAST and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) methods. Finally, we compared IL-6 concentrations and clinical parameters using both systems. The correlation between RAYFAST (x) and CLEIA (y) for IL-6 was y=0.895x-5.94, r=0.941 (p<0.0001). Serum IL-6 concentrations in RAYFAST correlated with DAS28-CRP (r=0.372, p<0.05) and DAS28-ESR (r=0.397, p<0.01). Serum IL-6 concentrations in CLEIA correlated with DAS28-CRP (r=0.313, p<0.001) and DAS28-ESR (r=0.353, p<0.001). This new cytokine quick measure system is as accurate as CLEIA methods. Serum IL-6 concentrations can be measured in 24min using the prototype RAYFAST. It might be usable in the daily clinical practice setting, thereby contributing to improved RA management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  20. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  1. Rereading the Ethnographic Legacy of the Chicago School of Sociology: Symbolic Interactionism in The Age of Digital Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Morva, Oya

    2017-01-01

    The Chicago School of Sociology has made important theoretical and methodological contributions to the field of ethnographic studies. The urban monographs of the early Chicago School and the theory of symbolic interactionism are the most recognised of these contributions. The focus of this study is on the following question: What does the Chicago School’s ethnographic legacy in general and in particular its theory of symbolic interactionism mean for the current digital ethnographic studies? H...

  2. Evaluation of TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 Cytokine Production and Their Correlation with Genotype Variants amongst Tuberculosis Patients and Their Household Contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Joshi

    Full Text Available Household contacts of diagnostically established tuberculosis (TB patients are highly susceptible to disease development. It is surmised that cytokines perhaps play a synergistic and a prognostic role in the activation of the otherwise latent infection in these house hold contacts. Evaluation of the cytokines and any of their inherent polymorphisms might provide a useful diagnostic tool in evaluating the immune regulation and the progression of the disease. The cytokines thus released in a paracrine manner in serum may also provide an indirect measure of the cytokine function.The present study was aimed to evaluate the levels of TNF-α, IL-10 & IL-6 cytokines and their correlation with genotype variants amongst tuberculosis patients and their household contacts.The cytokine levels were estimated in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and their polymorphisms were studied by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMs PCR in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (APTB = 150, household contacts (HHC = 190, and healthy controls (HC = 150.The median values of TNF-α cytokine were significantly high among APTB and HHC compared to HCs (P< 0.0001 and 0.0001. IL-6 levels also were elevated among APTB compared to HHC and HC, and a significant difference was observed between APTB and HHC at P<0.0001; APTB & HC at P< 0.04; HHC & HC at P< 0.01. The IL-10 levels were low in APTB compared to HHC and HCs and no significant difference was observed. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio was significant and indicated Th1 predominance in APTB and HHC. IL-6/IL-10 showed pronounced Th1 expression in APTB and Th2 in HHC and HC. The ROC analysis indicated that both IL-10 and IL-6 can be used to decide the risk of exposed individual to a disease. The results of multivariate analysis indicate that IL-10 (-1082 GA genotype was significantly associated with p<0.028 in APTB. No significant association was observed between genotypes, other serum

  3. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes in serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with acute conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in patients with acute conjunctivitis after treatment. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 (with RIA) hs-CRP (with Immuno-turbidity) and IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with acute conjunctivitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of the changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment might be inportant for outcome prediction in patients with acute conjunctivitis. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of determination of some serum cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF) levels in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dong; Zhang Xiaolei; Yang Chunxiu; Chen Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, M-CSF (with RIA) and IL-18 (with ELISA) were measured in 55 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P<0.01). After one month of treatment, the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels decreased somewhat, but were still significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was disturbance of immunomodulation in patients with periodontitis as expressed by the changes of several cytokines levels in the eourse of the diseases. (authors)

  6. [Correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-Nan; Zou, Xian-De; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the changes of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins and the correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma and aimed to explore the role of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thirty-four children with asthma and 21 age and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined using ELISA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and IgE in patients with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. An increased IgG and a decreased IgA levels were found in asthmatic patients at the acute attack stage. There was a positive correlation between the IL-16 and IL-18 levels at both acute attack and convalescence stages of asthma (r=0.70, P attack stage of asthma (r=0.624, P asthma. The immunologic imbalance exists in children with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages. Anti-allergic therapy should be administered through the acute attack to the convalescence stages of asthma.

  7. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  8. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  9. Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F and asthma in Saudi Arabia: mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win-07

    IL17A and IL17F were significantly higher in asthma patients compared to controls [IL17A: 1.112 (2.088) vs 0.938 ... Asthma is a frequently encountered chronic airway in- ... transcription was performed, in 20 μl reaction volume using the.

  10. Glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of IL-2-dependent T cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresno, M.; Redondo, J.M.; Lopez-Rivas, A.

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit mitogen or antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by decreasing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). They have studied the effect of dexamethasone (Dx) on the proliferation of IL-2-dependent T cell clones. They have found that preincubation of these clones with Dx inhibits ( 3 H) thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (ID 50 % 5 x 10 -10 M). The inhibition of DNA synthesis by Dx was dependent on the concentration of IL-2. High concentration of IL-2 reversed completely this inhibition. The action of Dx seems to be mediated through the induction of a protein since the simultaneous presence of cycloheximide and Dx prevented the inhibitory effect of the latter. Moreover, dialyzed conditioned medium of Dx treated cells inhibited DNA synthesis by T cell clones. The biochemical characterization of this protein is in progress

  11. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  12. Elevated pleural effusion IL-17 is a diagnostic marker and outcome predictor in lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by CD4+ T-lymphocytes and may be important in tumor cell growth and progression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of pleural effusion levels of IL-17 in lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods Pleural effusion samples were collected from 78 lung cancer patients with MPE and from 45 patients with nonmalignant pleural effusion. Pleural fluid concentrations of IL-17 were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Malignant effusion exhibited higher IL-17 levels than nonmalignant effusion (20.49 ± 5.27 pg/ml vs. 13.16 ± 2.25 pg/ml; P < 0.01). Lung cancer patients with pleural fluid IL-17 levels below 15 pg/ml had longer overall survival than those patients with higher levels (10.8 months vs. 4.7 months; P < 0.05). On the basis of multivariate analysis, we found that pleural fluid IL-17 level was an independent prognostic factor in lung cancer patients with MPE. Conclusions Measurement of IL-17 levels might be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test for lung cancer patients with MPE. PMID:24887477

  13. Effectively managing partnership evolution: a case study from Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishuk, Brian S

    Given the continued proliferation of public/ private partnerships as vehicles for sharing best practices, lessons learned and actionable information, the keys to their success become more important to identify. Effective partnerships enhance the resilience of their respective members, which, in turn, improves community resilience. Thus, identifying the attributes of a successful partnership should be a high priority for those looking to foster collaboration between the public and private sectors. This paper will illustrate with two case studies how successful partnerships creatively leverage opportunities and manage the evolution of public/private relationships, while always seeking to institutionalise these collaborative efforts. The first will discuss briefly the development of the most important national partnership within the financial sector. The other focuses on a public/private task force in Chicago, composed of public safety agencies and representatives of critical infrastructure, which owes its existence to an unexpected research project and that needed to be restructured in light of experience. The manner in which the task force formed and evolved yields many lessons for partnerships interested in remaining relevant and effective.

  14. The Chicago Consensus on Sustainable Food Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    As participants at the Ecosystem Inception Meeting convened by the Global Dairy Platform and held in Chicago in June 2016, we have identified some concepts as central to the study of food systems science. Following the definition developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization for sustainable diets, the food supply needs to provide foods that are healthy and safe, affordable, culturally acceptable, and with low impact on the environment. Therefore, the four main domains of sustainable food systems science can be described as health, economics, society, and the environment. Food systems science needs to embrace and engage with all relevant allied disciplines that may include environmental health sciences, epidemiology, geography, history, sociology, anthropology, business, and political science. Research and training in food systems science, both domestic and international, would benefit from a set of competencies, from more extensive research networks, and from more public-private engagement. This document builds on major advances in the area of food system research, training, and practice, already achieved by individuals, institutions, foundations, and local and national governments.

  15. Becoming Aggrieved: An Alternative Framework of Care in Black Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Centering on “Eastwood,” a low-income, African American community on the West Side of Chicago in which I have conducted ethnographic research since 2007, I examine the coping mechanisms developed by residents after Mrs. Lana suffers what her doctors view as a psychotic break. I build upon Judith Butler’s conception of grief to reconceptualize madness as a sometimes productive force that allows scholars to see how certain populations are systematically dehumanized. After divulging a brief history of Mrs. Lana’s community, wherein I discuss how it came to inhabit the socioeconomic markers of poverty it is known for today, I explore in further detail the circumstances surrounding Mrs. Lana’s mental illness. Ultimately, I argue that the story of her “madness” is productive because it gives us valuable insight into the ways in which blacks, especially those living in low-income communities that face a dearth of institutional resources, invert popular expectations of mourning, thereby developing a concept of “becoming aggrieved” that does not merely lament death, but also affirms life.

  16. The Chicago Consensus on Sustainable Food Systems Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As participants at the Ecosystem Inception Meeting convened by the Global Dairy Platform and held in Chicago in June 2016, we have identified some concepts as central to the study of food systems science. Following the definition developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization for sustainable diets, the food supply needs to provide foods that are healthy and safe, affordable, culturally acceptable, and with low impact on the environment. Therefore, the four main domains of sustainable food systems science can be described as health, economics, society, and the environment. Food systems science needs to embrace and engage with all relevant allied disciplines that may include environmental health sciences, epidemiology, geography, history, sociology, anthropology, business, and political science. Research and training in food systems science, both domestic and international, would benefit from a set of competencies, from more extensive research networks, and from more public–private engagement. This document builds on major advances in the area of food system research, training, and practice, already achieved by individuals, institutions, foundations, and local and national governments.

  17. A summary of the XAFS X Conference in Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, K.; Sayers, D.

    1999-01-01

    On August 10-14, 1998, the 10th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS X) was held on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus in Chicago. This is one of the major synchrotron radiation conferences, held every two years since 1981 when the first international meeting of XAFS experts was held in Daresbury, coincident with the operation of the first of the second-generation dedicated synchrotron radiation sources. The XAFS conferences have evolved over the years with the more recent conferences covering not only the advances in instrumentation, theory and method but also their applications in disciplines ranging from biological to environmental sciences. Approximately 360 scientists from 23 countries attended the conference. The program consisted of 467 abstracts for plenary talks, invited talks, contributed talks, and posters. The co-chairs for the conference were B. Bunker, S. Heald, and T. Morrison and the Program Chair was J. Penner-Hahn. The first IXS award for career contributions to the field was presented to F. Lytle who gave a plenary talk on 'The EXAFS Family Tree: History of the Development of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy'. In addition, awards were given for the best poster by a young scientist at each session. The winners were M. Duff, D. Cabaret and S. Rossano. The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) also sponsored poster prizes for the best posters in the areas of biology and instrumentation and methods. These winners were A. Templeton and M. Suzuki

  18. Treatment of esophageal motility disorders based on the chicago classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradey-Romero, Carla; Gabbard, Scott; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-12-01

    The Chicago Classification divides esophageal motor disorders based on the recorded value of the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP). The first group includes those with an elevated mean IRP that is associated with peristaltic abnormalities such as achalasia and esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction. The second group includes those with a normal mean IRP that is associated with esophageal hypermotility disorders such as distal esophageal spasm, hypercontractile esophagus (jackhammer esophagus), and hypertensive peristalsis (nutcracker esophagus). The third group includes those with a normal mean IRP that is associated with esophageal hypomotility peristaltic abnormalities such as absent peristalsis, weak peristalsis with small or large breaks, and frequent failed peristalsis. The therapeutic options vary greatly between the different groups of esophageal motor disorders. In achalasia patients, potential treatment strategies comprise medical therapy (calcium channel blockers, nitrates, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors), endoscopic procedures (botulinum toxin A injection, pneumatic dilation, or peroral endoscopic myotomy) or surgery (Heller myotomy). Patients with a normal IRP and esophageal hypermotility disorder are candidates for medical therapy (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, cimetropium/ipratropium bromide, proton pump inhibitors, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, trazodone, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), endoscopic procedures (botulinum toxin A injection and peroral endoscopic myotomy), or surgery (Heller myotomy). Lastly, in patients with a normal IRP and esophageal hypomotility disorder, treatment is primarily focused on controlling the presence of gastroesophageal reflux with proton pump inhibitors and lifestyle modifications (soft and liquid diet and eating in the upright position) to address patient's dysphagia.

  19. Asthma morbidity in adult Chicago public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertino, Anissa; Turyk, Mary E; Curtis, Luke; Persky, Victoria W

    2009-03-01

    Residents of public housing can experience socioeconomic disadvantages, inadequate access to health care, and particularly substandard indoor air quality due to inadequate building maintenance. This study investigates demographic, medical management, severity, and household factors associated with asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. A total of 103 adult participants with asthma from four Chicago housing developments completed surveys and underwent household inspections. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we identified independent predictors of asthma-related emergency department visits: asthma controller medication use, not keeping an asthma-related doctor's appointment, and frequent nocturnal wheeze episodes. Using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, we identified independent predictors of asthma-related hospitalizations: peeling paint, plaster, or wallpaper, environmental tobacco smoke, written action plan for an asthma-related doctor or emergency department visit, and frequent nocturnal wheeze episodes. In multivariate models, factors related to clinical severity and asthma management were related to both emergency department visits and hospitalizations while household conditions were related only to hospitalizations. Interventions to address both asthma management and household environmental triggers may be needed to reduce asthma morbidity in low-income populations.

  20. Not Just Punishment: Discipline in Schools That Work. A Handbook for Chicago Parents = No Solamente Castigo: Disciplina en Escuelas Efectivas. Un Folleto para los Padres de Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative School Network, Chicago, IL.

    This bilingual handbook, in English and Spanish on facing pages, is intended to provide general information to Chicago (Illinois) public school parents about school discipline. After two brief introductory chapters that set forth the scope of the issue, the third chapter provides the following general guidelines for discipline programs in…

  1. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. (Includes executive summary). Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, E.G.; Nowak, D.J.; Rowntree, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Results of the 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project indicate that there are an estimated 50.8 million trees in the Chicago area of Cook and DuPage Counties; 66 percent of these trees rated in good or excellent condition. During 1991, trees in the Chicago area removed an estimated 6,145 tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing valued at $9.2 million dollars. These trees also sequester approximately 155,000 tons of carbon per year, and provide residential heating and cooling energy savings that, in turn, reduce carbon emissions from power plants by about 12,600 tons annually. Shade, lower summer air temperatures, and a reduction in windspeed associated with increasing tree cover by 10 percent can lower total heating and cooling energy use by 5 to 10 percent annually ($50 to $90 per dwelling unit). The projected net present value of investment in planting and care of 95,000 trees in Chicago is $38 million ($402 per planted tree), indicating that the long-term benefits of trees are more than twice their costs

  2. Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Hougs, Lotte; Barington, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination with ...

  3. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  4. Endogenous interleukin (IL)-17A promotes pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity and lupus nephritis induced by pristane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, S A; Odobasic, D; Khouri, M B; Steinmetz, O M; Yang, Y; Holdsworth, S R; Kitching, A R

    2014-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A is increased both in serum and in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis, but direct evidence of pathogenicity is less well established. Administration of pristane to genetically intact mice results in the production of autoantibodies and proliferative glomerulonephritis, resembling human lupus nephritis. These studies sought to define the role of IL-17A in experimental lupus induced by pristane administration. Pristane was administered to wild-type (WT) and IL-17A(-/-) mice. Local and systemic immune responses were assessed after 6 days and 8 weeks, and autoimmunity, glomerular inflammation and renal injury were measured at 7 months. IL-17A production increased significantly 6 days after pristane injection, with innate immune cells, neutrophils (Ly6G(+)) and macrophages (F4/80(+)) being the predominant source of IL-17A. After 8 weeks, while systemic IL-17A was still readily detected in WT mice, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were diminished in the absence of endogenous IL-17A. Seven months after pristane treatment humoral autoimmunity was diminished in the absence of IL-17A, with decreased levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Renal inflammation and injury was less in the absence of IL-17A. Compared to WT mice, glomerular IgG, complement deposition, glomerular CD4(+) T cells and intrarenal expression of T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated proinflammatory mediators were decreased in IL-17A(-/-) mice. WT mice developed progressive proteinuria, but functional and histological renal injury was attenuated in the absence of IL-17A. Therefore, IL-17A is required for the full development of autoimmunity and lupus nephritis in experimental SLE, and early in the development of autoimmunity, innate immune cells produce IL-17A. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Pregnancy, but not the allergic status, influences spontaneous and induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudruz, Petra; Minang, Jacob Taku; Sundström, Yvonne; Nilsson, Caroline; Lilja, Gunnar; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery and at a non-pregnant state 2 years after delivery. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The spontaneous cytokine production, and the response following stimulation with agents that primarily activate the adaptive part of the immune system [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), allergen extracts from cat and birch], or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activate innate immunity was measured in vitro. There was a significantly higher spontaneous in vitro production of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PBMCs during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy, and this was not affected by the allergic status of the women. Conversely, in PHA-stimulated cell cultures there was a lower production of IL-10 and IL-12 during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy. LPS-induced IL-6 levels were significantly lower in PBMCs obtained during pregnancy than at 2 years after pregnancy. In addition, we made the interesting observation that in allergic women total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower 2 years after pregnancy compared to the levels during pregnancy. Taken together, our results indicate that while atopic allergy in women does not have a substantial effect on cytokine production, pregnancy has an obvious effect on the immune system in terms of cytokine production as well as on the total IgE levels.

  6. Structural Characterisation Reveals Mechanism of IL-13-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody Tralokinumab as Inhibition of Binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, B; Breed, J; Rees, D G; Gardener, M J; Vinall, L M K; Kemp, B; Spooner, J; Keen, J; Minter, R; Uddin, F; Colice, G; Wilkinson, T; Vaughan, T; May, R D

    2017-01-20

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic T helper type 2 cytokine frequently associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis. IL-13-mediated signalling is initiated by binding to IL-13Rα1, which then recruits IL-4Rα to form a heterodimeric receptor complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, considered as either a decoy or a key mediator of fibrosis. IL-13-neutralising antibodies act by preventing IL-13 binding to IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and/or IL-13Rα2. Tralokinumab (CAT-354) is an IL-13-neutralising human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with asthma. To decipher how tralokinumab inhibits the effects of IL-13, we determined the structure of tralokinumab Fab in complex with human IL-13 to 2 Å resolution. The structure analysis reveals that tralokinumab prevents IL-13 from binding to both IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. This is supported by biochemical ligand-receptor interaction assay data. The tralokinumab epitope is mainly composed of residues in helices D and A of IL-13. It is mostly light chain complementarity-determining regions that are driving paratope interactions; the variable light complementarity-determining region 2 plays a key role by providing residue contacts for a network of hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge in the core of binding. The key residues within the paratope contributing to binding were identified as Asp50, Asp51, Ser30 and Lys31. This study demonstrates that tralokinumab prevents the IL-13 pharmacodynamic effect by binding to IL-13 helices A and D, thus preventing IL-13 from interacting with IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell production of IL-5 is regulated by NKT cells during influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Ann Gorski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin (IL-5 is a prototypical type 2 cytokine that is essential for eosinophil maturation and egress out of the bone marrow. However, little is known about the cellular source and underlying cellular and molecular basis for the regulation of IL-5 production during respiratory virus infection. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection, we found a robust transient release of IL-5 into infected airways along with a significant and progressive accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs, particularly during the recovery phase of infection, i.e. following virus clearance. The cellular source of the IL-5 was group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 infiltrating the infected lungs. Interestingly, the progressive accumulation of eosinophils following virus clearance is reflected in the rapid expansion of c-kit⁺ IL-5 producing ILC2. We further demonstrate that the enhanced capacity for IL-5 production by ILC2 during recovery is concomitant with the enhanced expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit, ST2, by ILC2. Lastly, we show that NKT cells, as well as alveolar macrophages (AM, are endogenous sources of IL-33 that enhance IL-5 production from ILC2. Collectively, these results reveal that c-kit⁺ ILC2 interaction with IL-33 producing NKT and AM leads to abundant production of IL-5 by ILC2 and accounts for the accumulation of eosinophils observed during the recovery phase of influenza infection.

  8. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  9. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  11. Clinical significance of changes of levels of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and gastrin in patients with chronic eczema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Haifeng; Bi Mingye; Shi Hejian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic eczema and 30 controls. Results: The levels of serum IL-2 were significantly lower in the eczema patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum IL-10 and Gastrin levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema would be of help in monitoring the disease process and outcome prediction. (authors)

  12. IL-36 cytokines in autoimmunity and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liping; Wang, Xiaohui; Hong, Xiaoping; Lu, Liwei; Liu, Dongzhou

    2018-01-05

    The inteleukin-36 (IL-36) cytokines include IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra, which belong to the IL-1 family and exert pro-inflammatory effects on various target cells such as keratinocytes, synoviocytes, dendritic cells and T cells. Emerging evidence has suggested a role of IL-36 in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief review on the activation of IL-36 family cytokines and their involvement in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases, which will provide further insights in understanding the functions of IL-36 family cytokines in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...

  14. IL-13 and the IL-13 receptor as therapeutic targets for asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jesse; Dimov, Vesselin; Townley, Robert G

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that T-helper 2 cell (Th2) cytokines play an important role in the maintenance of asthma and allergy. Emerging evidence has highlighted the role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In particular, IL-13 is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration, and has been associated with the regulation of certain chemokine receptors, notably CCR5. Thus, targeting IL-13 and its associated receptors may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and/or allergy. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are researching various strategies, based on this approach, aimed at binding IL-13, increasing the level of the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha2, or blocking the effect of the chemokine receptor CCR5. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-13 agents and their role in the treatment of asthma and allergy.

  15. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook... FHWA is issuing this Notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... project comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation...

  16. Back to Bed: From Hospital to Home Obstetrics in the City of Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the role of doctors and activists in Chicago who successfully redefined the practice and politics of childbirth both locally and ultimately nationwide. It begins with the story of Joseph DeLee's Chicago Maternity Center, responsible for supervising over 100,000 home births between 1932 and 1972. Most of the mothers cared for by the Center were nonwhite, poor, and had little or no access to prenatal care, yet their babies had a far higher survival rate than the nationwide average. Thousands of medical students from all over the Midwest experienced their first deliveries not in hospitals, but in these homes. The article then addresses a very different demographic: a rising number of middle-class white families in the suburbs of Chicago who, beginning in the 1950s, opted for out-of-hospital births. Many of them learned about home birth through their involvement in La Leche League, the breastfeeding organization formed in a Chicago suburb in 1956. Seemingly separated by class, race, and locale, the link between these two groups of home birthers was the philosophy and training in place at the Chicago Maternity Center. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine use for arthritis pain in 2 Chicago community areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinglass, Joe; Lee, Chin; Rogers, Michelle; Temple, Leslie Mendoza; Nelson, Cynthia; Chang, Rowland W

    2007-01-01

    To compare the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for arthritis between 2 ethnically distinct metropolitan Chicago community areas. A telephone interview survey of adults age 45 years or above living in North (88.9% white) or South (79.7% African American) areas. Of 763 respondents, 405 reported arthritis or chronic joint symptoms and were asked about use and satisfaction with 7 CAM therapies. Differences between areas were compared with population-weighted tests; multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of CAM use controlled for demographics, behavioral risk factors, and arthritis severity. South Chicago respondents had a higher prevalence and more severe arthritis symptoms such as mean joint pain and more functional limitations. Use of CAM therapy by South Chicago respondents, most commonly massage and relaxation techniques, was 10% greater than North Chicago respondents (61.5% to 51%) but this was not significantly different. Among CAM users, South Chicago respondents reported higher satisfaction with 6 of the 7 CAM therapies and greater future interest in CAM therapies. Poor overall health status (P=0.03), arthritis pain (P=0.005), and concomitant use of prescription medications (P=0.03) were the only significant predictors of CAM use. Although there were only small differences in overall CAM use by area, older residents of largely African American communities were enthusiastic users of relaxation, massage, and nutritional and dietary techniques. CAM modalities could be important adjuncts to traditional medical treatment of arthritis pain for minority communities.

  18. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  19. Study on the changes of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with coronary cardiac heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaozhuo; Yu Xian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the role TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 played in the pathogenesis of coronary cardiac heart diseases. Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay in 32 patients with stable angina, 39 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 36 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in all patients were higher than those in controls. Remarkably increased level were seen in acute myocardial infarction group. Difference between control and patient groups were: stable angina group TNF-α, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.01 and IL-8, p<0.05; acute myocardial infarction group TNF-α, p<0.01, IL-1β, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.001 and IL-8, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is close relationship between serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 levels and development of coronary cardiac heart disease. They play an important role in the pathogenesis through mutual induction and synergistic actions

  20. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents for differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Wang Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 in patients with tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion. Methods: Serum and chest fluid ADA (with biochemical method), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 (with ELISA) contents were measured in 56 patients with tuberculosis pleural effusion, 53 patients with malignant effusion and 30 controls (in serum only). The receiving operative characteristic (ROC) curve for each parameter was analyzed for study of respective area under curse (Auc). Results: The serum IL-6 levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). The chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in patients with tuberculous effusion were all significantly higher than those in patients with malignancies (P<0.05). The Auc in the ROC was largest in the case of ADA, followed by IL-10, IL-6 with IL-2 the least. Conclusion: Determination of chest fluid ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents was helpful in the differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion. Combined determination of chest fluid ADA and IL-10 provided the highest accuracy rate for differentional diagnosis. (authors)

  1. Decreased IL-33 Production Contributes to Trophoblast Cell Dysfunction in Pregnancies with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a life-threatening pregnancy complication which is related to aggradation of risk regarding fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Dysregulation of systemic inflammatory response and dysfunction of trophoblast cells have been proposed to be involved in the development and progression of PE. Some studies have demonstrated that interleukin-33 (IL-33 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that is associated with the immune regulation of tumor cells. However, little is known whether IL-33 and its receptor ST2/IL-1 R4 could regulate trophoblast cells, which are associated with the pathogenesis of PE. In this study, our target is to explore the impact of IL-33 on trophoblast cells and elucidate its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Placental tissues from the severe PE group (n=11 and the normotensive pregnant women’s group (n=11 were collected for the protein expression and distribution of IL-33 along with its receptor ST2/IL-1 R4 via Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We discovered that the level of IL-33 was decreased in placental tissues of pregnant women with PE, while no distinction was observed in the expression of ST2/IL-1 R4. These results were further verified in villous explants which were treated with sodium nitroprusside with different concentrations, to simulate the pathological environment of PE. To investigate IL-33 effects on trophoblast cells separately, IL-33 shRNA was introduced into HTR8/SVneo cells and villi. IL-33 shRNA weakened the proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity of HTR8/SVneo cells. The migration distance of villous explants was also markedly decreased. The reduced invasion of trophoblast cells is a result of IL-33 knockdown which could be related to the decline of MMP2/9 activity and the increased utterance of TIMP1/2. Overall, our findings demonstrated that the reduction of IL-33 production was connected with the reduced functional capability of

  2. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  3. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  4. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, Miriam; Gidron, Yori; Ariad, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). IL-1beta was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1beta. Elevated cerebral IL-1beta increased cancer metastasis in animals. Inescapable shock was associated with systemic elevations of IL-1beta and peripheral IL-1beta was associated with escape from apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed. Future studies need to identify the role of additional factors in this PNI pathway.

  5. Caravaggio e il Maccheronico di Teofilo Folengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Piciché

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio ipotizza un’affinità tra Caravaggio e Teofilo Folengo, argomentando che la pittura del primo presenta analogie estetiche e etiche con la produzione in latino maccheronico del secondo. Il Baldus costituisce un tipico esempio di quella che Genette definirà come «parodia seria»: attraverso il rovesciamento e la irrisione beffarda Folengo ingaggia tenzone contro l’arte paludata e il travisamento dei valori cristiani. Non si tratta qui di stabilire un’influenza di Folengo su Caravaggio, bensì un’analogia, in virtù di un filo di congiunzione ideale, la cui presumibilità viene corroborata anche dal substrato biografico-culturale e da comune spirito religioso. Sia in Folengo che in Caravaggio sono stati individuati i caratteri di un certo modo della cultura lombarda di essere “contro” al punto che il duo Folengo-Caravaggio sembra epitomizzare l’antitesi al decorum curialcortigianesimo di Castiglione e Raffaello. Il Cristo-paradosso costituisce la vera fonte ispiratrice per entrambi. La comparazione tra due arti deve tenere conto dei diversi strumenti espressivi, e questo costituirà uno dei soggetti di riflessione nel testo. Se l’ipotesi della consentaneità viene ragionevolmente difesa, perché non individuare una componente maccheronica anche nell’arte di Caravaggio? Agli storici d’arte, tuttavia, decidere se si possa considerare il maccheronico come categoria pittorica

  6. IL1RN and KRT13 Expression in Bladder Cancer: Association with Pathologic Characteristics and Smoking Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Worst

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To validate microarray data on cytokeratin 13 (KRT13 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN expression in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB and to correlate our findings with pathologic characteristics and tobacco smoking. Methods. UCB tissue samples (n=109 and control samples (n=14 were obtained from transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens. Immunohistochemical staining of KRT13 and IL1RN was performed and semiquantitative expression scores were assessed. Smoking status was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. Expression scores were correlated with pathologic characteristics (tumor stage and grade and with smoking status. Results. Loss of KRT13 and IL1RN expression was observed in UCB tissue samples when compared to controls (P=0.007, P=0.008 in which KRT13 and IL1RN expression were high. IL1RN expression was significantly reduced in muscle-invasive tumors (P=0.003. In tissue samples of current smokers, a significant downregulation of IL1RN was found when compared to never smokers (P=0.013. Conclusion. Decreased expressions of KRT13 and IL1RN are common features of UCB and are associated with aggressive disease. Tobacco smoking may enhance the loss of IL1RN, indicating an overweight of proinflammatory mediators involved in UCB progression. Further validation of the influence of smoking on IL1RN expression is warranted.

  7. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Relationship with IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL 22, and IL-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bayrak Degirmenci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed in our study to research the role of new cytokines such as IL-35, IL-22, and IL-17 that may form a target for novel treatment approaches. Methods. IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-22, and IL-35 serum levels of allergic rhinitis (AR patients were measured using ELISA method. Allergic sensitization was demonstrated by the skin prick test. Patients only with olive tree sensitivity were evaluated for seasonal AR (SAR. Patients only with mite sensitivity were included in the study for perennial AR (PAR. AR clinic severity was demonstrated by the nasal symptom scores (NSS. Results. In total, 65 AR patients (patient group, having 31 PAR and 34 SAR patients, and 31 healthy individuals (control group participated in the study. Cytokine levels between the patient group and the control group were compared; IL-17 (p=0.038, IL-22 (p=0.001, and TGF-β (p=0.031 were detected as high in the patient group, and IFN-γ (p<0.001 was detected as low in the patient group. When correlation analysis was made between age, gender, prick test result, NSS, AR duration, and cytokine levels in the patient group, a negative correlation was detected only between IFN-γ (p=0.032/r=−0.266 level and NSS. Conclusions. Accompanied by the literature information, these results made us think that T cell subgroups and cytokines have an important role in AR immunopathogenesis. It is thought that future studies to be conducted relating to this subject will form new targets in treatment.

  8. IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes: A renascence of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2016), e1102829 ISSN 2162-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Anti-IL-2 mAb * cancer immunotherapy * IL-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.719, year: 2016

  9. Exacerbation of CNS inflammation and neurodegeneration by systemic LPS treatment is independent of circulating IL-1 beta and IL-6

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Carol L

    2011-05-17

    Abstract Background Chronic neurodegeneration comprises an inflammatory response but its contribution to the progression of disease remains unclear. We have previously shown that microglial cells are primed by chronic neurodegeneration, induced by the ME7 strain of prion disease, to synthesize limited pro-inflammatory cytokines but to produce exaggerated responses to subsequent systemic inflammatory insults. The consequences of this primed response include exaggerated hypothermic and sickness behavioural responses, acute neuronal death and accelerated progression of disease. Here we investigated whether inhibition of systemic cytokine synthesis using the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone-21-phosphate was sufficient to block any or all of these responses. Methods ME7 animals, at 18-19 weeks post-inoculation, were challenged with LPS (500 μg\\/kg) in the presence or absence of dexamethasone-21-phosphate (2 mg\\/kg) and effects on core-body temperature and systemic and CNS cytokine production and apoptosis were examined. Results LPS induced hypothermia and decreased exploratory activity. Dexamethasone-21-phosphate prevented this hypothermia, markedly suppressed systemic IL-1β and IL-6 secretion but did not prevent decreased exploration. Furthermore, robust transcription of cytokine mRNA occurred in the hippocampus of both ME7 and NBH (normal brain homogenate) control animals despite the effective blocking of systemic cytokine synthesis. Microglia primed by neurodegeneration were not blocked from the robust synthesis of IL-1β protein and endothelial COX-2 was also robustly synthesized. We injected biotinylated LPS at 100 μg\\/kg and even at this lower dose this could be detected in blood plasma. Apoptosis was acutely induced by LPS, despite the inhibition of the systemic cytokine response. Conclusions These data suggest that LPS can directly activate the brain endothelium even at relatively low doses, obviating the need for systemic cytokine stimulation to

  10. Farming Chicago: Prospects for Higher Education Support of Sustainable Urban Food Systems in the U.S. Heartland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, Howard; Block, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights recent food policies in Chicago with the goal of exploring how higher education institutions can contribute to development of sustainable food resources for residents of North American cities. Thousands of Chicago residents face daily challenges accessing fresh food due to income constraints and/or lack of proximity to food…

  11. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  12. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2011-12-16

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  13. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2012-04-04

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  14. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2013-11-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  15. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2010-11-30

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  16. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2013-01-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  17. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2012-06-15

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  18. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2010-10-20

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and... Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and...: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  19. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2013-07-08

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  20. 78 FR 36092 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2013-06-17

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  1. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2012-10-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  2. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2011-01-18

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  3. 76 FR 35106 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2011-06-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago..., DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent safety zone from Brandon... Safety Zones; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary...

  4. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2010-10-19

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  5. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2010-08-26

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  6. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2012-05-01

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and [[Page 25596

  7. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

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    2012-10-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  8. 77 FR 71680 - Buckeye East Chicago Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Buckeye Partners, L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Chicago Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Buckeye Partners, L.P. Buckeye East Chicago... acquire from Buckeye Partners, L.P., a noncarrier, and to operate approximately 7,065 feet (1.34 miles) of..., 2012. By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Unit...

  9. 75 FR 12590 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61680; File No. SR-CHX-2009-18] Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend Its Co-Location Fees March 10, 2010. I. Introduction On December 22, 2009, the Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc. (``CHX'' or...

  10. Charitable collaborations in Bronzeville, 1928-1944: the "Chicago Defender" and the Regal Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Clovis E

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, race-based residential and commercial segregation that supported racial oppression and inequality became an elemental characteristic of urban black communities. Conflict-ridden, black-white relationships were common. However, the Chicago Defender Charities, Inc., the entity that sponsors the largest African American parade in the country and that emerged in 1947, embodied a tradition of charitable giving, self-help, and community service initiated in 1921 by Chicago Defender newspaper founder and editor, Robert S. Abbott. The foundation of this charitable tradition matured as a result of an early and sustained collaboration between Chicago’s white-owned Regal Theater and the black-owned Chicago Defender newspaper. Thus, in segregated African American communities, black and white commercial institutions, under certain conditions, were able to find important points of collaboration to uplift the African American communities of which they were a part.

  11. Chicago neoliberalism versus Cowles planning: perspectives on patents and public goods in Cold War economic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Robert; Klaes, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In post-Sputnik America, when many policymakers and social scientists feared the Soviet Union had a technological advantage over the United States, assessing the relative importance of patents for inventive activity and examining whether scientific research constituted a public good were paramount concerns. The neoliberals of the University of Chicago and the planners of the Cowles Commission both spoke to these issues. This paper sheds light on their views on patents and public goods in the late 1950s and early 1960s by examining representatives of Cowles and Chicago, Kenneth Arrow and Ronald Coase, respectively. Furthermore, it evaluates whether their views on patents and public goods clashed with the interests of RAND, at which both Arrow and Coase worked at some point during this time period. The paper argues that the Chicago-neoliberal position of Coase undermined the interests of RAND, while the Cowles-planning conclusions of Arrow furthered those interests. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A man of his time: thorstein veblen and the university of chicago darwinists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Emilie J

    2013-01-01

    The Darwinian economic theory that Thorstein Veblen proposed and refined while he served as a professor of Political Economy at the University of Chicago from 1891 to 1906 should be assessed in the context of the community of Darwinian scientists and social scientists with whom Veblen worked and lived at Chicago. It is important to identify Veblen as a member of this broad community of Darwinian-inclined philosophers, physiologists, geologists, astronomers, and biologists at Chicago because Veblen's involvement with this circle suggests that the possible sources of his engagement with Darwinism extend beyond the pragmatists and Continental socialists to whom scholars have typically ascribed Veblen's Darwinian roots. Additionally, that an extensive community continued to use Darwinian evolutionary theory to construct new models of scientific and social scientific analysis at the turn of the twentieth century, a period during which Darwinism was purportedly in decline, suggests that the "eclipse of Darwinism" narrative has been overstated in literature about Darwinism's intellectual arc.

  13. Serial killer: il database mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano parente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex and multisided study of serial killers is partly made difficult by the current level of progress that has led these deviant people to evolve in relation to the aspects of shrewdness (concerning the staging and mobility. Despite the important work of some scholars who proposed important theories, all this shows that, concerning serial murders, it is still particularly frequent not to pay attention to links among homicides committed by the same person but in different parts of the world. It is therefore crucial to develop a worldwide database that allows all police forces to access information collected on crime scenes of murders which are particularly absurd and committed without any apparent reason. It will then be up to the profiler, through ad hoc and technologically advanced tools, to collect this information on the crime scene that would be made available to all police forces thanks to the worldwide database.

  14. The role of interleukin-5 (IL-5 in vivo: studies with IL-5 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus I Matthaei

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil recruitment is a characteristic feature of a number of pathological conditions and was the topic of the recent International Symposium on allergic inflammation, asthma, parasitic and infectious diseases (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-5, 1996. Since interleukin5 (IL5 is believed to regulate the growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils (Coffman et al. 1989, Sanderson 1992, the role of eosinophils and IL5 are closely linked. Although IL5 specifically regulates eosinophilia in vivo and this is its most well established activity, it is becoming clear that IL5 also has other biological effects. The recent derivation of an IL5 deficient mouse (Kopf et al. 1996, provides a model for exploring not only the role of IL5 and eosinophils but also other novel activities of IL5. Of note is that although the IL5 deficient mice cannot elicit a pronounced eosinophilia in response to inflammatory stimulation following aeroallergen challenge or parasite infection they still produce basal levels of eosinophils that appear to be morphologically and functionally normal. However, the basal levels of eosinophils appear insufficient for normal host defence as IL5 deficiency has now been shown to compromise defence against several helminth infections. In addition, IL5 deficient mice appear to have functional deficiencies in B-1 B lymphocytes and in IgA production.

  15. Interleukin-33 (IL-33): A nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a tissue-derived nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, both during homeostasis and inflammation. It functions as an alarm signal (alarmin) released upon cell injury or tissue damage to alert immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor (IL-1RL1). The major targets of IL-33 in vivo are tissue-resident immune cells such as mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Other cellular targets include T helper 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, basophils, dendritic cells, Th1 cells, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, iNKT cells, B cells, neutrophils and macrophages. IL-33 is thus emerging as a crucial immune modulator with pleiotropic activities in type-2, type-1 and regulatory immune responses, and important roles in allergic, fibrotic, infectious, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The critical function of IL-33/ST2 signaling in allergic inflammation is illustrated by the fact that IL33 and IL1RL1 are among the most highly replicated susceptibility loci for asthma. In this review, we highlight 15 years of discoveries on IL-33 protein, including its molecular characteristics, nuclear localization, bioactive forms, cellular sources, mechanisms of release and regulation by proteases. Importantly, we emphasize data that have been validated using IL-33-deficient cells. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Anni di formazione nella Chicago d'un tempo. (Beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. MINSKY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il documento è un contributo ad una serie di ricordi e riflessioni sulle esperienze professionali di  illustri economisti con Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review iniziati nel 1979. In esso Hyman Minsky offre una retrospettiva sulla sua carriera accademica e lo sviluppo intellettuale .The paper is a contribution to a series of recollections and reflections on the professional experiences of distinguished economists which the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review started in 1979. In it Hyman Minsky offers a retrospective on his academic career and intellectual development.JEL: B31

  17. The role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine on pain severity and pain relief after radiotherapy in multiple myeloma patients with painful bone destructions

    OpenAIRE

    Rudzianskiene Milda; Inciura Arturas; Juozaityte Elona; Gerbutavicius Rolandas; Simoliuniene Renata; Ugenskiene Rasa; Raulinaityte Danguole; Rudzianskas Viktoras; Kiavialaitis Greta Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) cells interact with bone marrow stromal cells stimulating transcription and secretion of cytokines like IL-6 and IL-10, which are implicated in the progression and dissemination of MM. Regulation of cytokines secretion is under genetic control through genetic polymorphisms in their coding and promoter sequences. It seems that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of various genes may regulate the plasma concentrat...

  18. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palladino Ilaria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ and 77 healthy control subjects (HC for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP. Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

  19. Tecnologia italiana per il vuoto spinto

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "Ancora una volta ad aggiudicarsi un ambito riconoscimento internazionale e' un fisico italiano: Cristoforo Benvenuti ritirera' tra pochi giorni a Denver il premio Gaede-Langmuir che viene assegnato dalla American vacuum society" (1/2 page).

  20. Michel Foucault e il problema della genealogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Abeni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Si j'étais prétentieux, je donnerais comme titre général à ce que je fais : généalogie de la morale." Dietro questa affermazione, rilasciata nel contesto colloquiale di un'intervista, è possibile scorgere il segno di una confessione intellettuale e il compendio di un pensiero. In primo luogo, allusivamente, rinvia alla figura di Nietzsche e alla traccia indelebile che il suo pensiero ha lasciato nella filosofia e nella ricerca di Foucault. In secondo luogo, autorizza a osservare nella riflessione foucaultiana la filigrana di quella genealogia che il presente lavoro si propone di affrontare come stile d'interrogazione filosofica.

  1. PER ALDO NOSEDA: IL CRITICO MUSICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Fiaccadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo è un tentativo di fornire la lista completa degli scritti di Aldo Noseda (Milano, 1853-Stresa, 1916 come critico musicale. Fu un erudito conoscitore d’arte e appassionato collezionista, ma la quasi totalità dei suoi scritti sono dedicati alla scena musicale italiana. Prese parte all’infiammato dibattito a proposito della musica strumentale divenendo membro della Società del Quartetto e fondando la Società orchestrale della Scala a Milano. Dal 1876 al 1894, sotto lo pseudonimo de Il Misovulgo fu tra gli editorialisti militanti di importanti periodici come «La Gazzetta musicale di Milano», il «Corriere della Sera» e «Il Caffè», contribuendovi con una serie di appassionate recensioni dei contemporanei eventi musicali milanesi.

  2. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus infection and IL-1Β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 polymorphisms in Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, Lawal Dahiru; Rezaei, Farhad; Marashi, Seyed Mahdi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Naseri, Maryam; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was aimed to investigate the polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 genes to find the possibility of their association with the clinical outcome of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection among the infected patients in Iran. This is a Case-Control study in which influenza A/H3N2 virus positive confirmed with real-time PCR were the cases. DNA samples from groups were genotyped for polymorphisms in rs16944 (IL-1β), rs1800872 (IL-10), rs2275913 (IL-17), and rs8099917 (IL-28). Confidence interval (95%CI) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated. IL-17 rs2275913 (GG and AG) were associated with risk of infection with that were statistically significant (P rs16944) (GG) was associated with reduced risk of infection (P < 0.01, OR = 0.46). Genotype GG and GT of IL-10 (rs1800872) were associated with increased risk of infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus (P < 0.05, OR = 2.04-2.58). In addition, IL-28 (rs8099917) genotypes GG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.49) and TG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.59) were associated with reduced risk of ILI symptom while genotype TT (P < 0.01, OR = 4.31) was associated with increased risk of ILI symptom. The results of this study demonstrated that polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory process affect the outcome of disease caused by influenza A/H3N2 virus. Thorough insight on host immune response at the time of influenza A virus infection is required to ensure adequate patient care in the case of feature outbreaks. J. Med. Virol. 88:2078-2084, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The role of Multidetector CT in the evaluation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins anatomy before and after radio-frequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Preliminary results and work in progress.Technical note; Il ruolo della TC Multidetettore nella valutazione anatomica dell'atrio sinistro e delle vene polmonari prima e dopo ablazione percutanea con radiofrequenza della fibrillazione atriale. Risultati preliminari e work in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centoze, Maurizio; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Dalla Palma, Francesco [Azienda Provinciale per i servizi sanitari, Trento (Italy). Dipartimento di radiodiagnostica; Del Greco, Maurizio; Marini, Massimiliano [Ospedale S. Chiara, Trento (Italy). U.O. di cardiologia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Ravelli, Flavia [Trento Univ., Trento (Italy). Dipartimento di fisica

    2005-07-15

    Radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of the distal pulmonary veins is increasingly being used to treat recurrent or refractory atrial fibrillation that doesn't respond to pharmacologic therapy or cardioversion. Successful RFCA of atrial al fibrillation depends on the pre-procedural understanding of the complex anatomy of the distal pulmonary veins and the left atrium. Aim of this parer is to describe the technical main features that characterise the multidetector helical computed tomography in the evaluation of this anatomic region before and after RFCA procedure. The 3D post-processing techniques useful for pre-RFCA planning are straightforward. [Italian] La ablazione percutanea con radiofrequenza (RFCA) del tratto distale delle vene polmonari nella fibrillazione atriale, che non risponde al trattamento farmacologico e alla cardioversione elettrica, e una procedura in grande sviluppo. Il successo del trattamento dipende dalla comprensione della complessa anatomia delle vene polmonari e dell'atrio sinistro. Lo scopo di questo articolo e illustrare gli aspetti tecnici fondamentali che caratterizzano lo studio di questa regione anatomica con TC spirale multidetettore prima e dopo RFCA. Particolare risalto e stato rivolto alle tecniche di post-processing 3D estremamente utili nella pianificazione della procedura di ablazione.

  4. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura.

  5. Increasing the biological activity of IL-2 and IL-15 through complexing with anti-IL-2 mAbs and Il-15Ralfa-Fc chimera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, Petra; Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA13-12885S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IL-2 * IL-15 * chimera Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.512, year: 2014

  6. Commensal bacteria and MAMPs are necessary for stress-induced increases in IL-1β and IL-18 but not IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maslanik

    Full Text Available Regular interactions between commensal bacteria and the enteric mucosal immune environment are necessary for normal immunity. Alterations of the commensal bacterial communities or mucosal barrier can disrupt immune function. Chronic stress interferes with bacterial community structure (specifically, α-diversity and the integrity of the intestinal barrier. These interferences can contribute to chronic stress-induced increases in systemic IL-6 and TNF-α. Chronic stress, however, produces many physiological changes that could indirectly influence immune activity. In addition to IL-6 and TNF-α, exposure to acute stressors upregulates a plethora of inflammatory proteins, each having unique synthesis and release mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses are dependent on the commensal bacteria, and more specifically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS shed from Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacteria. We present evidence that both reducing commensal bacteria using antibiotics and neutralizing LPS using endotoxin inhibitor (EI attenuates increases in some (inflammasome dependent, IL-1 and IL-18, but not all (inflammasome independent, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 inflammatory proteins in the blood of male F344 rats exposed to an acute tail shock stressor. Acute stress did not impact α- or β- diversity measured using 16S rRNA diversity analyses, but selectively reduced the relative abundance of Prevotella. These findings indicate that commensal bacteria contribute to acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses, and support the presence of LPS-mediated signaling in stress-evoked cytokine and chemokine production. The selectivity of the commensal bacteria in stress-evoked IL-1β and IL-18 responses may implicate the inflammasome in this response.

  7. Eve in the renegade city: elite Jewish women’s philanthropy in Chicago, 1890–1900

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the philanthropic organisations and projects with which elite Jewish women in Chicago were concerned during the years 1890–1900. It concentrates on the National Council of Jewish Women, which was founded by a group of Chicago women in 1893 after the Jewish Women’s Congress at the World’s Columbian Exposition. The NCJW was this community’s highest-profile philanthropic organisation, bringing them local, national and international attention.The 1890s were a turbulent decade...

  8. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Targeting the IL-17/IL-6 axis can alter growth of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in vivo/in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; McCaw, Lindsay; Spaner, David E; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2018-03-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo. Human recombinant IL-17 treatment also increased CLL engraftment in mice through an IL-6 mediated mechanism. Plasma of CLL patients showed elevated levels of both IL-6 and IL-17 by ELISA compared with healthy controls, with levels of IL-6 linearly correlated with IL-17 levels. CLL patients requiring fludarabine based chemotherapy expressed higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17, while CLL patients with the lowest levels of IgA/IgM had higher levels of IL-6, but not IL-17. These data imply an important role for the IL-17/IL-6 axis in CLL which could be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting Th17-IL-17 Pathway in Prevention of Micro-Invasive Prostate Cancer in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Cunningham, David M; Huang, Feng; Ma, Lin; Burris, Thomas P; You, Zongbing

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development and progression of human cancers including prostate cancer. The exact role of the inflammatory Th17-IL-17 pathway in prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the importance of Th17 cells and IL-17 in a Pten-null prostate cancer mouse model. The Pten-null mice were treated by Th17 inhibitor SR1001 or anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody from 6 weeks of age up to 12 weeks of age. For SR1001 treatment, the mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice a day with vehicle or SR1001, which was dissolved in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution. All mice were euthanized for necropsy at 12 weeks of age. For IL-17 antibody treatment, the mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) once every two weeks with control IgG or rat anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody, which was dissolved in PBS. The injection time points were at 6, 8, and 10 weeks old. All mice were analyzed for the prostate phenotypes at 12 weeks of age. We found that either SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treatment decreased the formation of micro-invasive prostate cancer in Pten-null mice. The SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated mouse prostates had reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis, as well as reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. By assessing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, we found that SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated prostate tissues had weaker EMT phenotype compared to the control treated prostates. These results demonstrated that Th17-IL-17 pathway plays a key role in prostate cancer progression in Pten-null mice. Targeting Th17-IL-17 pathway could prevent micro-invasive prostate cancer formation in mice. Prostate 77:888-899, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-02-28

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings [direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building [direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces [indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3 [direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air

  12. Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ''Heat Island Reduction Initiative'' to quantify the potential benefits of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., shade trees, reflective roofs, reflective pavements and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings, lower the ambient air temperature and improve urban air quality in cities, and reduce CO2 emissions from power plants. Under this initiative, the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP) was created with the objective of investigating the potential of HIR strategies in residential and commercial buildings in three initial UHIPP cities: Baton Rouge, LA; Sacramento, CA; and Salt Lake City, UT. Later two other cities, Chicago, IL and Houston, TX were added to the UHIPP. In an earlier report we summarized our efforts to calculate the annual energy savings, peak power avoidance, and annual CO2 reduction obtainable from the introduction of HIR strategies in the initial three cities. This report summarizes the results of our study for Chicago and Houston. In this analysis, we focused on three building types that offer the highest potential savings: single-family residence, office and retail store. Each building type was characterized in detail by vintage and system type (i.e., old and new building constructions, and gas and electric heat). We used the prototypical building characteristics developed earlier for each building type and simulated the impact of HIR strategies on building cooling- and heating-energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model. Our simulations included the impact of (1) strategically-placed shade trees near buildings[direct effect], (2) use of high-albedo roofing material on the building[direct effect], (3) urban reforestation with high-albedo pavements and building surfaces[indirect effect] and (4) combined strategies 1, 2, and 3[direct and indirect effects]. We then estimated the total roof area of air-conditioned buildings in each

  13. IL-15 regulates homeostasis and terminal maturation of NKT cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, Laura E.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Flyak, Andrew I.; Spencer, Charles T.; Dunkle, Alexis; Sun, Jingchun; Stanic, Aleksandar K.; Boothby, Mark R.; He, You-Wen; Zhao, Zhongming; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are thymus-derived innate lymphocytes that modulate microbial and tumour immunity as well as autoimmune diseases. These immunoregulatory properties of NKT cells are acquired during their development. Much has been learnt regarding the molecular and cellular cues that promote NKT cell development, yet how these cells are maintained in the thymus and the periphery and how they acquire functional competence are incompletely understood. We found that IL-15 induced several Bcl-2 family survival factors in thymic and splenic NKT cells in vitro. Yet, IL15-mediated thymic and peripheral NKT cell survival critically depended on Bcl-xL expression. Additionally, IL-15 regulated thymic developmental stage 2 (ST2) to ST3 lineage progression and terminal NKT cell differentiation. Global gene expression analyses and validation revealed that IL-15 regulated Tbx21 (T-bet) expression in thymic NKT cells. The loss of IL15 also resulted in poor expression of key effector molecules such as IFN-γ, granzyme A and C as well as several NK cell receptors in NKT cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical role for IL-15 in NKT cell survival, which is mediated by Bcl-xL, and effector differentiation, which is consistent with a role of T-bet in regulating terminal maturation. PMID:22084435

  14. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilasco, Maria Ines de Albuquerque; Uribe-Cruz, Carolina; Santetti, Daniele; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (patresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. The balance between IL-17 and IL-22 produced by liver-infiltrating T-helper cells critically controls NASH development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, Simona; Alchera, Elisa; Imarisio, Chiara; Bardina, Valentina; Valente, Guido; Cappello, Paola; Mombello, Cristina; Follenzi, Antonia; Novelli, Francesco; Carini, Rita

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the evolution of steatosis towards NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and fibrosis are not completely defined. In the present study we evaluated the role of CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells in this process. We analysed the infiltration of different subsets of CD4(+) Th cells in C57BL/6 mice fed on a MCD (methionine choline-deficient) diet, which is a model reproducing all phases of human NASH progression. There was an increase in Th17 cells at the beginning of NASH development and at the NASH-fibrosis transition, whereas levels of Th22 cells peaked between the first and the second expansion of Th17 cells. An increase in the production of IL (interleukin)-6, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and CCL20 (CC chemokine ligand 20) accompanied the changes in Th17/Th22 cells. Livers of IL-17(-/-) mice were protected from NASH development and characterized by an extensive infiltration of Th22 cells. In vitro, IL-17 exacerbated the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-dependent mouse hepatocyte lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. IL-22 prevented lipotoxicity through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-mediated inhibition of JNK, but did not play a protective role in the presence of IL-17, which up-regulated the PI3K/Akt inhibitor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10). Consistently, livers of IL-17(-/-) mice fed on the MCD diet displayed decreased activation of JNK, reduced expression of PTEN and increased phosphorylation of Akt compared with livers of wild-type mice. Hepatic infiltration of Th17 cells is critical for NASH initiation and development of fibrosis in mice, and reflects an infiltration of Th22 cells. Th22 cells are protective in NASH, but only in the absence of IL-17. These data strongly support the potentiality of clinical applications of IL-17 inhibitors that can prevent NASH by both abolishing the lipotoxic action of IL-17 and allowing IL-22-mediated protection. © 2016 Authors

  16. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  17. Tra il mediterraneo e il fonte battesimale: Musulmani a Napoli nel XVI secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Varriale, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    Il saggio analizza la presenza di musulmani a Napoli durante il Cinquecento, quando la capitale vive una profonda trasformazione urbanistica, che è vincolata alla immigrazione di comunità esogene e al conflitto contro il Turco. Le ostilità tra la Casa d’Austria e la Sublime Porta condizionano inevitabilmente la vita dei maomettani, che appartengono a tre grandi categorie: schiavi, franchi o esuli. Secondo la propria condizione gli islamici occupano diversi spazi cittadini. I musulmani di Napo...

  18. IL-17A influences essential functions of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and is involved in advanced murine and human atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Christian; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Okuyucu, Deniz; Wangler, Susanne; Dietz, Alex; Zhao, Li; Stellos, Konstantinos; Little, Kristina M; Lasitschka, Felix; Doesch, Andreas; Hakimi, Maani; Dengler, Thomas J; Giese, Thomas; Blessing, Erwin; Katus, Hugo A; Gleissner, Christian A

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Lesion progression is primarily mediated by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine, which modulates immune cell trafficking and is involved inflammation in (auto)immune and infectious diseases. But the role of IL-17A still remains controversial. In the current study, we investigated effects of IL-17A on advanced murine and human atherosclerosis, the common disease phenotype in clinical care. The 26-wk-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a standard chow diet and treated either with IL-17A mAb (n = 15) or irrelevant Ig (n = 10) for 16 wk. Furthermore, essential mechanisms of IL-17A in atherogenesis were studied in vitro. Inhibition of IL-17A markedly prevented atherosclerotic lesion progression (p = 0.001) by reducing inflammatory burden and cellular infiltration (p = 0.01) and improved lesion stability (p = 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IL-17A plays a role in chemoattractance, monocyte adhesion, and sensitization of APCs toward pathogen-derived TLR4 ligands. Also, IL-17A induced a unique transcriptome pattern in monocyte-derived macrophages distinct from known macrophage types. Stimulation of human carotid plaque tissue ex vivo with IL-17A induced a proinflammatory milieu and upregulation of molecules expressed by the IL-17A-induced macrophage subtype. In this study, we show that functional blockade of IL-17A prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression and induces plaque stabilization in advanced lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The underlying mechanisms involve reduced inflammation and distinct effects of IL-17A on monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, translational experiments underline the relevance for the human system. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  20. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance.

  1. IL33 Is a Stomach Alarmin That Initiates a Skewed Th2 Response to Injury and InfectionSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon N. Buzzelli

    2015-03-01

    pylori infection may be permissive for the T helper 1–biased immune response observed during H pylori infection and subsequent precancerous progression. Keywords: IL33, Helicobacter pylori, Inflammatory Response, Gastric Cancer

  2. Profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN- ? , TNF- ? and KC-like cytokines in pregnant bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05. However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.

  3. Clinical significance of changes of serum gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels after treatment in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuexian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum Gas, Interleukin-6(IL-6) and Interleukin-10(IL-10) levels in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 (with RIA) levels were determined in 61 patients with peptic ulcer both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely related to the diseases process of peptic ulcer and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  4. 糸球体腎炎患者における尿中IL-6活性測定法の確立

    OpenAIRE

    平田, 英二; 岩野, 正之; 平山, 俊英; 堀井, 康弘; 小川, 修二; 岸本, 匡司; 北村, 嘉三; 土肥, 和紘; 石川, 兵衞

    1992-01-01

    IL-6 is closely associated with the pathogenesis of human mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (mesPGN). We have previously shown that the measurementof urinary IL-6 is a helpful tool for monitoring the progression of IgA nephropathy. In this study, IL-6 activity of both 24-hour urine and spot urine from the same patients was measured to determine which urine sample functions better as a sample for the measurement of urinary IL-6.Urine samples were collected from 131 patients with prima...

  5. Helicobacter pylori-induced IL-33 modulates mast cell responses, benefits bacterial growth, and contributes to gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yi-Pin; Teng, Yong-Sheng; Mao, Fang-Yuan; Peng, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Cheng, Ping; Liu, Yu-Gang; Kong, Hui; Wang, Ting-Ting; Wu, Xiao-Long; Hao, Chuan-Jie; Chen, Weisan; Yang, Shi-Ming; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Han, Bin; Ma, Qiang; Zou, Quan-Ming; Zhuang, Yuan

    2018-04-25

    Interleukin (IL)-induced inflammatory responses are critical for the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis. IL-33 represents a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases, but its relevance to H. pylori-induced gastritis is unknown. Here, we found that gastric IL-33 mRNA and protein expression were elevated in gastric mucosa of both patients and mice infected with H. pylori, which is positively correlated with bacterial load and the degree of gastritis. IL-33 production was promoted via extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling pathway activation by gastric epithelial cells in a cagA-dependent manner during H. pylori infection, and resulted in increased inflammation and bacteria burden within the gastric mucosa. Gastric epithelial cell-derived IL-33 promoted TNF-α production from mast cells in vitro, and IL-33 increased TNF-α production in vivo. Increased TNF-α inhibited gastric epithelial cell proliferation, conducing to the progress of H. pylori-associated gastritis and bacteria colonization. This study defined a patent regulatory networks involving H. pylori, gastric epithelial cell, IL-33, mast cell, and TNF-α, which jointly play a pathological effect within the gastric circumstances. It may be a valuable strategy to restrain this IL-33-dependent pathway in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  6. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  8. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Murray

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI. IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/- mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/- animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT mice to IL-1RI(-/- mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/- mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/- mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/- mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/- mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/- mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal

  9. Andrographolide presents therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Peifen; Chen, Xinyu; Zhou, Feng; He, Qiaona; Yang, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata . The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-γt (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.

  10. A Brief History of IL-1 and IL-1 Ra in Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Dayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of what, in 1979, was called interleukin-1 (IL-1, orchestrator of leukocyte inter-communication, began many years before then, initially by the observation of fever induction via the endogenous pyrogen (EP (1974 and then in rheumatology on the role in tissue destruction in rheumatoid diseases via the induction of collagenase and PGE2 in human synovial cells by a mononuclear cell factor (MCF (1977. Since then, the family has exploded to presently 11 members as well as many membrane-bound and soluble receptor forms. The discovery of a natural Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in human biological fluids has highlighted the importance of IL-1 and IL-1Ra in human diseases. Evidence delineating its role in autoinflammatory syndromes and the elucidation of the macromolecular complex referred to as “inflammasome” have been instrumental to our understanding of the link with IL-1. At present, the IL-1blockade as therapeutic approach is crucial for many hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, as well as for adult-onset Still’s disease, crystal-induced arthropathies, certain skin diseases including neutrophil-triggered skin diseases, Behçet’s disease and deficiency of IL-1Ra and other rare fever syndromes. Its role is only marginally important in rheumatoid arthritis and is still under debate with regard to osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This brief historical review focuses on some aspects of IL-1, mainly IL-1β and IL-Ra, in rheumatology. There are many excellent reviews focusing on the IL-1 family in general or with regard to specific diseases or biological discoveries.

  11. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls.

  12. Learning Systematically from Experience through a Research-to-Practice Pipeline in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Wendy; Lansing, Jiffy; Bacon, Marshaun

    2018-01-01

    The Becoming A Man (BAM) program is a school-based group counseling and mentoring program run by Youth Guidance (YG), a community organization that serves children in Chicago schools who are at risk. BAM guides young men to learn, internalize, and practice social cognitive skills, make responsible decisions for their future, and become positive…

  13. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  14. 77 FR 10792 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... like to connect to the new facility and then subsequently disconnect from the Chicago facility. To... port fees and cross connection charges otherwise applicable to any Participants connecting to CHX's new... connecting to CHX's new facilities in the Equinix NY4 data center (``NY4'') until April 1, 2012. CHX also...

  15. My Favorite Assignment: From the ABC 2010 Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2011-01-01

    The seven Favorite Assignments featured in this article were originally presented at the 2010 ABC Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois. The reader can consider a variety of learning objectives from team building to persuasion, application of electronic media to face-to-face communication, and much more. Some Favorite Assignments take a full…

  16. Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; David Nowak; Gordon Heisler; Sue Grimmond; Catherine Souch; Rich Grant; Rowan Rowntree

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review of research in Chicago that linked analyses of vegetation structure with forest functions and values. During 1991, the region's trees removed an estimated 5575 metric tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing worth $9.2 million. Each year they sequester an estimated 315 800 metric tons of carbon. Increasing tree cover 10% or planting...

  17. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  18. George Herbert Mead's Lecture on Philosophy of Education at the University of Chicago (1910-1911).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    This paper recounts the influence of two of the great educational philosophers of this century, John Dewey and George Herbert Mead. Both men came to the University of Chicago from teaching at the University of Michigan. The men were life-long personal friends and professional colleagues. Although Mead published little during his life, his…

  19. A Seat at the Table: Women Teachers and the Domestication of Politics in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01

    This article will begin to synthesize and extend the historical literature involving women's political culture and women teachers. Through the lens of a select group of women in Chicago, the author argues that, while higher education provided the skills women needed to enter political spaces, teaching led them to act in those political spaces.…

  20. The Austin High School Girls' Band of Chicago, Illinois: 1925-1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hash, Phillip M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the history of the Austin High School (AHS) Girls' Band (AHSGB) of Chicago, Illinois, which existed from 1925 to 1956. This research focused on the band's (a) organization and leadership, (b) activities within the school and community, (c) relationship to the AHS Boys Band, and (d) efforts to challenge and…

  1. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  2. 76 FR 77878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65914; File No. SR-CBOE-2011-114] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change Related to Complex Order Processing in Hybrid 3.0 Classes December 8, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act...

  3. Basic Skills for 100% Customer Satisfaction at First Chicago Corporation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center--Resources for Education, Des Plaines, IL.

    This document is the final report of a demonstration project during which the corporation First Chicago/NBD and a local education agency developed and delivered basic skills training to the corporation's nonexempt work force. The report describes the following key project activities: basic skill needs analyses for various customer services…

  4. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  5. The Educational Benefits of Attending Higher Performing Schools: Evidence from Chicago High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul T.; Sartain, Lauren; de la Torre, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are implementing reforms with the assumption that students do better when attending high-achieving schools. In this article, we use longitudinal data from Chicago Public Schools to test that assumption. We find that the effects of attending a higher performing school depend on the school's performance level. At elite public schools…

  6. 77 FR 70684 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 10. Indian Tribal... the Cline Avenue bridge in East Chicago, IN. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that this demolition project will pose a significant risk to public safety and property. Such...

  7. 77 FR 27822 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... shall report to the Exchange, the name, address, and social security or tax identification number of any... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66934; File No. SR-CBOE-2012-040] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed Rule Change...

  8. 78 FR 65023 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... the Exchange, the name, address, and social security or tax identification number of any customer who... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70752; File No. SR-CBOE-2013-099] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

  9. On the role of the Michelson–Morley experiment: Einstein in Chicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses new material, published in volume 12 of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, that addresses Einstein’s knowledge of the Michelson–Morley experiment prior to 1905: in a lecture in Chicago in 1921, Einstein referred to the experiment, mentioned when he came upon it and

  10. Mrs. O'Leary's Cow and Other Newspaper Tales about the Chicago Fire of 1871.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedler, Fred

    Noting that, historically, newspaper editors copied the best, and sometimes erroneous, stories from other newspapers published in distant cities, this paper explores newpaper coverage of the 1871 Great Chicago Fire, and the myth that Mrs. O'Leary's cow was to blame. After suggesting that a report invented the story of the O'Leary cow kicking a…

  11. The Chicago wilderness and its critics: the other side: a survey of arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    1997-01-01

    Long viewed as a center of ecological restoration activity, over the past year the Chicago region has also gained notoriety as a center of ecological restoration controversy. After years of operating in relative obscurity, public agencies and private groups engaged in restoring metropolitan forest preserve sites have now drawn considerable attention from the press and...

  12. Model Programs: Compensatory Education. The Juan Morel Campos Bilingual Center, Chicago, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    The bilingual program described in this booklet offers intermediate-grade English and Spanish instruction to Spanish-speaking children from an economically disadvantaged neighborhood in one of Chicago's largest school districts. The descriptive information presented here concerns context and objectives, necessary personnel, educational…

  13. University of Chicago School Mathematics Project 6-12 Curriculum. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project ("UCSMP") 6-12 Curriculum" is a series of yearlong courses--(1) Transition Mathematics; (2) Algebra; (3) Geometry; (4) Advanced Algebra; (5) Functions, Statistics, and Trigonometry; and (6) Precalculus and Discrete Mathematics--emphasizing problem solving, real-world applications, and the use…

  14. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a…

  15. The Other "Real World": Gentrification and the Social Construction of Place in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Gina M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores competing constructions and understandings of the gentrifying neighborhoods on Chicago's near northwest side, noting how Puerto Rican youth are implicated in these changes. Explores contradictory images of neighborhoods, residents' responses to these changes, and various linguistic attempts to refashion new ethno-racial designations in…

  16. Beats on the Table: Beat Writing in the Chicago Review and Big Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap van der Bent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Kleine literaire tijdschriften, zogenaamde little magazines, hebben een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de doorbraak, in de loop van de jaren vijftig, van de Amerikaanse Beat Generation. Aangezien grotere uitgeverijen en de gevestigde tijdschriften lange tijd terugschrokken voor de zowel inhoudelijk als formeel van de norm afwijkende uitingen van de Beats, verscheen hun werk aanvankelijk vooral in kleinere tijdschriften als de twee waaraan in dit artikel aandacht wordt besteed: de Chicago Review en Big Table. Aan de hand van een beschrijving van de inhoud van deze twee tijdschriften wordt geprobeerd duidelijk te maken hoe het werk van de Beat Generation zich in deze tijdschriften gaandeweg een eigen plaats verwierf. Speciale aandacht wordt besteed aan de rol van de redacteuren Irving Rosenthal en Paul Carroll; door zijn uitgekiende strategie om voor het omstreden werk van Beat-auteur William S. Burroughs geleidelijk een steeds grotere plaats in te ruimen, bepaalde vooral Rosenthal het veranderende karakter van de Chicago Review. De veranderingen bij dat tijdschrift verliepen niet zonder slag of stoot en waren voor de eigenaar ervan, de University of Chicago, op een gegeven moment aanleiding om de Chicago Review aan censuur te onderwerpen. Ook deze censuur en de reactie erop, de oprichting van Big Table, worden in het artikel belicht.

  17. Second annual report of cancer research at the University of Chicago, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkin, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    Brief summaries are presented of research projects in the following areas: virology, cell biology, tumor immunology, carcinogenesis, clinical research, radiotherapy, radiation physics, nuclear medicine, and care facilities. Descriptions are given of the cancer control center, the clinical cancer training program, and tumor clinics. Cancer-related conferences held at the University of Chicago during the period June, 1974 to June, 1975, are listed

  18. 76 FR 41839 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... existing PAR Official Fee structure that imposes a flat per contract fee does not provide an incentive for...-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate... interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's...

  19. 76 FR 20793 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... structure that imposes a flat per contract fee does not provide an incentive for firms to adequately staff...-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...

  20. American Philanthropic Studies: The Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (1903-1920)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Graham Taylor was a leader in the movement for schools of civics and philanthropy. As founder of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, Taylor served as President and Professor. The study focuses on the development of the study of philanthropy through following the pedagogy of Graham Taylor beginning with his early efforts during the late…