WorldWideScience

Sample records for programmed environment aerosol

  1. Behavior of aerosols in a steam-air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program plan for the NSPP aerosol project provides for the study of the behavior, within containment, of simulated LWR accident aerosols emanating from fuel, reactor core structural materials, and from concrete-molten core materials interactions. The aerodynamic behavior of each of these aerosols was studied individually to establish its characteristics; current experiments involve mixtures of these aerosols to establish their interaction and collective behavior within containment. Tests have been conducted with U 3 O 8 aerosols, Fe 2 O 3 aerosols, and concrete aerosols in an environment of either dry air [relative humidity (RH) less than 20%] or steam-air [relative humidity (RH) approximately 100%] with aerosol mass concentration being the primary experimental variable

  2. TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

    2001-03-01

    The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

  3. PIXE analysis of work environment aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Fujimoto, Fuminori; Komaki, Kenichiro; Ootuka, Akio; Kobayashi, Koichi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    In labor environment, the quantity of chemical substances in the air is more, and their kinds are more diversified than in general home environment. It has been well known that some substances contained in the aerosol in labor environment (floating dust in the atmosphere) such as asbestos and hexavalent chromium have the possibility of causing serious injuries such as cancer of respiratory organ. In order to identify the harmful substances to which laborers are exposed and to take the measures for removing them, it is necessary to investigate in detail into many factors related to the effect of aerosol on human bodies, such as the composition of elements, chemical condition, concentration, the particle size of dust and temporal and spatial distributions. For the purpose, sampling and analysis must be carried out so that information can be extracted as much as possible from a minute amount of sample. The particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is very effective for this application. In this paper, the development of a PIXE analysis system and the knowledge obtained by the sampling and measurement of aerosol in indoor labor environment are reported. The labor environment selected is that of the workshop of Department of Liberal Arts, University of Tokyo. Sampling, the experimental apparatus, the method of data analysis and the results of analysis are described. (Kako, I.)

  4. How thermodynamic environments control stratocumulus microphysics and interactions with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Hendrik; Cermak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol–cloud interactions are central to climate system changes and depend on meteorological conditions. This study identifies distinct thermodynamic regimes and proposes a conceptual framework for interpreting aerosol effects. In the analysis, ten years (2003–2012) of daily satellite-derived aerosol and cloud products are combined with reanalysis data to identify factors controlling Southeast Atlantic stratocumulus microphysics. Considering the seasonal influence of aerosol input from biomass burning, thermodynamic environments that feature contrasting microphysical cloud properties and aerosol–cloud relations are classified. While aerosol impact is stronger in unstable environments, it is mostly confined to situations with low aerosol loading (aerosol index AI ≲ 0.15), implying a saturation of aerosol effects. Situations with high aerosol loading are associated with weaker, seasonally contrasting aerosol-droplet size relationships, likely caused by thermodynamically induced processes and aerosol swelling. (letter)

  5. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and health effects of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their properties such as their chemical composition. Aerosol chemical composition can be studied indirectly by measuring volatility of aerosol particles. The volatility of submicron aerosol particles (20-500 nm) was studied in a boreal forest site at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) station (Vesala et al., 1998) in Hyytiälä, Finland, during 01/2008-05/2010. The instrument used for the measurements was VDMPS (Volatility Differential Mobility Particle Sizer), which consists of two separate instruments: DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Aalto et al., 2001) and TD (Thermodenuder, Wehner et al., 2002). Aerosol evaporation was examined by heating the aerosol and comparing the total aerosol mass before and after heating. In the VDMPS system ambient aerosol sample was heated up to temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 280 °C. The higher the heating temperature was the more aerosol material was evaporated. There was a non-volatile residual present in aerosol particles when heated up to 280 °C. This residual explained (20±8)% of the total aerosol mass. Aerosol non-volatile mass fraction was highest during winter and smallest during summer months. The role of black carbon in the observed non-volatile residual was determined. Black carbon explained 40 to 90% of the non-volatile mass. Especially during colder seasons noticeable amount of non-volatile material, something else than black carbon, was observed. According to Kalberer et al. (2004) some atmospheric organic species can form polymers that have high evaporation temperatures. Also low-volatile organic salts may contribute to the non-volatile aerosol (Smith et al., 2010). Aerosol mass composition measured directly with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Jayne et al., 2000) was analyzed in order to examine the properties of the non-volatile material (other than black carbon). The AMS measurements were performed

  6. Aerosols: generation and role in medicine, industry and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sapra, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of topics in aerosol sciences. Areas covered for detailed evaluation with respect to the role of aerosols are industry, medicine, health care and environment, besides basic studies. Knowledge in the areas, specially on generation of aerosols and their role in those fields are briefly summarised and problems for future work are highlighted. Articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Effect of tropospheric aerosols on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira, K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meterology, Pune (India)

    1995-12-31

    The primary mechanism by which aerosols influences the environment is through changes in the amount of energy reaching the ground and the energy diffusing back to space. Keeping the above in view, a study has been undertaken to observe the effect of fire from an oil well at Pasarlapudi near Amalapuram, situated almost in the middle of the coastal Andhra belt, on environment. Fire started from an oil well at Pasarlapudi (16{degrees}N 82{degrees}E) near Amalapuram in Andhra Pradesh on 8 January 1995 and continues till today. For the above study daily maximum and minimum temperatures in celsius and rainfall in mm were collected from India Meteorological Department for two stations Kakinada and Machilipatnam from 19 January 1995 to 1 March 1995. It is seen from the above data at both Kakinada and Machilipatnam from 19 January to 1 February 1995 a decrease in minimum temperature from 0.5{degrees}C to 1.0{degrees}C. There is not much change in maximum temperature. 35 mm of excess rainfall was reported in coastal Andhra Pradesh from 1 Jan. to 25 Jan 1995 when the fire from the oil well was at maximum intensity. Some places near the Pasarlapudi reported rain with black carbon particles during third week of January. Pictures of the raging fire show a jet of burning gas extending into the atmosphere. The accompanying heat and smoke from the oil well fire could have led to cloud formation and rain containing black carbon particles in coastal belt of Andhra Pradesh.

  8. Characteristics of the aerosols released to the environment after a severe PWR accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhiaubet, G.; Manesse, D.

    1988-05-01

    In the event of a postulated severe accident on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) involving fuel degradation, gases and aerosols containing radioactive products could be released, with short, medium and long term consequences for the population and the environment. Under such accident conditions, the ESCADRE code system, developed at IPSN (Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection) can be used to calculate the properties of the substances released and, especially with the AEROSOLS/B2 code, the main characteristics of the aerosols (concentration, size distribution, composition). For conditions representative of severe PWR accidents, by varying different main parameters (structural material aerosols, steam condensation in the containment, etc...), indications are given on the range of characteristics of the aerosols (containing notably Cs, Te, Sr, Ru, etc...) released to the atmosphere. Information is also given on how more accurate data (especially on the chemical forms) will be obtainable in the framework of current or planned experimental programs (HEVA, PITEAS, PHEBUS PF, etc...) [fr

  9. Recent activities in the Aerosol Generation and Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    General statements may be made on the behavior of single-component and multi-component aerosols in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant vessel. The removal processes for U 3 O 8 , Fe 2 O 3 , and U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosols are enhanced in a steam-air atmosphere. Steam-air seems to have little effect on removal of concrete aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. A steam-air environment causes a change in aerosol shape from chain-agglomerate to basically spherical for U 3 O 8 , Fe 2 O 3 , and U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosol; for concrete the change in aerosol shape is from chain-agglomerate to partially spherical. The mass ratio of the individual components of a multi-component aerosol seems to have an observable influence on the resultant behavior of these aerosols in steam. The enhanced rate of removal of the U 3 O 8 , the Fe 2 O 3 , and the mixed U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosols from the atmosphere of the NSPP vessel by steam-air is probably caused by the change in aerosol shape and the condensation of steam on the aerosol surfaces combining to increase the effect of gravitational settling. The apparent lack of an effect by steam-air on the removal rate of concrete aerosol could result from a differing physical/chemical response of the surfaces of this aerosol to condensing steam

  10. Retrieving aerosol in a cloudy environment: aerosol product availability as a function of spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Remer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and supplemented with a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol product availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the techniques used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5×0.5 km for MODIS and 1×1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1×1, 2×2, 1×4, 4×4 and 8×8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8×8 km. The analysis is repeated, separately, for near-nadir pixels and those at larger view angles to investigate the effect of pixel growth at oblique angles on aerosol retrieval availability. The results show that as nominal pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8×8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km, nadir, have been lost. The effect at oblique angles is to further decrease availability over land but increase availability over ocean, because sun glint is found at near-nadir view angles. Finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1×1, 2×2 or even 1×4 km will retrieve aerosols in partly cloudy scenes significantly more often than sensors with nadir views of 4×4 km or coarser. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and

  11. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Radioactive aerosols in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for continuous monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the environment in normal and emergency conditions. Monitoring involves continuous sampling and, where desirable, automatic start of sampling. The document applies particularly to the following assignments: (i) determination of the volume activity of radionuclides in the form of aerosols, either per time unit, along with its time changes, or in the integral form over a longer time period such as 24 h, and measurement of the volume sampled; (ii) triggering a warning alarm signal if the preset volume activity or time integral of the volume activity of aerosols has been exceeded. The document deals with radioactive aerosol monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of the air circuit. (P.A.)

  12. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  13. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  14. Assessment of anthropogen aerosols : influence on environment and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, F.

    2010-01-01

    The term aerosol describes a dispersion of liquid or solid particles in a gaseous medium, usually including particles at a size ranging from 0.001 to 100 μm. The size of an aerosol's particle is of special interest, as it influences its fate. Together with other physical properties like shape, density and mass of the particles, it defines the aerosol's possibilities of sedimentation, diffusion, dispersion, coagulation or impaction onto surfaces. As aerosols are by definition composed of a number of particles, this regime of constituent parts varies. Aerosols are well known with their common names such as dust, smoke, fume, fog, mist, spray or haze. The projects of this thesis deal with different aspects of anthropogenic aerosols. We investigated their influence on human health and environmental impact by looking at particle concentrations and size distributions of aerosols. Ultimately, we examined their fate in a human lung model to reveal a direct influence on humans. Our studies included brine inhalation at an open-air spa, exposure to ultrafine particles while driving a car through a heavy impacted environment, and the influence of aerosols on spectators while watching fireworks. In a project with the local environmental authorities we investigated the correlation of air quality, meteorological and traffic data with ultrafine particles. Resulting from our studies, we found beneficial effects of salt aerosols used for inhalation therapy, showing the positive influence in lung deposition, as well as, an effect on ultrafine particle inventory of the ambient air. Combustion aerosols and other man-made particulate matter proved to have adverse effects on human lung deposition, allowing ultrafine particles to reach deep into the human lung. This not only poses a threat to respiratory organs; particles can be translocated from the respiratory tract into the blood stream and from there to other organs, affecting the entire body. For the purpose of finding reasonable

  15. LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program and initial test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Bloom, G.R.; McCormack, J.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program is described. The LACE program is being performed at the Hanford Engineer Development Laboratory (operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company) and the initial tests are sponsored by EPRI. The objectives of the LACE program are: to demonstrate, at large-scale, inherent radioactive aerosol retention behavior for postulated high consequence LWR accident situations; and to provide a data base to be used for aerosol behavior . Test results from the first phase of the LACE program are presented and discussed. Three large-scale scoping tests, simulating a containment bypass accident sequence, demonstrated the extent of agglomeration and deposition of aerosols occurring in the pipe pathway and vented auxiliary building under realistic accident conditions. Parameters varied during the scoping tests were aerosol type and steam condensation

  16. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  17. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  18. Characterization of aerosol particles in a mechanical workshop environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Yamanaka, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tsuboi, S.; Pelicon, P.; Zitnik, M.

    2008-01-01

    Indoor aerosols are directly affecting human lives. Especially aerosols in workshops, factories, and laboratories, where many chemical substances are used in treatment and production processes, might contain toxic elements: special care must be taken to alleviate air pollution and assure a clean breathing environment for the workers. For this study, size segregated aerosol particle sampling with a cascade impactor was performed in the machine workshop of Jozef Stefan Institute. The samples, collected during weekdays and weekend were analyzed with a microbeam facility at Tohoku University. Bulk PIXE analysis with scanning over the whole sample area was conducted along with multimodal microanalysis with microscopic scanning. Using bulk analysis, high concentrations of Pb and Ba were detected on weekend days, which was related to the removal of an old white paint from the furniture. On weekdays, concentrations of W and of soil origin elements increased, probably because of the machine operations and worker movements. At the same time high concentration of sulfur was detected. A microscopic multimodal analysis shows that it stems from a lubricant oil vapor. The combination of bulk and microanalysis of the size selected samples is an effective approach to aerosol characterization in the working environment. (author)

  19. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol

  20. Status of the LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Dickinson, D.R.; Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LACE program, sponsored by an international consortium, is investigating inherent aerosol behavior for three postulated high consequence accident sequences; the containment bypass or V-sequence, failure to isolate containment, and delayed containment failure. Six large-scale tests are described which focus on these accident situations and which will be completed in the Containment Systems Test Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The aerosol generation systems used to generate soluble and insoluble aerosols for the large-scale tests are described. The report then focuses on those tests which deal with the containment bypass accident sequence. Test results are presented and discussed for three containment bypass scoping tests

  1. Aerosol size and chemical composition measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Lab (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Tremblay, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Leaitch, R.; Kolonjari, F.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; AboEl Fetouh, Y.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian High Arctic (80N, 86W). The current aerosol measurement program at PEARL has been ongoing for more than a year providing long-term observations of Arctic aerosol size distributions for both coarse and fine modes. Particle nucleation events were frequently observed during the summers of 2015 and 2016. The size distribution data are also compared against similar measurements taken at the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory (82N, 62W) for July and August 2015. The nucleation events are correlated at the two sites, despite a distance of approximately 500 km, suggesting regional conditions favorable for particle nucleation and growth during this period. Size resolved chemical composition measurements were also carried out using an aerosol mass spectrometer. The smallest measured particles between 40 and 60 nm are almost entirely organic aerosol (OA) indicating that the condensation of organic vapors is responsible for particle growth events and possibly particle nucleation. This conclusion is further supported by the relatively high oxygen content of the OA, which is consistent with secondary formation of OA via atmospheric oxidation.Lastly, surface measurements of the aerosol scattering coefficient are compared against the coefficient values calculated using Mie theory and the measured aerosol size distribution. Both the actual and the calculated scattering coefficients are then compared to sun photometer measurements to understand the relationship between surface and columnar aerosol optical properties. The measurements at PEARL provide a unique combination of surface and columnar data sets on aerosols in the High Arctic, a region where such measurements are scarce despite the important impact of aerosols on Arctic climate.PEARL research is supported by the Natural Sciences and

  2. Aerosol nucleation in an ultra-low ion density environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Paling, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Ion-induced nucleation has been studied in a deep underground ultra-low background radiation environment where the role of ions can be distinguished from alternative neutral aerosol nucleation mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that ions have a significant effect on the production of small...... sulfuric acid–water clusters over a range of sulfuric acid concentrations although neutral nucleation mechanisms remain evident at low ionization levels. The effect of ions is found both to enhance the nucleation rate of stable clusters and the initial growth rate. The effects of possible contaminations...

  3. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  4. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  5. Studies on aerosol optical properties over urban and semi-urban environments of Hyderabad and Anantapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, K.M.; Badarinath, K.V.S.; Rao, T.V. Ramakrishna; Reddy, R.R.; Ahammed, Y. Nazeer; Gopal, K. Rama; Azeem, P. Abdul

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols in the troposphere exert an important influence on global climate and the environment through scattering, transmission and absorption of radiation as well as acting as nuclei for cloud formation. Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the earth's radiation balance directly by scattering of infrared energy and indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds through microphysical processes. The present study addresses visibility, radiative forcing, size distribution and attenuation of aerosols over the period from January to May, 2001 for urban and semi-urban regions of Hyderabad and Anantapur. High aerosol loading has been observed over urban environment compared to semi-urban environment. Aerosol optical depth values increased from January to April and then decreased during May over both urban and semi-urban regions. Over urban region, visibility decreased from January to April and increased during May. Similar trend has been observed over semi-urban region with relatively higher values of visibility. Radiative forcing estimated using aerosol optical depth values increased from January to April and then decreased during the month of May over urban and semi-urban areas. High visibility and low radiative forcing has been noticed over semi-urban area due to less aerosol loading. Wavelength exponent and turbidity coefficient registered high values over urban environment compared to semi-urban environment. Attenuation coefficient showed high values over urban region compared to semi-urban region. It reveals that semi-urban environment receives high solar flux than urban environment. Using 10 channel quartz crystal microbalance, measurements of total mass concentration and mass size distribution of near surface aerosols has been made over semi-urban environment and compared with size distribution derived from inversion methods based on aerosol optical depth variation with wavelength. The sensitivity of constrained linear inversions for inferring columnar

  6. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O.; Loiseau, O.; Koch, W.; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Billone, M. C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO 2 , test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of aerosols in the tropics relationship with atmospheric and oceanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga-Arias, Manuel D.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's radiation budget is directly influenced by aerosols through the absorption of solar radiation and subsequent heating of the atmosphere. Aerosols modulate the hydrological cycle indirectly by modifying cloud properties, precipitation and ocean heat storage. In addition, polluting aerosols impose health risks in local, regional and global scales. In spite of recent advances in the study of aerosols variability, uncertainty in their spatio-temporal distributions still presents a challenge in the understanding of climate variability. For example, aerosol loading varies not only from year to year but also on higher frequency intraseasonal time scales producing strong variability on local and regional scales. An assessment of the impact of aerosol variability requires long period measurements of aerosols at both regional and global scales. The present dissertation compiles a large database of remotely sensed aerosol loading in order to analyze its spatio-temporal variability, and how this load interacts with different variables that characterize the dynamic and thermodynamic states of the environment. Aerosol Index (AI) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were used as measures of the atmospheric aerosol load. In addition, atmospheric and oceanic satellite observations, and reanalysis datasets is used in the analysis to investigate aerosol-environment interactions. A diagnostic study is conducted to produce global and regional aerosol satellite climatologies, and to analyze and compare the validity of aerosol retrievals. We find similarities and differences between the aerosol distributions over various regions of the globe when comparing the different satellite retrievals. A nonparametric approach is also used to examine the spatial distribution of the recent trends in aerosol concentration. A significant positive trend was found over the Middle East, Arabian Sea and South Asian regions strongly influenced by increases in dust events. Spectral and composite analyses

  8. RIPE [robot independent programming environment]: A robot independent programming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Lennox, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Remote manual operations in radiation environments are typically performed very slowly. Sensor-based computer-controlled robots hold great promise for increasing the speed and safety of remote operations; however, the programming of robotic systems has proven to be expensive and difficult. Generalized approaches to robot programming that reuse available software modules and employ programming languages which are independent of the specific robotic and sensory devices being used are needed to speed software development and increase overall system reliability. This paper discusses the robot independent programming environment (RIPE) developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment that facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. An architecture based on hierarchies of distributed multiprocessors provides the computing platform for a layered programming structure that models applications using software objects. These objects are designed to support model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, and robust communication

  9. DMA Modern Programming Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    capabilities. The centers are becoming increasingly dependent upon the computer and digital data in the fulfillment of MC&G goals. Successful application...ftticrcsrccessors C140 by Herbert AlteroDigital Citmmuncaticns C141 0 Structuredl Design ’-:orkshocr by Ned Chapin KC 156o Digital Systems En17lrceriirg CC 139 o3...on a programming environment. The study, which resulted in production of a paper entitled An EXEC 8 Programming Support Libary , contends that most of

  10. Annual cycle of size-resolved organic aerosol characterization in an urbanized desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas M.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of size-resolved organic speciation of aerosols are still relatively rare and are generally only conducted over short durations. However, size-resolved organic data can both suggest possible sources of the aerosols and identify the human exposure to the chemicals since different aerosol sizes have different lung capture efficiencies. The objective of this study was to conduct size-resolved organic aerosol speciation for a calendar year in Phoenix, Arizona to determine the seasonal variations in both chemical concentrations and size profiles. The results showed large seasonal differences in combustion pollutants where the highest concentrations were observed in winter. Summertime aerosols have a greater proportion of biological compounds (e.g. sugars and fatty acids) and the biological compounds represent the largest fraction of the organic compounds detected. These results suggest that standard organic carbon (OC) measurements might be heavily influenced by primary biological compounds particularly if the samples are PM10 and TSP samples. Several large dust storms did not significantly alter the organic aerosol profile since Phoenix resides in a dusty desert environment, so the soil and plant tracer of trehalose was almost always present. The aerosol size profiles showed that PAHs were generally most abundant in the smallest aerosol size fractions, which are most likely to be captured by the lung, while the biological compounds were almost exclusively found in the coarse size fraction.

  11. Aerosol mass loading over the marine environment of Arabian Sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The decrease in mass loading from the coast of India towards west is estimated to ... ment of the role of aerosols in radiative forcing ... Oceans are the single largest sources of natural ... While island stations provide informa- ... (Pacific Exploratory Mission), INDOEX (Indian ... very close (150–200km away) to the west Asian.

  12. Transformations of Aerosol Particles from an Outdoor to Indoor Environment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talbot, Nicholas; Kubelová, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub; Cusack, Michael; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Zíková, Naděžda; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2017), s. 653-665 ISSN 1680-8584 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosols * shrinking * dissociation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2016

  13. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission aerosol release and the transport program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberberg, M; Kress, T [Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Gieseke, J [Batelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1977-01-01

    An overview is presented of the U.S.N.R.C. research program for providing experimentally verified, quantitative methods for estimating the release and transport of sodium and radionuclide aerosols following postulated accidents. The program is directed towards radiological consequence assessment, however a number of aerosol behavior mechanisms being studied are applicable to LMFBR operational considerations. Related theoretical and experimental work on aerosol formation, agglomeration, settling and plating is noted. (author)

  14. A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charifa Zemouri

    Full Text Available Bio-aerosols originate from different sources and their potentially pathogenic nature may form a hazard to healthcare workers and patients. So far no extensive review on existing evidence regarding bio-aerosols is available.This study aimed to review evidence on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental setting. The objectives were 1 What are the sources that generate bio-aerosols?; 2 What is the microbial load and composition of bio-aerosols and how were they measured?; and 3 What is the hazard posed by pathogenic micro-organisms transported via the aerosol route of transmission?Systematic scoping review design. Searched in PubMed and EMBASE from inception to 09-03-2016. References were screened and selected based on abstract and full text according to eligibility criteria. Full text articles were assessed for inclusion and summarized. The results are presented in three separate objectives and summarized for an overview of evidence.The search yielded 5,823 studies, of which 62 were included. Dental hand pieces were found to generate aerosols in the dental settings. Another 30 sources from human activities, interventions and daily cleaning performances in the hospital also generate aerosols. Fifty-five bacterial species, 45 fungi genera and ten viruses were identified in a hospital setting and 16 bacterial and 23 fungal species in the dental environment. Patients with certain risk factors had a higher chance to acquire Legionella in hospitals. Such infections can lead to irreversible septic shock and death. Only a few studies found that bio-aerosol generating procedures resulted in transmission of infectious diseases or allergic reactions.Bio-aerosols are generated via multiple sources such as different interventions, instruments and human activity. Bio-aerosols compositions reported are heterogeneous in their microbiological composition dependent on the setting and methodology. Legionella species were found to be a bio-aerosol dependent hazard

  15. LMFBR aerosol release and transport program. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes progress for the Aerosol Release and Transport Program sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Accident Evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period July-September 1981. Topics discussed include (1) preparations for under-sodium tests at the Fast Aerosol Simulant Test Facility, (2) progress in interpretation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sandia Laboratory normalization test results, (3) U 3 O 8 in steam (light-water reactor accident) aerosol experiments conducted in the Nuclear Safety Power Plant, (4) experiments on B 2 O 3 and SiO 2 aerosols at the Containment Research Installation-II Facility, (5) fuel-melting tests in small-scale experimental facilities for the core-melt aerosol program, (6) analytical comparison of simple adiabatic nonlinear and linear analytical models of bubble oscillation phenomena with experimental data

  16. Nano size Aerosols of Radon Decay Products in Various Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn, alpha decay, t 1/2 = 3.82 days) is always accompanied by its short-lived decay products (RnDP): 218Po (alpha decay, t 1/2 = 3.10 min), 214Pb (beta/gamma decay, t 1/2 = 26.8 min), 214Bi (beta/gamma decay, t 1/2 = 19.9 min), and 214Po (alpha decay, t 1/2 = 164 μs). In indoor and outdoor air, they appear as unattached RnDP in the form of clusters in the size range 0.5-3 nm and as attached RnDP between 200 and 800 nm. Because of plate-out of aerosols on the walls and floor of a room, as well as air movement and entry of fresh air, radioactive equilibrium between RnDP and Rn in indoor air is only partly achieved and is expressed as a fraction between 0 and 1, called the equilibrium factor, F. Birchall and James elaborated a dosimetric approach to calculate the dose conversion factor, DCF D , based on f un . In this paper, the results of our studies on fun in 29 rooms of kindergartens and 26 rooms of elementary and high schools, at the lowest point and the railway station in the Postojna Cave, and in 4 rooms in wineries in Slovenia are reported, and DCF D values based on the Porstendorfer formulae are discussed and compared with the DCF E value recommended by ICRP-65

  17. Aerosol Emissions from Fuse-Deposition Modeling 3D Printers in a Chamber and in Real Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Marina E; Pegues, Valerie; Van Montfrans, Schuyler; Leng, Weinan; Marr, Linsey C

    2017-09-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers are known to emit aerosols, but questions remain about their composition and the fundamental processes driving emissions. The objective of this work was to characterize the aerosol emissions from the operation of a fuse-deposition modeling 3D printer. We modeled the time- and size-resolved emissions of submicrometer aerosols from the printer in a chamber study, gained insight into the chemical composition of emitted aerosols using Raman spectroscopy, and measured the potential for exposure to the aerosols generated by 3D printers under real-use conditions in a variety of indoor environments. The average aerosol emission rates ranged from ∼10 8 to ∼10 11 particles min -1 , and the rates varied over the course of a print job. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filaments generated the largest number of aerosols, and wood-infused polylactic acid (PLA) filaments generated the smallest amount. The emission factors ranged from 6 × 10 8 to 6 × 10 11 per gram of printed part, depending on the type of filament used. For ABS, the Raman spectra of the filament and the printed part were indistinguishable, while the aerosol spectra lacked important peaks corresponding to styrene and acrylonitrile, which are both present in ABS. This observation suggests that aerosols are not a result of volatilization and subsequent nucleation of ABS or direct release of ABS aerosols.

  18. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO 2 , CeO 2 , plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively supported and

  19. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucher, Wenzel; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Loiseau, Olivier; Mo, Tin; Billone, Michael C.; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Young, F. I.; Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana; Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver; Thompson, Nancy Slater; Hibbs, Russell S.; Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin; Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of

  20. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Mo, Tin (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Billone, Michael C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Young, F. I. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Thompson, Nancy Slater (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Hibbs, Russell S. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL)

    2005-07-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of

  1. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.

    2018-01-01

    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  2. Overview of TANGENT (Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube) 2017 IOP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiszenkel, L.

    2017-12-01

    New particle formation consists of two steps: nucleation and growth of nucleated particles. However, most laboratory studies have been conducted under conditions where these two processes are convoluted together, thereby hampering the detailed understanding of the effect of chemical species and atmospheric conditions on two processes. The objective of the Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube (TANGENT) laboratory study is to investigate aerosol nucleation and growth properties independently by separating these two processes in two different flow tubes. This research is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the University of Delaware. In this poster we will present the experimental setup of TANGENT and summarize the key results from the first IOP (intense observation period) experiments undertaken during Summer 2017. Nucleation takes place in a temperature- and RH-controlled fast flow reactor (FT-1) where sulfuric acid forms from OH radicals and sulfur dioxide. Sulfuric acid and impurity base compounds are detected with chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS). Particle sizes and number concentrations of newly nucleated particles are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and particle size magnifier (PSM), providing concentrations of particles between 1-100 nm. The nucleation particles are transferred directly to the growth tube (FT-2) where oxidants and biogenic organic precursors are added to grow nucleated nanoparticles. Sizes of particles after growth are analyzed with an additional SMPS and elemental chemical composition of 50 nm and above particles detected with a nano-aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS). TANGENT provides the unique ability to conduct experiments that can monitor and control reactant concentrations, aerosol size and aerosol chemical composition during nucleation and growth. Experiments during this first IOP study have elucidated the effects of sulfur dioxide, particle size

  3. Programming in an object-oriented environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ege, Raimund K

    1992-01-01

    Programming in an Object-Oriented Environment provides an in-depth look at the concepts behind the technology of object-oriented programming.This book explains why object-oriented programming has the potential to vastly improve the productivity of programmers and how to apply this technology in a practical environment. Many programming examples are included, focusing on how different programming languages support the core of object-oriented concepts. C++ is used as the main sample language throughout this text.This monograph consists of two major parts. Part I provides an introduction to objec

  4. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    formula, then it been divided by 3 is MOR. The aerosol concentration in chamber can be changed by adjusting aerosol generator that producing variety of visibility atmospherical environment. The experiment has been carried out and the measurement accuracy of atmospheric transmittance is 0.3‰ Corresponding to the accuracy of MOR 4.9% at the 2km visibility environment. So this system can be calibrated and validated the other visibility measuring devices.

  5. PYGMALION: A Creative Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    iiiiiimimmmimm wm^m^mmm’ wi-i ,»■»’■’.■- v* 26 Examples of Purely Iconic Reasoning 1-H Pythagoras ’ original proof of the Pythagorean Theorem ... Theorem Proving Machine񓟋. His program employed properties of the representation to guide the proof of theorems . His simple heruristic "Reject...one theorem the square of the hypotenuse. "Every proposition is presented as a self-contained fact relying on its own intrinsic evidence. Instead

  6. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, D.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Dumka, U.C., E-mail: dumka@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (India); Kaskaoutis, D.G. [School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Tehsil Dadri (India); Pipal, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M. [India Meteorology Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India)

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM{sub 2.5} samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM{sub 2.5} (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM{sub 2.5} (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m{sup −3} (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m{sup −3}) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m{sup −3}) than daytime (103.8 μg m{sup −3}) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO{sub 3}{sup −}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day{sup −1}) due to agricultural burning effects

  7. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, D.S.; Dumka, U.C.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Pipal, A.S.; Srivastava, A.K.; Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM 2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM 2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM 2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m −3 (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m −3 ) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m −3 ) than daytime (103.8 μg m −3 ) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO 3 − and SO 4 2− , which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R 2 = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day −1 ) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. - Highlights: • Very high PM 2.5 (> 200 µg m −3 ) levels

  8. A new experimental facility for studying aerosol sampling in workplace environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Witstchger, O.

    2000-01-01

    The european council directive 96/29/EURATOM requires its implementation into national regulations. This directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. This directive allows to use aerosol characteristics (particle size distribution, airborne concentration, morphology and chemical composition) measured in workplace to assess the effective radiation dose of workers resulting from the intake by inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Tests of performances of instruments used for the health-related sampling of particles in workplace are usually carried out in a wind tunnel or a calm air chamber. In these test conditions, instruments are exposed to uniform wind and steady homogeneous aerosol. In a real workplace situation, these instruments are usually exposed to highly non-uniform airflows and local emissions of particles. Moreover, it is not clear how differences in airflow pattern, proximity of the localised contamination source, worker location or activity would affect the personal/static measurement ratio. The objective of our experimental work is to investigate the relevant parameters that affect the aerosol characteristics in the microenvironment of a worker (including breathing zone) and in the workplace. The first part of that study was to design and built an experimental room CEPIA (french acronym for room for studying personal and area samplers). The ventilated chamber (volume 36 m 3 ) is equipped with an air delivery system to insure different ventilation patterns and flowrates. The CEPIA chamber should offer possibilities for performing experiments in situations representing a workplace environment, with airflows and aerosol parameters well controlled and characterised. (authors)

  9. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  10. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  11. A Decade of Field Changing Atmospheric Aerosol Research: Outcomes of EPA’s STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conference: Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry, July 28 – August 2, 2013, VermontPresentation Type: PosterTitle: An Analysis of EPA’s STAR Program and a Decade of Field Changing Research in Atmospheric AerosolsAuthors: Kristina M. Wagstrom1,2, Sherri ...

  12. Nuclear power program and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanya, S.K.; Gupta, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is one of the basic requirements for human development. To meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects is a challenge. The possibility of global climate change resulting from an increase in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere due to developmental activities is a major global concern. India is passing through the process of economic growth. Although India has not created the problem of climate change, India stands ready to be a part of the solution. The largest chunk of emissions was from electricity generation amounting to 65 percent of the total CO 2 equivalent emissions from the energy sector. Nuclear energy and renewables stand as sources for electricity with minimum GHG emission. Production of electricity from any form of primary energy has some environmental effect. A balanced assessment is needed. Nuclear power is of importance to India because it has potentially unlimited resource base, does not emit GHGs and, depending on location, has potentially favourable economics versus coal. In the long term, if we are to preserve the environment, it will be necessary to tap this source to the maximum extent feasible, In nuclear power stations, all its wastes are contained. India being home to nearly a third of the entire world's thorium, the strategies for large scale deployment of nuclear energy is focused towards utilization of thorium. The electricity potential of 3-stage programme is estimated to be about 2 lakh GWe-yr. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is currently operating 20 reactors and has accumulated more than 337 reactor-years of experience in safe operation. A defence-in-depth approach is at the heart of safety philosophy, where there are several lines of defence, one backing another. Radiation is relevant for nuclear, coal, oil, gas and geothermal power plants. The essential task is to prevent excessive amounts now or in the future. One of the guiding principles adopted is to ensure that radiation

  13. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence

  14. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  15. Sandia Laboratories environment and safety programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, B.D.; McGrath, P.E.; Trauth, C.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Sandia, one of ERDA's largest laboratories, is primarily known for its extensive work in the nuclear weapons field. In recent years, however, Sandia's role has expanded to embrace sizeable programs in the energy, resource recovery, and the environment and safety fields. In this latter area, Sandia has programs which address nuclear, fossil fuel, and general environment and safety issues. Here we survey ongoing activities and describe in more detail aa few projects of particular interest. These range from a study of the impact of sealed disposal of radioactive wastes, through reactor safety and fossil fuel plume chemistry, to investigations of the composition and dynamics of the stratosphere

  16. Program to assess the effects of extraordinary environments on radioactive material shipping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The highlights of the Transportation System Safety Evaluation (TSSE) Program at Sandia National Laboratories are reviewed and the origins of the program and the relationships to other programs addressing safety concerns are outlined. The areas of current activity in the assessment of possible effects an intentional act or extreme environment could have on nuclear material shipping systems are described. Early information has been obtained on the formation of aerosols, and a significant body of experimentally determined source term data will be available for radiological consequence evaluations

  17. Effective Density and Mixing State of Aerosol Particles in a Near-Traffic Urban Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rissler, Jenny; Nordin, Erik Z; Eriksson, Axel C

    2014-01-01

    -range transport from polluted continental areas. The effective density of each group was relatively stable over time, especially of the soot aggregates, which had effective densities similar to those observed in laboratory studies of fresh diesel exhaust emissions. When heated to 300 °C, the soot aggregate......In urban environments, airborne particles are continuously emitted, followed by atmospheric aging. Also, particles emitted elsewhere, transported by winds, contribute to the urban aerosol. We studied the effective density (mass-mobility relationship) and mixing state with respect to the density...... and more dense particles. Both groups were present at each size in varying proportions. Two types of temporal variability in the relative number fraction of the two groups were found: soot correlated with intense traffic in a diel pattern and dense particles increased during episodes with long...

  18. A Pilot Study: The UNC Passive Aerosol Sampler in a Working Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Mariam; Wingfors, Håkan; Andersson, Britt M; Sommar, Johan N; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Liljelind, Ingrid E

    2017-10-01

    Dust is generally sampled on a filter using air pumps, but passive sampling could be a cost-effective alternative. One promising passive sampler is the University of North Carolina passive aerosol sampler (UNC sampler). The aim of this study is to characterize and compare the UNC sampler's performance with PM10 and PM2.5 impactors in a working environment. Area sampling was carried out at different mining locations using UNC samplers in parallel with PM2.5 and PM10 impactors. Two different collection surfaces, polycarbonate (PC) and carbon tabs (CT), were employed for the UNC sampling. Sampling was carried out for 4-25 hours. The UNC samplers underestimated the concentrations compared to PM10 and PM2.5 impactor data. At the location with the highest aerosol concentration, the time-averaged mean of PC showed 24% and CT 35% of the impactor result for PM2.5. For PM10, it was 39% with PC and 58% with CT. Sample blank values differed between PC and CT. For PM2.5, PC blank values were ~7 times higher than those of CT, but only 1.8 times higher for PM10. The blank variations were larger for PC than for CT. Particle mass concentrations appear to be underestimated by the UNC sampler compared to impactors, more so for PM2.5 than for PM10. CT may be preferred as a collection surface because the blank values were lower and less variable than for PC. Future validations in the working environment should include respirable dust sampling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  19. ALPHA - The long-term passive decay heat removal and aerosol retention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentay, S.; Varadi, G.; Dreier, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute initiated the major new experimental and analytical program ALPHA in 1990. The program is aimed at understanding the long-term decay heat removal and aerosol questions for the next generation of Passive Light Water Reactors. The ALPHA project currently includes four major items: the large-scale, integral system behaviour test facility PANDA, which will be used to examine multidimensional effects of the SBWR decay heat removal system; an investigation of the thermal hydraulics of natural convection and mixing in pools and large volumes (LINX); a separate-effects study of aerosols transport and deposition in plenum and tubes (AIDA); while finally, data from the PANDA facility and supporting separate effects tests will be used to develop and qualify models and provide validation of relevant system codes. The paper briefly reviews the above four topics and current status of the experimental facilities. (author). 3 refs, 12 figs

  20. ALPHA - The long-term passive decay heat removal and aerosol retention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentay, S; Varadi, G; Dreier, J [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute initiated the major new experimental and analytical program ALPHA in 1990. The program is aimed at understanding the long-term decay heat removal and aerosol questions for the next generation of Passive Light Water Reactors. The ALPHA project currently includes four major items: the large-scale, integral system behaviour test facility PANDA, which will be used to examine multidimensional effects of the SBWR decay heat removal system; an investigation of the thermal hydraulics of natural convection and mixing in pools and large volumes (LINX); a separate-effects study of aerosols transport and deposition in plenum and tubes (AIDA); while finally, data from the PANDA facility and supporting separate effects tests will be used to develop and qualify models and provide validation of relevant system codes. The paper briefly reviews the above four topics and current status of the experimental facilities. (author). 3 refs, 12 figs.

  1. Gas and aerosol radionuclide transfers in complex environments: experimental studies of atmospheric dispersion and interfaces exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In situations of chronic or accidental releases, the atmosphere is the main pathway of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities to the environment and, consequently, to humans. It is therefore necessary to have sufficient information on this pathway to accurately assess the radiological impact on man and his environment. Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety develops its own tools of dispersion and atmospheric transfer for its expertise, under normal operation conditions of a facility, but especially in crisis or post-accident. These tools must have a national and international recognition in particular through scientific validation against benchmark experiments performed internationally, nationally or within the IRSN. The Radioecology Laboratory of Cherbourg-Octeville provides, and will increasingly make, a significant contribution to the scientific influence of the Institute in this field. The work presented in this report has contributed to the development or improvement of experimental techniques in the fields of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and transfer at interfaces, in complex environments (complex topography, urban area). These experimental techniques, applied during field campaigns, have allowed to acquire new data in order to get a better understanding of radionuclide transfers in the form of gases and aerosols. (author)

  2. Indoor environment program: FY 1988 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Indoor Environment Program examines the scientific issues associated with the design and operation of buildings to optimize energy performance and occupant comfort and health. Optimizing occupant health and comfort is addressed in various ways by groups within the Program. To examine energy flow through all elements of the building shell, the Energy Performance of Buildings Group measures air infiltration rates, studies thermal characteristics of structural elements, and develops simplified models of the behavior of complete buildings. Potential savings in the infiltration area are great

  3. Aerosol-cloud feedbacks in a turbulent environment: Laboratory measurements representative of conditions in boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Karki, S.; Kinney, G.; Shaw, R.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the climate impacts of boundary layer clouds are modulated by aerosol particles. As two examples, their interactions with incoming solar and upwelling terrestrial radiation and their propensity for precipitation are both governed by the population of aerosol particles upon which the cloud droplets formed. In turn, clouds are the primary removal mechanism for aerosol particles smaller than a few micrometers and larger than a few nanometers. Aspects of these interconnected phenomena are known in exquisite detail (e.g. Köhler theory), but other parts have not been as amenable to study in the laboratory (e.g. scavenging of aerosol particles by cloud droplets). As a complicating factor, boundary layer clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, which introduces fluctuations in the water vapor concentration and temperature, which govern the saturation ratio which mediates aerosol-cloud interactions. We have performed laboratory measurements of aerosol-cloud coupling and feedbacks, using Michigan Tech's Pi Chamber (Chang et al., 2016). In conditions representative of boundary layer clouds, our data suggest that the lifetime of most interstitial particles in the accumulation mode is governed by cloud activation - particles are removed from the Pi Chamber when they activate and settle out of the chamber as cloud droplets. As cloud droplets are removed, these interstitial particles activate until the initially polluted cloud cleans itself and all particulates are removed from the chamber. At that point, the cloud collapses. Our data also indicate that smaller particles, Dp defined through the use of the Dämkohler number, the ratio of the characteristic turbulence timescale to the cloud's microphysical response time. Chang, K., et al., 2016. A laboratory facility to study gas-aerosol-cloud interactions in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00203.1

  4. Modeling the Fate of Expiratory Aerosols and the Associated Infection Risk in an Aircraft Cabin Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, M.P.; To, G.N.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    to estimate the risk of infection by contact. The environmental control system (ECS) in a cabin creates air circulation mainly in the lateral direction, making lateral dispersions of aerosols much faster than longitudinal dispersions. Aerosols with initial sizes under 28 m in diameter can stay airborne......The transport and deposition of polydispersed expiratory aerosols in an aircraft cabin were simulated using a Lagrangian-based model validated by experiments conducted in an aircraft cabin mockup. Infection risk by inhalation was estimated using the aerosol dispersion data and a model was developed...

  5. Properties of aerosol floating in the air in a nuclear power plant workplace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, H.; Funabashi, M.; Ito, M.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on properties of radioactive aerosol floating in the air at several workplaces in nuclear power plant. The principal results are as follows: the aerosol particle size distributions consisted of two particle groups, whose aerodynamic diameters ranged from 4 to 7 microns and from 0.4 to 0.6 microns; the radioactive aerosol particle size distribution were unimodal. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was 6 microns, with geometric standard deviation microns; and, the average density of the aerosol was about 2.2g/cm 3 . (author)

  6. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used as a source apportionment tool to identify areas that have an effect over specific sampling points and susceptible regions under certain meteorological conditions, and these conclusions can be supported with inter-element correlation matrices and lead isotope analysis, especially since there is limited access to the mining sites. Additional results concluded that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail, provides higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the

  7. Overview of 3D-TRACE, a NASA Initiative in Three-Dimensional Tomography of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony; Diner, David; Yanovsky, Igor; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Bal, Guillaume; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for sorting cloud ensembles by dynamical state, aerosol environments by source region, and establishing causal relationships between aerosol amounts, type, and cloud microphysics-the so-called indirect aerosol climate impacts, and one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate models. Current satellite imagers use data processing approaches that invariably start with cloud detection/masking to isolate aerosol air-masses from clouds, and then rely on one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer (RT) to interpret the aerosol and cloud measurements in isolation. Not only does this lead to well-documented biases for the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and cloud optical depths in current missions, but it is fundamentally inadequate for future missions such as EarthCARE where capturing the complex, three-dimensional (3D) interactions between clouds and aerosols is a primary objective. In order to advance the state of the art, the next generation of satellite information processing systems must incorporate technologies that will enable the treatment of the atmosphere as a fully 3D environment, represented more realistically as a continuum. At one end, there is an optically thin background dominated by aerosols and molecular scattering that is strongly stratified and relatively homogeneous in the horizontal. At the other end, there are optically thick embedded elements, clouds and aerosol plumes, which can be more or less uniform and quasi-planar or else highly 3D with boundaries in all directions; in both cases, strong internal variability may be present. To make this paradigm shift possible, we propose to combine the standard models for satellite signal prediction physically grounded in 1D and 3D RT, both scalar and vector, with technologies adapted from biomedical imaging, digital image processing, and computer vision. This will enable us to demonstrate how the 3D distribution of atmospheric constituents, and their associated

  8. Robot Task Commander with Extensible Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen W (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Wightman, Brian J (Inventor); Dinh, Duy Paul (Inventor); Gooding, Dustin R (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system for developing distributed robot application-level software includes a robot having an associated control module which controls motion of the robot in response to a commanded task, and a robot task commander (RTC) in networked communication with the control module over a network transport layer (NTL). The RTC includes a script engine(s) and a GUI, with a processor and a centralized library of library blocks constructed from an interpretive computer programming code and having input and output connections. The GUI provides access to a Visual Programming Language (VPL) environment and a text editor. In executing a method, the VPL is opened, a task for the robot is built from the code library blocks, and data is assigned to input and output connections identifying input and output data for each block. A task sequence(s) is sent to the control module(s) over the NTL to command execution of the task.

  9. Indoor Environment Program - 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indoor Environment Program

    1996-11-01

    The forty-five chemists, physicists, biologists, architects, engineers, staff, and students of the Indoor Environment Program are all working to solve the problems of indoor air quality, health, comfort, and energy use associated with the indoor environment. A common thread throughout this work is the importance of ventilation--both for its role in supporting human health and comfort as well as for its liability in requiring large amounts of energy to heat and cool it. The importance of understanding these interactions can be illustrated by two examples: the health and productivity of workers (Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1996) and the performance of sensitive equipment in clean room environments (Faulkner, et d., 1996). During the past year, we estimated the magnitudes of health and productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments. The ratio of the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments to the costs of the improvements ranges between 20 and 50. A second example is from our Clean Room Energy Efficiency Study: Clean rooms utilize large amounts of electricity to operate fans that recirculate air at very high flow rates through particle filters. Usually, the fans operate continuously at full speed, even when the clean room is unused. To reduce the energy use in a research clean room, the rate of air recirculation was controlled in response to real-time measurements of particle concentration. With this new control system, fan energy use decreased by 65% to 85% while maintaining particle concentrations below the allowable limits except during occasional one-minute periods. The estimated payback period for this technology is one to four years.

  10. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  11. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  12. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, A.; Mabilia, R.; De Castro Vasconcellos, P.

    2001-01-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region [it

  13. Portable parallel programming in a Fortran environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, E.N.

    1989-01-01

    Experience using the Argonne-developed PARMACs macro package to implement a portable parallel programming environment is described. Fortran programs with intrinsic parallelism of coarse and medium granularity are easily converted to parallel programs which are portable among a number of commercially available parallel processors in the class of shared-memory bus-based and local-memory network based MIMD processors. The parallelism is implemented using standard UNIX (tm) tools and a small number of easily understood synchronization concepts (monitors and message-passing techniques) to construct and coordinate multiple cooperating processes on one or many processors. Benchmark results are presented for parallel computers such as the Alliant FX/8, the Encore MultiMax, the Sequent Balance, the Intel iPSC/2 Hypercube and a network of Sun 3 workstations. These parallel machines are typical MIMD types with from 8 to 30 processors, each rated at from 1 to 10 MIPS processing power. The demonstration code used for this work is a Monte Carlo simulation of the response to photons of a ''nearly realistic'' lead, iron and plastic electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter, using the EGS4 code system. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  15. First Results of the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” Experiment: Beyond Current Standards for PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costabile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2017 the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” experiment was carried out in downtown Rome to address the following specific questions: what is the color, size, composition, and toxicity of the carbonaceous aerosol in the Mediterranean urban background area of Rome? The motivation of this experiment is the lack of understanding of what aerosol types are responsible for the severe risks to human health posed by particulate matter (PM pollution, and how carbonaceous aerosols influence radiative balance. Physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous aerosol were characterised, and relevant toxicological variables assessed. The aerosol characterisation includes: (i measurements with high time resolution (min to 1–2 h at a fixed location of black carbon (eBC, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, particle number size distribution (0.008–10 μ m, major non refractory PM1 components, elemental composition, wavelength-dependent optical properties, and atmospheric turbulence; (ii 24-h measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble OC and brown carbon (BrC, and levoglucosan; (iii mobile measurements of eBC and size distribution around the study area, with computational fluid dynamics modeling; (iv characterisation of road dust emissions and their EC and OC content. The toxicological assessment includes: (i preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of ultrafine particles on lung epithelia cells (cultured at the air liquid interface and directly exposed to particles; (ii assessment of the oxidative stress induced by carbonaceous aerosols; (iii assessment of particle size dependent number doses deposited in different regions of the human body; (iv PAHs biomonitoring (from the participants into the mobile measurements. The first experimental results of the CARE experiment are presented in this paper. The objective here is to provide baseline levels of carbonaceous aerosols for Rome, and to address

  16. Annual limits on intake for aerosols in the working environment on Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, F.G.C.; Harte, G.A.

    1983-09-01

    Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) for inhaled radionuclides given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are derived for single isotopes and for an aerosol size (AMAD) of 1 micron. A recent investigation into aerosols in the pond hall of a Magnox Power Station has demonstrated that the aerosol in the pond hall consists of particles of corroded fuel and that the size distribution has an AMAD nearer 6 microns than 1 micron. Experiments in rodents with a simulated pond hall aerosol indicate that clearance characteristics of these particles in the lung are closer to ICRP's class W classification than to any other. Accordingly ALIs were calculated as a function of particle size and for various cooling times for Magnox-fuel of burnup 3500 MWd/t and 7000 MWd/t. Separate values for alpha and beta activity were derived, based on stochastic and non-stochastic dose limits. For a 6 micron aerosol the ALI (α-activity) based on limiting the committed dose to bone surfaces lies between 120 and 320 Bq, depending on fuel burnup and cooling time. The ALI (β-activity) in the same circumstances lies between 10 4 and 8 x 10 4 Bq. Beta activity in the aerosol is dominated by the fission products but dose is overwhelmingly due to the actinides in the fuel. In addition an attempt was made to construct or to find a lung model which more closely represented the observed clearance to blood in the animal experiments. A recent model for large inhaled particles derived at the NRPB was found to give the best fit to the experimental data. ALIs derived on the basis of this model, for a 6 micron aerosol, are roughly 2 times higher than those based completely on the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  17. A survey of object oriented languages in programming environments

    OpenAIRE

    Haakonsen, Harald

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses object oriented programming languages; and a restrictive definition of object oriented programming languages is presented and defended. Differences between programming languages are discussed and related to interactive integrated programming environments. Topics related to user friendly interface to the computer system and modem programming practice are discussed. The thesis especially addresses features in ...

  18. Hydrolysis of glyoxal in water-restricted environments: formation of organic aerosol precursors through formic acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Montu K; Francisco, Joseph S; Sinha, Amitabha

    2014-06-12

    The hydrolysis of glyoxal involving one to three water molecules and also in the presence of a water molecule and formic acid has been investigated. Our results show that glyoxal-diol is the major product of the hydrolysis and that formic acid, through its ability to facilitate intermolecular hydrogen atom transfer, is considerably more efficient than water as a catalyst in the hydrolysis process. Additionally, once the glyoxal-diol is formed, the barrier for further hydrolysis to form the glyoxal-tetrol is effectively reduced to zero in the presence of a single water and formic acid molecule. There are two important implications arising from these findings. First, the results suggest that under the catalytic influence of formic acid, glyoxal hydrolysis can impact the growth of atmospheric aerosols. As a result of enhanced hydrogen bonding, mediated through their polar OH functional groups, the diol and tetrol products are expected to have significantly lower vapor pressure than the parent glyoxal molecule; hence they can more readily partition into the particle phase and contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols. In addition, our findings provide insight into how glyoxal-diol and glyoxal-tetrol might be formed under atmospheric conditions associated with water-restricted environments and strongly suggest that the formation of these precursors for secondary organic aerosol growth is not likely restricted solely to the bulk aqueous phase as is currently assumed.

  19. A study of the effect of non-spherical dust particles on Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol optical properties retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Lim, H.

    2017-12-01

    Non-spherical assumption of particle shape has been used to replace the spherical assumption in the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol optical properties retrievals for dust particles. GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithms are based on optimal estimation method to provide aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) at 443nm, and aerosol loading height (ALH) simultaneously as products. Considering computing time efficiency, the algorithm takes Look-Up Table (LUT) approach using Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer code (VLIDORT), and aerosol optical properties for three aerosol types of absorbing fine aerosol (BC), dust and non-absorbing aerosol (NA) are integrated from AERONET inversion data, and fed into the LUT calculation. In this study, by applying the present algorithm to OMI top-of the atmosphere normalized radiance, retrieved AOD, SSA with both spherical and non-spherical assumptions have been compared to the surface AERONET observations at East Asia sites for 3 years from 2005 to 2007 to evaluate and quantify the effect of non-spherical dust particles on the satellite aerosol retrievals. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) in the satellite retrieved AOD have been slightly reduced as a result of adopting the non-spherical assumption in the GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithm. For SSA, algorithm tested with spheroid models on dust particle shows promising results for the improved SSA. In terms of ALH, the results are qualitatively compared with CALIOP products, and shows consistent variation. This result suggests the importance of taking into account the effects of non-sphericity in the retrieval of dust particles from GEMS measurements.

  20. Collectively loading programs in a multiple program multiple data environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.

    2016-11-08

    Techniques are disclosed for loading programs efficiently in a parallel computing system. In one embodiment, nodes of the parallel computing system receive a load description file which indicates, for each program of a multiple program multiple data (MPMD) job, nodes which are to load the program. The nodes determine, using collective operations, a total number of programs to load and a number of programs to load in parallel. The nodes further generate a class route for each program to be loaded in parallel, where the class route generated for a particular program includes only those nodes on which the program needs to be loaded. For each class route, a node is selected using a collective operation to be a load leader which accesses a file system to load the program associated with a class route and broadcasts the program via the class route to other nodes which require the program.

  1. Lazy functional programs in a concurrent environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Reniers, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of Landin-style stream input/output (I/O) makes it possible to write functional programs, which behave as reactive systems when executed with lazy evaluation. Functional programming languages like Gofer are attractive for programming the data transformations of a reactive system. But

  2. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging

  3. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  4. Observations of black carbon aerosols characteristics over an urban environment: Radiative forcing and related implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera; Rahman, Said

    2017-12-15

    With observations of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations, optical and radiative properties were obtained over the urban city of Karachi during the period of March 2006-December 2008. BC concentrations were continuously measured using an Aethalometer, while optical and radiative properties were estimated through the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and Santa Barbra DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) models, respectively. For the study period, the measured BC concentrations were higher during January, February and November, while lower during May, June, July and August. A maximum peak value was observed during January 2007 while the minimum value was observed during June 2006. The Short Wave (SW) BC Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) both at Top of the Atmosphere (ToA) and within ATMOSphere (ATMOS) were positive during all the months, whereas negative SW BC ARF was found at the SurFaCe (SFC). Overall, SW BC ARF was higher during January, February and November, while relatively lower ARF was found during May, June, July and August. Conversely, the Long Wave (LW) BC ARF at ToA and SFC remained positive, whereas within ATMOS it shifted towards positive values (heating effect) during June-August. Finally, the net (SW+LW) BC ARF were found to be positive at ToA and in ATMOS, while negative at SFC. Moreover, a systematic increase in Atmospheric Heating Rate (AHR) was found during October to January. Additionally, we found highest correlation between Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD abs ) and SW BC ARF within ATMOS followed by SFC and ToA. Overall, the contribution of BC to the total ARF was found to greater than 84% for the whole observational period while contributing up to 93% during January 2007. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for different environment with genotype by environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeding organizations tend to sell semen to breeders operating in different environments and genotype × environment interaction may play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for 2 environments with genotype × environment

  6. Tracing of aerosol sources in an urban environment using chemical, Sr isotope, and mineralogical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Ribeiro, Sara; Santos, José Francisco; Patinha, Carla; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Soares, Rosário; Duarte, Armando C

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of two national research projects (ORGANOSOL and CN-linkAIR), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was sampled for 17 months at an urban location in the Western European Coast. The PM 2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), major water-soluble inorganic ions, mineralogical, and for the first time in this region, strontium isotope ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) composition. Organic matter dominates the identifiable urban PM 2.5 mass, followed by secondary inorganic aerosols. The acquired data resulted also in a seasonal overview of the carbonaceous and inorganic aerosol composition, with an important contribution from primary biomass burning and secondary formation processes in colder and warmer periods, respectively. The fossil-related primary EC seems to be continually present throughout the sampling period. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios were measured on both the labile and residual PM 2.5 fractions as well as on the bulk PM 2.5 samples. Regardless of the air mass origin, the residual fractions are more radiogenic (representative of a natural crustal dust source) than the labile fractions, whose 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are comparable to that of seawater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and the mineralogical composition data further suggest that sea salt and mineral dust are important primary natural sources of fine aerosols throughout the sampling period.

  7. Size distributions of aerosols in an indoor environment with engineered nanoparticle synthesis reactors operating under different scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-01-01

    Size distributions of nanoparticles in the vicinity of synthesis reactors will provide guidelines for safe operation and protection of workers. Nanoparticle concentrations and size distributions were measured in a research academic laboratory environment with two different types of gas-phase synthesis reactors under a variety of operating conditions. The variation of total particle number concentration and size distribution at different distances from the reactor, off-design state of the fume hood, powder handling during recovery, and maintenance of reactors are established. Significant increases in number concentration were observed at all the locations during off-design conditions (i.e., failure of the exhaust system). Clearance of nanoparticles from the work environment was longer under off-design conditions (20 min) compared to that under normal hood operating conditions (4-6 min). While lower particle number concentrations are observed during operation of furnace aerosol reactors in comparison to flame aerosol reactors, the handling, processing, and maintenance operations result in elevated concentrations in the work area.

  8. Satellite-Surface Perspectives of Air Quality and Aerosol-Cloud Effects on the Environment: An Overview of 7-SEAS BASELInE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Buntoung, Sumaman; Chantara, Somporn; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Gabriel, Philip M.; Goodloe, Colby S.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; hide

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of 7-SEASBASELInE (Seven SouthEast Asian Studies Biomass-burning Aerosols and Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) campaigns in spring 2013-2015 were to synergize measurements from uniquely distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)), MPLNET ( NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network)) and sophisticated platforms (e.g.,SMARTLabs (Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research and Testbed Laboratories), regional contributing instruments), along with satellite observations retrievals and regional atmospheric transport chemical models to establish a critically needed database, and to advance our understanding of biomass-burning aerosols and trace gases in Southeast Asia (SEA). We present a satellite-surface perspective of 7-SEASBASELInE and highlight scientific findings concerning: (1) regional meteorology of moisture fields conducive to the production and maintenance of low-level stratiform clouds over land; (2) atmospheric composition in a biomass-burning environment, particularly tracers-markers to serve as important indicators for assessing the state and evolution of atmospheric constituents; (3) applications of remote sensing to air quality and impact on radiative energetics, examining the effect of diurnal variability of boundary-layer height on aerosol loading; (4) aerosol hygroscopicity and ground-based cloud radar measurements in aerosol-cloud processes by advanced cloud ensemble models; and (5) implications of air quality, in terms of toxicity of nanoparticles and trace gases, to human health. This volume is the third 7-SEAS special issue (after Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, 2013; and Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, 2013) and includes 27 papers published, with emphasis on air quality and aerosol-cloud effects on the environment. BASELInE observations of stratiform clouds over SEA are unique, such clouds are embedded in a heavy aerosol-laden environment and feature characteristically greater

  9. A Programming Environment for Parallel Vision Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-11

    industrial arm on the market , while the unique head was designed by Rochester’s Computer Science and Mechanical Engineering Departments. 9a 4.1 Introduction...R. Constraining-Unification and the Programming Language Unicorn . In Logic Programming, Functions, Relations, and Equations, Degroot and Lind- strom

  10. The Environment and the Relative Protection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The material is presenting, under an adequate structure, an analysis of the environment of Romania. The starting point of the study is given by the natural conditions, influenced by the geographic location of Romania on the globe, evidencing the main characteristics (relief, hydrographic basin, climate, flora and fauna etc.. Afterwards, the material is pointing out the concerns as well as certain outcomes achieved in our country in the field of the environment protection. Particularly, there is the concern regarding the durable development which is emphasized, along with the part that the environment protection should play under the circumstances. Then, the material is evidencing the essence of the policies concerning the environment protection as well as the transitory steps implied in this field by the adhesion of Romania to the European Union.

  11. A program to operate the TSI electrical aerosol analyser using an IBM-PC microcomputer - technical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.D.; Mitchell, J.P.; Snelling, K.W.

    1988-02-01

    A program has been written to enable the TSI Electrical Aerosol Analyser (EAA model 3030) to be operated using an IBM-PC microcomputer. Although much of the program is based on the software supplied by TSI Inc to collect and process data from the EAA, it incorporates numerous improvements including the option to operate the EAA automatically via a TSI Differential Mobility Particle Sizer interface. When compiled, the program enables the data reduction which takes into account the significant cross-channel sensitivity of the EAA, to be performed in about 30 seconds making it possible to use the EAA to monitor rapid changes in the behaviour of sub-micron aerosol particles. (author)

  12. Leadership Program for Promoting Policies Linking the Environment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leadership Program for Promoting Policies Linking the Environment and Health in Africa. It is obvious that in many African countries, no linkages are being made between health policy and environment policy. In 2005, the global network Environment and Development Action in the Third World (ENDA-TM) francophone ...

  13. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; LaBel, Kenneth; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affects life and society. The Program Architecture includes science missions, theory and modeling and Space Environment Testbeds (SET). This current paper discusses the Space Environment Testbeds. The goal of the SET program is to improve the engineering approach to accomodate and/or mitigate the effects of solar variability on spacecraft design and operations. The SET Program will infuse new technologies into the space programs through collection of data in space and subsequent design and validation of technologies. Examples of these technologies are cited and discussed.

  14. ROSIE: A Programming Environment for Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    ence on Artificial Inteligence , Tbilisi, USSR, 1975. Fain, J., D. Gorlin, F. Hayes-Roth, S. Rosenschein, H. Sowizral, and D. Waterman, The ROSIE Language...gramming environment for artificial intelligence (AI) applications. It provides particular support for designing expert systems, systems that embody

  15. Using Programming Environments in Teaching GIS Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Bornemisza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Geographical Information Systems (GIS it is important to explain the theoretical elements, but it is also necessary to illustrate the basic functions with examples. To help students it is advisable to separate the teaching of fundamentals from the practical application of complex GIS software. A simple programming language like Logo creates opportunities for acquiring knowledge in an easy way. The development of a program makes it possible tounderstand the most important categories. If the program contains query functions as well, students can learn more about problem solution methods.This paper also demonstrates the power of the Logo family of languages which is delivered by different implementations. Elica Logo is used to build simple GIS tools that provide a very widerange of educational problems and lead to numerous ideas for further explorations. The nice intuitive 3D interface is an attractive approach to gain and retain student’s engagement in thelearning process.

  16. LMFBR aerosol release and transport program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, M.H.; Kress, T.S.; Adams, R.E.; Parsly, L.F.; Parker, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Progress is summarized in the areas of capacitor discharge vaporizer (CDV) development, small-vessel fuel and fuel-simulant aerosol studies, large-vessel aerosol studies, HCDA bubble simulant tests, fuel-simulant response to CDV electrical energy deposition, bubble shape and rise behavior, and structural integrity of equipment cell liners

  17. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    I. Nuaaman; S.-M. Li; K. L. Hayden; T. B. Onasch; P. Massoli; D. Sueper; D. R. Worsnop; T. S. Bates; P. K. Quinn; R. McLaren

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR...

  18. ASTRID:. A Programming Environment for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, E.; Flück, M.; Gruber, R.; Herbin, R.; Richner, T.; Schmid, V.; Tran, C. T.; Merazzi, S.

    The purpose of the ASTRID project [1] is to combine the effort of the scientific community in the development of a software system for simulation and modeling of physical phenomena that meets the requirements of the users. This system includes the data management system MEMCOM [2], the ASTRID command language [3], the three-dimensional graphics system VIEW [4], the ASTRID finite element solver [5] and a few utility programs to interface user defined modules to the ASTRID data structure.

  19. Secondary organic aerosol origin in an urban environment: influence of biogenic and fuel combustion precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Pérez, N; Marchand, N; Bertrand, A; Temime-Roussel, B; Agrios, K; Szidat, S; van Drooge, B; Sylvestre, A; Alastuey, A; Reche, C; Ripoll, A; Marco, E; Grimalt, J O; Querol, X

    2016-07-18

    Source contributions of organic aerosol (OA) are still not fully understood, especially in terms of quantitative distinction between secondary OA formed from anthropogenic precursors vs. that formed from natural precursors. In order to investigate the OA origin, a field campaign was carried out in Barcelona in summer 2013, including two periods characterized by low and high traffic conditions. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were higher during the second period, especially aromatic hydrocarbons related to traffic emissions, which showed a marked daily cycle peaking during traffic rush hours, similarly to black carbon (BC) concentrations. Biogenic VOC (BVOC) concentrations showed only minor changes from the low to the high traffic period, and their intra-day variability was related to temperature and solar radiation cycles, although a decrease was observed for monoterpenes during the day. The organic carbon (OC) concentrations increased from the first to the second period, and the fraction of non-fossil OC as determined by (14)C analysis increased from 43% to 54% of the total OC. The combination of (14)C analysis and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) OA source apportionment showed that the fossil OC was mainly secondary (>70%) except for the last sample, when the fossil secondary OC only represented 51% of the total fossil OC. The fraction of non-fossil secondary OC increased from 37% of total secondary OC for the first sample to 60% for the last sample. This enhanced formation of non-fossil secondary OA (SOA) could be attributed to the reaction of BVOC precursors with NOx emitted from road traffic (or from its nocturnal derivative nitrate that enhances night-time semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA)), since NO2 concentrations increased from 19 to 42 μg m(-3) from the first to the last sample.

  20. Large-scale experiments on aerosol behavior in light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, W.; Bunz, H.; Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Rahn, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, three large-scale experimental programs were carried out dealing with the behavior of aerosols during core-melt accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). In the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) program, the principal behaviors of different insoluble aerosols and of mixed aerosols were measured in dry air atmospheres and in condensing steam-air atmospheres contained in a 38-m/sup 3/ steel vessel. The Demonstration of Nuclear Aerosol Behavior (DEMONA) program used a 640-m/sup 3/ concrete containment model to simulate typical accident sequence conditions, and measured the behavior of different insoluble aerosols and mixed aerosols in condensing and transient atmospheric conditions. Part of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) program was also devoted to aerosol behavior in containment; and 852-m/sup 3/ steel vessel was used, and the aerosols were composed of mixtures of insoluble and soluble species. The results of these experiments provide a suitable data base for validation of aerosol behavior codes. Fundamental insight into details of aerosol behavior in condensing environments has been gained through the results of the NSPP tests. Code comparisons have been and are being performed in the DEMONA and LACE experiments

  1. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates (...

  2. Diagnostics of communication and information environment of pedagogical program means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Вадимовна Журавлёва

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pedagogical program means is considered through the correctness of a communication and information environment organization. The totality of pedagogical conditions is adduced; the communication and information environment answers these conditions. The main directions (didactic, psychological, ergonomic of analysis are determined and the methods choice for their diagnostics is grounded.

  3. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  4. An environment for parallel structuring of Fortran programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, K.; McShea, M.; Denton, C.; Eventoff, B.; Browne, J.C.; Newton, P.; Ellis, M.; Grossbard, D.; Wise, T.; Clemmer, D.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes and illustrates an environment for interactive support of the detection and implementation of macro-level parallelism in Fortran programs. The approach couples algorithms for dependence analysis with both innovative techniques for complexity management and capabilities for the measurement and analysis of the parallel computation structures generated through use of the environment. The resulting environment is complementary to the more common approach of seeking local parallelism by loop unrolling, either by an automatic compiler or manually. (orig.)

  5. Real-Time Observations of Secondary Aerosol Formation and Aging from Different Emission Sources and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A. M.; Palm, B. B.; Hayes, P. L.; Day, D. A.; Cubison, M.; Brune, W. H.; Hu, W.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Bon, D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J.; Kuster, W.; De Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate atmospheric processing of direct urban and wildfire emissions, we deployed a photochemical flow reactor (Potential Aerosol Mass, PAM) with submicron aerosol size and chemical composition measurements during FLAME-3, a biomass-burning study at USDA Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, MT, and CalNex, a field study investigating the nexus of air quality and climate change at a receptor site in the LA-Basin at Pasadena, CA. The reactor produces OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air, achieving equivalent aging of ~2 weeks in 5 minutes of processing. The OH exposure (OHexp) was stepped every 20 min in both field studies. Results show the value of this approach as a tool for in-situ evaluation of changes in OA concentration and composition due to photochemical processing. In FLAME-3, the average OA enhancement factor was 1.42 × 0.36 of the initial POA. Reactive VOCs, such as toluene, monoterpenes, and acetaldehyde, decreased with increased OHexp; however, formic acid, acetone, and some unidentified OVOCs increased after significant exposure. Net SOA formation in the photochemical reactor increased with OHexp, typically peaking around 3 days of equivalent atmospheric photochemical age (OHexp ~3.9e11 molecules cm-3 s), then leveling off at higher exposures. Unlike other studies, no decrease in OA is observed at high exposure, likely due to lower max OHexp in this study due to very high OH reactivity. The amount of additional OA mass added from aging is positively correlated with initial POA concentration, but not with the total VOC concentration or the concentration of known SOA precursors. The mass of SOA formed often exceeded the mass of the known VOC precursors, indicating the likely importance of primary semivolatile/intermediate volatility species, and possibly of unidentified VOCs as SOA precursors in biomass burning smoke. Results from CalNex show enhancement of OA and inorganic aerosol from gas-phase precursors

  6. Initiation of depleted uranium oxide and spent fuel testing for the spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A.; Gregson, M.W.; Sorenson, K.B. [Sandia National Labs. (United States); Billone, M.C.; Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Koch, W.; Nolte, O. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin (Germany); Pretzsch, G.; Lange, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (Germany); Autrusson, B.; Loiseau, O. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France); Thompson, N.S.; Hibbs, R.S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy (United States); Young, F.I.; Mo, T. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We provide a detailed overview of an ongoing, multinational test program that is developing aerosol data for some spent fuel sabotage scenarios on spent fuel transport and storage casks. Experiments are being performed to quantify the aerosolized materials plus volatilized fission products generated from actual spent fuel and surrogate material test rods, due to impact by a high energy density device, HEDD. The program participants in the U.S. plus Germany, France, and the U.K., part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC have strongly supported and coordinated this research program. Sandia National Laboratories, SNL, has the lead role for conducting this research program; test program support is provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. WGSTSC partners need this research to better understand potential radiological impacts from sabotage of nuclear material shipments and storage casks, and to support subsequent risk assessments, modeling, and preventative measures. We provide a summary of the overall, multi-phase test design and a description of all explosive containment and aerosol collection test components used. We focus on the recently initiated tests on ''surrogate'' spent fuel, unirradiated depleted uranium oxide, and forthcoming actual spent fuel tests. The depleted uranium oxide test rodlets were prepared by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, in France. These surrogate test rodlets closely match the diameter of the test rodlets of actual spent fuel from the H.B. Robinson reactor (high burnup PWR fuel) and the Surry reactor (lower, medium burnup PWR fuel), generated from U.S. reactors. The characterization of the spent fuels and fabrication into short, pressurized rodlets has been performed by Argonne National Laboratory, for testing at SNL. The ratio of the aerosol and respirable particles released from HEDD-impacted spent

  7. Annual highlights, Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Brief summaries are presented of some 35 individual programs covering a wide range of activities in the atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial ecology areas. In general, these programs are involved with the study of pollutants resulting from the production of energy and their effects or potential effects on the environment. Programs include meteorology and plume dispersion, with emphasis on tracing plumes from the tall stacks of fossil-fuel burning power plants, and implementation of MAP3S (the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study), including both field and modeling studies related to atmospheric pollutants in the Northeastern United States, the meteorology of the coastal land-sea interface, the development of long-distance tracer systems for following movements of air masses, the measurement of a series of pollutants at ambient levels in real time, and laboratory and field studies on the collection and behavior of aerosol particulates, including work on the speciation and quantification of sulfate particulates. The objective of programs in oceanographic sciences is to assess the potential impact of energy-related activities (reactor releases, oil spills, etc.) on the Northeast coastal zone and its biota. A capability for the study of environmental virology has been established. Another major program is the study of the effects of acid rain on forest ecosystems and on selected crops.

  8. Annual highlights, Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Brief summaries are presented of some 35 individual programs covering a wide range of activities in the atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial ecology areas. In general, these programs are involved with the study of pollutants resulting from the production of energy and their effects or potential effects on the environment. Programs include meteorology and plume dispersion, with emphasis on tracing plumes from the tall stacks of fossil-fuel burning power plants, and implementation of MAP3S (the Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study), including both field and modeling studies related to atmospheric pollutants in the Northeastern United States, the meteorology of the coastal land-sea interface, the development of long-distance tracer systems for following movements of air masses, the measurement of a series of pollutants at ambient levels in real time, and laboratory and field studies on the collection and behavior of aerosol particulates, including work on the speciation and quantification of sulfate particulates. The objective of programs in oceanographic sciences is to assess the potential impact of energy-related activities (reactor releases, oil spills, etc.) on the Northeast coastal zone and its biota. A capability for the study of environmental virology has been established. Another major program is the study of the effects of acid rain on forest ecosystems and on selected crops

  9. The role of physicality in rich programming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allison S.; Schunn, Christian D.; Flot, Jesse; Shoop, Robin

    2013-12-01

    Computer science proficiency continues to grow in importance, while the number of students entering computer science-related fields declines. Many rich programming environments have been created to motivate student interest and expertise in computer science. In the current study, we investigated whether a recently created environment, Robot Virtual Worlds (RVWs), can be used to teach computer science principles within a robotics context by examining its use in high-school classrooms. We also investigated whether the lack of physicality in these environments impacts student learning by comparing classrooms that used either virtual or physical robots for the RVW curriculum. Results suggest that the RVW environment leads to significant gains in computer science knowledge, that virtual robots lead to faster learning, and that physical robots may have some influence on algorithmic thinking. We discuss the implications of physicality in these programming environments for learning computer science.

  10. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  11. Experimental study of aerosol reentrainment from flashing pool in ALPHA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, T.; Yamano, N.; Moriyama, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Sugimoto, J.

    1994-01-01

    Aerosol reentrainment experiments are being performed as a part of the ALPHA (Assessment of Loads and Performance of Containment in a Hypothetical Accident) program at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The major objective of the experiments is to quantify and characterize the reentrainment of the dissolved material from a flashing pool during the rapid depressurization of a reactor containment vessel. Two experiments were performed. In the experiments a water pool dissolving sodium sulfate as FP simulant was located in the model containment vessel and the containment breach area was simulated with an orifice with 24 mm diameter. This orifice was estimated to give the same order of depressurization rate as the case of BWR Mark 1 containment failure with most likely breach size. In the first experiment ARE001, a pool water of 800 kg dissolving 50 kg of sodium sulfate was employed. The model containment was depressurized from 1.5 MPa to 0.1 MPa in approximately 45 minutes. In the second experiment ARE002, the mass of the pool water was reduced to 400 kg dissolving 25 kg of sodium sulfate. The internal pressure of the containment was decreased from 1.3 MPa to 0.1 MPa in approximately 40 minutes. At the beginning of the depressurization the pool water was heated to the saturation temperature at the internal pressure of the containment. The entrained droplets were sampled during depressurization period. Sodium sulfate deposited in all parts of the test facility was collected and weighed after the experiments. Results of the experiments showed that very small fraction of the dissolved material (less than 0.03%) was reentrained although approximately, 20% of water was evaporated from the pool water. The reentrained mass predicted with the Kataoka-Ishii model was approximately 1/110 of the mass evaluated in the experiments. This may be due to multi-dimensional features of the pool geometry. (author)

  12. Ada Run Time Support Environments and a common APSE Interface Set. [Ada Programming Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.

  13. Report of the 2014 Programming Models and Environments Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lethin, Richard [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Programming models and environments play the essential roles in high performance computing of enabling the conception, design, implementation and execution of science and engineering application codes. Programmer productivity is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of our programming models and environments, as is software sustainability since our codes have lifespans measured in decades, so the advent of new computing architectures, increased concurrency, concerns for resilience, and the increasing demands for high-fidelity, multi-physics, multi-scale and data-intensive computations mean that we have new challenges to address as part of our fundamental R&D requirements. Fortunately, we also have new tools and environments that make design, prototyping and delivery of new programming models easier than ever. The combination of new and challenging requirements and new, powerful toolsets enables significant synergies for the next generation of programming models and environments R&D. This report presents the topics discussed and results from the 2014 DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Programming Models & Environments Summit, and subsequent discussions among the summit participants and contributors to topics in this report.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT AUTOCAD DRAWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTILIE Alexandru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Low Cost CAD systems are widespread in the technical world. Currently, the highest-rated CAD system is AutoCAD due to the fact that in association with AutoLISP programming language covered a broad range of production needs. As a high-level programming language, AutoLISP provides an easy and efficient programming technique that leads to automation and parameterization of AutoCAD commands and reduces the time spending for designing the drawings. This paper aims to highlight the advantages of using AutoLISP programming environment in the 2D drafting and 3D modeling using AutoCAD tools.

  15. Graphical programming interface: A development environment for MRI methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Nicholas R; Pipe, James G

    2015-11-01

    To introduce a multiplatform, Python language-based, development environment called graphical programming interface for prototyping MRI techniques. The interface allows developers to interact with their scientific algorithm prototypes visually in an event-driven environment making tasks such as parameterization, algorithm testing, data manipulation, and visualization an integrated part of the work-flow. Algorithm developers extend the built-in functionality through simple code interfaces designed to facilitate rapid implementation. This article shows several examples of algorithms developed in graphical programming interface including the non-Cartesian MR reconstruction algorithms for PROPELLER and spiral as well as spin simulation and trajectory visualization of a FLORET example. The graphical programming interface framework is shown to be a versatile prototyping environment for developing numeric algorithms used in the latest MR techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aerosols CFA 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    During the thirteen congress on aerosols several papers were presented about the behaviour of radioactive aerosols and their impact on environment, or the exposure to radon and to its daughters, the measurement of the size of the particulates of the short-lived radon daughters and two papers about the behaviour of aerosols in containment during a fission products release in the primary circuit and susceptible to be released in atmosphere in the case of containment failure. (N.C.)

  17. Minimizing Sources of Airborne, Aerosolized, and Contact Contaminants in the OR Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellino, Donna

    2017-12-01

    Surgical site infections are unintended consequences of surgery that can cause harm to patients and place financial burdens on health care organizations. Extrinsic factors in the OR-including health care providers' behavior and practices that modify air movement, the physical environment, equipment, or surgical instruments-can increase microbial contamination. Microbes can be transported into the surgical incision by airborne or contact routes and contribute to a surgical site infection. Simple practices to prevent infection-such as minimizing airborne particles and contaminants, maintaining equipment according to the manufacturer's recommendations, cleaning and disinfecting the environment and surgical instruments, and performing proper hand hygiene-can reduce the degree of microbial contamination. Perioperative leaders and health care providers can help decrease the patient's risk of surgical site infection with proactive preventive practices that break the chain of infection. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Season-dependent size distribution of aerosols over the tropical coastal environment of south-west India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryasree, S.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the size characteristics of aerosols at the tropical coastal site Thiruvananthapuram based on the in-situ measurements of size resolved aerosol number density using an aerosol spectrometer, covering a period of 28 months from September 2011 to December 2013. The diurnal pattern of aerosol number density is characterized by day time low and a two-fold increase during nighttime and these changes are closely associated with the strong mesoscale features namely the sea breeze and land breeze prevailing at the site. Aerosol Number Size Distribution (NSD) depicts a multi-modal nature with two prominent modes, one ≤0.1 μm and other ∼1 μm. Two other less pronounced modes are also observed in the NSD, one ∼0.3-0.5 μm and other ∼5-8 μm. The NSDs also exhibited strong seasonal changes linked with the synoptic meteorological feature of this region namely the South Asian monsoon. The seasonal NSDs were parameterized and analyzed. In addition to this, the effects of meteorological parameters temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and airflow patterns on aerosol number density as revealed by partial correlation analysis were found to be aerosol size dependent.

  19. Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pkurgat

    Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of Change: The Case ... Key words: project management, change management, educational management, .... the sustainability of the course considering that there were and continue to be problems .... language teaching in general on a sound scientific base.

  20. Porting linac application programs to a windowing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonglaton, J.M.; Raich, U.

    1992-01-01

    We report our experience in porting Linac application programs written for Camac controlled hardware consoles to an X-Windows/Motif based workstation environment. Application programs acquire their parameter values from a front end computer (FEC), controlling the acceleration process, via a local area network. The timing for data acquisition and control is determined by the particle source timing. Two server programs on the FEC for repetitive acquisition and command-response mode will be described. The application programs on the workstations access a common parameter access server who establishes the necessary connection to the parameters on the FEC. It displays the parameter's current values and allows control through Motif widgets. An interactive synoptics editor and its corresponding driver program allow easy generation of synoptics displays and interaction through command panels. (author)

  1. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Penner, J.; Carmichael, G.; Gadi, R.; Denier Van der Gon, H.; Gregoire, J.M.; Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  2. A new laboratory facility to study the interactions of aerosols, cloud droplets/ice crystals, and trace gases in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H., II; Chang, K.; Ciochetto, D.; Niedermeier, D.; Bench, J.; Shaw, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A detailed understanding of gas-aerosol-cloud interaction within the turbulent atmosphere is of prime importance for an accurate understanding of Earth's climate system. As one example: While every cloud droplet began as an aerosol particle, not every aerosol particle becomes a cloud droplet. The particle to droplet transformation requires that the particle be exposed to some critical concentration of water vapor, which differs for different combinations of particle size and chemical composition. Similarly, the formation of ice particles in mixed phase clouds is also catalyzed by aerosol particles. Even in the simplest scenarios it is challenging to gain a full understanding of the aerosol activation and ice nucleation processes. At least two other factors contribute significantly to the complexity observed in the atmosphere. First, aerosols and cloud particles are not static entities, but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment, and therefore changing in their properties. Second, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, so thermodynamic and compositional variables, such as water vapor or other trace gas concentrations, fluctuate in space and time. Indeed, the coupling between turbulence and microphysical processes is one of the major research challenges in cloud physics. We have developed a multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, (dubbed the Π Chamber, after the internal volume of 3.14 cubic meters) designed to address the problems outlined above. It is capable of pressures ranging from sea level to ~ 100 mbar, and can sustain temperatures of +40 to -55 ºC. We can independently control the temperatures on the surfaces of three heat transfer zones. This allows us to establish a temperature gradient between the floor and ceiling inducing Rayleigh-Benard convection and inducing a turbulent environment. Interior surfaces are electropolished stainless steel to facilitate cleaning before and after chemistry experiments. At present, supporting

  3. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  4. Survey on present status and trend of parallel programming environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemiya, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Kenji; Honma, Ichiro; Ohta, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Takuji; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Masayuki.

    1997-03-01

    This report intends to provide useful information on software tools for parallel programming through the survey on parallel programming environments of the following six parallel computers, Fujitsu VPP300/500, NEC SX-4, Hitachi SR2201, Cray T94, IBM SP, and Intel Paragon, all of which are installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), moreover, the present status of R and D's on parallel softwares of parallel languages, compilers, debuggers, performance evaluation tools, and integrated tools is reported. This survey has been made as a part of our project of developing a basic software for parallel programming environment, which is designed on the concept of STA (Seamless Thinking Aid to programmers). (author)

  5. Evolution of Multispectral Aerosol Absorption Properties in a Biogenically-Influenced Urban Environment during the CARES Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyawali, Madhu; Arnott, W.; Zaveri, Rahul; Song, Chen; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra; Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Gorkowski, Kyle; Subramanian, R.; Moosmüller, Hans

    2017-11-01

    We present the evolution of multispectral optical properties as urban aerosols aged and interacted with biogenic emissions resulting in stronger short wavelength absorption and formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols. Ground-based aerosol measurements were made during June 2010 within the Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Data on black carbon and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition were collected at both sites. In addition, photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers were used to measure spectral absorption and scattering coefficients for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 870 nm. The daytime absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) indicated a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. From the 22nd to the 28th of June, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the median BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for 405 nm and 532 nm at T1 increased by ~23% and ~35%, respectively, compared to the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for the 870 nm wavelength were similar for both sites. These results suggest formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols in biogenically-influenced urban air.

  6. Laser programs facility management plan for environment, safety, and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Laser Programs ES ampersand H policy is established by the Associate Director for Laser Programs. This FMP is one component of that policy. Laser Programs personnel design, construct and operate research and development equipment located in various Livermore and Site 300 buildings. The Programs include a variety of activities, primarily laser research and development, inertial confinement fusion, isotope separation, and an increasing emphasis on materials processing, imaging systems, and signal analysis. This FMP is a formal statement of responsibilities and controls to assure operational activities are conducted without harm to employees, the general public, or the environment. This plan identifies the hazards associated with operating a large research and development facility and is a vehicle to control and mitigate those hazards. Hazards include, but are not limited to: laser beams, hazardous and radioactive materials, criticality, ionizing radiation or x rays, high-voltage electrical equipment, chemicals, and powered machinery

  7. Mall Walking Program Environments, Features, and Participants: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Laura; Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R; Cormier, Marc L; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L; King, Diane K; Marquez, David X; Rosenberg, Dori E

    2015-08-13

    Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking programs' reach, effectiveness, adoption

  8. The Living With a Star Program Space Environment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the objective, approach, and scope of the Living With a Star (LWS) program at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Scientists involved in the project seek to refine the understanding of space weather and the role of solar variability in terrestrial climate change. Research and the development of improved analytic methods have led to increased predictive capabilities and the improvement of environment specification models. Specifically, the Space Environment Testbed (SET) project of LWS is responsible for the implementation of improved engineering approaches to observing solar effects on climate change. This responsibility includes technology development, ground test protocol development, and the development of a technology application model/engineering tool.

  9. Learning Programming with IPRO: The Effects of a Mobile, Social Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Taylor; Berland, Matthew; Benton, Tom; Smith, Carmen Petrick

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present two studies examining how high school students learn to program in a mobile, social programming environment that we have developed and deployed ("IPRO"). IPRO is delivered, with an associated curriculum, as an iPod Touch app and is freely and publicly available. We find that the affordances of mobility and…

  10. DICE: An Object Oriented Programming Environment for Cooperative Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-20

    environment called PARMENIDES /FRULEKIT; PARMENIDES /FRULEKIT supports programming in frames and rules and was developed in LISP at Carnegie-Mellon...the domain of building design and construction. The Blackboard in DICEY-BUILDER is represented as frames in PARMENIDES , while the KMs are implemented... PARMENIDES fo rart omat format d a b C /envelope BLACKBOAR D machine to machine (’BLACKBOARD l m message f il transfer message p read •d message format J

  11. Fostering computational thinking skills with a tangible blocks programming environment

    OpenAIRE

    Turchi, T; Malizia, A

    2016-01-01

    Computational Thinking has recently returned into the limelight as an essential skill to have for both the general public and disciplines outside Computer Science. It encapsulates those thinking skills integral to solving complex problems using a computer, thus widely applicable in our technological society. Several public initiatives such as the Hour of Code successfully introduced it to millions of people of different ages and backgrounds, mostly using Blocks Programming Environments like S...

  12. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  13. Assertion checking environment (ACE) for formal verification of C programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Babita; Dhodapkar, S.D.; Ramesh, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe an Assertion Checking Environment (ACE) for compositional verification of programs, which are written in an industrially sponsored safe subset of C programming language called MISRA C [Guidelines for the Use of the C Language in Vehicle Based Software, 1998]. The theory is based on Hoare logic [Commun. ACM 12 (1969) 576] and the C programs are verified using static assertion checking technique. First the functional specifications of the program, captured in the form of pre- and post-conditions for each C function, are derived from the specifications. These pre- and post-conditions are then introduced as assertions (also called annotations or formal comments) in the program code. The assertions are then proved formally using ACE and theorem proving tool called Stanford Temporal Prover [The Stanford Temporal Prover User's Manual, 1998]. ACE has been developed by us and consists mainly of a translator c2spl, a GUI and some utility programs. The technique and tools developed are targeted towards verification of real-time embedded software

  14. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  15. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  16. Contribution of bacteria-like particles to PM2.5 aerosol in urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dällenbach, K.; Bruns, E.; Vasilescu, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report highly time-resolved estimates of airborne bacteria-like particle concentrations in ambient aerosol using an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). AMS measurements with a newly developed PM2.5 and the standard (PM1) aerodynamic lens were performed at an urban background site (Zurich) and at a rural site (Payerne) in Switzerland. Positive matrix factorization using the multilinear engine (ME-2) implementation was used to estimate the contribution of bacteria-like particles to non-refractory organic aerosol. The success of the method was evaluated by a size-resolved analysis of the organic mass and the analysis of single particle mass spectra, which were detected with a light scattering system integrated into the AMS. Use of the PM2.5 aerodynamic lens increased measured bacteria-like concentrations, supporting the analysis method. However, at all sites, the low concentrations of this component suggest that airborne bacteria constitute a minor fraction of non-refractory PM2.5 organic aerosol mass. Estimated average mass concentrations were below 0.1 μg/m3 and relative contributions were lower than 2% at both sites. During rainfall periods, concentrations of the bacteria-like component increased considerably reaching a short-time maximum of approximately 2 μg/m3 at the Payerne site in summer.

  17. Impact of human presence on secondary organic aerosols derived from ozone-initiated chemistry in a simulated office environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadeyi, Moshood O.; Weschler, Charles J.; Tham, Kwok W.

    2013-01-01

    's reactions with various indoor pollutants. The present study examines this possibility for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from ozone-initiated chemistry with limonene, a commonly occurring indoor terpene. The experiments were conducted at realistic ozone and limonene concentrations in a 240 m3...

  18. Structural signatures of water-soluble organic aerosols in contrasting environments in South America and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Pereira, Guilherme; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Gioda, Adriana; Carreira, Renato; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Armando C; Smichowski, Patricia; Rojas, Nestor; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon

    2017-08-01

    This study describes and compares the key structural units present in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction of atmospheric aerosols collected in different South American (Colombia - Medellín and Bogotá, Peru - Lima, Argentina - Buenos Aires, and Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Porto Velho, during moderate (MBB) and intense (IBB) biomass burning) and Western European (Portugal - Aveiro and Lisbon) locations. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the relative distribution of non-exchangeable proton functional groups in aerosol WSOC of diverse origin, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in South America. The relative contribution of the proton functional groups was in the order H-C > H-C-C= > H-C-O > Ar-H, except in Porto Velho during MBB, Medellín, Bogotá, and Buenos Aires, for which the relative contribution of H-C-O was higher than that of H-C-C=. The 1 H NMR source attribution confirmed differences in aging processes or regional sources between the two geographic regions, allowing the differentiation between urban combustion-related aerosol and biological particles. The aerosol WSOC in Aveiro, Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro during summer are more oxidized than those from the remaining locations, indicating the predominance of secondary organic aerosols. Fresh emissions, namely of smoke particles, becomes important during winter in Aveiro and São Paulo, and in Porto Velho during IBB. The biosphere is an important source altering the chemical composition of aerosol WSOC in South America locations. The source attribution in Medellín, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, and Lima confirmed the mixed contributions of biological material, secondary formation, as well as urban and biomass burning emissions. Overall, the information and knowledge acquired in this study provide important diagnostic tools for future studies aiming at understanding the water-soluble organic aerosol problem, their sources and

  19. Evolution of multispectral aerosol optical properties in a biogenically-influenced urban environment during the CARES campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Pekour, M.; Flowers, B.; Dubey, M. K.; Setyan, A.; Zhang, Q.; Harworth, J. W.; Radney, J. G.; Atkinson, D. B.; China, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Gorkowski, K.; Subramanian, R.; Jobson, B. T.; Moosmüller, H.

    2013-03-01

    Ground-based aerosol measurements made in June 2010 within Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area are used to investigate the evolution of multispectral optical properties as the urban aerosols aged and interacted with biogenic emissions. Along with black carbon and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition observations, spectral absorptio (βabs), scattering (βsca), and extinction (βext) coefficients for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm were measured at both sites using photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers and using cavity ring-down (CRD) instruments. The daytime average Ångström exponent of absorption (AEA) was ~1.6 for the wavelength pair 405 and 870 nm at T0, while it was ~1.8 for the wavelength pair 355 and 870 nm at T1, indicating a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. The measured and Mie theory calculations of multispectral βsca showed good correlation (R2=0.85-0.94). The average contribution of supermicron aerosol (mainly composed of sea salt particles advected in from the Pacific Ocean) to the total scattering coefficient ranged from less than 20% at 405 nm to greater than 80% at 1064 nm. From 22 to 28 June, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the short wavelength scattering coefficients at both sites gradually increased due to increase in the size of submicron aerosols. At the same time, BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for ultraviolet wavelengths at T1 increased by ~60% compared to the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for 870 nm wavelength were identical at both sites. These results suggest formation of moderately brown secondary

  20. DEGAS: Dynamic Exascale Global Address Space Programming Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-23

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics. The Berkeley part of the project concentrated on communication-optimal code generation to optimize speed and energy efficiency by reducing data movement. Our work developed communication lower bounds, and/or communication avoiding algorithms (that either meet the lower bound, or do much less communication than their conventional counterparts) for a variety of algorithms, including linear algebra, machine learning and genomics.

  1. Aerosol-delivered programmed cell death 4 enhanced apoptosis, controlled cell cycle and suppressed AP-1 activity in the lungs of AP-1 luciferase reporter mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S-K; Jin, H; Kwon, J T; Chang, S-H; Kim, T H; Cho, C-S; Lee, K H; Young, M R; Colburn, N H; Beck, G R; Yang, H-S; Cho, M-H

    2007-09-01

    The long-term survival of lung cancer patients treated with conventional therapies remains poor and therefore the need for novel approaches remains high. This has led to the re-emergence of aerosol delivery as a therapeutic intervention. In this study, glucosylated polyethylenimine (GPEI) was used as carrier to investigate programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and PDCD4 mutant (D418A), an eIF4A-binding mutant, on PDCD4-related signaling and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in the lungs of AP-1 luciferase reporter mice. After confirming the efficiency of GPEI as a carrier in lungs, the effects of aerosol-delivered PDCD4 were investigated in AP-1 luciferase reporter mice. Aerosol delivery of GPEI/PDCD4 through a nose-only inhalation facilitated the apoptosis of lungs whereas aerosol PDCD4 mutant did not. Also, such aerosol delivery regulated proteins relevant to cell-cycle control and suppressed AP-1 activity. Results obtained by western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, luciferase assay and deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated nick end labeling study suggest that combined actions such as facilitating apoptosis, controlling cell cycle and suppression of AP-1 activity by PDCD4 may provide useful tool for designing lung tumor prevention and treatment by which PDCD4 functions as a transformation suppressor in the future.

  2. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year

  3. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year.

  4. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Young

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The San Joaquin Valley (SJV in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno–Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1 concentration was 31.0 µg m−3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %, followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %. High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C, hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C, and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.09 associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.19 associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.60 most likely

  5. Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

    1999-08-01

    A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

  6. Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Getov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI tool which provides application programmers wishing to use Java with immediate accessibility to existing scientific packages. The JCI tool also facilitates rapid development and reuse of existing code. These benefits are provided at minimal cost to the programmer. While beneficial to the programmer, the additional advantages of mixed‐language programming in terms of application performance and portability are addressed in detail within the context of this paper. In addition, we discuss how the JCI tool is complementing other ongoing projects such as IBM’s High‐Performance Compiler for Java (HPCJ and IceT’s metacomputing environment.

  7. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  8. Easy robot programming for beginners and kids using augmented reality environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Nishiguchi, Masahiro

    2010-11-01

    The authors have developed the mobile robot which can be programmed by command and instruction cards. All you have to do is to arrange cards on a table and to shot the programming stage by a camera. Our card programming system recognizes instruction cards and translates icon commands into the motor driver program. This card programming environment also provides low-level structure programming.

  9. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  10. eXascale PRogramming Environment and System Software (XPRESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Barbara [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Gabriel, Edgar [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Exascale systems, with a thousand times the compute capacity of today’s leading edge petascale computers, are expected to emerge during the next decade. Their software systems will need to facilitate the exploitation of exceptional amounts of concurrency in applications, and ensure that jobs continue to run despite the occurrence of system failures and other kinds of hard and soft errors. Adapting computations at runtime to cope with changes in the execution environment, as well as to improve power and performance characteristics, is likely to become the norm. As a result, considerable innovation is required to develop system support to meet the needs of future computing platforms. The XPRESS project aims to develop and prototype a revolutionary software system for extreme-­scale computing for both exascale and strong­scaled problems. The XPRESS collaborative research project will advance the state-­of-­the-­art in high performance computing and enable exascale computing for current and future DOE mission-­critical applications and supporting systems. The goals of the XPRESS research project are to: A. enable exascale performance capability for DOE applications, both current and future, B. develop and deliver a practical computing system software X-­stack, OpenX, for future practical DOE exascale computing systems, and C. provide programming methods and environments for effective means of expressing application and system software for portable exascale system execution.

  11. Rhone-Poulenc claims progress for environment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, R.

    1993-01-01

    Rhone-Poulenc (RP; Paris) made further progress last year in its pollution-reducing efforts, under the group's worldwide three-year Environment Plan (1992--1994). The company's water index improved by 15% from 1991 and by 22% from 1990 -- slightly ahead of target. The air index improved 9% from 1991 and 15% from 1990. open-quotes Progress regarding atmospheric emissions is significant, but we wish to go further in order to reach our medium-term objectives,close quotes says RP vice-chairman Jean-Marc Bruel. About 47% of the company's capital spending in 1992 was devoted to these emissions. The solid waste index remained static, with an improvement of 1% compared with an 18% advance in 1991. The startup of incineration units in 1993 will help correct this situation. Bruel reiterates the group's established goal of a 50% reduction in all effluent and solid waste by 1995, and 65% by 2000, using 1990 as the base year for its environment index. He says the indices have been adopted by the French chemical industry association -- Union des Industries Chimiques -- and the U.K.'s Chemical Industries Association. RP's environment-related expenditures in 1992 amounted to F1.8 billion ($330 million), of which F1.2 billion was for operating expenses and the remainder for new investments. Expenditures in France were F594 million and F479 million, respectively; the US, F381 million and F122 million; and Brazil F64 million and F14 million. Spending is forecast to be at a similar level in 1993. Environmental research, with spending of F5.8 billion in 1992, is integrated into all the group's research programs

  12. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A

    2013-10-12

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  13. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Hallgren

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtainingaccurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted toresearchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulationstudies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates throughbootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: Assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G; Del Águila, A; Cazorla, A; Lyamani, H; Casquero-Vera, J A; Colombi, C; Cuccia, E; Gianelle, V; Močnik, G; Alastuey, A; Olmo, F J; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. The Aethalometer model takes advantage of the different spectral behavior of BB and fossil fuel (FF) combustion aerosols. The model was found to be more sensitive to the assumed value of the aerosol Ångström exponent (AAE) for FF (AAE ff ) than to the AAE for BB (AAE bb ). As result of various sensitivity tests the model was optimized with AAE ff =1.1 and AAE bb =2. The Aethalometer model and levoglucosan tracer estimates were in good agreement. The Aethalometer model was further applied to data from three sites in Granada urban area to evaluate the spatial variation of CM ff and CM bb (carbonaceous matter from FF or BB origin, respectively) concentrations within the city. The results showed that CM bb was lower in the city centre while it has an unexpected profound impact on the CM levels measured in the suburbs (about 40%). Analysis of BB tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that BB was dominated by sources outside the city, to the west in a rural area. Distinguishing whether it corresponds to agricultural waste burning or with biomass burning for domestic heating was not possible. This study also shows that although traffic restrictions measures contribute to reduce carbonaceous concentrations, the extent of the reduction is very local. Other sources such as BB, which can contribute to CM as much as traffic emissions, should be targeted to reduce air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    We interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a 12 yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain specially compiled for this article. Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Conversely, results show marked differences in average concentrations from the cleanest, most remote sites (around 1 μg m-3 of non-mineral carbon (nmC), mostly made of organic carbon (OC) with very little elemental carbon (EC), around 0.1 μg m-3; OC / EC = 12-15), to the highly polluted major cities (8-10 μg m-3 of nmC; 3-4 μg m-3 of EC; 4-5 μg m-3 of OC; OC / EC = 1-2). Thus, urban (and very specific industrial) pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning and of biogenic emissions. Correlations between yearly averaged OC / EC and EC concentrations adjust very well to a potential equation (OC = 3.37 EC0.326, R2 = 0.8). A similar equation is obtained when including average concentrations obtained at other European sites (OC = 3.60EC0.491, R2 = 0.7). A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during the warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance from road, traffic volume and density, mixing-layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between 1999 and 2011 at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions. This has resulted in some cases in an increasing trend for

  16. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be

  17. State of the environment: selected topics, 1979. [Annual report of Executive Director, UN Environment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This annual report of the Executive Director, UN Environment Program, to the Governing Council of the United Nations focuses on four topics of global significance: schistosomiasis, pesticide resistance, noise pollution, and tourism. The four topics, while not the only urgent ones, are important contemporary problems associated with the impacts of development and environmental management. The pressures of man's efforts to increase the agricultural base through irrigation and chemical pesticides have resulted in an unprecedented spread of infectious schistosomiasis and pesticide pollution. Industrialization and urbanization have raised noise levels until they represent serious health hazards. International tourism has grown to such proportions that hundreds of millions of individual trips are taken by the average public each year. The positive and negative aspects of these developments are examined in hopes of stimulating discussions that will lead to more desirable planning and management. 81 references. (DCK)

  18. Programming Sustainable Urban Nodes for Spontaneous, Intensive Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubryt-Obrycka, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    functional programming (services). Then, the aspect of permanence or temporality will be addressed to determine the choice of appropriate technologies used in order to convey programmatic assertions into physical solutions. The nodes are meant to be as lightweight installments in the area as possible, but at the same time as durable and of good quality as to support positive social effects and reinforce building social capital in the area. The author believe that this emergency-based AT node scenario can be extrapolated to unbalanced housing areas being the result of urban sprawl, after being only slightly adjusted to local standards. But the main goal is to allow for efficient interventions in areas in dire needs and poor environments with limited resources or limited funds.

  19. Determination of the elemental composition of aerosol samples in the working environment of a secondary lead smelting company in Nigeria using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obiajunwa, E.I.; Johnson-Fatokun, F.O.; Olaniyi, H.B.; Olowole, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique was employed to determine the concentrations of elements in aerosol samples collected in the working environment of a secondary lead smelting company in Nigeria. Sampling was done using Whatman-41 cellulose filters mounted in Negretti air samplers at 10 locations within the factory. The concentrations of eight elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were determined. The TSP values ranged from 70 to 7963 μg/m 3 and the concentration of Pb was found to be between 2.98 and 538.47 μg/m 3 . The high Pb concentration is a danger signal to the health of the factory workers

  20. Energy and environment annual report 1974. [Environmental Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, C. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    Research in the Division's environmental science program includes air pollution, water pollution, and the effects of pollutants on man and natural ecosystems. Work has focused on the chemistry and physics of particle surfaces. Using the technique of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), surface reactions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds have been studied, and results include the identification of new chemical forms of nitrogen on particle surfaces and evidence for the importance of particle surfaces in the catalysis of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. The Division's work in water pollution has been devoted to the study of trace metals in the estuarine environment, especially in San Francisco Bay. Studies on the effect of dredging operations on trace metals in the Mare Island ship channel and on the distribution of cadmium in Bay sediments have been performed. Research has also been conducted on the distribution of trace elements between bound states on suspended particles and in solution in Bay waters. Research is being conducted on a variety of problems relating to effects of pollutants. Biological studies seeking to discover effects of specific environmental insults such as oxidants at the cellular level have been done, and epidemiological studies have been initiated on the impacts of trace metals on human health. Theoretical studies in an attempt to develop a basis for assessing the stability of ecological systems are also being undertaken.

  1. Gravitational agglomeration of post-HCDA LMFBR aerosols: nonspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.F.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1982-12-01

    Aerosol behavior analysis computer programs have shown that temporal aerosol size distributions in nuclear reactor containments are sensitive to shape factors. This research investigates shape factors by a detailed theoretical analysis of hydrodynamic interactions between a nonspherical particle and a spherical particle undergoing gravitational collisions in an LMFBR environment. First, basic definitions and expressions for settling speeds and collisional efficiencies of nonspherical particles are developed. These are then related to corresponding quantities for spherical particles through shape factors. Using volume equivalent diameter as the defining length in the gravitational collision kernel, the aerodynamic shape factor, the density correction factor, and the gravitational collision shape factor, are introduced to describe the collision kernel for collisions between aerosol agglomerates. The Navier-Stokes equation in oblate spheroidal coordinates is solved to model a nonspherical particle and then the dynamic equations for two particle motions are developed. A computer program (NGCEFF) is constructed, and the dynamical equations are solved by Gear's method

  2. Program director and chief resident perspectives on the educational environment of US radiation oncology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriochoa, Camille; Weller, Michael; Berry, Danielle; Reddy, Chandana A; Koyfman, Shlomo; Tendulkar, Rahul

    Our goals were toexamine the educational approachesused at radiation oncology residency programs nationwide andto evaluate program director(PD) and chief resident (CR) perceptions of their educational environment. We distributed a survey regarding curricular structure via email toall identified US radiation oncology residency PDs and CRs. Pearson χ 2 test was used toevaluate whether differences existed between answers provided by the 2 study populations. The survey was disseminated to 200 individuals in 85 US residency programs: 49/85PDs(58%)and 74/115 (64%)CRs responded. More than one-half of PDs and CRs report that attending physicians discussed management, reviewed contours, and conducted mock oral board examinations with the residents. At nearly 50% of programs, the majority of teaching conferences use a lecture-based approach, whereas only 20% reported predominant utilization of the Socratic method. However, both PDs (63%) and CRs (49%) reported that Socratic teaching is more effective than didactic lectures (16% and 20%, respectively), with the remainder responding that they are equally effective. Teaching sessions were reported to be resident-led ≥75% of the time by 50% of CRs versus 18% of PDs (P = .002). Significantly more CRs than PDs felt that faculty-led teaching conferences were more effective than resident-led conferences (62% vs 26%, respectively; P Socratic-based teaching conferences. Increased communication between PDs and CRs can better align perceptions with educational goals. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the simplified entry functionality in the... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Simplified Entry: Modification of...

  4. Program Management Challenges in a Joint Service Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taneyhill, Dorothy E

    2007-01-01

    ... or modifications of the same design. The Interim Defense Acquisition Guidebook defines a Joint Program Management Office as any defense acquisition system, subsystem, component, or technology program that involves formal management...

  5. Devolution of the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EEPSEA). EEPSEA is the only program in Southeast Asia dedicated to helping economists and environmental researchers gain expertise in environmental economics research. Since its inception, the program has been managed by IDRC from its ...

  6. Aerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2017-12-01

    Ultrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no other

  7. Characterization and source estimation of size-segregated aerosols during 2008-2012 in an urban environment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingda; Wang, Guangfu; Zhang, Renjiang

    2013-01-01

    Full text: During 2008-2012, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage cascade impactor at Beijing Normal University (BNU) Site, China. These samples were analyzed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis for concentrations of 21 elements consisting of Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ba and Pb. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Nine sources were resolved in eight size ranges (025 ∼ 16μm) and included secondary sulphur, motor vehicles, coal combustion; oil combustion, road dust, biomass burning, soil dust, diesel vehicles and metal processing. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by soil dust and road dust contributed about 57% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM) mass in the coarse size range(>2μm). On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as secondary sulphur, coal and oil combustion, biomass burning and motor vehicle contributed about 73% in the fine size range <2μm). The diesel vehicles and secondary sulphur source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (<0.25μm) and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass. (author)

  8. Characterization and source estimation of size-segregated aerosols during 2008-2012 in an urban environment in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingda [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materiais Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Wang, Guangfu, E-mail: guangfuw@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing (China); Zhang, Renjiang [Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate Eas tAsia (RCE-TEA), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: During 2008-2012, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage cascade impactor at Beijing Normal University (BNU) Site, China. These samples were analyzed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis for concentrations of 21 elements consisting of Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ba and Pb. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Nine sources were resolved in eight size ranges (025 ∼ 16μm) and included secondary sulphur, motor vehicles, coal combustion; oil combustion, road dust, biomass burning, soil dust, diesel vehicles and metal processing. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by soil dust and road dust contributed about 57% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM) mass in the coarse size range(>2μm). On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as secondary sulphur, coal and oil combustion, biomass burning and motor vehicle contributed about 73% in the fine size range <2μm). The diesel vehicles and secondary sulphur source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (<0.25μm) and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass. (author)

  9. Influence of the aquatic environment on release behavior of fission products. Experimental study of aerosol emission during a PWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, M.

    1989-06-01

    This experimental study concerns the consequences on the environment of a PWR severe accident. A preliminary bibliographical survey has been undertaken in order to determine the elements to study, and the experimental protocols to use. 4 fission products (Cs, Sr, Ru, Ce) and 3 structure materials (Ag, Fe, In) have been chosen. Tests of cations (Cs + ) retention by soils have been done. They showed up the great variability of the results according to experimental procedures (contact time, agitation, solid phase concentration...). The adoption of a standard procedure which would enable the different results comparison is suggested. Then, the dissolution of powders from the 7 elements has been studied in different solutions. Two different phenomena occurs for some elements. We observed a partial dissolution of Ag, In and Ce, according to solution compositions, but fine particles or colloid presence may contribute to the solution total activity. The Cs dissolution is more important but never complete, because of an amalgam formation during calcination with structure materials. Ru doesn't dissolve, and fine particles presence is the reason of solution activity. Soils retention is minimal for the elements that are neutral, like Ru, and maximal for cations, especially Cs + . High contents of organic matter and clay in soils enhance retention. Thanks to the new theoretical source term values, plurielementary aerosols fabrication has debuted. The installation we used (Inducing oven with an aerosol maturation enclosure) allows the obtention of temperatures as high as 2800 - 3000 0 C and the volatilization of 13 elements between the 16 presents. Suggestions are done that may increase the Ru, Ce and Zr emissions [fr

  10. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Fish, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 10 9 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  11. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  12. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  13. The Effect of Peer-Mentoring Program on Nursing Students’ Clinical Environment Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sardari Kashkooli

    2014-01-01

    Results: There was a significant difference between stress scores before and after of the intervention in both groups (p=0.00. Mean difference of clinical environment stress factors in two groups were not statistically significant (p=0.99. Conclusions: Peer-mentoring program is not significant effective on clinical environment stress reduction. Key Words: Nursing Education, Peer Mentoring, Clinical Environment Stressors

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT AUTOCAD DRAWINGS

    OpenAIRE

    PINTILIE Alexandru; AVRAM Elena Rita

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Low Cost CAD systems are widespread in the technical world. Currently, the highest-rated CAD system is AutoCAD due to the fact that in association with AutoLISP programming language covered a broad range of production needs. As a high-level programming language, AutoLISP provides an easy and efficient programming technique that leads to automation and parameterization of AutoCAD commands and reduces the time spending for designing the drawings. This paper aims to highlight th...

  15. Managing Complex Programs in a Post-LSI Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mockensturm, Jeffery J

    2008-01-01

    .... External forces played a major role in the evolution of these practices: A defense procurement holiday throughout the 1990s significantly reduced defense procurement spending and commensurate programs to manage...

  16. Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Getov; Paul Gray; Sava Mintchev; Vaidy Sunderam

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI) tool which provides ...

  17. Raspberry Pi as an environment for learning to program

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Darja

    2016-01-01

    The thesis discusses the projects which might encourage primary school children in the third triad to programme when the programming language Scratch becomes too restrictive. Lately, the answer has been to use proper programming languages and microcontrollers, which can be connected to camera, sensors and other devices. With this, children learn the basics of electrical engineering, and are only one step away from creating their own game or a small project. The thesis consists of assignments,...

  18. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  19. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?; Programme GICC, RAPPORT DEFINITIF (Mars 2005), inventaire d'emissions d'aerosol carbone de 1860 a 2100 ou quelles emissions d'aerosol carbone pour un impact climatique regional/global significatif?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnment, UMR CEA/CNRS 1572 - CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Criqui, P.; Mima, S. [IEPE, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brignon, J.M. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Penner, J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carmichael, G. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Gadi, R. [National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India); Denier Van der Gon, H. [TNO Hollande (Netherlands); Gregoire, J.M. [JRC, Ispra (Italy); Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C

    2007-07-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  20. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  1. Positive School and Classroom Environment: Precursors of Successful Implementation of Positive Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was based on a school where the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. was integrated into the formal curriculum. In this case study, an interview with the school principal, vice-principal, and social worker was conducted in order to understand their perceptions of administrative arrangements and issues in the school, implementation characteristics, program effectiveness, program success, and overall impression. Results showed that several positive school and classroom attributes were conducive to program success, including positive school culture and belief in students' potentials, an inviting school environment, an encouraging classroom environment, high involvement of school administrative personnel, and systematic program arrangement.

  2. Aviation Safety Program Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies (AEST) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Engine Icing: Characterization and Simulation Capability: Develop knowledge bases, analysis methods, and simulation tools needed to address the problem of engine icing; in particular, ice-crystal icing Airframe Icing Simulation and Engineering Tool Capability: Develop and demonstrate 3-D capability to simulate and model airframe ice accretion and related aerodynamic performance degradation for current and future aircraft configurations in an expanded icing environment that includes freezing drizzle/rain Atmospheric Hazard Sensing and Mitigation Technology Capability: Improve and expand remote sensing and mitigation of hazardous atmospheric environments and phenomena

  3. Small Groups in Programmed Environments: Behavioral and Biological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abettdre entered in Block 20. it differm Iroi Repot) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The Pavlovian Journal of Bioloqical Science, in...Experimentation in Controlled Environments: Its Implications for Economic Behavior and Social Poligy Making. Toronto: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction

  4. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98; Actes du 14. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  5. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  6. Intercomparison of OH and OH reactivity measurements in a high isoprene and low NO environment during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Dianne; Jeong, Daun; Seco, Roger; Wrangham, Ian; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Brune, William H.; Koss, Abigail; Gilman, Jessica; de Gouw, Joost; Misztal, Pawel; Goldstein, Allen; Baumann, Karsten; Wennberg, Paul O.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung

    2018-02-01

    We intercompare OH and OH reactivity datasets from two different techniques, chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a high isoprene and low NO environment in a southeastern US forest during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). An LIF instrument measured OH and OH reactivity at the top of a tower, a CIMS instrument measured OH at the top of the tower, and a CIMS based comparative reactivity method (CRM-CIMS) instrument deployed at the base of the tower measured OH reactivity. Averaged diel variations of OH and OH reactivity from these datasets agree within analytical uncertainty and correlations of LIF versus CIMS for OH and OH reactivity have slopes of 0.65 and 0.97, respectively. However, there are systematic differences between the measurement datasets. The CRM-CIMS measurements of OH reactivity were ∼16% lower than those by the LIF technique in the late afternoon. We speculate that it is caused by losses in the sampling line down to the CRM-CIMS instrument. On the other hand, we could not come up with a reasonable explanation for the difference in the LIF and CIMS OH datasets for early morning and late afternoon when OH is below 1 × 106 molecules cm-3. Nonetheless, results of this intercomparison exercise strengthen previous publications from the field site on OH concentrations and atmospheric reactivity.

  7. Aerosol science: theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold. First, it is intended to give a thorough treatment of the fundamentals of aerosol behavior with rigorous proofs and detailed derivations of the basic equations and removal mechanisms. Second, it is intended to provide practical examples with special attention to radioactive particles and their distribution in size following a radioactive release arising from an accident with a nuclear system. We start with a brief introduction to the applications of aerosol science and the characteristics of aerosols in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we devote considerable attention to single and two particle motion with respect to both translation and rotation. Chapter 3 contains extensive discussion of the aerosol general dynamical equation and the dependences of aerosol distributions on size, shape, space, composition, radioactivity, and charge. Important particle rate processes of coagulation, condensation, and deposition/resuspension are discussed in the chapters 4, 6 and 7, respectively. In Chapter 5, we provide a thorough treatment of the analytical and numerical methods used in solving the various forms of the aerosol dynamical equation. We discuss the importance and applications of aerosol science to nuclear technology and, in particular, the nuclear source term in Chapter 8. Our focus in this chapter is on discussions of nuclear accidents that can potentially release large amount of radioactivity to environment. We also discuss the progress that has been made in understanding the natural and engineered aerosol processes that limit or affect such releases. (author)

  8. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  9. XPRESS: eXascale PRogramming Environment and System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porterfield, Allan Kennedy [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fowler, Robert Joseph [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This is the final report for UNC activities as its part in the XStack program XPRESS project. A project-wide final report will be submitted by the project as a whole through Sandia National Laboratory when the contracts to the other participating organizations have reached their conclusion(s).

  10. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences: Preface to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Feingold, Graham; Ghan, Steven; Ogren, John; Schmid, Beat; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Sheridan, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical properties and their ability to serve as cloud condensation nuclei at given supersaturations (indirect effects). This paper introduces a special section that reports on a field campaign conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in North Central Oklahoma in May, 2003, examining these relations using in situ airborne measurements and surface-, airborne-, and space-based remote sensing.

  11. Franchising in the banking environment : middle management program / L. Britz

    OpenAIRE

    Britz, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Franchising as a growth tool is becoming a very appealing business model which has highly successful examples in almost every business sector in the world. However in the banking environment, First National Bank has been the first bank to take the lead in South Africa by introducing the franchise concept to create value for its customers. Not all businesses are suitable to become franchises therefore the aim of this research was to establish what critical success factors can be considered as ...

  12. Airland Battlefield Environment (ALBE) Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) Demonstration Program,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-12

    Management System (DBMS) software, GKS graphics libraries, and user interface software. These components of the ATB system software architecture will be... knowlede base ano auqent the decision mak:n• process by providing infocr-mation useful in the formulation and execution of battlefield strategies...Topographic Laboratories as an Engineer. Ms. Capps is managing the software development of the AirLand Battlefield Environment (ALBE) geographic

  13. Compiler and Runtime Support for Programming in Adaptive Parallel Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-15

    noother job is waiting for resources, and use a smaller number of processors when other jobs needresources. Setia et al. [15, 20] have shown that such...15] Vijay K. Naik, Sanjeev Setia , and Mark Squillante. Performance analysis of job scheduling policiesin parallel supercomputing environments. In...on networks ofheterogeneous workstations. Technical Report CSE-94-012, Oregon Graduate Institute of Scienceand Technology, 1994.[20] Sanjeev Setia

  14. Developing Programs for the Business Environment - Economic Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ilie

    2014-01-01

    In early 2000, in Romania, there wasn’t much of a talk about stimulating business environment and in this case the SMEs (small and medium enterprises). After a transition period, various attempts to implement a financial and logistical support from the state were beginning to bear fruit with the year 2009 and take hold in 2011. Amid all legislative changes occurred, the Romanian state proves its effectiveness regarding Romanian entrepreneurs and especially young people, university graduates d...

  15. Environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment annual highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manowitz, B.

    1978-12-01

    Environmental Sciences is one of the four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It carries out a wide range of activities in atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, oceanographic sciences, and land and freshwater environmental sciences. In general, these programs are concerned with identification and measurement of pollutants introduced into the environment by energy-related activities and the evaluation and prediction of the effects or potential effects of these pollutants on the environment. This highlights report for Environmental Programs covers the year 1978 and describes the objectives and funding levels of each of the programs, major accomplishments during the year, planned future activities, and current publications

  16. Environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment annual highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B

    1978-12-01

    Environmental Sciences is one of the four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It carries out a wide range of activities in atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, oceanographic sciences, and land and freshwater environmental sciences. In general, these programs are concerned with identification and measurement of pollutants introduced into the environment by energy-related activities and the evaluation and prediction of the effects or potential effects of these pollutants on the environment. This highlights report for Environmental Programs covers the year 1978 and describes the objectives and funding levels of each of the programs, major accomplishments during the year, planned future activities, and current publications.

  17. Lowering the Barriers to Programming: A Survey of Programming Environments and Languages for Novice Programmers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelleher, Caitlin; Pausch, Randy

    2003-01-01

    .... The systems are organized by their primary goal, either to teach programming or to use programming to empower their users, and then by the authors' approach to making learning to program easier for novice programmers...

  18. Abstracts of reports published in the environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment, January-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    This 1978 Annual Abstracts represents the publishing experience over the past year of the three divisions and one group that make up the Environmental Sciences area of the Department of Energy and Environment. The abstracts are grouped according to the organization of the authors under the Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, and Oceanographic Sciences Division and the Land and Fresh Water Environmental Sciences Group. The range of interests and the interdisciplinary nature of the activities within Environmental Programs are demonstrated by these abstracts. Most of these activities relate in some way to the environmental effects or potential effects of energy generation. The major areas involved include: coastal meteorology; physical, biological, and chemical oceanography of the coastal shelf; analysis of marine, fresh water, and terrestrial ecosystems; effects of acid rain and other pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial systems; Multistate Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S), including transport and transformation experiments, data management, and modeling and analysis; atmospheric diagnostics including the study of the chemistry of pollutants in plumes and ambient atmosphere; basic and applied studies of atmospheric aerosol generation, composition, and behavior; and development of atmospheric tracer systems and real-time instrumentation.

  19. Abstracts of reports published in the environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment, January-December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This 1978 Annual Abstracts represents the publishing experience over the past year of the three divisions and one group that make up the Environmental Sciences area of the Department of Energy and Environment. The abstracts are grouped according to the organization of the authors under the Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, and Oceanographic Sciences Division and the Land and Fresh Water Environmental Sciences Group. The range of interests and the interdisciplinary nature of the activities within Environmental Programs are demonstrated by these abstracts. Most of these activities relate in some way to the environmental effects or potential effects of energy generation. The major areas involved include: coastal meteorology; physical, biological, and chemical oceanography of the coastal shelf; analysis of marine, fresh water, and terrestrial ecosystems; effects of acid rain and other pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial systems; Multistate Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S), including transport and transformation experiments, data management, and modeling and analysis; atmospheric diagnostics including the study of the chemistry of pollutants in plumes and ambient atmosphere; basic and applied studies of atmospheric aerosol generation, composition, and behavior; and development of atmospheric tracer systems and real-time instrumentation

  20. Development of a visual programming environment for the solution of elliptic questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.U.

    1999-01-01

    Recent trend in programming is changing from text based programming to visual programming. In the text-based environment, major amount of time is spent on program development and debugging. Visual programming environment makes the process of modeling and simulation more intuitive and creative. In this case the user spends more time on actual model building and later on the analysis phase of the design. The aim of this project is to design and develop a visual programming environment for the solution of the elliptical partial differential equations. The main core of this software package is based on advanced data structures including graph theory representations and generic trees for fast data linking and processing. Various case studies have been performed. The results are compared with the exact results. (author)

  1. Genetic Programming for Sea Level Predictions in an Island Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ghorbani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate predictions of sea-level are important for geodetic applications, navigation, coastal, industrial and tourist activities. In the current work, the Genetic Programming (GP and artificial neural networks (ANNs were applied to forecast half-daily and daily sea-level variations from 12 hours to 5 days ahead. The measurements at the Cocos (Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean were used for training and testing of the employed artificial intelligence techniques. A comparison was performed of the predictions from the GP model and the ANN simulations. Based on the comparison outcomes, it was found that the Genetic Programming approach can be successfully employed in forecasting of sea level variations.

  2. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  3. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  4. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z; Young, S E; Becker, C H; Coggiola, M J [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  5. Protecting Human Health in a Changing Environment: 2018 Summer Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Research Triangle Park, NC is offering a free 1-week Summer Enrichment Program to educate students about how the Agency protects human health and the environment.

  6. Applications of LabVIEW programming in a glovebox environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.E.; Peralta, G.; Gray, D.

    1995-01-01

    When dealing with neutron radiation one of the keys to reducing worker exposure is to have as much distance and shielding between the radiation and the radiation worker as possible. Using a PC to control a process from a remote location allows the distance between the radiation worker and the radiation source to be increase. Increasing the distance at which radiation worker can control a process allows more shielding to be placed around the glovebox. There are many commercial packages that allow controlling remote processes with a PC. This paper shows how flexible the LabVIEW Graphical Programming Language can be in implementing the remote control of glovebox process

  7. XPRESS: eXascale PRogramming Environment and System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, Ron [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Sterling, Thomas [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Koniges, Alice [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kaiser, Hartmut [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Gabriel, Edgar [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Porterfield, Allan [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Malony, Allen [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The XPRESS Project is one of four major projects of the DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research X-stack Program initiated in September, 2012. The purpose of XPRESS is to devise an innovative system software stack to enable practical and useful exascale computing around the end of the decade with near-term contributions to efficient and scalable operation of trans-Petaflops performance systems in the next two to three years; both for DOE mission-critical applications. To this end, XPRESS directly addresses critical challenges in computing of efficiency, scalability, and programmability through introspective methods of dynamic adaptive resource management and task scheduling.

  8. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  9. Application of high level programs in a controls environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, C.J.; Mouat, M.; Dohan, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Highly interactive display utilities, operating on a VAX/VMS computer system, have been usefully interfaced to the controls environment of the TRIUMF cyclotron. Machine data is acquired by a VAX-CAMAC interface, an is passed to these utilities in an efficient manner by memory mapping to global sections for on-line manipulation. The data can also be readily analyzed off-line by operators with the user-friendly command driven utilities OPDATA and PLOTDATA which permit the user to obtain graphics output on a variety of terminal and hardcopy devices using device independent metafiles. Sample applications show the usefulness of these utilities for a wide range of tasks, such as real-time simulation of trim-coil tuning on the beam phase history, and semi-on-line analysis of radial probe data

  10. Health Prevention Program: the cornerstone for a safe work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Andrade, Augusto; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-07-01

    EnCana in Ecuador is deeply committed through the sustainable development by minimizing and controlling hazards, while contributing to the well being of the people and protecting the environment of the communities where we operate, the health and safety of our employees, as well as preventing any loss and ensuring business continuity. To ensure a safe work environment for all our employees and Contractors, the Company has conducted a complete Risk Evaluation, considering: physical, biological, chemical, ergonomics and psychosocial factors. Based on this Map of Risks, the exposure level and the age of the employee, the Medical Department established four different routines of medical exams (pre-occupational and occupational), which are conducted on a regular two years basis, or even in a shorter period of time, if required. Additionally, medical exams are conducted when an employee is transferred to a different position. All employees have their own records, which document their medical shape when enrolled, at any time while working, and when the person leaves the Company. This allows diagramming the history of employees, the following information: X Axis (horizontal) Age of the employee when enrolled, years (chronological) and position when the exams are conducted. Y Axis (vertical) Capability in terms of percentage, of different organs and physiology (audiometric, ears, lungs, etc.). All this information is processed by the EHS Department, which in conjunction with other departments, plan improvement Safety measures to avoid the exposure of the employees to those factors above mentioned, minimizing potential losses and reducing dramatically costs of accidents and absenteeism. Exactly the same concept is being implemented with Contractors, which must also comply with these requirements. Follow-up of all recommendations is conducted on a regular basis by the Employees, Contractors and Management (Executive) EHS Committees. (author)

  11. 3-color DPAS Aerosol Absorption Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a highly sensitive and compact RGB DPAS aerosol absorption monitor for NASA's Airborne Measurement Program. It will measure aerosol light...

  12. Student Perceptions of Instructional Tools in Programming Logic: A Comparison of Traditional versus Alice Teaching Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the implementation of the programming language Alice to teach computer programming logic to computer information systems students. Alice has been implemented in other university settings and has been reported to have many benefits including object-oriented concepts and an engaging and fun learning environment. In this…

  13. Media, Tourism, Environment, and Cultural Issues in Australia: A Case Study of a Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study abroad program developed by a U.S. journalism school and cosponsored by a college of agriculture and natural resources interweaves the themes of mass media, tourism, environment, and cultural issues in Australia. This article traces the development and evolution of the faculty-led program and discusses its curriculum,…

  14. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Procedures for In... Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test relating to highway movements of commercial goods that are transported in-bond through the United States from one point in Canada to another point in Canada. The NCAP...

  15. Web Environment for Programming and Control of a Mobile Robot in a Remote Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Lopes, Maísa Soares; Gomes, Iago Pacheco; Trindade, Roque M. P.; da Silva, Alzira F.; de C. Lima, Antonio C.

    2017-01-01

    Remote robotics laboratories have been successfully used for engineering education. However, few of them use mobile robots to to teach computer science. This article describes a mobile robot Control and Programming Environment (CPE) and its pedagogical applications. The system comprises a remote laboratory for robotics, an online programming tool,…

  16. The Effects of a Robot Game Environment on Computer Programming Education for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaekwoun; Kwon, Daiyoung; Lee, Wongyu

    2017-01-01

    In the past, computer programming was perceived as a task only carried out by computer scientists; in the 21st century, however, computer programming is viewed as a critical and necessary skill that everyone should learn. In order to improve teaching of problem-solving abilities in a computing environment, extensive research is being done on…

  17. The USCG/environment Canada/ASTM standards development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, H.

    1992-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division (EED) has been charged, as a result of the Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Emergency Response report, with increased R ampersand D in marine oil spills. This activity will, of necessity, include development of standards and guidelines for the testing and/or usage of oil spill cleanup equipment. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) has been charged with implementing the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), as it pertains to marine transportation vessels and facilities. Among the provisions are requirements for vessel and facility owners and operators to develop comprehensive response plans that specifically match response resources to spill removal requirements. Meeting the response plan provisions of OPA-90 requires common standards for testing, selecting and assigning resources to anticipated response needs and objectively evaluating response plans for adequacy. In August of 1991, the USCG OPA-90 office approached ASTM to determine the feasibility of developing standards through that organizations procedures. Meetings were then held between the OPA-90 staff and members of the ASTM Committee F-20 on Hazardous Substances and Oil Spill Response. An agreement was reached to commence standards development in the areas of: Barriers, Skimmers, Treating Agents, Pumps, Beach Clean-up, Sorbents, Bioremediation, In-situ Burning, Temporary Storage Devices, Communications, Remote Sensing. It was recognized that ASTM and other organizational standards existed in several of these areas, but there were those where none were known to exist. Standards development was, therefore, expected to be a complicated and time-consuming process. Both the USCG OPA-90 and EC/EED offices required standards to be developed quickly, without subverting the ASTM process. Mechanical containment and recovery was considered to be the primary area of concern for both groups

  18. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Analysis of postulated energetic reactions and resultant aerosol generation in Hanford Site Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Dickinson, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report reviews work done to estimate the possible consequences of postulated energetic reactions in ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The issue of explosive reactions was raised in the 1987 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), where a detonation-like explosion was postulated for the purpose of defining an upper bound on dose consequences for various disposal options. A review of the explosion scenario by the General Accounting Office (GAO) indicated that the aerosol generation and consequent radioactive doses projected for the explosion postulated in the EIS were understated by one to two orders of magnitude. The US DOE has sponsored an extensive study of the hazard posed by uncontrolled exothermic reactions in ferrocyanide waste, and results obtained during the past three years have allowed this hazard to be more realistically assessed. The objective of this report is to summarize the improved knowledge base that now indicates that explosive or vigorous chemical reactions are not credible in the ferrocyanide waste stored in underground tanks. This improved understanding supports the decision not to proceed with further analyses or predictions of the consequences of such an event or with aerosol tests in support of such predictions. 53 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the airborne environment in urban spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, Nicholas A; Thissen, James B; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Allen, Jonathan E; Rojas, Mark; Golovko, George; Fofanov, Yuriy; Koshinsky, Heather; Jaing, Crystal J

    2015-02-01

    The organisms in aerosol microenvironments, especially densely populated urban areas, are relevant to maintenance of public health and detection of potential epidemic or biothreat agents. To examine aerosolized microorganisms in this environment, we performed sequencing on the material from an urban aerosol surveillance program. Whole metagenome sequencing was applied to DNA extracted from air filters obtained during periods from each of the four seasons. The composition of bacteria, plants, fungi, invertebrates, and viruses demonstrated distinct temporal shifts. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki was detected in samples known to be exposed to aerosolized spores, illustrating the potential utility of this approach for identification of intentionally introduced microbial agents. Together, these data demonstrate the temporally dependent metagenomic complexity of urban aerosols and the potential of genomic analytical techniques for biosurveillance and monitoring of threats to public health.

  20. An overview of environment Canada's National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, A.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the many concerns associated with incineration, Environment Canada established the National Incineration Testing and evaluation Program (NITEP) in 1984. It's mission was to assess the incineration process as a means for disposal of MSW in Canada. The program primarily focused on the environment and health impacts of MSW incinerators by determining how design and operating conditions can be modified to reduce emissions of concern. In addition to developing better measuring and monitoring methods, supporting ash residue management research programs, NITEP established four major field projects to develop the data base necessary for national guidelines. This paper presents a brief overview of the most significant field program findings over the past six years and the rationale for the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Operating and Emissions Guidelines for MSW Incinerators published in June of 1989. In addition an overview of the ash work completed to date, and work still underway, will be presented

  1. Improving delivery of a health-promoting-environments program: experiences from Queensland Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, S

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the key components of a statewide multisite health-promoting-environments program. Contemporary health-promotion programs in settings such as schools, workplaces and hospitals use organisational development theory to address the health issues of the setting, including the physical environment, the organisational environment, and the specific health needs of the employees and consumers of the service. Program principles include management of each project by the participant organisation or site (for example, a school or workplace), using resources available within the organisation and the local community, voluntary participation, social justice and participant-based priority setting, and evaluation and monitoring. Adoption of these principles implies a shift in the role of the health worker from implementer to facilitator. Based on the experience of Queensland Health, it is proposed that the essential building blocks of the health-promoting-environments program are an intersectoral policy base, a model for action, training and resources, local facilitators, support from local organisations, a supportive network of sites, marketing of the program, and a state-based evaluation and monitoring system. The program in Queensland was able to develop a significant number of these components over the 1990-1996 period. In regard to evaluation, process measures can be built around the program components; however, further research is required for development of impact indicators and benchmarks on quality.

  2. Study of radioactive aerosols emissions and establishment of a model in a nuclear medicine environment during the use of a technetium generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the control of radioactive aerosols emissions inside the nuclear medicine facilities. These emissions occur during pulmonary scintigraphy examinations using aerosols marked with 99m Tc. Using a test chamber, we have developed a method permitting to quantify these emissions around the aerosol generator. A method dedicated to emissions measurement coming from the patient during the pulmonary ventilation is also described. The results obtained on one patient are exposed in this thesis. We characterized and modelled the ventilation of a complete nuclear medicine department with a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software. This permitted us to study the dissemination of the radioactive aerosol and to compare it with measures of ambient air activity. The numerical model of this department was then employed to test containment solutions and to help defining the best location for air contaminations sensors. An original method combining staff position information and the simulation of the dissemination for the aerosol released has been used to confirm the exposure levels for several professional groups and enhance the workplace studies. (author)

  3. Environment of symbolic and graphic programming for the SYMPATI-2 line processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Pascal

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a programming environment which can be easily used at all levels of development of an application in the field of image processing. The author first presents different programming environments by distinguishing, on the one hand, languages or environments which are not specific to a machine, and, on the other hand, languages or environments which are dedicated to a specialised parallel architecture. Then, after a recall of the structure of the line processor from an operational point of view, the author proposes a detailed presentation of the 4LP language, i.e. the layer 0 of the environment. The three other layers are then presented. They respectively comprise a high level symbolic language, a user-friendly and interactive graphic tool, and an interactive graphic tool for the development of applications from programme icons

  4. A new methodological development for solving linear bilevel integer programming problems in hybrid fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with fuzzy goal programming approach to solve fuzzy linear bilevel integer programming problems with fuzzy probabilistic constraints following Pareto distribution and Frechet distribution. In the proposed approach a new chance constrained programming methodology is developed from the view point of managing those probabilistic constraints in a hybrid fuzzy environment. A method of defuzzification of fuzzy numbers using ?-cut has been adopted to reduce the problem into a linear bilevel integer programming problem. The individual optimal value of the objective of each DM is found in isolation to construct the fuzzy membership goals. Finally, fuzzy goal programming approach is used to achieve maximum degree of each of the membership goals by minimizing under deviational variables in the decision making environment. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, a numerical example is provided.

  5. Efficient radiologic reading environment by using an open-source macro program as connection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are (1) to introduce an easy open-source macro program as connection software and (2) to illustrate the practical usages in radiologic reading environment by simulating the radiologic reading process. The simulation is a set of radiologic reading process to do a practical task in the radiologic reading room. The principal processes are: (1) to view radiologic images on the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS), (2) to connect the HIS/EMR (Hospital Information System/Electronic Medical Record) system, (3) to make an automatic radiologic reporting system, and (4) to record and recall information of interesting cases. This simulation environment was designed by using open-source macro program as connection software. The simulation performed well on the Window-based PACS workstation. Radiologists practiced the steps of the simulation comfortably by utilizing the macro-powered radiologic environment. This macro program could automate several manual cumbersome steps in the radiologic reading process. This program successfully acts as connection software for the PACS software, EMR/HIS, spreadsheet, and other various input devices in the radiologic reading environment. A user-friendly efficient radiologic reading environment could be established by utilizing open-source macro program as connection software. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient radiologic reading environment by using an open-source macro program as connection software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives are (1) to introduce an easy open-source macro program as connection software and (2) to illustrate the practical usages in radiologic reading environment by simulating the radiologic reading process. Materials and methods: The simulation is a set of radiologic reading process to do a practical task in the radiologic reading room. The principal processes are: (1) to view radiologic images on the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS), (2) to connect the HIS/EMR (Hospital Information System/Electronic Medical Record) system, (3) to make an automatic radiologic reporting system, and (4) to record and recall information of interesting cases. This simulation environment was designed by using open-source macro program as connection software. Results: The simulation performed well on the Window-based PACS workstation. Radiologists practiced the steps of the simulation comfortably by utilizing the macro-powered radiologic environment. This macro program could automate several manual cumbersome steps in the radiologic reading process. This program successfully acts as connection software for the PACS software, EMR/HIS, spreadsheet, and other various input devices in the radiologic reading environment. Conclusion: A user-friendly efficient radiologic reading environment could be established by utilizing open-source macro program as connection software.

  7. Atmospheric fine and coarse mode aerosols at different environments of India and the Bay of Bengal during winter-2014: Implications of a coordinated campaign

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sen, A.; Ahammed, Y.N.; Arya, B.C.; Banerjee, T.; Begam, R.G.; Baruah, B.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Choudhuri, A.K.; Dhir, A.; Das, T.; Dhyani, P.P.; Deb, N.C.; Gadi, R.; Gauns, M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, K.C.; Khan, A.H.; Kumari, K.M.; Kumar, M.; Kumar, A.; Kuniyal, J.C.; Lakhani, A.; Meena, R.K.; Mahapatra, P.S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Singh, D.P.; Pal, S.; Panda, S.; Rohtash; Saikia, J.; Saikia, P.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, P.; Saxena, M.; Shenoy, D.M.; Vachaspati, C.V.; Sharma, S.K.; Mandal, T.K.

    and 83–89�E longitudes. 2.2. Sample Collection and Analysis The APM 550, APM 460 NL and APM 430 samplers used during the campaign are manufactured by M/s. Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. The APM 550 is utilized for sampling aerosols falling... in the PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions (http://www.envirotechindia.com). The impactors are designed as per United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Ambient air enters the sampler through an omni-directional air inlet. PM10 aerosols...

  8. [The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Irene

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem.

  9. CRITERIA OF LANGUAGE AND PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT SELECTION FOR USE IN THE CAPACITY OF EDUCATIONAL AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro H. Shevchuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of educational aids is to a large degree treated to be determinative in provision with its efficiency. The languages and programming environments are stated in the article as those that belong to educational aids. The criteria and backgrounds of their selection for educational purpose at the lessons of programming at comprehensive school are treated in the article. The examples of principle characteristics comparison of Pascal and C# are also cited. The article points at the necessity of further analysis of programming languages sampling for use as educational aids in teaching programming.

  10. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  11. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hardman Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees’ conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors.

  12. Seasonal variability of carbon in humic-like matter of ambient size-segregated water soluble organic aerosols from urban background environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frka, Sanja; Grgić, Irena; Turšič, Janja; Gini, Maria I.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Long-term measurements of carbon in HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS-C) of ambient size-segregated water soluble organic aerosols were performed using a ten-stage low-pressure Berner impactor from December 2014 to November 2015 at an urban background environment in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The mass size distribution patterns of measured species (PM - particulate matter, WSOC - water-soluble organic carbon and HULIS-C) for all seasons were generally tri-modal (primarily accumulation mode) but with significant seasonal variability. HULIS-C was found to have similar distributions as WSOC, with nearly the same mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs), except for winter when the HULIS-C size distribution was bimodal. In autumn and winter, the dominant accumulation mode with MMAD at ca. 0.65 μm contributed 83 and 97% to the total HULIS-C concentration, respectively. HULIS-C accounted for a large fraction of WSOC, averaging more than 50% in autumn and 40% in winter. Alternatively, during warmer periods the contributions of ultrafine (27% in summer) and coarse mode (27% in spring) were also substantial. Based on mass size distribution characteristics, HULIS-C was found to be of various sources. In colder seasons, wood burning was confirmed as the most important HULIS source; secondary formation in atmospheric liquid water also contributed significantly, as revealed by the MMADs of the accumulation mode shifting to larger sizes. The distinct difference between the spring and summer ratios of HULIS-C/WSOC in fine particles (ca. 50% in spring, but only 10% in summer) indicated different sources and chemical composition of WSOC in summer (e.g., SOA formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) via photochemistry). The enlarged amount of HULIS-C in the ultrafine mode in summer suggests that the important contribution was most likely from new particle formation during higher emissions of BVOC due to the vicinity of a mixed deciduous forest; the higher contribution of

  13. From LDEF to a national Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program: A natural progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, David E.; Calloway, Robert L.; Funk, Joan G.; Kinard, William H.; Levine, Arlene S.

    1995-02-01

    As the LDEF program draws to a close, it leaves in place the fundamental building blocks for a Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program. Results from LDEF data analyses and investigations now form a substantial core of knowledge on the long term effects of the space environment on materials, system and structures. In addition, these investigations form the basic structure of a critically-needed SEE archive and database system. An agency-wide effort is required to capture all elements of a SEE program to provide a more comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, determining the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, updating the models which predict both the environments and those effects on subsystems and spacecraft, and, finally, ensuring that this multitudinous information is properly maintained, and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Many parts and pieces of a SEE program already exist at various locations to fulfill specific needs. The primary purpose of this program, under the direction of the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in NASA Headquarters, is to take advantage of these parts; apply synergisms where possible; identify and when possible fill-in gaps; coordinate and advocate a comprehensive SEE program. The SEE program must coordinate and support the efforts of well-established technical communities wherein the bulk of the work will continue to be done. The SEE program will consist of a NASA-led SEE Steering Committee, consisting of government and industry users, with the responsibility for coordination between technology developers and NASA customers; and Technical Working Groups with primary responsibility for program technical content in response to user needs. The Technical Working Groups are as follows: Materials and Processes; Plasma and Fields; Ionizing Radiation; Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Neutral External Contamination; Thermosphere, Thermal, and Solar

  14. Aerosol variability over the Mediterranean basin from 2005-2012 POLDER-3/PARASOL and AERONET/PHOTONS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, Isabelle; Ducos, Fabrice; Dulac, François; Léon, Jean-François; Mallet, Marc; Tanré, Didier; Goloub, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    POLDER-3 (Polarization and Directionnality of the Earth's Reflectances) has been launched on board the PARASOL microsatellite in December 2004. Although the PARASOL orbit has been lowered twice (in September 2009 and in November 2011) compared to the other platforms of the A-Train constellation, POLDER observations continue, providing now more than seven years of innovative retrievals of aerosol properties from space. In this study we focus on analyzing POLDER-3 capabilities to derive both aerosol loads (Total Aerosol Optical Thickness) and size properties (fine and coarse spherical/non-spherical Aerosol Optical Thickness, Angström coefficients) over oceanic surfaces. This analysis, as part of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, focus on the Mediterranean basin, a region under the influence of a complex mixture of aerosols from different sources. Especially we aim to investigate the respective contributions of (i) pollution aerosols (emitted by industry and urban environments of some European regions or megacities surrounding the basin), (ii) carbonaceous particles (from biomass burning events), (iii) mineral dust exported from arid and semi-arid regions of North Africa. In a first step, our study consists in an analysis of aerosol variability retrieved from AERONET/PHOTONS photometer records from selected sites located in Western part of the Mediterranean basin (i.e., Soust-East of France, Spain, Corsica/Sardinia), as well as central part (i.e., Italia and Lampedusa), and Eastern part (i.e.,Greece and Turkey). These measurements provide a unique characterization of both aerosol load (aerosol optical depth) and properties (size distribution and absorption though single scattering albedo) and their temporal variability over each part of the Mediterranean basin. The second step focus on a regional validation of the PARASOL monthly aerosol products by comparison with these equivalent and selected ground-based AERONET

  15. MathModelica - An Extensible Modeling and Simulation Environment with Integrated Graphics and Literate Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2002-01-01

    MathModelica is an integrated interactive development environment for advanced system modeling and simulation. The environment integrates Modelica-based modeling and simulation with graphic design, advanced scripting facilities, integration of program code, test cases, graphics, documentation, mathematical type setting, and symbolic formula manipulation provided via Mathematica. The user interface consists of a graphical Model Editor and Notebooks. The Model Editor is a graphical user interfa...

  16. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; De Smet, M.; Trine, J.; Hertschap, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m 3 /h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m 3 /h at 400 0 C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134 Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  17. Prediction of fission product and aerosol behaviour during a postulated severe accident in a LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentay, S.; Aeby, F.; Raguin, M.; Passalacqua, R.

    1990-02-01

    Lack of appropriate energy removal causes fuel elements in a reactor core to overheat and may eventually cause core to degrade. Fission products will be emitted from a degraded reactor core. Aerosols are generated when the vapours of various fuel and structural materials reach a cold environment and nucleate. In addition to the fission products release and aerosol generation taking place in the reactor vessel, some more fission products release and aerosol generation will occur when the molten core debris leaves the pressure vessel bottom head and comes in contact with the pedestal concrete floor. Fission products, if they are released to environment from the containment boundary, exert a great danger to public health. A source term is defined as the quantity, timing, and characteristics of the release of radionuclide material to the environment following a postulated severe accident. At PSI a considerable effort hase been spent in investigating and establishing a source term assessment methodology in order to predict the source term for a given Light Water Reactor (LWR) accident scenario. This report introduces the computer programs and the methods associated with the release of the fission products, generation of the aerosols and behaviour of the aerosols in LWR compartments used for a source term assessment analysis at PSI. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 28 refs

  18. Applying the National Industrial Security Program (NISP) in the laboratory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    With continuing changes in the world safeguards and security environment the effectiveness of many laboratory operations depends on correctly assessing the risk to its programs and developing protection technologies, research and concepts of operations being employed by the scientific community. This paper explores the opportunities afforded by the National Industrial Security Program (NISP) to uniformly and simply protect Laboratory security assets, sensitive and classified information and matter, during all aspects of a laboratory program. The developments in information systems, program security, physical security and access controls suggest an industrial security approach. This paper's overall objective is to indicate that the Laboratory environment is particularly well suited to take advantage being pursued by NISP and the performance objectives of the new DOE orders

  19. AutoMicromanager: A microscopy scripting toolkit for LABVIEW and other programming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Brian Alan; Oosterkamp, Tjerk

    2010-11-01

    We present a scripting toolkit for the acquisition and analysis of a wide variety of imaging data by integrating the ease of use of various programming environments such as LABVIEW, IGOR PRO, MATLAB, SCILAB, and others. This toolkit is designed to allow the user to quickly program a variety of standard microscopy components for custom microscopy applications allowing much more flexibility than other packages. Included are both programming tools as well as graphical user interface classes allowing a standard, consistent, and easy to maintain scripting environment. This programming toolkit allows easy access to most commonly used cameras, stages, and shutters through the Micromanager project so the scripter can focus on their custom application instead of boilerplate code generation.

  20. AutoMicromanager: a microscopy scripting toolkit for LABVIEW and other programming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Brian Alan; Oosterkamp, Tjerk

    2010-11-01

    We present a scripting toolkit for the acquisition and analysis of a wide variety of imaging data by integrating the ease of use of various programming environments such as LABVIEW, IGOR PRO, MATLAB, SCILAB, and others. This toolkit is designed to allow the user to quickly program a variety of standard microscopy components for custom microscopy applications allowing much more flexibility than other packages. Included are both programming tools as well as graphical user interface classes allowing a standard, consistent, and easy to maintain scripting environment. This programming toolkit allows easy access to most commonly used cameras, stages, and shutters through the Micromanager project so the scripter can focus on their custom application instead of boilerplate code generation.

  1. The USERDA transport R and D program for environment and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisler, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's (ERDA) transportation environment and safety research and development program for energy fuels and wastes, including background, current activities, and future plans. It will serve as an overview and integrating factor for the several related technical papers to be presented at this meeting which will enlarge on the detail of specific projects. The transportation R and D program provides for the environmental and safety review of transport systems and procedures; standards development; and package, vehicle, and systems testing for nuclear materials transport. A primary output of the program is the collection, processing, and dissemination of transport environment and safety data, shipment statistics, and technical information. Special transport projects which do not easily fit elsewhere in ERDA are usually done as a part of this program. (author)

  2. Bibliography of the Interagency Energy/Environment R and D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoff, F.S. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The Interagency Energy/Environment Research and Development Program, which is comprised of more than a dozen federal agencies and departments, is coordinated by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry within EPA's Office of Research and Development. The Interagency Program integrates research efforts in two main categories: health and environmental effects of energy systems and development of environmental control technologies. This bibliography lists publications resulting from research and development (R and D) performed under the auspices of the Interagency Program. The publications contained herein range from the Program's most current R and D and date back to the Program's inception in 1975. It has been designed to be used with three companion documents, each of which explores different facets of the Program.

  3. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  4. Premonsoon aerosol optical properties from AERONET retrievals and its probable source fields in Eastern India urban environment (Kolkata): evaluating spatial variability and its comparison with MODIS retrievals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, B.; Verma, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol characteristics were examined using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and MODIS retrievals (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) during the period, February to June 2009 in Eastern India, Kolkata (KOL). AERONET retrievals results for the study period manifested an aerosol optical depth - AOD (Angstrom exponent - α) in the range 0.65 - 0.81 (0.66 - 0.97) with an intermittent influence of dust. A substantial dominance of finer (coarser) particles were found in February (April) and an equal dominance of both in June. Aerosol size distribution (ASD) revealed a high volume in fine mode during June and that in April for the coarse mode. A few areas of in and around KOL, Odisha, and Sikkim influenced AOD ascertained using the Potential source contribution function (PSCF). Cluster analysis revealed preferred pathway as continental during February and both continental and marine during March to June. Episodic days identified for dust occurrence was examined and was further corroborated by MODIS Rapid response images. Further, comparative results of seven collateral AERONET sites in India, revealed a high AOD (α) at KOL during February to May (March and April) with Fine mode - FM (Coarse mode - CM) AOD of KOL being high during March and April (February to April) than other locations. Single scattering albedo (SSA) at 0.67 μm at KOL was slightly lower during February and March, with being equivalent and or higher than other sites during April to June. Comparison of AERONET - MODIS AOD at 0.55 µm for KOL (entire study period) for the collateral days revealed underestimation of MODIS during February to April and overestimation during May and June than AERONET. AERONET - MODIS AOD comparison for seven locations, during low (February) and high (June) aerosol loading, showed good agreement for few stations and divulged discrepancy for other sites.

  5. Onshore Wind Speed Modulates Microbial Aerosols along an Urban Waterfront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elias Dueker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind blowing over aquatic and terrestrial surfaces produces aerosols, which include microbial aerosols. We studied the effect of onshore wind speeds on aerosol concentrations as well as total and culturable microbial aerosols (bacterial and viral at an urban waterfront (New York, NY, United States of America. We used two distinct methods to characterize microbial aerosol responses to wind speed: A culture-based exposure-plate method measuring viable bacterial deposition near-shore (CFU accumulation rate; and a culture-independent aerosol sampler-based method measuring total bacterial and viral aerosols (cells m−3 air. While ambient coarse (>2 µm and fine (0.3–2 µm aerosol particle number concentrations (regulated indicators of air quality decreased with increasing onshore wind speeds, total and depositing culturable bacterial aerosols and total viral aerosols increased. Taxonomic identification of the 16S rDNA of bacterial aerosol isolates suggested both terrestrial and aquatic sources. Wind appears to increase microbial aerosol number concentrations in the near-shore environment by onshore transport at low wind speeds (<4 m s−1, and increased local production and transport of new microbial aerosols from adjacent water surfaces at higher wind speeds (>4 m s−1. This study demonstrates a wind-modulated microbial connection between water and air in the coastal urban environment, with implications for public health management and urban microbial ecology.

  6. The Design and Pilot Evaluation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Introductory Programming Influenced by Cognitive Load Theory and Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Jan; De Backer, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the architecture and evaluation of a novel environment for programming education. The design of this programming environment, and the way it is used in class, is based on the findings of constructivist and cognitivist learning paradigms. The environment is evaluated based on qualitative student and teacher evaluations and…

  7. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vette, J.I.

    1991-11-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  10. Impact of a process improvement program in a production software environment: Are we any better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Gerard H.; Page, Gerald T.

    1990-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) has participated in a process improvement program as a member of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), which is sponsored by GSFC. The benefits CSC has derived from involvement in this program are analyzed. In the environment studied, it shows that improvements were indeed achieved, as evidenced by a decrease in error rates and costs over a period in which both the size and the complexity of the developed systems increased substantially. The principles and mechanics of the process improvement program, the lessons CSC has learned, and how CSC has capitalized on these lessons are also discussed.

  11. Monitoring the Impacts of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems and Public Health in the Exo-Urban Environment Using High-Resolution Satellite Aerosol Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Amy K; Kondragunta, Shobha; Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing development of exo-urban environments and the spread of urbanization into forested areas is making humans and forest ecosystems more susceptible to the risks associated with wildfires. Larger and more damaging wildfires are having a negative impact on forest ecosystem services, and smoke from wildfires adversely affects the public health of people living in exo-urban environments. Satellite aerosol measurements are valuable tools that can track the evolution of wildfires and monitor the transport of smoke plumes. Operational users, such as air quality forecasters and fire management officials, can use satellite observations to complement ground-based and aircraft measurements of wildfire activity. To date, wildfire applications of satellite aerosol products, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been limited by the relatively coarse resolution of available AOD data. However, the new Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has high-resolution AOD that is ideally suited to monitoring wildfire impacts on the exo-urban scale. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750-m × 750-m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6-km × 6-km resolution Environmental Data Record product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. True color (red, green, and blue [RGB]) imagery and a smoke mask at 750-m × 750-m resolution are also available from VIIRS as decision aids for wildfire applications; they serve as counterparts to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke in the atmosphere. To meet the needs of operational users, who do not have time to process raw data files and need access to VIIRS products in near-real time (NRT), VIIRS AOD and RGB NRT imagery are available from the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) web site. A key feature of IDEA is an interactive visualization tool that allows users to

  12. Run-Time and Compiler Support for Programming in Adaptive Parallel Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edjlali

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available For better utilization of computing resources, it is important to consider parallel programming environments in which the number of available processors varies at run-time. In this article, we discuss run-time support for data-parallel programming in such an adaptive environment. Executing programs in an adaptive environment requires redistributing data when the number of processors changes, and also requires determining new loop bounds and communication patterns for the new set of processors. We have developed a run-time library to provide this support. We discuss how the run-time library can be used by compilers of high-performance Fortran (HPF-like languages to generate code for an adaptive environment. We present performance results for a Navier-Stokes solver and a multigrid template run on a network of workstations and an IBM SP-2. Our experiments show that if the number of processors is not varied frequently, the cost of data redistribution is not significant compared to the time required for the actual computation. Overall, our work establishes the feasibility of compiling HPF for a network of nondedicated workstations, which are likely to be an important resource for parallel programming in the future.

  13. Economic Security Environment and Implementation of Planning, Programming, Budgeting, Execution (PPBE) System in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Roy J. What Determines Economic Growth? Economic Review – Second Quarter 1993 [References: Barro (1991); Mankiw , Romer, and Well (1992); De Long...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ECONOMIC SECURITY...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Economic Security Environment and Implementation of Planning, Programming, Budgeting, Execution

  14. The Use of Engineering Design Concept for Computer Programming Course: A Model of Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritrakan, Kasame; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Asanok, Manit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a learning model which blends factors from learning environment and engineering design concept for learning in computer programming course. The usage of the model was also analyzed. This study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of the model. The research methodology is divided into three…

  15. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Design for the Environment Product Labeling Program OIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-4012, November 06, 2013. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) is starting preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Design for the Environment (DfE) Product Labeling Program.

  16. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Program Managers Regarding an Automated Logistics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ronald Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Automated Logistics Environment (ALE) is a new term used by Navy and aerospace industry executives to describe the aggregate of logistics-related information systems that support modern aircraft weapon systems. The development of logistics information systems is not always well coordinated among programs, often resulting in solutions that cannot…

  17. Enriched Home Environment Program for Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Divya; Szymanski, Monika; Schranz, Caren

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the impact of the Enriched Home Environment Program (EHEP) on participation in home activities among two children with ASD using case study methodology. EHEP involves occupational therapists to collaborate with families of children with ASD to educate them about the impact of factors that influence child's participation within…

  18. Assessment of the impacts of the French nuclear program on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an assessment of the impact of the French nuclear program on investments, on electricity price, on electricity and energy demand and especially on environment. The impact on atmosphere pollution which is based on a macro economic long term model (called MELODY), particularly detailed for the energy sector, is outlined. (TEC). 10 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  19. Testing Algorithmic Skills in Traditional and Non-Traditional Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Máth, János; Abari, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    The Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills (TAaAS) project was launched in the 2011/2012 academic year to test first year students of Informatics, focusing on their algorithmic skills in traditional and non-traditional programming environments, and on the transference of their knowledge of Informatics from secondary to tertiary education. The…

  20. Interviews with College Students: Evaluating Computer Programming Environments for Introductory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Murat Pasa

    2014-01-01

    Different methods, strategies, or tools have been proposed for teaching Object Oriented Programming (OOP). However, it is still difficult to introduce OOP to novice learners. The problem may be not only adopting a method or language, but also use of an appropriate integrated development environment (IDE). Therefore, the focus should be on the…

  1. Small-grants programs: lessons from community-based approaches to changing nutrition environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Smith, Lynne T; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    Providing small grants to community organizations can be an effective way to encourage changes in the environment that support better nutrition. This is effective because these organizations can provide insights into their communities, ready-made relationships with community members, and the trust of the community. Small-grants programs are more likely to be successful when they are tailored to the needs of individual communities, led by organizations that have established reputations with the community, fully supported by the lead community organization, and engage local partners that complement the skills and resources of the lead organization. An evaluation of a small-grants program, Grants for Healthy Youth, found that grantees developed unique approaches to improving their community nutrition environments, gained experience and skills in program development, built partnerships, and received recognition for their project work. Grantees faced some common barriers, especially with program evaluation. Small-grants programs can be an effective way to improve community nutrition environments, but granting agencies need to provide effective technical assistance to communities throughout the process.

  2. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is

  3. Enhancement of the Work in Scia Engineer's Environment by Employment of XML Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortiš Ján

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards [1] has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language [2], [3].

  4. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  5. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  6. The Appropriateness of Scratch and App Inventor as Educational Environments for Teaching Introductory Programming in Primary and Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Stamatios; Kalogiannakis, Michail; Orfanakis, Vasileios; Zaranis, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Teaching programming is a complex task. The task is even more challenging for introductory modules. There is an ongoing debate in the teaching community over the best approach to teaching introductory programming. Visual block-based programming environments allow school students to create their own programs in ways that are more accessible than in…

  7. Rehabilitation Program Integrating Virtual Environment to Improve Orientation and Mobility Skills for People Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of a virtual environment (BlindAid) in an orientation and mobility rehabilitation program as a training aid for people who are blind. BlindAid allows the users to interact with different virtual structures and objects through auditory and haptic feedback. This research explores if and how use of the BlindAid in conjunction with a rehabilitation program can help people who are blind train themselves in familiar and unfamiliar spaces. The study, focused on nine participants who were congenitally, adventitiously, and newly blind, during their orientation and mobility rehabilitation program at the Carroll Center for the Blind (Newton, Massachusetts, USA). The research was implemented using virtual environment (VE) exploration tasks and orientation tasks in virtual environments and real spaces. The methodology encompassed both qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, a questionnaire, videotape recording, and user computer logs. The results demonstrated that the BlindAid training gave participants additional time to explore the virtual environment systematically. Secondly, it helped elucidate several issues concerning the potential strengths of the BlindAid system as a training aid for orientation and mobility for both adults and teenagers who are congenitally, adventitiously, and newly blind.

  8. Aerosols and the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The lectures of the colloquium are discussed in summary form. There were 5 lectures on aerosol deposition, 5 on aerosol elimination, 7 on toxicology, and 7 on the uses of aerosols in medical therapy. In some cases aerosols with radioactive labels were used. Several lectures reviewed the kinetics and toxicology of airborne environmental pollutants. (MG) [de

  9. Mechanical properties test program on structural materials in a sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Chopra, O.K.; Kassner, T.F.

    1979-10-01

    This document describes in detail the ongoing and planned US Test program on the mechanical properties of sodium-exposed Type 316 austenitic stainless and Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steels. The test program is based on the Development Requirement Specifications (DRS) established by the DOE/Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) Program Office, the general need for the development of LMFBR structural-design criteria established by the Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook, and the need for a fundamental understanding of materials behavior in a sodium environment, which is generic to LMFBR systems. The planned test program is an extension of work based on current knowledge of sodium chemistry and the influence of sodium purity on the mechanical properties of structural materials

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  11. The intercomparison of aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way

  12. A simple interface to computational fluid dynamics programs for building environment simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, III, C R; Chen, Q [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    It is becoming a popular practice for architects and HVAC engineers to simulate airflow in and around buildings by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods in order to predict indoor and outdoor environment. However, many CFD programs are crippled by a historically poor and inefficient user interface system, particularly for users with little training in numerical simulation. This investigation endeavors to create a simplified CFD interface (SCI) that allows architects and buildings engineers to use CFD without excessive training. The SCI can be easily integrated into new CFD programs. (author)

  13. Optical characterization of metallic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenbo; Lin Bing

    2006-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates from industry and urban sources are highly conducting aerosols. The characterization of these pollutant particles is important for environment monitoring and protection. Because these metallic particulates are highly reflective, their effect on local weather or regional radiation budget may also need to be studied. In this work, light scattering characteristics of these metallic aerosols are studied using exact solutions on perfectly conducting spherical and cylindrical particles. It is found that for perfectly conducting spheres and cylinders, when scattering angle is larger than ∼90 o the linear polarization degree of the scattered light is very close to zero. This light scattering characteristics of perfectly conducting particles is significantly different from that of other aerosols. When these perfectly conducting particles are immersed in an absorbing medium, this light scattering characteristics does not show significant change. Therefore, measuring the linear polarization of scattered lights at backward scattering angles can detect and distinguish metallic particulates from other aerosols. This result provides a great potential of metallic aerosol detection and monitoring for environmental protection

  14. Secondary organic aerosol formation by limonene ozonolysis: Parameterizing multi-generational chemistry in ozone- and residence time-limited indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.

    2016-11-01

    Terpene ozonolysis reactions can be a strong source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. SOA formation can be parameterized and predicted using the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), also known as the SOA yield, which quantifies the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized terpene. Limonene is a monoterpene that is at sufficient concentrations such that it reacts meaningfully with ozone indoors. It has two unsaturated bonds, and the magnitude of the limonene ozonolysis AMF varies by a factor of ∼4 depending on whether one or both of its unsaturated bonds are ozonated, which depends on whether ozone is in excess compared to limonene as well as the available time for reactions indoors. Hence, this study developed a framework to predict the limonene AMF as a function of the ozone [O3] and limonene [lim] concentrations and the air exchange rate (AER, h-1), which is the inverse of the residence time. Empirical AMF data were used to calculate a mixing coefficient, β, that would yield a 'resultant AMF' as the combination of the AMFs due to ozonolysis of one or both of limonene's unsaturated bonds, within the volatility basis set (VBS) organic aerosol framework. Then, β was regressed against predictors of log10([O3]/[lim]) and AER (R2 = 0.74). The β increased as the log10([O3]/[lim]) increased and as AER decreased, having the physical meaning of driving the resultant AMF to the upper AMF condition when both unsaturated bonds of limonene are ozonated. Modeling demonstrates that using the correct resultant AMF to simulate SOA formation owing to limonene ozonolysis is crucial for accurate indoor prediction.

  15. Papers of the 15. french congress on the aerosols CFA 99; Actes du 15. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1999. It was presented in four main themes: bio-aerosols and filtering; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols in the environment; aerosols physic and applications. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in the nuclear industry. They concern the aerosol capture simulation, the aerosols sampling in workplace environment, a ring-effect ion generator development for the charge and the neutralization of an aerosol cloud, the radon 222 characterization in a house, a particle re-entrainment, the electrical charge process of beta emitter radioactive aerosols, the simulation of air flows in many filters. The other ones are analyzed in the ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  16. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primus, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  17. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  18. Development of programming techniques for behaviors of nuclear robot in real environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Hirukawa, Hirohisa; Kitagaki, Kosei; Onda, Hiromu; Nakamura, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of synthetic autonomous technique on nuclear robot for a basic technique to realize remote control and automation of works in a nuclear plant by means of development on action programming function under actual environment. Before 1997 fiscal year, development of manipulation description system due to contact state transition series, development of mechanical assembly work instruction system using contact actuating system, development of new manipulator system with excellent controllability, development of quasi contact point monitoring method, and development of environmental model construction method using range finder and instruction tree, had been conducted. In 1997 fiscal year, probability of nuclear robot, on synthetic autonomous technique was shown by synthesis of many results on action programming planning function into a prototype system under an actual environment obtained by those developments. (G.K.)

  19. A new sampler for simulating aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Yi Yanling; Chen Bo; Liu Haikuan

    2008-01-01

    For estimation of the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract, a new sampler consisting of three different configurations of sampling heads was developed. The deposition fractions of aerosols on the wire screens inside the sampling heads were calculated with the fan model of filtration theory. The deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the respiratory tract were calculated with the lung dose evaluation program (LUDEP) developed by National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as references. In general indoor and mine environments, the deviation between the deposition fractions of attached aerosol on the wire screens designed in this study and its reference values in the respiratory tract is less than 5%. It is possible to accurately estimate the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract through mimic measurements of radon progeny collected with the new sampler. (authors)

  20. A Drawing and Multi-Representational Computer Environment for Beginners' Learning of Programming Using C: Design and Pilot Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents both the design and the pilot formative evaluation study of a computer-based problem-solving environment (named LECGO: Learning Environment for programming using C using Geometrical Objects) for the learning of computer programming using C by beginners. In its design, constructivist and social learning theories were taken into…

  1. A mixed-methods exploration of an environment for learning computer programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A mixed-methods approach is evaluated for exploring collaborative behaviour, acceptance and progress surrounding an interactive technology for learning computer programming. A review of literature reveals a compelling case for using mixed-methods approaches when evaluating technology-enhanced-learning environments. Here, ethnographic approaches used for the requirements engineering of computing systems are combined with questionnaire-based feedback and skill tests. These are applied to the ‘Ceebot’ animated 3D learning environment. Video analysis with workplace observation allowed detailed inspection of problem solving and tacit behaviours. Questionnaires and knowledge tests provided broad sample coverage with insights into subject understanding and overall response to the learning environment. Although relatively low scores in programming tests seemingly contradicted the perception that Ceebot had enhanced understanding of programming, this perception was nevertheless found to be correlated with greater test performance. Video analysis corroborated findings that the learning environment and Ceebot animations were engaging and encouraged constructive collaborative behaviours. Ethnographic observations clearly captured Ceebot's value in providing visual cues for problem-solving discussions and for progress through sharing discoveries. Notably, performance in tests was most highly correlated with greater programming practice (p≤0.01. It was apparent that although students had appropriated technology for collaborative working and benefitted from visual and tacit cues provided by Ceebot, they had not necessarily deeply learned the lessons intended. The key value of the ‘mixed-methods’ approach was that ethnographic observations captured the authenticity of learning behaviours, and thereby strengthened confidence in the interpretation of questionnaire and test findings.

  2. VHDL-based programming environment for Floating-Gate analog memory cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto dos Reis Filho

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available An implementation in CMOS technology of a Floating-Gate Analog Memory Cell and Programming Environment is presented. A digital closed-loop control compares a reference value set by user and the memory output and after cycling, the memory output is updated and the new value stored. The circuit can be used as analog trimming for VLSI applications where mechanical trimming associated with postprocessing chip is prohibitive due to high costs.

  3. Sample triage : an overview of Environment Canada's program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P.; Goldthorp, M.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch

    2006-07-01

    The Chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) is a program led by Canada's Department of National Defence in an effort to improve the capability of providing technical and analytical support in the event of a terrorist-related event. This paper summarized the findings from the CRTI Sample Triage Working Group and reviewed information on Environment Canada's triage program and its' mobile sample inspection facility that was designed to help examine samples of hazardous materials in a controlled environment to minimize the risk of exposure. A sample triage program is designed to deal with administrative, health and safety issues by facilitating the safe transfer of samples to an analytical laboratory. It refers to the collation of all results including field screening information, intelligence and observations for the purpose of prioritizing and directing the sample to the appropriate laboratory for analysis. A central component of Environment Canada's Emergency Response Program has been its capacity to respond on site during an oil or chemical spill. As such, the Emergencies Science and Technology Division has acquired a new mobile sample inspection facility in 2004. It is constructed to work with a custom designed decontamination unit and Ford F450 tow vehicle. The criteria and general design of the trailer facility was described. This paper also outlined the steps taken following a spill of hazardous materials into the environment so that potentially dangerous samples could be safety assessed. Several field trials will be carried out in order to develop standard operating procedures for the mobile sample inspection facility. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  4. Structuring learning environments: Lessons from the organization of post-literacy programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter A.

    1989-12-01

    New conceptual and historical work on the nature of literacy and information on several bellwether post-literacy efforts in developing countries furnish a basis for diagnosing some of the deficiencies in current approaches to post-literacy programming. The key issue is the design of a `literate environment'. Heretofore attention has been concentrated too exclusively on the reading materials and continuing education side of the problem, and insufficient attention has been given to the more critical and difficult aspect: ensuring adequate opportunities for the application of new literate skills. The availability of these functional opportunities is closely related to the possibilities for accumulation and reinvestment of economic surplus in the environment, and to the way in which the related activities are organized. Literacy programs can unite skills relevant to management of local resources with strategies of cultural, political or religious revitalization that mobilize people to use their human resources. They therefore continue to offer an attractive means of initiating a reinvestment spiral from limited initial capital. To realize these potentials at the post-literacy stage, however, requires planning post-literacy before literacy, broadening programs to address primary school leavers as well, and paying greatly increased attention to the economic and social structure of the learning environment.

  5. Updated African biomass burning emission inventories in the framework of the AMMA-IDAF program, with an evaluation of combustion aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liousse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available African biomass burning emission inventories for gaseous and particulate species have been constructed at a resolution of 1 km by 1km with daily coverage for the 2000–2007 period. These inventories are higher than the GFED2 inventories, which are currently widely in use. Evaluation specifically focusing on combustion aerosol has been carried out with the ORISAM-TM4 global chemistry transport model which includes a detailed aerosol module. This paper compares modeled results with measurements of surface BC concentrations and scattering coefficients from the AMMA Enhanced Observations period, aerosol optical depths and single scattering albedo from AERONET sunphotometers, LIDAR vertical distributions of extinction coefficients as well as satellite data. Aerosol seasonal and interannual evolutions over the 2004–2007 period observed at regional scale and more specifically at the Djougou (Benin and Banizoumbou (Niger AMMA/IDAF sites are well reproduced by our global model, indicating that our biomass burning emission inventory appears reasonable.

  6. Infrared Absorption by Atmospheric Aerosols in Mexico City during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    found as colloidal materials in surface and groundwaters (4). Examples of the IR spectra obtained and variance as a function of time at the two sites will be presented. The spectra are taken in Kubelka - Munk format, which also allows the infrared absorption strengths to be evaluated as function of wavelength. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n + ik) in the infrared spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and M.M. Cunningham,Environ. Sci. Technol. 27 2864-2869 (1993). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and M.M. Cunningham, Spectroscopy 7 44-53 (1992). 3. J.S. Gaffney and N.A. Marley, Atmospheric Environment, New Directions contribution, 32, 2873-2874 (1998). 4. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX- Mex) under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328.

  7. Developing the leadership skills of new graduates to influence practice environments: a novice nurse leadership program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan; Sherman, Rose

    2011-01-01

    The authors of the recently published Institute of Medicine on the Future of Nursing report emphasized the importance of preparing nurses to lead change to advance health care in the United States. Other scholars linked practice environments to safe quality care. In order for nurses to fully actualize this role in practice environments, they need to possess leadership skills sets that identify and respond to challenges faced. New nurses are no exception. This article presents a program with a 5-year track record that is designed to support transition and enhance the skill sets of leadership for new nurses in their first year of practice. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation measurements at baseline and postprogram provided data for evaluation of the first 4 cohorts in the program. Evaluative outcomes presented indicate that new nurses gained leadership and translational research skills that contributed to their ability to influence practice environments. Nonetheless, practice environments continue to need improvement and ongoing leadership from all levels of nursing must be upheld.

  8. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, B.W.; Wilkinson, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium environmental data for use in risk assessments and the status of research programs being conducted by various organizations related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  10. Online public health preparedness training programs: an evaluation of user experience with the technological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Priya

    2010-01-01

    Several public health education programs and government agencies across the country have started offering virtual or online training programs in emergency preparedness for people who are likely to be involved in managing or responding to different types of emergency situations such as natural disasters, epidemics, bioterrorism, etc. While such online training programs are more convenient and cost-effective than traditional classroom-based programs, their success depends to a great extent on the underlying technological environment. Specifically, in an online technological environment, different types of user experiences come in to play-users' utilitarian or pragmatic experience, their fun or hedonic experience, their social experience, and most importantly, their usability experience-and these different user experiences critically shape the program outcomes, including course completion rates. This study adopts a multi-disciplinary approach and draws on theories in human computer interaction, distance learning theories, usability research, and online consumer behavior to evaluate users' experience with the technological environment of an online emergency preparedness training program and discusses its implications for the design of effective online training programs. . Data was collected using a questionnaire from 377 subjects who had registered for and participated in online public health preparedness training courses offered by a large public university in the Northeast. Analysis of the data indicates that as predicted, participants had higher levels of pragmatic and usability experiences compared to their hedonic and sociability experiences. Results also indicate that people who experienced higher levels of pragmatic, hedonic, sociability and usability experiences were more likely to complete the course(s) they registered for compared to those who reported lower levels. The study findings hold important implications for the design of effective online emergency

  11. User's guide of parallel program development environment (PPDE). The 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hirokazu; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Higuchi, Kenji; Hirayama, Toshio; Ohta, Hirofumi

    2000-03-01

    The STA basic system has been enhanced to accelerate support for parallel programming on heterogeneous parallel computers, through a series of R and D on the technology of parallel processing. The enhancement has been made through extending the function of the PPDF, Parallel Program Development Environment in the STA basic system. The extended PPDE has the function to make: 1) the automatic creation of a 'makefile' and a shell script file for its execution, 2) the multi-tools execution which makes the tools on heterogeneous computers to execute with one operation a task on a computer, and 3) the mirror composition to reflect editing results of a file on a computer into all related files on other computers. These additional functions will enhance the work efficiency for program development on some computers. More functions have been added to the PPDE to provide help for parallel program development. New functions were also designed to complement a HPF translator and a parallelizing support tool when working together so that a sequential program is efficiently converted to a parallel program. This report describes the use of extended PPDE. (author)

  12. User's guide of parallel program development environment (PPDE). The 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hirokazu; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Higuchi, Kenji; Hirayama, Toshio [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ohta, Hirofumi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The STA basic system has been enhanced to accelerate support for parallel programming on heterogeneous parallel computers, through a series of R and D on the technology of parallel processing. The enhancement has been made through extending the function of the PPDF, Parallel Program Development Environment in the STA basic system. The extended PPDE has the function to make: 1) the automatic creation of a 'makefile' and a shell script file for its execution, 2) the multi-tools execution which makes the tools on heterogeneous computers to execute with one operation a task on a computer, and 3) the mirror composition to reflect editing results of a file on a computer into all related files on other computers. These additional functions will enhance the work efficiency for program development on some computers. More functions have been added to the PPDE to provide help for parallel program development. New functions were also designed to complement a HPF translator and a paralleilizing support tool when working together so that a sequential program is efficiently converted to a parallel program. This report describes the use of extended PPDE. (author)

  13. User's guide of parallel program development environment (PPDE). The 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hirokazu; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Imamura, Toshiyuki; Koide, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Katsuyuki; Higuchi, Kenji; Hirayama, Toshio [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Ohta, Hirofumi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The STA basic system has been enhanced to accelerate support for parallel programming on heterogeneous parallel computers, through a series of R and D on the technology of parallel processing. The enhancement has been made through extending the function of the PPDF, Parallel Program Development Environment in the STA basic system. The extended PPDE has the function to make: 1) the automatic creation of a 'makefile' and a shell script file for its execution, 2) the multi-tools execution which makes the tools on heterogeneous computers to execute with one operation a task on a computer, and 3) the mirror composition to reflect editing results of a file on a computer into all related files on other computers. These additional functions will enhance the work efficiency for program development on some computers. More functions have been added to the PPDE to provide help for parallel program development. New functions were also designed to complement a HPF translator and a paralleilizing support tool when working together so that a sequential program is efficiently converted to a parallel program. This report describes the use of extended PPDE. (author)

  14. Policy, environment, and worksite fitness program participation among financial enterprise employees in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheu-Jen; Hung, Wen-Chi

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the intertwined effects between the policies and regulations of the companies and personal background on participation in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time activities in financial enterprises. A total of 823 employees were selected as the sample with the multilevel stratification random-sampling technique. The response rate was 52.0%. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and hierarchical linear logistic regression. Thirty-two percent and 39% of the employees participated in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time activities, respectively. The factors affecting participation were categorized into intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, and primary groups, as well as institutional factors. In the interpersonal processes and primary groups level, higher family social support, more equipment in health promotion was associated with more participation in the programs. With the influence from the institutional level, it was found that health promotion policy amplified the relationship between employees' age and participation, but attenuated the relationship between education level and participation. Health promotion equipment in the institutes attenuated the relationship between colleague social support, family social support, and education level with program participation. Physical activity equipment in the community attenuated the relationship between family social support and program participation. The influential factors of social support and worksite environment could predict the employees' participation in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time physical activities. Health promotion policy and equipment attenuated the negative effects of nonparticipation as well as amplified the positive effects of participation.

  15. Overview of a radiation safety program in a district style medical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the eight components of a radiation safety program in a large health care facility spread out over several campuses in a large geographic area in Nova Scotia. The main focus is based on those areas that are regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and generally encompass nuclear medicine and radiation therapy operations. X-ray operations are regulated provincially, but the general operational principles of an effective radiation safety program can be applied in all these areas. The main components covered include the set up of an organizational structure that operates separately from individual departments, general items expected from reports to corporate management or regulators, and some examples of the front-line expectations for those in individual departments. The review is not all encompassing, but should give organizations some insight of the magnitude of a radiation safety program in a district style environment. (author)

  16. Design Program in Graphic User Interface Environment for Automobile ER Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. C.; Park, J. S.; Sohn, J. W.; Choi, S. B.

    This work presents a design and analysis program for vehicle devices utilizing an electrorheological (ER) fluid. The program is operated in graphic user interface (GUI) environment and the initial window is consisted of four subprogram modules which are related to ER shock absorber, ER seat damper, ER engine mount, and ER anti-lock brake system (ABS), respectively. In order to execute each module, both material properties and design parameters are to be chosen by the user. Then, the output display window shows the field-dependent performance characteristics to be considered as design criteria. In addition, control performances of the vehicle system equipped with ER devices are displayed in time and frequency domain. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed program, ER shock absorber and ER ABS are designed and manufactured and their performance characteristics are evaluated.

  17. Virtual Property Manager: Providing a Simulated Learning Environment in a New University Program of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Carswell

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates the experience that students have while accessing Virtual Property Manager (VPM, a Web-based simulation learning tool designed to introduce students to a new discipline being offered at the university – Residential Property Management. The VPM simulation was designed in part to develop student interest in the new program. Results indicate that this simple simulation device did make a notable impact on student interest. Additionally, student acceptance and self-reported impact differed significantly based upon the delivery context. Adding a competitive reward element to the simulation experience improved student's evaluation of the software and self-reported interest in the field. Results indicate that educational simulation evaluation, acceptance, and performance may often be substantially influenced by the delivery context, rather than simply the program itself. Developers may do well to focus "outside the box" of program content to promote audience-specific delivery environments.

  18. Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Plan for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting BWID activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to BWID operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program Plans, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and System and Performance audits as they apply to the BWID Program

  19. An adaptive staircase procedure for the E-Prime programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, W David; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Many studies need to determine a subject's threshold for a given task. This can be achieved efficiently using an adaptive staircase procedure. While the logic and algorithms for staircases have been well established, the few pre-programmed routines currently available to researchers require at least moderate programming experience to integrate into new paradigms and experimental settings. Here, we describe a freely distributed routine developed for the E-Prime programming environment that can be easily integrated into any experimental protocol with only a basic understanding of E-Prime. An example experiment (visual temporal-order-judgment task) where subjects report the order of occurrence of two circles illustrates the behavior and consistency of the routine.

  20. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  1. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  2. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  3. Microworlds, Games, Animations, Mobile Apps, Puzzle Editors and More: What Is Important for an Introductory Programming Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios; Satratzemi, Maya; Malliarakis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Teaching and learning programming constitutes a challenge. Although several teaching approaches and programming tools have been proposed, it seems that they have limited impact on classroom practice. This article investigates students' perceptions on five educational programming environments that are widely used and the features that any…

  4. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  5. Assessment of aerosol radiation environment in short-range region of ChNPP during building of the new safe confinment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Shynkarenko, V.K.; Kashpur, V.A.; Skoryak, G.G.; Kalinovsky, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Variability of 137 Cs volume activity in a subsurface layer of the atmosphere of a short-range region of the object ''Shelter'' (object ''Ukryttya'') during the works on building of a new safety confinement in 2016 was investigated. Influence of the type and location of works, weather conditions, and sampling points was shown. Excess of medial permissible concentrations of 137 Cs in the air was not fixed during the observations. However, due to the averaging of the measured values of the volume activity for the exposure time of the filter and use of the stationary aerosol samplers, it cannot ensure the absence of excess of the permissible concentrations at the locations of works and on the propagation path of the local emission plumes. In 2016, as well as in 2013 - 2015, high levels of 137 Cs volume activity in the air were preferentially localized near to the machine hall of the 4th block and near to the places of ground works at the industrial site [ 1]. Concurrently the levels of volume activity essentially grew (practically by the order of magnitude) due to the intense works on the machine hall transformation. The conservative estimation of volume activity of isotopes of the plutonium, executed in the assumption of fuel composition of hot particles, showed the presence of substantial excess of permissible limits even for the average values within, at least, four weeks. Absence of reliable correlation (R = -0.09) of 137 Cs volume activity in the air near to the machine hall and near to the aerosol sampler 1,4 km remote from it testifies the localization of pollution within the industrial site.

  6. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach

  7. SimITK: rapid ITK prototyping using the Simulink visual programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, A. W. L.; Mousavi, P.; Gobbi, D. G.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) is a long-established, software package used for image analysis, visualization, and image-guided surgery applications. This package is a collection of C++ libraries, that can pose usability problems for users without C++ programming experience. To bridge the gap between the programming complexities and the required learning curve of ITK, we present a higher-level visual programming environment that represents ITK methods and classes by wrapping them into "blocks" within MATLAB's visual programming environment, Simulink. These blocks can be connected to form workflows: visual schematics that closely represent the structure of a C++ program. Due to the heavily C++ templated nature of ITK, direct interaction between Simulink and ITK requires an intermediary to convert their respective datatypes and allow intercommunication. We have developed a "Virtual Block" that serves as an intermediate wrapper around the ITK class and is responsible for resolving the templated datatypes used by ITK to native types used by Simulink. Presently, the wrapping procedure for SimITK is semi-automatic in that it requires XML descriptions of the ITK classes as a starting point, as this data is used to create all other necessary integration files. The generation of all source code and object code from the XML is done automatically by a CMake build script that yields Simulink blocks as the final result. An example 3D segmentation workflow using cranial-CT data as well as a 3D MR-to-CT registration workflow are presented as a proof-of-concept.

  8. Characterization of urban aerosol sources in Debrecen, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szoboszlai, T.; Angyal, A.; Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Aerosol pollution represents significant health hazard in urban environments. Despite the fact that Debrecen has not a much stressed environment the city is highly exposed to aerosol pollution. In order to evaluate the impact of aerosol particles on health, the knowledge of the particle size distribution, chemical composition, sources, and their change in time and space is needed. This work presents a source apportionment study of fine (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and coarse (particles with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) particulate matter in Debrecen by following the evolution of the elemental components with hourly time resolution. The variation of the elemental concentrations, their periodicity, correlation with other elements and meteorological parameters were studied on samples collected in different seasons. Aerosol sources were determined using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method. Aerosol samples were collected in the garden of the ATOMKI with a 2-stage sequential streaker sampler manufactured by PIXE International, which collected the fine and coarse fraction separately with few hours' time resolution. Between October 2007 and January 2009 five 10-days long sampling campaigns were carried out. The elemental composition was determined by Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for Z ≥ 13, and the elemental carbon (BC) content was estimated with a smoke stain reflectometer. Source apportionment was carried out with the PMF receptor model developed for aerosol source characterization, provided by US EPA. Mass of species apportioned to factor, percentage of species apportioned to factors and average factor contributions of the campaigns, of working days and weekends and within the days were calculated. The PMF analysis resulted seven factors in the fine and seven factors in the coarse mode. The main sources of atmospheric aerosol in the city of Debrecen were traffic

  9. Analysis of NSPP experiment with ART code for analyzing transport behavior of Aerosol and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-01-01

    The ART code calculates transport behavior of aerosols and radionuclides during core meltdown accidents in the light water reactors. Since aerosols play an important role in carrying fission products from the core region to the environment, the ART code includes detailed models of aerosol behavior. Aerosols including several radionuclides are classified into many groups according to the aerosol mass. The models of aerosol behavior include agglomeration processes caused by Brownian motion, aerosol settling velocity difference and turbulent flow, and natural deposition processes due to diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, gravitational settling and forced convection. In order to examine validity of the ART models, the NSPP aerosol experiment was analyzed. The ART calculated results showed good agreement with the experimental data. It was ascertained that aerosol growth due to agglomeration, gravitational settling, thermophoresis in an air atmosphere, and diffusiophoresis in an air-steam atmosphere were important physical phenomena in the aerosol behavior. (author)

  10. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  11. Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Kahn, Ralph A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Yu, Hongbin; Rind, David; Feingold, Graham; Quinn, Patricia K.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Streets, David G.; DeCola, Phillip; hide

    2009-01-01

    This report critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols, as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible next steps aimed at substantially reducing uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Current measurement techniques and modeling approaches are summarized, providing context. As a part of the Synthesis and Assessment Product in the Climate Change Science Program, this assessment builds upon recent related assessments, including the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4, 2007) and other Climate Change Science Program reports. The objectives of this report are (1) to promote a consensus about the knowledge base for climate change decision support, and (2) to provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the climate-relevant impacts of anthropogenic aerosols for policy makers, policy analysts, and general public, both within and outside the U.S government and worldwide.

  12. Papers of the 15. french congress on the aerosols CFA 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1999. It was presented in four main themes: bio-aerosols and filtering; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols in the environment; aerosols physic and applications. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in the nuclear industry. They concern the aerosol capture simulation, the aerosols sampling in workplace environment, a ring-effect ion generator development for the charge and the neutralization of an aerosol cloud, the radon 222 characterization in a house, a particle re-entrainment, the electrical charge process of beta emitter radioactive aerosols, the simulation of air flows in many filters. The other ones are analyzed in the ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  13. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  14. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, Bart W.; Wilkinson, Martha J.

    1983-01-01

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments

  15. Papers of the 14. french congress on the aerosols CFA 98; Actes du 14. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Eight papers have been analyzed in ETDE data base showing the importance of the aerosols physic knowledge in the air quality and seven other in the INIS data base for their specific interest in the nuclear industry. (A.L.B.)

  16. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  17. Fetal programming of blood pressure in a transgenic mouse model of altered intrauterine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Costantine, Maged M; Tamayo, Esther; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Longo, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide is essential in the vascular adaptation to pregnancy, as knockout mice lacking nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) have abnormal utero-placental perfusion, hypertension and growth restriction. We previously showed with ex vivo studies on transgenic animals lacking NOS3 that adverse intrauterine environment alters fetal programming of vascular reactivity in adult offspring. The current research shows that altered vascular reactivity correlates with higher blood pressure in vivo. Our data suggest that higher blood pressure depends on both genetic background (NOS3 deficiency) and uterine environment, becomes more evident with age (> 7 postnatal weeks), activity and stress, is gender specific (preponderant among males), and can be affected by the sleep-awake cycle. In utero or early postnatal life (programming is associated with abnormal blood pressure (BP) profiles in vivo. Mice lacking a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (KO, NOS3 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT, NOS3 +/+ ) were crossbred to generate homozygous NOS3 -/- (KO), maternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOM: mother with adverse intrauterine environment from NOS3 deficiency), paternally derived heterozygous NOS3 +/- (KOP: mother with normal in utero milieu) and NOS3 +/+ (WT) litters. BP was measured in vivo at 7, 14 and 21 weeks of age. After univariate analysis, multivariate population-averaged linear regression models were used to identify factors affecting BP. When compared to WT offspring, systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MAP) BP progressively increased from KOP, to KOM, and peaked among KO (P 7 postnatal weeks), higher locomotor activity, daytime recordings, and recent blood pressure transducer insertion (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that KOM had higher SBP than KOP (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that adverse intrauterine environment contributes, along with multiple other factors, to account for hypertension; moreover, in utero or early postnatal life may represent

  18. After the Conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The national environmental action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Following to the Strategy, priorities and principles of the state environmental policy the government of the Slovak republic has accepted by resolution No 350/1996 the first National environmental action program (NEAP), This NEAP contains the measures for attaining of aims of the Strategy in all nine sectors of protection and creation of the environment. The NEAP contains 1356 measures with conceptual, legislative, economic, educational-educational, scientific-research (including monitoring) and organizational character. The measures of the NEAP in detail are discussed

  19. Genetic programming for evolving due-date assignment models in job shop environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Su; Zhang, Mengjie; Johnston, Mark; Tan, Kay Chen

    2014-01-01

    Due-date assignment plays an important role in scheduling systems and strongly influences the delivery performance of job shops. Because of the stochastic and dynamic nature of job shops, the development of general due-date assignment models (DDAMs) is complicated. In this study, two genetic programming (GP) methods are proposed to evolve DDAMs for job shop environments. The experimental results show that the evolved DDAMs can make more accurate estimates than other existing dynamic DDAMs with promising reusability. In addition, the evolved operation-based DDAMs show better performance than the evolved DDAMs employing aggregate information of jobs and machines.

  20. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large warming by elevated aerosols · AERONET – Global network (NASA) · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Slide 31 · Long-term trends - Trivandrum · Enhanced warming over Himalayan-Gangetic region · Aerosol Radiative Forcing Over India _ Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment ...

  1. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  2. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H.E. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  3. An Interactive Learning Environment for Teaching the Imperative and Object-Oriented Programming Techniques in Various Learning Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios

    The acquisition of problem-solving and programming skills in the era of knowledge society seems to be particularly important. Due to the intrinsic difficulty of acquiring such skills various educational tools have been developed. Unfortunately, most of these tools are not utilized. In this paper we present the programming microworlds Karel and objectKarel that support the procedural-imperative and Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) techniques and can be used for supporting the teaching and learning of programming in various learning contexts and audiences. The paper focuses on presenting the pedagogical features that are common to both environments and mainly on presenting the potential uses of these environments.

  4. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  5. NASA's Aerosol Sampling Experiment Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  6. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalardo Gelsomina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

  7. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-04-01

    The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS) is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

  8. Assessment of Changes in School Nutrition Programs and the School Environment as a Result of Following the HealthierUS School Challenge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…

  9. Assessment of microphysical and chemical factors of aerosols over seas of the Russian Artic Eastern Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobokova, Liudmila; Polkin, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The newly observed kickoff of the Northern Route development drew serious attention to state of the Arctic Resource environment. Occurring climatic and environmental changes are more sensitively seen in polar areas in particular. Air environment control allows for making prognostic assessments which are required for planning hazardous environmental impacts preventive actions. In August - September 2013, RV «Professor Khlustin» Northern Sea Route expeditionary voyage took place. En-route aerosol sampling was done over the surface of the Beringov, Chukotka and Eastern-Siberia seas (till the town of Pevek). The purpose of sampling was to assess spatio-temporal variability of optic, microphysical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles of the surface layer within different areas adjacent to the Northern Sea Route. Aerosol test made use of automated mobile unit consisting of photoelectric particles counter AZ-10, aetalometr MDA-02, aspirator on NBM-1.2 pump chassis, and the impactor. This set of equipment allows for doing measurements of number concentration, dispersed composition of aerosols within sizes d=0.3-10 mkm, mass concentration of submicron sized aerosol, and filter-conveyed aerosols sampling. Filter-conveyed aerosols sampling was done using method accepted by EMEP and EANET monitoring networks. The impactor channel was upgraded to separate particles bigger than 1 mkm in size, and the fine grain fraction settled down on it. Reverse 5-day and 10-day trajectories of air mass transfer executed at heights of 10, 1500 and 3500 m were analyzed. The heights were selected by considerations that 3000 m is the height which characterizes air mass trend in the lower troposphere. 1500 m is the upper border of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the sampling was done in the Earth's surface layer at less than 10 m. Minimum values of the bespoken microphysical characteristics are better characteristic of higher latitudes where there are no man induced sources of

  10. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  11. Student perception of the educational environment in regular and bridging nursing programs in Saudi Arabia using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nozha, Omar Mansour; Fadel, Hani T

    2017-01-01

    Taibah University offers regular nursing (RNP) and nursing bridging (NBP) bachelor programs. We evaluated student perception of the learning environment as one means of quality assurance. To assess nursing student perception of their educational environment, to compare the perceptions of regular and bridging students, and to compare the perceptions of students in the old and new curricula. Cross-sectional survey. College of Nursing at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) instrument was distributed to over 714 nursing students to assess perception of the educational environment. Independent samples t test and Pearson's chi square were used to compare the programs and curricula. The DREEM inventory score. Of 714 students, 271 (38%) were RNP students and 443 (62%) were NBP students. The mean (standard deviation) DREEM score was 111 (25). No significant differences were observed between the programs except for the domain "academic self-perceptions" being higher in RNP students (P .05). Nursing students generally perceived their learning environment as more positive than negative. Regular students were more positive than bridging students. Students who experienced the new curriculum were more positive towards learning. The cross-sectional design and unequal gender and study level distributions may limit generalizability of the results. Longitudinal, large-scale studies with more even distributions of participant characteristics are needed.

  12. Aerosol retention in the flooded steam generator bundle during SGTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Dehbi, Abdel; Guentay, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → High retention of aerosol particles in a steam generator bundle flooded with water. → Increasing particle inertia, i.e., particle size and velocity, increases retention. → Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle flooded with water than in a dry bundle. → Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle than in a bare pool. → Bare pool models have to be adapted to be applicable for flooded bundles. - Abstract: A steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor may cause accidental release of radioactive particles into the environment. Its specific significance is in its potential to bypass the containment thereby providing a direct pathway of the radioactivity from the primary circuit to the environment. Under certain severe accident scenarios, the steam generator bundle may be flooded with water. In addition, some severe accident management procedures are designed to minimize the release of radioactivity into the environment by flooding the defective steam generator secondary side with water when the steam generator has dried out. To extend our understanding of the particle retention phenomena in the flooded steam generator bundle, tests were conducted in the ARTIST and ARTIST II programs to determine the effect of different parameters on particle retention. The effects of particle type (spherical or agglomerate), particle size, gas mass flow rate, and the break submergence on particle retention were investigated. Results can be summarized as follows: increasing particle inertia was found to increase retention in the flooded bundle. Particle shape, i.e., agglomerate or spherical structure, did not affect retention significantly. Even with a very low submergence, 0.3 m above the tube break, significant aerosol retention took place underlining the importance of the jet-bundle interactions close to the tube break. Droplets were entrained from the water surface with

  13. Aerosol behaviour modeling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, J A; Reed, L D [Batelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Aerosol behavior within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) containments is of critical importance since most of the radioactive species are expected to be associated with particulate forms and the mass of radiologically significant material leaked to the ambient atmosphere is directly related to the aerosol concentration airborne within the containment. Mathematical models describing the behavior of aerosols in closed environments, besides providing a direct means of assessing the importance of specific assumptions regarding accident sequences, will also serve as the basic tool with which to predict the consequences of various postulated accident situations. Consequently, considerable efforts have been recently directed toward the development of accurate and physically realistic theoretical aerosol behavior models. These models have accounted for various mechanisms affecting agglomeration rates of airborne particulate matter as well as particle removal rates from closed systems. In all cases, spatial variations within containments have been neglected and a well-mixed control volume has been assumed. Examples of existing computer codes formulated from the mathematical aerosol behavior models are the Brookhaven National Laboratory TRAP code, the PARDISEKO-II and PARDISEKO-III codes developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, and the HAA-2, HAA-3, and HAA-3B codes developed by Atomics International. Because of their attractive short computation times, the HAA-3 and HAA-3B codes have been used extensively for safety analyses and are attractive candidates with which to demonstrate order of magnitude estimates of the effects of various physical assumptions. Therefore, the HAA-3B code was used as the nucleus upon which changes have been made to account for various physical mechanisms which are expected to be present in postulated accident situations and the latest of the resulting codes has been termed the HAARM-2 code. It is the primary purpose of the HAARM

  14. Climatology of Aerosol Optical Properties in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queface, Antonio J.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Eck, Thomas F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    A thorough regionally dependent understanding of optical properties of aerosols and their spatial and temporal distribution is required before we can accurately evaluate aerosol effects in the climate system. Long term measurements of aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent and retrieved single scattering albedo and size distribution, were analyzed and compiled into an aerosol optical properties climatology for southern Africa. Monitoring of aerosol parameters have been made by the AERONET program since the middle of the last decade in southern Africa. This valuable information provided an opportunity for understanding how aerosols of different types influence the regional radiation budget. Two long term sites, Mongu in Zambia and Skukuza in South Africa formed the core sources of data in this study. Results show that seasonal variation of aerosol optical thicknesses at 500 nm in southern Africa are characterized by low seasonal multi-month mean values (0.11 to 0.17) from December to May, medium values (0.20 to 0.27) between June and August, and high to very high values (0.30 to 0.46) during September to November. The spatial distribution of aerosol loadings shows that the north has high magnitudes than the south in the biomass burning season and the opposite in none biomass burning season. From the present aerosol data, no long term discernable trends are observable in aerosol concentrations in this region. This study also reveals that biomass burning aerosols contribute the bulk of the aerosol loading in August-October. Therefore if biomass burning could be controlled, southern Africa will experience a significant reduction in total atmospheric aerosol loading. In addition to that, aerosol volume size distribution is characterized by low concentrations in the non biomass burning period and well balanced particle size contributions of both coarse and fine modes. In contrast high concentrations are characteristic of biomass burning period, combined with

  15. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  16. Ecological behaviour of high-thermal origin cesium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiies, A.H.; Ronneau, C.; Apers, D.; Myttenaer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Nine-fold Cs enrichment of the forming aerosols' surface in a result of heating UO 2 pellets up to 2000degC. Such aerosols contain up to 90% of the dissoluble Cs fraction in aqueous environment, that explains ecological behaviour of 134 Cs and 137 Cs

  17. Nursing students' perceptions of their educational environment in the bachelor's programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Gideon; Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Parveen, Subia

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nursing students' perceptions of their educational environment in a private college. Perceptions were compared between genders and 2 bachelor's programs. A total of 219 students participated in this study, drawn from the Generic Bachelor of Science in Nursing (GBSN) and the Post-Registered Nurse Bachelor of Science in Nursing (PRBSN) programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure was utilized for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate total scores, as well as means and standard deviations, and the t-test was applied for comparisons according to program and gender. The overall total mean score (119 of 200) is suggestive of more positive than negative perceptions of the educational environment. The mean score of 13 of 28 on the social self-perception subscale suggests that the social environment was felt to be 'not a nice place.' The t-test revealed more positive perceptions among students enrolled in the PRBSN program (Pnursing students. Both positive and negative perceptions were reported; the overall sense of a positive environment was present, but the social component requires immediate attention, along with other unsatisfactory components. Establishing a supportive environment conducive to competence-based learning would play an important role in bringing desirable changes to the educational environment.

  18. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  19. THE PROPOSED MODEL OF COLLABORATIVE VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR INTRODUCTORY PROGRAMMING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfudzah OTHMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the proposed model of the collaborative virtual learning system for the introductory computer programming course which uses one of the collaborative learning techniques known as the “Think-Pair-Share”. The main objective of this study is to design a model for an online learning system that facilitates the collaborative learning activities in a virtual environment such as online communications and pair or small group discussions. In order to model the virtual learning environment, the RUP methodology has been used where it involves the data collection phase and the analysis and design phase. Fifty respondents have been randomly selected to participate in the data collection phase to investigate the students’ interest and learning styles as well as their learning preferences. The results have shown the needs for the development of online small group discussions that can be used as an alternative learning style for programming courses. The proposed design of the virtual learning system named as the Online Collaborative Learning System or OCLS is being depicted using the object-oriented models which are the use-case model and class diagram in order to show the concise processes of virtual “Think-Pair-Share” collaborative activities. The “Think-Pair-Share” collaborative learning technique that is being used in this model has been chosen because of its simplicity and relatively low-risk. This paper also presents the proposed model of the system’s architecture that will become the guidelines for the physical development of OCLS using the web-based applications.

  20. Pulmonary aerosol delivery and the importance of growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddrell, Allen E; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Vehring, Reinhard; Murnane, Darragh; Reid, Jonathan P

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols are dynamic systems, responding to variations in the surrounding environmental conditions by changing in size, composition and phase. Although, widely used in inhalation therapies, details of the processes occurring on aerosol generation and during inhalation have received little attention. Instead, research has focused on improvements to the formulation of the drug prior to aerosolization and the resulting clinical efficacy of the treatment. Here, we highlight the processes that occur during aerosol generation and inhalation, affecting aerosol disposition when deposited and, potentially, impacting total and regional doses. In particular, we examine the response of aerosol particles to the humid environment of the respiratory tract, considering both the capacity of particles to grow by absorbing moisture and the timescale for condensation to occur. [Formula: see text].

  1. Influence of moisture on the behavior of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Longest, A.W.; Tobias, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment has been studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It has been observed that in a saturated steam-air environment a change occurs in the shape of aerosol agglomerates of U 3 O 8 aerosol, Fe 2 O 3 aerosol, and mixed U 3 O 8 -Fe 2 O 3 aerosol from branched-chain to spherical, and that the rate of reduction in the airborne aerosol mass concentration is increased relative to the rate observed in a dry atmosphere. The effect of a steam-air environment on the behavior of concrete aerosol is different. The shape of the agglomerated concrete aerosol is intermediate between branched-chain and spherical and the effect on the rate of reduction in airborne mass concentration appears to be slight. In a related project the shape of an agglomerated Fe 2 O 3 aerosol was observed to change from branched-chain to spherical at, or near, 100% relative humidity

  2. Influence of moisture on the behavior of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Longest, A.W.; Tobias, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor accident sequences and released into containment has been studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has been observed that in a saturated steam-air environment a change occurs in the shape of aerosol agglomerates of U 3 O 8 aerosol, Fe 2 O 3 aerosol, and mixed U 3 O 8 -Fe 2 O 3 aerosol from branched-chain to spherical, and that the rate of reduction in the airborne aerosol mass concentration is increased relative to the rate observed in a dry atmosphere. The effect of a steam-air environment on the behavior of concrete aerosol is different. The shape of the agglomerated concrete aerosol is intermediate between branched-chain and spherical and the effect on the rate of reduction in airborne mass concentration appears to be slight. In a related project the shape of an agglomerated Fe 2 O 3 aerosol was observed to change from branched-chain to spherical at, or near, 100% relative humidity

  3. Antarctic aerosols - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1988-02-01

    Tropospheric aerosols with the diameter range of half a micron reside in the atmosphere for tens of days and teleconnect Antarctica with other regions by transport that reaches planetary scales of distances; thus, the aerosol on the Antarctic ice represents 'memory modules' of events that took place at regions separated from Antarctica by tens of thousands of kilometers. In terms of aerosol mass, the aerosol species include insoluble crustal products (less than 5 percent), transported sea-salt residues (highly variable but averaging about 10 percent), Ni-rich meteoric material, and anomalously enriched material with an unknown origin. Most (70-90 percent by mass) of the aerosol over the Antarctic ice shield, however, is the 'natural acid sulfate aerosol', apparently deriving from biological processes taking place in the surrounding oceans.

  4. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  5. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  6. The influence of fog parameters on aerosol depletion measured in the KAEVER experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poss, G.; Weber, D.; Fritsche, B.

    1995-01-01

    The release of radioactive aerosols in the environment is one of the most serious hazards in case of an accident in nuclear power plant. Many efforts have been made in the past in numerous experimental programs like NSPP, DEMONA, VANAM, LACE, MARVIKEN, others are still underway to improve the knowledge of the aerosol behavior and depletion in a reactor containment in order to estimate the possible source term and to validate computer codes. In the German single compartment KAEVER facility the influence of size distribution, morphology, composition and solubility on the aerosol behavior is investigated. One of the more specific items is to learn about open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes means, the aerosol depletion behavior in condensing atmospheres. There are no experiments known where the fog parameters like droplet size distribution, volume concentration, respectively airborne liquid water content have been measured in- and on-line explicitly. To the authors knowledge the use of the Battelle FASP photometer, which was developed especially for this reason, for the first time gives insight in condensation behavior under accident typical thermal hydraulic conditions. It delivers a basis for code validation in terms of a real comparison of measurements and calculations. The paper presents results from open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes aerosol experiments demonstrating how depletion velocity depends on the fog parameters and where obviously critical fog parameter seem to change the regime from a open-quotes pseudo dry depletionclose quotes at a relative humidity of 100% but quasi no or very low airborne liquid water content to a real open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes under the presence of fogs with varying densities. Characteristics are outlined how soluble and insoluble particles as well as aerosol mixtures behave under condensing conditions

  7. Investigation on aerosol transport in containment cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parozzi, F.; Chatzidakis, S.; Housiadas, C.; Gelain, T.; Nahas, G.; Plumecocq, W.; Vendel, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Hinis, E.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Malgarida, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions, the containment leak-tightness could be threatened by energetic phenomena that could yield a release to the environment of nuclear aerosols through penetrating concrete cracks. As few data are presently available to quantify this aerosol leakage, a specific action was launched in the framework of the Santar Project of the European 6 th Framework Programme. In this context, both theoretical and experimental investigations have been managed to develop a model that can readily be applied within a code like Aster (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). Particle diffusion, settling, turbulent deposition, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis have been considered as deposition mechanisms inside the crack path. They have been encapsulated in numerical models set up to reproduce experiments with small tubes and capillaries and simulate the plug formation. Then, an original lagrangian approach has been used to evaluate the crack retention under typical PWR accident conditions, comparing its predictions with those given by the eulerian approach implemented in the ECART code. On the experimental side, the paper illustrates an aerosol production and measurement system developed to validate aerosol deposition models into cracks and the results that can be obtained: a series of tests were performed with monodispersed fluorescein aerosols injected into a cracked concrete sample. A key result that should be further explored refers to the high enhancement of aerosol retention that could be due to steam condensation. Recommendations concerning future experimentation are also given in the paper. (author)

  8. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  9. Automatically visualise and analyse data on pathways using PathVisioRPC from any programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Anwesha; Eijssen, Lars M T; van Iersel, Martijn P; Leemans, Christ; Willighagen, Egon L; Kutmon, Martina; Jaillard, Magali; Evelo, Chris T

    2015-08-23

    Biological pathways are descriptive diagrams of biological processes widely used for functional analysis of differentially expressed genes or proteins. Primary data analysis, such as quality control, normalisation, and statistical analysis, is often performed in scripting languages like R, Perl, and Python. Subsequent pathway analysis is usually performed using dedicated external applications. Workflows involving manual use of multiple environments are time consuming and error prone. Therefore, tools are needed that enable pathway analysis directly within the same scripting languages used for primary data analyses. Existing tools have limited capability in terms of available pathway content, pathway editing and visualisation options, and export file formats. Consequently, making the full-fledged pathway analysis tool PathVisio available from various scripting languages will benefit researchers. We developed PathVisioRPC, an XMLRPC interface for the pathway analysis software PathVisio. PathVisioRPC enables creating and editing biological pathways, visualising data on pathways, performing pathway statistics, and exporting results in several image formats in multiple programming environments. We demonstrate PathVisioRPC functionalities using examples in Python. Subsequently, we analyse a publicly available NCBI GEO gene expression dataset studying tumour bearing mice treated with cyclophosphamide in R. The R scripts demonstrate how calls to existing R packages for data processing and calls to PathVisioRPC can directly work together. To further support R users, we have created RPathVisio simplifying the use of PathVisioRPC in this environment. We have also created a pathway module for the microarray data analysis portal ArrayAnalysis.org that calls the PathVisioRPC interface to perform pathway analysis. This module allows users to use PathVisio functionality online without having to download and install the software and exemplifies how the PathVisioRPC interface can be

  10. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can

  11. Aerosol modelling and validation during ESCOMPTE 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, F.; Liousse, C.; Cachier, H.; Bessagnet, B.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    The ESCOMPTE 2001 programme (Atmospheric Research. 69(3-4) (2004) 241) has resulted in an exhaustive set of dynamical, radiative, gas and aerosol observations (surface and aircraft measurements). A previous paper (Atmospheric Research. (2004) in press) has dealt with dynamics and gas-phase chemistry. The present paper is an extension to aerosol formation, transport and evolution. To account for important loadings of primary and secondary aerosols and their transformation processes in the ESCOMPTE domain, the ORISAM aerosol module (Atmospheric Environment. 35 (2001) 4751) was implemented on-line in the air-quality Meso-NH-C model. Additional developments have been introduced in ORganic and Inorganic Spectral Aerosol Module (ORISAM) to improve the comparison between simulations and experimental surface and aircraft field data. This paper discusses this comparison for a simulation performed during one selected day, 24 June 2001, during the Intensive Observation Period IOP2b. Our work relies on BC and OCp emission inventories specifically developed for ESCOMPTE. This study confirms the need for a fine resolution aerosol inventory with spectral chemical speciation. BC levels are satisfactorily reproduced, thus validating our emission inventory and its processing through Meso-NH-C. However, comparisons for reactive species generally denote an underestimation of concentrations. Organic aerosol levels are rather well simulated though with a trend to underestimation in the afternoon. Inorganic aerosol species are underestimated for several reasons, some of them have been identified. For sulphates, primary emissions were introduced. Improvement was obtained too for modelled nitrate and ammonium levels after introducing heterogeneous chemistry. However, no modelling of terrigeneous particles is probably a major cause for nitrates and ammonium underestimations. Particle numbers and size distributions are well reproduced, but only in the submicrometer range. Our work points out

  12. MANAGEMENT basic professional educational program IN THE CONDITIONS OF information and educational environment based on cloud TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Bryksina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the advantages of building information-educational environment of the basic professional educational program based on cloud technologies. Universal tool for building information-educational environment is Google Apps for Education services, which allows to organize the effective cooperation of all participants of the educational process, to plan collaborative activities, properly allocate resources and provide the solution of various learning tasks by necessary tools. Examples of using various Google-services in the organization of the collaborative activities of teachers of the department of applied informatics and information technologies in education of the Minin Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University to improve implementation of the basic professional educational program in the direction of preparation "Information systems and technology". The core of the informational and educational environment of the basic professional educational program is Google-site that integrates different Google services and Google Apps applications.

  13. Influence of Library Environments, Instructional Programs, and User-Librarian Collaborations on Library Use by Undergraduate Students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amusa Oyintola Isiaka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study employed a survey method to investigate the influence of library environments, user education, and user-librarian collaborations on the use of academic libraries by undergraduate students in Nigeria. 2,676 students from six universities in the South-West Nigeria responded to the questionnaire. The findings revealed that the academic libraries are less used because of the availability of alternative information systems (such as the Internet, reading-rooms in residence halls and apartments, poor library environment, inadequate user education programs, and absence of formal user-librarian collaboration programs. It is recommended that the internal and external environment of the libraries be improved, that user education programs be extended to 2 semesters, and that user-librarian collaborations be institutionalised.

  14. Coupling R and PHREEQC: an interactive and extensible environment for efficient programming of geochemical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    PHREEQC [1] is a widely used non-interactive open source software for speciation, batch-reactions, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical caclulations. It represents the tool of choice for many researchers and practicioners for a broad set of geochemical problems, underground CO2 storage among others. Its open source nature, the flexibility to program arbitrary kinetic laws for the chemical reactions, as well as a thorough implementation of the Pitzer formalism explain its success and longevity. However, its non-interactive architecture make it cumbersome to couple PHREEQC to transport programs to achieve reactive transport simulations [2], but also to overcome the limitations of PHREEQC itself regarding the setup of large numbers of simulations - for example exploring wide ranges of conditions - and the graphical evaluation of the results. This has been the main motivation leading to the development of an interface with the high level language and environment for statistical computing and graphics GNU R [3]. The interface consists of minor modifications in PHREEQC's C source code, only affecting data I/O, plus on the R side a bunch of helper functions used to setup the simulations - basically automated manipulation of PHREEQC's input files, which are text files - and to collect and visualize the results. The most relevant subset of PHREEQC's capabilities and features are fully usable through the interface. Illustratory examples for the utility of this programmable interface were given in the framework of the research project this developement originated from: CLEAN [4], a project investigating the feasibility of enhanced gas recovery combined with CO2 storage. This interface allowed us to successfully and easily manipulate, compare and refit chemical databases, perform sensitivity analysis by combinatory variations of parameters, and all that in an environment which is both scriptable and interactive, with all results directly available for further

  15. Nursing students’ perceptions of their educational environment in the bachelor’s programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Victor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate nursing students’ perceptions of their educational environment in a private college. Perceptions were compared between genders and 2 bachelor’s programs. Methods A total of 219 students participated in this study, drawn from the Generic Bachelor of Science in Nursing (GBSN and the Post-Registered Nurse Bachelor of Science in Nursing (PRBSN programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure was utilized for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate total scores, as well as means and standard deviations, and the t-test was applied for comparisons according to program and gender. Results The overall total mean score (119 of 200 is suggestive of more positive than negative perceptions of the educational environment. The mean score of 13 of 28 on the social self-perception subscale suggests that the social environment was felt to be ‘not a nice place.’ The t-test revealed more positive perceptions among students enrolled in the PRBSN program (P<0.0001 than among those enrolled in the GBSN program and more positive perceptions among female students than among male students (P<0.0001. Conclusion Commonalities and differences were found in the perceptions of the nursing students. Both positive and negative perceptions were reported; the overall sense of a positive environment was present, but the social component requires immediate attention, along with other unsatisfactory components. Establishing a supportive environment conducive to competence-based learning would play an important role in bringing desirable changes to the educational environment.

  16. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  17. Papers of the 15. french congress on the aerosols CFA 99; Actes du 15. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1999. It was presented in four main themes: bio-aerosols and filtering; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols in the environment; aerosols physic and applications. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. The four papers selected for ETDE cover a larger domain: annular slot samplers in turbulent flow, the air quality monitoring in France, suspension particles characterization in an urban area, application of the remote sensing to the atmospheric pollution. (A.L.B.)

  18. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  19. School Food Environment Promotion Program: Applying the Socio-ecological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bakhtari Aghdam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite of healthy nutrition recommendations have been offered in recent decades, researches show an increasing rate of unhealthy junk food consumption among primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of health promotion intervention on the school food buffets and the changes in nutritional behaviors of the students. Materials and Methods In this Quasi-interventional study, eight schools agreed to participate in Tabriz city, Iran. The schools were randomly selected and divided into an intervention and a control group, and a pretest was given to both groups. A four weeks interventional program was conducted in eight randomly selected schools of the city based on the socio-ecological model. A check list was designed for the assessment of food items available at the schools’ buffets, a 60-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to assess the rate of food consumption and energy intake. Results evaluation and practice were analyzed using the Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney-U and Chi-square tests. Results The findings revealed reduction in the intervention group between before and after intervention with regard the range of junk food consumption, except for the sweets consumption. The number of junk foods provided in the schools buffets reduced in the intervention group. After the intervention on the intervention group significant decreases were found in the intake of energy, fat and saturated fatty acids compared to the control group (p = 0.00.   Conclusion In order to design effective school food environment promotion programs, school healthcare providers should consider multifaceted approaches.

  20. A care improvement program acting as a powerful learning environment to support nursing students learning facilitation competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukema, Jan S; Harps-Timmerman, Annelies; Stoopendaal, Annemiek; Smits, Carolien H M

    2015-11-01

    Change management is an important area of training in undergraduate nursing education. Successful change management in healthcare aimed at improving practices requires facilitation skills that support teams in attaining the desired change. Developing facilitation skills in nursing students requires formal educational support. A Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program based on a nationwide format of change management in healthcare was designed to act as a Powerful Learning Environment for nursing students developing competencies in facilitating change. This article has two aims: to provide comprehensive insight into the program components and to describe students' learning experiences in developing their facilitation skills. This Dutch Regional Care Improvement Program considers three aspects of a Powerful Learning Environment: self-regulated learning; problem-based learning; and complex, realistic and challenging learning tasks. These three aspects were operationalised in five distinct areas of facilitation: increasing awareness of the need for change; leadership and project management; relationship building and communication; importance of the local context; and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. Over a period of 18 months, 42 nursing students, supported by trained lecturer-coaches, took part in nine improvement teams in our Regional Care Improvement Program, executing activities in all five areas of facilitation. Based on the students' experiences, we propose refinements to various components of this program, aimed at strengthenin the learning environment. There is a need for further detailed empirical research to study the impact this kind of learning environment has on students developing facilitation competencies in healthcare improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  2. Key findings from the artist project on aerosol retention in a dry steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, Abedeloahab; Suckow, Deltef; Lind, Tettaliisa; Guentat, Salih; Danner, Steffen; Mukin, Roman

    2016-01-01

    A steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event with a stuck-open safety relief valve constitutes one of the most serious accident sequences in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) because it may create an open path for radioactive aerosol release into the environment. The release may be mitigated by the deposition of fission product particles on a steam generator's (SG's) dry tubes and structures or by scrubbing in the secondary coolant. However, the absence of empirical data, the complexity of the geometry, and the controlling processes have, until recently, made any quantification of retention difficult to justify. As a result, past risk assessment studies typically took little or no credit for aerosol retention in SGTR sequences. To provide these missing data, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) initiated the Aerosol Trapping In Steam GeneraTor (ARTIST) Project, which aimed to thoroughly investigate various aspects of aerosol removal in the secondary side of a breached steam generator. Between 2003 and 2011, the PSI has led the ARTIST Project, which involved intense collaboration between nearly 20 international partners. This summary paper presents key findings of experimental and analytical work conducted at the PSI within the ARTIST program

  3. Key findings from the artist project on aerosol retention in a dry steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehbi, Abedeloahab; Suckow, Deltef; Lind, Tettaliisa; Guentat, Salih; Danner, Steffen; Mukin, Roman [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    A steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event with a stuck-open safety relief valve constitutes one of the most serious accident sequences in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) because it may create an open path for radioactive aerosol release into the environment. The release may be mitigated by the deposition of fission product particles on a steam generator's (SG's) dry tubes and structures or by scrubbing in the secondary coolant. However, the absence of empirical data, the complexity of the geometry, and the controlling processes have, until recently, made any quantification of retention difficult to justify. As a result, past risk assessment studies typically took little or no credit for aerosol retention in SGTR sequences. To provide these missing data, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) initiated the Aerosol Trapping In Steam GeneraTor (ARTIST) Project, which aimed to thoroughly investigate various aspects of aerosol removal in the secondary side of a breached steam generator. Between 2003 and 2011, the PSI has led the ARTIST Project, which involved intense collaboration between nearly 20 international partners. This summary paper presents key findings of experimental and analytical work conducted at the PSI within the ARTIST program.

  4. Key Findings from the Artist Project on Aerosol Retention in a Dry Steam Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouahab Dehbi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A steam generator tube rupture (SGTR event with a stuck-open safety relief valve constitutes one of the most serious accident sequences in pressurized water reactors (PWRs because it may create an open path for radioactive aerosol release into the environment. The release may be mitigated by the deposition of fission product particles on a steam generator's (SG's dry tubes and structures or by scrubbing in the secondary coolant. However, the absence of empirical data, the complexity of the geometry, and the controlling processes have, until recently, made any quantification of retention difficult to justify. As a result, past risk assessment studies typically took little or no credit for aerosol retention in SGTR sequences. To provide these missing data, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI initiated the Aerosol Trapping In Steam GeneraTor (ARTIST Project, which aimed to thoroughly investigate various aspects of aerosol removal in the secondary side of a breached steam generator. Between 2003 and 2011, the PSI has led the ARTIST Project, which involved intense collaboration between nearly 20 international partners. This summary paper presents key findings of experimental and analytical work conducted at the PSI within the ARTIST program.

  5. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  6. Sowing the Seeds of Strategic Success Across West Africa: Propagating the State Partnership Program to Shape the Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    region’s continued growth in economics , population, influence, and the correlating 17 increase in risks to stability from radicalization and...environment and stem the tide of regional instability . The National Guard’s State Partnership Program is a security cooperation tool that Geographic... instability . The National Guard’s State Partnership Program is a security cooperation tool that Geographic Combatant Commanders can leverage to enhance the

  7. PREDICTION OF AEROSOL HAZARDS ARISING FROM THE OPENING OF AN ANTHRAX-TAINTED LETTER IN AN OPEN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUE-SANG LIEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have been extended in the present study to simulate numerically the contamination from the opening of anthrax-tainted letters in an open office environment using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. A quantity of 0.1 g of Bacillus atropheus (formerly referred to as Bacillus subtilis var globigii (BG spores in dry powder form, which was used here as a surrogate species for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax, was released from an opened letter in the experiment. The accuracy of the model for prediction of the spatial distribution of BG spores in the office from the opened letter is assessed qualitatively (and to the extent possible, quantitatively by detailed comparison with measured BG concentrations obtained under a number of different scenarios, some involving people moving within the office. The observed discrepancy between the numerical predictions and experimental measurements of concentration was probably the result of a number of physical processes which were not accounted for in the numerical simulation. These include air flow leakage from cracks and crevices of the building shell; the dispersion of BG spores in the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system; and, the effect of deposition and re-suspension of BG spores from various surfaces in the office environment.

  8. Comparison of a direct-reading device to gravimetric methods for evaluating organic dust aerosols in an enclosed swine production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J

    2001-01-01

    The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency. Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to most agricultural enterprises. Development of a simple, cost-effective method for measuring organic dust levels would be useful in evaluating and controlling exposures in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the direct reading MIE PDM-3 Miniram for estimating organic dust concentrations in enclosed swine production facilities. Responses from the MIE PDM-3 Miniram were compared to gravimetric methods for total and inhalable dust. Total dust determinations were conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 0500. Inhalable particulate mass (IPM) sampling was conducted using SKC brand IOM (Institute of Occupational Medicine) sampling cassettes, which meet the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH criteria for inhalable dust sampling. This study design also allowed for the comparison of traditional total dust method to the IPM method, in collecting organic dusts in an agricultural setting. Fifteen sets of side-by-side samples (Miniram, total dust, and IPM) were collected over a period of six months in a swine confinement building. There were statistically significant differences in the results provided by the three sampling methods. Measurements for inhalable dust exceeded those for total dust in eleven of fifteen samples. The Miniram time-weighted average (TWA) response to the organic dust was always the lower of the three methods. A high degree of correlation was found among all three methods. The Miniram performed well under

  9. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  10. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Taizo, E-mail: t-kanai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Furuya, Masahiro, E-mail: furuya@criepi.denken.or.jp; Arai, Takahiro, E-mail: t-arai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Nishi, Yoshihisa, E-mail: y-nishi@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  11. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  12. RT/OS - realtime programming and application environment for the COSY control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, A.; Hacker, U.; Haberbosch, Ch.; Henn, K.; Simon, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights and constraints of RT/OS and how it can be used at other places. The support of approximately 1000 VME and VXI CPUs in network-based multiprocessor systems needs a special set of programming tools and application environment which are bundled as the RT/OS Real-Time-Operating-System. Supporting the Motorola 680x0 processors and micro-controller with a development system on UNIX and MS-DOS platforms, the tool set gives the opportunity of bringing small embedded controllers as well as VME multiprocessor systems into operation. The tool set includes a cross compiler and a special version of a remote debugger, as well as application support such as downloading and configuration management. The main feature is a modular kernel with message-based task switching, using the rendezvous principle to allow easy extension. Special features of this kernel for a distributed system are networking with the Berkeley socket library supporting TCP/IP, XNS and Novell Netware, a multiprocessor system on VMEbus with the interprocessor Communication Module (IPC), a device driver library for almost every G64 I/O card using a FieldBus Interface called PDV and a X11R4 port. ((orig.))

  13. RT/OS - realtime programming and application environment for the COSY control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinert, A [Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Postfach 1913, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Hacker, U [Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Postfach 1913, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Haberbosch, Ch [Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Postfach 1913, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Henn, K [Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Postfach 1913, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Simon, M [Forschungszentrum, Juelich, Postfach 1913, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    1994-12-15

    This paper presents the highlights and constraints of RT/OS and how it can be used at other places. The support of approximately 1000 VME and VXI CPUs in network-based multiprocessor systems needs a special set of programming tools and application environment which are bundled as the RT/OS Real-Time-Operating-System. Supporting the Motorola 680x0 processors and micro-controller with a development system on UNIX and MS-DOS platforms, the tool set gives the opportunity of bringing small embedded controllers as well as VME multiprocessor systems into operation. The tool set includes a cross compiler and a special version of a remote debugger, as well as application support such as downloading and configuration management. The main feature is a modular kernel with message-based task switching, using the rendezvous principle to allow easy extension. Special features of this kernel for a distributed system are networking with the Berkeley socket library supporting TCP/IP, XNS and Novell Netware, a multiprocessor system on VMEbus with the interprocessor Communication Module (IPC), a device driver library for almost every G64 I/O card using a FieldBus Interface called PDV and a X11R4 port. ((orig.))

  14. Using Python as a first programming environment for computational physics in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpojotor, Godfrey; Ehwerhemuepha, Louis; Echenim, Myron; Akpojotor, Famous

    2011-03-01

    Python unique features such its interpretative, multiplatform and object oriented nature as well as being a free and open source software creates the possibility that any user connected to the internet can download the entire package into any platform, install it and immediately begin to use it. Thus Python is gaining reputation as a preferred environment for introducing students and new beginners to programming. Therefore in Africa, the Python African Tour project has been launched and we are coordinating its use in computational science. We examine here the challenges and prospects of using Python for computational physics (CP) education in developing countries (DC). Then we present our project on using Python to simulate and aid the learning of laboratory experiments illustrated here by modeling of the simple pendulum and also to visualize phenomena in physics illustrated here by demonstrating the wave motion of a particle in a varying potential. This project which is to train both the teachers and our students on CP using Python can easily be adopted in other DC.

  15. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  16. International standard problem ISP37: VANAM M3 - A Multi compartment aerosol depletion test with hygroscopic aerosol material: comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnhaber, M.; Kanzleiter, T.F.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results and assessment of the 'open' ISP37, which deals with the containment thermal-hydraulics and aerosol behavior during an unmitigated severe LWR accident with core melt-down and steam and aerosol release into the containment. Representatives of 22 organizations participated to the ISP37 using the codes CONTAIN, FIPLOC, MELCOR, RALOC, FUMO, MACRES, REMOVAL etc. The containment and aerosol behavior experiment VANAM M3 was selected as experimental comparison basis. The main phenomena investigated are the thermal behavior of a multi-compartment containment, e.g. pressure, temperature and the distribution and depletion of a soluble aerosol. The ISP37 has demonstrated that the codes used could calculate the thermal-hydraulic containment behavior in general with sufficient accuracy. But with respect to the needs of aerosol behavior analysis the accuracies, both analytical and experimental as well, for specific thermal-hydraulic variables should be improved. Although large progress has been made in the simulation of aerosol behavior in multi-compartment geometries the calculated local aerosol concentrations scatter widely. However, the aerosol source term to the environment is overestimated in general. The largest uncertainty concerning the aerosol results is caused by a limited number of thermal hydraulic variables like relative humidity, volume condensation rate and atmospheric flow rate. In some codes also a solubility model is missing

  17. A transuranic aerosol measurement system: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevo, C.T.; Kaifer, R.C.; Rueppel, D.W.; Delvasto, R.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Phelps, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    We have completed the design, fabrication, and assembly of a computer-based prototype system for the measurement of transuranic aerosols in the workplace and environment. This system (called WOTAMS for Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System) incorporates two detectors: (1) an in-line solid-state alpha detector that sends out an alarm the moment a transuranic release occurs, and (2) an in-vacuum detector that increases off-line-analysis sensitivity. The in-line sensitivity of the system is better than 5.0 MPC-h, and the in-vacuum sensitivity exceeds 0.5 MPC-h. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state: an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS climate model (ModelE are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM, represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations.

    A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment

  19. The Skype-Buddy Model in an Online Environment: Patterns and Perceptions of Language Teachers in a Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharaschwili, Carmen E.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns and perceptions of language teachers in a professional development program were examined through various forms of classroom discourse & multimodal products. Research questions include: What kinds of learning patterns emerge with the use of Skype in an online environment? What phases of cognitive engagement are evident in Skype…

  20. One size fits all? : optimization of rainbow trout breeding program under diverse preferences and genotype-by-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.

    2013-01-01

    Global fish breeders distribute improved animal material to several continents to be farmed under diverse environments, and for very different market conditions. When establishing a global breeding program, there is a need to assess whether or not a single breeding objective satisfies the

  1. Creating and Maintaining a Wellness Environment in Child Care Centers Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Kristi L.; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study identifies issues associated with creating and maintaining a wellness environment in child care centers (CCCs) participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: Structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with CCC professionals and state agency personnel to develop a survey to assess…

  2. Evaluation of Learning Environments for Object-Oriented Programming: Measuring Cognitive Load with a Novel Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Murat Pasa

    2016-01-01

    Various methods and tools have been proposed to overcome the learning obstacles for Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). However, it remains difficult especially for novice learners. The problem may be not only adopting an instructional method, but also an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Learners employ IDEs as a means to solve programming…

  3. DARE : Dedicated Aerosols Retrieval Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Decae, R.; Court, A.J.; Leeuw, G. de; Visser, H.

    2004-01-01

    At present there is an increasing interest in remote sensing of aerosols from space because of the large impact of aerosols on climate, earth observation and health. TNO has performed a study aimed at improving aerosol characterisation using a space based instrument and state-of-the-art aerosol

  4. The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2011-04-01

    How do you keep a classroom of 100 undergraduates actively learning? Can students practice communication and teamwork skills in a large class? How do you boost the performance of underrepresented groups? The Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) Project has addressed these concerns. Because of their inclusion in a leading introductory physics textbook, project materials are used by more than 1/3 of all science, math, and engineering majors nationwide. The room design and pedagogy have been adopted at more than 100 leading institutions across the country. Physics, chemistry, math, astronomy, biology, engineering, earth sciences, and even literature classes are currently being taught this way. Educational research indicates that students should collaborate on interesting tasks and be deeply involved with the material they are studying. We promote active learning in a redesigned classroom for 100 students or more. (Of course, smaller classes can also benefit.) Class time is spent primarily on "tangibles" and "ponderables"--hands-on activities, simulations, and interesting questions. Nine students sit in three teams at round tables. Instructors circulate and engage in Socratic dialogues. The setting looks like a banquet hall, with lively interactions nearly all the time. Hundreds of hours of classroom video and audio recordings, transcripts of numerous interviews and focus groups, data from conceptual learning assessments (using widely-recognized instruments in a pretest/posttest protocol), and collected portfolios of student work are part of our rigorous assessment effort. Our findings (based on data from over 16,000 students collected over five years as well as replications at adopting sites) can be summarized as the following: 1) Female failure rate is 1/5 of previous levels, even though more is demanded of students. 2) Minority failure rate is 1/4 that seen in traditionally taught courses. 3) At-risk students are more

  5. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environment AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of denial of... Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published.... Second, not only would instituting a ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' by regulation be redundant...

  6. DNA Radiation Environments Program: Fall 1989 2-meter box experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.

    1991-05-01

    This effort, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency under the Radiation Environments Program, was carried out to obtain measured data for benchmarking MASH, the Monte Carlo Adjoint Code System. MASH was developed to replace the Vehicle Code System, VCS, that has been used by the Department of Defense and NATO for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors inside armored vehicles and structures from nuclear weapon radiation. Free-field data were obtained at distances of 170- and 400-meters from the APR while in-box measurements were made at 400 meters only. The box, included to obtain neutron and gamma-ray reduction factors, was a 2-meter cube configuration having 0.1016-m-thick steel walls. Calculated data were obtained using MASH by analysts from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. Calculated (C) results were compared with experimental (E) data in terms of C/E ratios. Free-field and in-box neutron kerma generally agreed within ±20%, although some C/E comparisons fell outside this range depending upon the detector against which the calculated data were compared. For those cases where the C/E ratio is marginal or unacceptable, problems in the detector systems were acknowledged to be principal cause of the discrepancy. Generally poor agreement (∼25-35%) was achieved among the C/E ratios for the free-field gamma-ray kerma at the 170- and 400-m locations while excellent (10%, or better) C/E values were obtained for the in-box conditions. The discrepancy for the free-field comparison was attributed to the failure by the analysts to include a tree line adjacent to the measurement site in the calculational geometry. C/E values for the neutron and gamma-ray reduction factors ranged from 1% to 23% depending on the detector. 4 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs

  7. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  8. Seasonal dependence of aerosol processing in urban Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, A. M.; Waring, M. S.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban aerosols pose an important threat to human health due to the conflation of emissions and concentrated population exposed. Winter and summer aerosol and trace gas measurements were taken in downtown Philadelphia in 2016. Measurements included aerosol composition and size with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), particle size distributions with an SMPS, and an aethalometer. Trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CH4, CO, and CO2 were taken concurrently. Sampling in seasonal extremes provided contrast in aerosol and trace gas composition, aerosol processing, and emission factors. Inorganic aerosol components contributed approximately 60% of the submicron aerosol mass, while summertime aerosol composition was roughly 70% organic matter. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on the organic aerosol (OA) matrix revealed three factors in common in each season, including an oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factor with different temporal behavior in each season. In summertime, OOA varied diurnally with ozone and daytime temperature, but in the wintertime, it was anti-correlated with ozone and temperature, and instead trended with calculated liquid water, indicating a seasonally-dependent processing of organic aerosol in Philadelphia's urban environment. Due to the inorganic dominant winter aerosol, liquid water much higher (2.65 μg/m3) in winter than in summer (1.54 μg/m3). Diurnally varying concentrations of background gas phase species (CH4, CO2) were higher in winter and varied less as a result of boundary layer conditions; ozone was also higher in background in winter than summer. Winter stagnation events with low windspeed showed large buildup of trace gases CH4, CO, CO2, and NO. Traffic related aerosol was also elevated with black carbon and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) plumes of each at 3-5 times higher than the winter the average value for each. Winter ratios of HOA to black carbon were significantly higher in the winter than the summer due to lower

  9. Water content of aged aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2010-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  10. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Lees, P.M.; Wall, C.E.E.

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 twenty civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom became the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a new organization created by the British Government to manage the cleanup of these sites. As a key part of this transition, the NDA became the owner and manager of these sites, which formerly were owned by the site operators, British Nuclear Fuels Limited plc (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). This was one of the most significant events in the history of the United Kingdom's nuclear industry and represented a true sea change, affecting many aspects of life and business on and around these sites as well as nationally. The NDA's budget for the cleanup of the twenty sites and the management of the overall cleanup program is approximately pounds 2 Billion per annum, almost $4 Billion. It is important to note that approximately half of this amount is spent with the supply chains which serve the management and operations contractors, including pounds 500 million at Sellafield alone. Additionally, the site management and operations contractors receive most of the pounds 2 Billion through contracts between the NDA and the various site management companies. This represents a lot of government money moving through contracts between entities, which invokes procurement and contracting rules and regulations, that while not new, have not previously been this broadly applied to nuclear site cleanup activities throughout the UK. The current estimate for the total life cycle cleanup costs for all twenty civil nuclear sites is pounds 56 Billion, a figure that is likely to increase further. The first rules to mention are the European Union Procurement Guidelines, which are designed to help ensure that procurements involving government funds are conducted in an open, fair, and transparent environment. While it is difficult to argue with the intent of these rules, at least for now they are having a slowing down effect on

  11. Best practices: an electronic drug alert program to improve safety in an accountable care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Sara; Lustig, Adam; Malsin, Luanne; Carley, Blake; Westrich, Kimberly D; Dubois, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    The accountable care organization (ACO), one of the most promising and talked about new models of care, focuses on improving communication and care transitions by tying potential shared savings to specific clinical and financial benchmarks. An important factor in meeting these benchmarks is an ACO's ability to manage medications in an environment where medical and pharmacy care has been integrated. The program described in this article highlights the critical components of Marshfield Clinic's Drug Safety Alert Program (DSAP), which focuses on prioritizing and communicating safety issues related to medications with the goal of reducing potential adverse drug events. Once the medication safety concern is identified, it is reviewed to evaluate whether an alert warrants sending prescribers a communication that identifies individual patients or a general communication to all physicians describing the safety concern. Instead of basing its decisions regarding clinician notification about drug alerts on subjective criteria, the Marshfield Clinic's DSAP uses an internally developed scoring system. The scoring system includes criteria developed from previous drug alerts, such as level of evidence, size of population affected, severity of adverse event identified or targeted, litigation risk, available alternatives, and potential for duration of medication use. Each of the 6 criteria is assigned a weight and is scored based upon the content and severity of the alert received.  In its first 12 months, the program targeted 6 medication safety concerns involving the following medications: topiramate, glyburide, simvastatin, citalopram, pioglitazone, and lovastatin. Baseline and follow-up prescribing data were gathered on the targeted medications. Follow-up review of prescribing data demonstrated that the DSAP provided quality up-to-date safety information that led to changes in drug therapy and to decreases in potential adverse drug events. In aggregate, nearly 10,000 total

  12. Degraded core accidents: review of aerosol behaviour in the containment of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Walker, B.C.

    1981-09-01

    Low probability-high consequence accidents have become an important issue in reactor safety studies. Such accidents would involve damage to the core and the subsequent release of radioactive fission products into the environment. Aerosols play a major role in the transport and removal of these fission products in the reactor building containment. The aerosol mechanisms, computer modelling codes and experimental studies used to predict aerosol behaviour in the containment of a PWR are reviewed. There are significant uncertainties in the aerosol source terms and specific recommendations have been made for further studies, particularly with respect to code development and high density aerosol-fission product transport within closed systems. (author)

  13. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Research Program (STEP). The FHWA anticipates that the STEP or a similar program to provide resources for... stakeholders that can leverage limited research funding in the STEP with other stakeholders and partners in...

  14. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Research Program (STEP). The FHWA anticipates that the STEP or a similar program to provide resources for... limited research funding in the STEP with other stakeholders and partners in order to increase the total...

  15. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP) AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Research Program (STEP). The FHWA anticipates that the STEP or a similar program to provide resources for... limited research funding in the STEP with other stakeholders and partners in order to increase the total...

  16. Active Participation of Integrated Development Environments in the Teaching of Object-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depradine, Colin; Gay, Glenda

    2004-01-01

    With the strong link between programming and the underlying technology, the incorporation of computer technology into the teaching of a programming language course should be a natural progression. However, the abstract nature of programming can make such integration a difficult prospect to achieve. As a result, the main development tool, the…

  17. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  18. Fog and Cloud Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M. A.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, G. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.

  19. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  20. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  1. Aerosol chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A classification of the research fields in the chemical physics of aerosol microparticles is given. The emphasis lies on the microphysics of isolated particles and clusters and on physical transformations and thermodynamics. (LDN)

  2. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  3. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aerosols, clouds, radiation and climate. ... the solar radiation to pass through but absorb most of infrared radiation emitted .... Fine soil and sand particles become airborne due to wind. Over ..... its sampling is difficult compared to other species.

  4. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  5. Long-Term Weight Loss Effects of a Behavioral Weight Management Program: Does the Community Food Environment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon N. Zenk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether community food environments altered the longer-term effects of a nationwide behavioral weight management program on body mass index (BMI. The sample was comprised of 98,871 male weight management program participants and 15,385 female participants, as well as 461,302 and 37,192 inverse propensity-score weighted matched male and female controls. We measured the community food environment by counting the number of supermarkets, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants within a 1-mile radius around each person’s home address. We used difference-in-difference regression models with person and calendar time fixed effects to estimate MOVE! effects over time in sub-populations defined by community food environment attributes. Among men, after an initial decrease in BMI at 6 months, the effect of the program decreased over time, with BMI increasing incrementally at 12 months (0.098 kg/m2, p < 0.001, 18 months (0.069 kg/m2, p < 0.001, and 24 months (0.067 kg/m2, p < 0.001. Among women, the initial effects of the program decreased over time as well. Women had an incremental BMI change of 0.099 kg/m2 at 12 months (p < 0.05 with non-significant incremental changes at 18 months and 24 months. We found little evidence that these longer-term effects of the weight management program differed depending on the community food environment. Physiological adaptations may overwhelm environmental influences on adherence to behavioral regimens in affecting longer-term weight loss outcomes.

  6. Risk assessment of DOE defense program packages in a beyond 10 CFR 71.73 transportation accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Bennion, J.S.; Moore, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive program is being conducted by the DOE to determine the risks related to the domestic transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with nuclear weapons. The program is designed to identify, quantify and manage potential risks to public health and safety including potential radiological and toxicological health consequences which may exceed the 10 CFR 71.73 transportation accident environment A major objective of this program being performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of Utah is to provide the DOE with the methodology and bases for evaluating highway transportation activities by DOE contractors. This paper describes the approach and the HITRA model which is based upon probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology and route specific data associated with the proposed transportation activity. The model is capable of providing detailed, location and time specific data for assessing projected risks to public health and safety from DOE defense program materials shipments

  7. Environment, safety, health, and quality plan for the TRU- Contaminated Arid Soils Project of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. LSFA supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The TRU-Contaminated Arid Soils project is being conducted under the auspices of the LSFA Program. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting LSFA/Arid Soils activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to LSFA/Arid Soils operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and system and performance audits as they apply to the LSFA Program

  8. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  9. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  10. MISR Aerosol Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  11. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  12. Effect of acidic seed on biogenic secondary organic aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoschke, Nadine M.; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth in the presence of acid aerosols was studied in twin 500 l Teflon bags and in a 4 m flow reactor. In Teflon bags, isoprene, acrolein and α-pinene were all made to react individually with ozone and exposed to either acid or non-acid inorganic seed aerosols to determine the effect of acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions on SOA growth. α-Pinene and ozone were made to react in a flow reactor to assess the immediate effect of mixing an acid aerosol with SOA at high and low relative humidity levels. In all cases, exposure to acid seed aerosol increased the amount of SOA mass produced. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the SOA in acid systems confirmed the transformation of carbonyl functional groups through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions when SOAs formed in acidic environments or were exposed to acidic aerosols. Organic products initially produced from ozonation in the gas phase partition onto the inorganic seed aerosol and react heterogeneously with an acid catalyst forming low vapor pressure products. These acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions are implicated in generating the increased SOA mass observed in acidic aerosol systems as they transform predominantly gas phase compounds of high volatility into low vapor pressure predominantly particle phase products.

  13. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas

  14. Characterization of Wildfire-Induced Aerosol Emissions From the Maritime Continent Peatland and Central African Dry Savannah with MISR and CALIPSO Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huikyo; Jeong, Su-Jong; Kalashnikova, Olga; Tosca, Mika; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol plumes from wildfires affect the Earth's climate system through regulation of the radiative budget and clouds. However, optical properties of aerosols from individual wildfire smoke plumes and their resultant impact on regional climate are highly variable. Therefore, there is a critical need for observations that can constrain the partitioning between different types of aerosols. Here we present the apparent influence of regional ecosystem types on optical properties of wildfire-induced aerosols based on remote sensing observations from two satellite instruments and three ground stations. The independent observations commonly show that the ratio of the absorbing aerosols is significantly lower in smoke plumes from the Maritime Continent than those from Central Africa, so that their impacts on regional climate are different. The observed light-absorbing properties of wildfire-induced aerosols are explained by dominant ecosystem types such as wet peatlands for the Maritime Continent and dry savannah for Central Africa, respectively. These results suggest that the wildfire-aerosol-climate feedback processes largely depend on the terrestrial environments from which the fires originate. These feedbacks also interact with climate under greenhouse warming. Our analysis shows that aerosol optical properties retrieved based on satellite observations are critical in assessing wildfire-induced aerosols forcing in climate models. The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosol mixtures used by state-of-the-art chemistry climate models may overestimate emissions for absorbing aerosols from wildfires over the Maritime Continent.

  15. End-user programming of ambient narratives for smart retail environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.G.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence is a vision on the future of the consumer electronics, telecommunications and computer industry that refers to electronic environments that respond to the presence and activity of people and objects. The goal of these intelligent environments is to support the performance of our

  16. Characterization of the neutron environment for commercial LWR pressure vessel surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of both analytical and experimental methods to the determination of the neutron environment internal to a typical Westinghouse PWR is presented. The impact of reactor geometry, core spatial power distributions, and reactor operating history on the neutron environment are discussed; and comparisons of analytical predictions with measurements are presented

  17. Aerosolization and Atmospheric Transformation of Engineered Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Andrea J.

    While research on the environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing, the potential for them to be chemically transformed in the atmosphere has been largely ignored. The overall objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric transformation of carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). The research focuses on C60 fullerene because it is an important member of the carbonaceous nanoparticle (CNP) family and is used in a wide variety of applications. The first specific objective was to review the potential of atmospheric transformations to alter the environmental impacts of CNPs. We described atmospheric processes that were likely to physically or chemically alter aerosolized CNPs and demonstrated their relevance to CNP behavior and toxicity in the aqueous and terrestrial environment. In order to investigate the transformations of CNP aerosols under controlled conditions, we developed an aerosolization technique that produces nano-scale aerosols without using solvents, which can alter the surface chemistry of the aerosols. We demonstrated the technique with carbonaceous (C60) and metal oxide (TiO2, CeO2) nanoparticle powders. All resulting aerosols exhibited unimodal size distributions and mode particle diameters below 100 nm. We used the new aerosolization technique to investigate the reaction between aerosolized C60 and atmospherically realistic levels of ozone (O3) in terms of reaction products, reaction rate, and oxidative stress potential. We identified C60O, C60O2, and C60O3 as products of the C60-O3 reaction. We demonstrated that the oxidative stress potential of C 60 may be enhanced by exposure to O3. We found the pseudo-first order reaction rate to be 9 x 10-6 to 2 x 10 -5 s-1, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the rate for several PAH species under comparable conditions. This research has demonstrated that a thorough understanding of atmospheric chemistry of ENPs is critical for accurate prediction of their environmental

  18. The Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program: Protection of materials in the space environment subprogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lorne R.; Francoeur, J.; Aguero, Alina; Wertheimer, Michael R.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Blezius, J. W.; Oliver, M.; Singh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects are currently underway for the development of new coatings for the protection of materials in the space environment. These coatings are based on vacuum deposition technologies. The projects will go as far as the proof-of-concept stage when the commercial potential for the technology will be demonstrated on pilot-scale fabrication facilities in 1996. These projects are part of a subprogram to develop supporting technologies for automation and robotics technologies being developed under the Canadian Space Agency's STEAR Program, part of the Canadian Space Station Program.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM MODULE FOR CALCULATING SPEED OF TITANIC PLASMA SEDIMENTATION IN ENVIRONMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ivaschenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The program module has been developed on the basis of package of applied MATLAB programs which allows to calculate speed of coating sedimentation over the section of plasma stream taking into account magnetic field influence of a stabilizing coil, and also to correct the obtained value of sedimentation speed depending on the value of negative accelerating potential, arch current, technological gas pressure. The program resolves visualization of calculation results.

  20. A Widely-Accessible Distributed MEMS Processing Environment. The MEMS Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    all of these patterns in advance, we made a new cost model, called the Python Code cost model, which utilizes the power of a high level programming ...document entitled “The Beginners Guide to MEMS Processing” on the MEMSNet and MEMS Exchange The MEMS Exchange Program Final Technical Report October 29...from the Government is absolutely necessary. As said The MEMS Exchange Program Final Technical Report October 29, 2012 Page 57 of 58 before

  1. Toward creating family-friendly work environments in pediatrics: baseline data from pediatric department chairs and pediatric program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Heather A; Burke, Ann E; Sheppard, Kate; Pallant, Adam; Stapleton, F Bruder; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-03-01

    The objective was to determine baseline characteristics of pediatric residency training programs and academic departments in regard to family-friendly work environments as outlined in the Report of the Task Force on Women in Pediatrics. We conducted Web-based anonymous surveys of 147 pediatric department chairs and 203 pediatric program directors. The chair's questionnaire asked about child care, lactation facilities, family leave policies, work-life balance, and tenure and promotion policies. The program director's questionnaire asked about family leave, parenting, work-life balance, and perceptions of "family-friendliness." The response rate was 52% for program directors and 51% for chairs. Nearly 60% of chairs reported some access to child care or provided assistance locating child care; however, in half of these departments, demand almost always exceeded supply. Lactation facilities were available to breastfeeding faculty in 74% of departments, although only 57% provided access to breast pumps. A total of 78% of chairs and 90% of program directors reported written maternity leave policies with slightly fewer reporting paternity leave policies. The majority (83%) of chairs reported availability of part-time employment, whereas only 27% of program directors offered part-time residency options. Most departments offered some flexibility in promotion and tenure. Although progress has been made, change still is needed in many areas in pediatric departments and training programs, including better accessibility to quality child care; improved lactation facilities for breastfeeding mothers; clear, written parental leave policies; and flexible work schedules to accommodate changing demands of family life.

  2. Aerosol effects on UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Schwander, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of erythemally weighted UV-irradiance (given as UV index, UVI) due to aerosols is analyzed by variation of the tropospheric particles in a wide, but realistic range. Varied are amount and composition of the particles and relative humidity and thickness of the mixing layer. The reduction of UVI increases with aerosol optical depth and the UV change is around 10% for a change aerosol optical depth from 0.25 to 0.1 and 0.4 respectively. Since both aerosol absorption and scattering are of relevance, the aerosol effect depends besides total aerosol amount on relative amount of soot and on relative humidity

  3. Aerosol measurements at 60 m during April 1994 remote cloud study intensive operating period (RCS/IOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Albert, B.; Lee, N.; Knuth, R.H. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Aerosol measurements were made at the Southern Great Plains Site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Many types of air masses pass over this area, and on the data acquisition day, extremly low aerosol scattering coefficients were seen. A major effort was placed on providing some characterization of the aerosol size distribution. Data is currently available from the experimental center.

  4. Patterns of individual change in a parenting program for child maltreatment and their relation to family and professional environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S; Rodrigo, M J; Máiquez, M L

    2014-03-01

    In the area of child maltreatment prevention, little is known about the typology of changes that individuals undergo in response to parent-training interventions. In this study, we examined the patterns of change observed in parents immediately after their completion of the Apoyo Personal y Familiar (APF, Personal and Family Support) parenting program. We identified five clusters and classified 496 parents according to two criteria: (a) the amount of pre-post changes (total or partial) as reflected in their self-reports on implicit theories, parental agency and childrearing practices, and (b) the positive, negative or mixed character of these changes. The study also included a follow-up of a subset of 95 participants intended to examine the extent to which the patterns of change identified in the first part of the study might predict the quality of the childrearing environment at home and the successful integration of the APF program into social services structures one year on. In this follow-up study, external evaluators observed families' home environments and collected the parenting program facilitators' self-reports on changes to their work environment. The evaluators found higher-quality childrearing environments and more positive appraisals of the changes to the teams' work with families in those cases where participants had experienced partial or total positive changes as a result of the APF. This approach offers insights into processes of individual change that have practical implications for the successful implementation of parenting programs in child maltreatment prevention services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  6. Primary School Pupils' Attitudes toward Learning Programming through Visual Interactive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Khaled; Tibi, Moanis; Raiyn, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    New generations are using and playing with mobile and computer applications extensively. These applications are the outcomes of programming work that involves skills, such as computational and algorithmic thinking. Learning programming is not easy for students children. In recent years, academic institutions like the Massachusetts Institute of…

  7. Pyro: A Python-Based Versatile Programming Environment for Teaching Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Douglas; Kumar, Deepak; Meeden, Lisa; Yanco, Holly

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe a programming framework called Pyro, which provides a set of abstractions that allows students to write platform-independent robot programs. This project is unique because of its focus on the pedagogical implications of teaching mobile robotics via a top-down approach. We describe the background of the project, its…

  8. TEM investigations of microstructures of combustion aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, A.; Hackfort, H.; Borchardt, J.; Schober, T.; Friedrich, J.

    1992-12-01

    In the incineration of organic material, apart from a series of gaseous pollutants, particulate pollutants or combustion aerosols also arise. The latter frequently consist of particles with a solid core of carbon to which a large number of inorganic and organic compounds are attached. These primarily include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAH), whose mutagenic or carcinogenic effect is known. The invisible particle sizes in the nanometer range, whose retention in the incineration off-gas is not state of the art, are of increasing significance for man and environment. On the one hand, they are deposited almost completely in the human lung. On the other hand, due to their fine dispersity they have along residence time in the atmosphere where they participate in chemical reactions and climatically significant processes. Important insights about the formation process of combustion aerosols are to be expected from the imaging of their microstructures in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The present contribution describes the development and application of a representative sampling procedure for aerosols from a partial flow of flue gas from a fluidized-bed furnace. The method developed consists of electrically charging aerosol particles in situ and subsequently selectively precipitating them onto a microscope slide in an electric field. TEM studies of aerosol microstructures on the microscope slides revealed that in the combustion of petrol and heating oil under different combustion conditions in principle the same particle structures result, whereas in the incineration of used lubricating oil quite different particle structures were found. Results from the literature on aerosol microstructures in exhaust gases from petrol and diesel engines demonstrate agreement with the results of this study in the basic structure of the particles. (orig.) [de

  9. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  10. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  11. ABCOVE program: preliminary results of tests AB5 and AB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    A program for aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) is in progress in the United States. Purpose of the ABCOVE program is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of existing aerosol behavior computer codes to describe inherent aerosol behavior in containment buildings during postulated breeder reactor accidents. The program involves pretest calculations by code developers and users, large-scale confirmatory tests in the 850-m 3 containment vessel of the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF), and blind post-test analyses and comparisons with experimental data. Two ABCOVE tests have been performed in the CSTF to date. In the first test, a single-species aerosol was used, with the aerosol being generated by spraying sodium at a high rate into an air atmosphere. In the second test, the experimental conditions simulated an accident environment in which a fission product aerosol, NaI, was released in the presence of a sodium fire. Pretest computer code predictions were made by seven organizations using eight computer codes (HAA-3, HAA-4, HAARM-3, SOFIA, QUICK, QUICKM, MAEROS, and CONTAIN)

  12. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  13. A new DoD initiative: the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, S; Atwood, C; Bell, P; Blacker, T D; Dey, S; Fisher, D; Fisher, D A; Genalis, P; Gorski, J; Harris, A; Hill, K; Hurwitz, M; Kendall, R P; Meakin, R L; Morton, S; Moyer, E T; Post, D E; Strawn, R; Veldhuizen, D v; Votta, L G

    2008-01-01

    In FY2008, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) initiated the Computational Research and Engineering Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) program, a $360M program with a two-year planning phase and a ten-year execution phase. CREATE will develop and deploy three computational engineering tool sets for DoD acquisition programs to use to design aircraft, ships and radio-frequency antennas. The planning and execution of CREATE are based on the 'lessons learned' from case studies of large-scale computational science and engineering projects. The case studies stress the importance of a stable, close-knit development team; a focus on customer needs and requirements; verification and validation; flexible and agile planning, management, and development processes; risk management; realistic schedules and resource levels; balanced short- and long-term goals and deliverables; and stable, long-term support by the program sponsor. Since it began in FY2008, the CREATE program has built a team and project structure, developed requirements and begun validating them, identified candidate products, established initial connections with the acquisition programs, begun detailed project planning and development, and generated the initial collaboration infrastructure necessary for success by its multi-institutional, multidisciplinary teams

  14. Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and the Environment. Scientific research program: 1993-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the research program is not only to asses the impact of the Ignalina NPP to the ecosystems. There was a need to study the region of Ignalina NPP as a comprehensive nature complex, not limited by the interests or potential of one institution. The implementation of such program could provide scientific conclusions vital for formulating the strategies of nature and health protection under the conditions of normal and emergency operational regimes of Ignalina NPP. The program will be carried out by 250 members of 13 research and academic institutions and will continue from 1993 till 1997. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and the Environment. Scientific research program: 1993-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research program is not only to asses the impact of the Ignalina NPP to the ecosystems. There was a need to study the region of Ignalina NPP as a comprehensive nature complex, not limited by the interests or potential of one institution. The implementation of such program could provide scientific conclusions vital for formulating the strategies of nature and health protection under the conditions of normal and emergency operational regimes of Ignalina NPP. The program will be carried out by 250 members of 13 research and academic institutions and will continue from 1993 till 1997. (author). 13 refs., 13 figs

  16. Predictors of Behavior and Performance in Extreme Environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E K. Eric; Holland, A. W.; Miller, Christopher; Johnson, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    To determine which, if any, characteristics should be incorporated into a select-in approach to screening personnel for long-duration spaceflight, we examined the influence of crewmember social/ demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures in 657 American men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. During screening, subjects completed a Personal History Questionnaire which obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, the Deep Freeze Opinion Survey which assessed 5 different personality traits, and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of combined peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crewmembers who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Social/demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station environments collectively accounted for 9-17% of the variance in performance measures. The following characteristics were significant independent predictors of more than one performance measure: military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others. These results represent an important first step in the development of select-in criteria for personnel on long-duration missions in space and other extreme environments. These criteria must take into consideration the characteristics of the environment and the limitations they place on meeting needs for interpersonal relations and task performance, as well as the characteristics of the individuals and groups who live and work in these environments.

  17. The aerosols and the greenhouse effect; Aerosoler og klimaeffekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Trond; Kirkevaag, Alf; Seland, Oeyvind; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Storelvmo, Trude

    2008-07-01

    The article discussed the aerosol effects on the climatic changes and points out that the climate models do not incorporate these components satisfactorily mostly due to insufficient knowledge of the aerosol pollution sources. The direct and indirect effects of aerosols are mentioned as well as the climate response (tk)

  18. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  19. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  20. Information management architecture for an integrated computing environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 3, Interim technical architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This third volume of the Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program--the Interim Technical Architecture (TA) (referred to throughout the remainder of this document as the ER TA)--represents a key milestone in establishing a coordinated information management environment in which information initiatives can be pursued with the confidence that redundancy and inconsistencies will be held to a minimum. This architecture is intended to be used as a reference by anyone whose responsibilities include the acquisition or development of information technology for use by the ER Program. The interim ER TA provides technical guidance at three levels. At the highest level, the technical architecture provides an overall computing philosophy or direction. At this level, the guidance does not address specific technologies or products but addresses more general concepts, such as the use of open systems, modular architectures, graphical user interfaces, and architecture-based development. At the next level, the technical architecture provides specific information technology recommendations regarding a wide variety of specific technologies. These technologies include computing hardware, operating systems, communications software, database management software, application development software, and personal productivity software, among others. These recommendations range from the adoption of specific industry or Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) standards to the specification of individual products. At the third level, the architecture provides guidance regarding implementation strategies for the recommended technologies that can be applied to individual projects and to the ER Program as a whole

  1. Green supplier development program selection using NGT and VIKOR under fuzzy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Anjali; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Developing environmental performance of suppliers is critical for green supply chain management. Organizations are nowadays investing in various green supplier development programs to enhance their supplier performances. The decision to select the right program for green supplier development...... is often a challenging decision due to lack of prior experience, limited quantitative information, specific context of the organization, and varying supplier backgrounds. This paper addresses the problem of evaluating green supplier development programs and proposes a fuzzy NGT (Nominal Group Technique......)-VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) based solution approach. NGT is used to identify criteria for evaluating green supplier development programs. Fuzzy theory is used to address qualitative (linguistic) ratings for the alternatives and the selected criteria used under lack...

  2. Visual Environment for Rich Data Interpretation (VERDI) program for environmental modeling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERDI is a flexible, modular, Java-based program used for visualizing multivariate gridded meteorology, emissions and air quality modeling data created by environmental modeling systems such as the CMAQ model and WRF.

  3. Whole-House Approach Benefits Builders, Buyers, and the Environment Building America Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-05-01

    This document provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. Building America works with the residential building industry to develop and implement innovative building processes and technologies.

  4. Risk assessment - a research program aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl-Kiessling, K.; Ahlborg, U.; Bylin, G.; Ehrenberg, L.; Hemminki, K.; Lindell, B.; Nilsson, Robert; Bostroem, C.E.; Swarn, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a new research program for assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants. It is important to develop general methods for quantitative risk assessments and to improve the scientific base materials. (KAE)

  5. OPMILL - MICRO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC MILLING MACHINES THREE AXIS EQUATION PLOTTING CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo

  6. Overview of the Space Launch System Ascent Aeroacoustic Environment Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Crosby, William A.; Reed, Darren K.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of accurate flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is critical for component and secondary structure vibroacoustic design. The Aerosciences Branch at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a test at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels (UPWT) to determine such ascent aeroacoustic environments for the Space Launch System (SLS). Surface static pressure measurements were also collected to aid in determination of local environments for venting, CFD substantiation, and calibration of the flush air data system located on the launch abort system. Additionally, this test supported a NASA Engineering and Safety Center study of alternate booster nose caps. Testing occurred during two test campaigns: August - September 2013 and December 2013 - January 2014. Four primary model configurations were tested for ascent aeroacoustic environment definition. The SLS Block 1 vehicle was represented by a 2.5% full stack model and a 4% truncated model. Preliminary Block 1B payload and manned configurations were also tested, using 2.5% full stack and 4% truncated models respectively. This test utilized the 11 x 11 foot transonic and 9 x 7 foot supersonic tunnel sections at the ARC UPWT to collect data from Mach 0.7 through 2.5 at various total angles of attack. SLS Block 1 design environments were developed primarily using these data. SLS Block 1B preliminary environments have also been prepared using these data. This paper discusses the test and analysis methodology utilized, with a focus on the unsteady data collection and processing.

  7. Role of the pre- and post-natal environment in developmental programming of health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S

    2012-05-06

    The concept that developmental insults (for example, poor pre- or postnatal nutrition) can have long-term consequences on health and well-being of the offspring has been termed developmental programming. In livestock, developmental programming affects production traits, including growth, body composition, and reproduction. Although low birth weight was used as a proxy for compromised fetal development in the initial epidemiological studies, based on controlled studies using livestock and other animal models in the last two decades we now know that developmental programming can occur independently of any effects on birth weight. Studies in humans, rodents, and livestock also have confirmed the critical role of the placenta in developmental programming. In addition, the central role of epigenetic regulation in developmental programming has been confirmed. Lastly, relatively simple therapeutic/management strategies designed to 'rescue' placental development and function are being developed to minimize the effects of developmental programming on health and productivity of humans, livestock, and other mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of sulfate aerosol optical depths over the North Atlantic and comparison with satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, C.M.; Ghan, S.J.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Wagener, R.; Nemesure, S.; Schwartz, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    It has been postulated that scattering of sunlight by aerosols can significantly reduce the amount of solar energy absorbed by the climate system. Aerosol measurement programs alone cannot provide all the information needed to evaluate the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. Thus, comprehensive global-scale aerosol models, properly validated against surface-based and satellite measurements, are a fundamental tool for evaluating the impacts of aerosols on the planetary radiation balance. Analyzed meteorological fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are used to drive a modified version of the PNL Global Chemistry Model, applied to the atmospheric sulfur cycle. The resulting sulfate fields are used to calculate aerosol optical depths, which in turn are compared to estimates of aerosol optical depth based on satellite observations

  9. Stable generator of polydisperse aerosol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl. 1 (2001), s. S823-S824 ISSN 0021-8502. [European Aerosol Conference 2001. Leipzig, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : aerosol generator * fine aerosol * polydisperse aerosol Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  10. Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m 3 low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m 3 . Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li 2 O, LiOH, and Li 2 CO 3 . HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m 2 of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m 2 at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate

  11. Factors controlling the solubility of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric input of aerosols is recognized, as an important source of nutrients, for the oceans. The chemical interactions between aerosols and varying composition of air masses lead to different coating of their surfaces with sulfate, nitrate and organic compounds, increasing their solubility and their role as a carrier of nutrients and pollutants in ecosystems. Recent works have highlighted that atmospheric inputs of nutrients and trace metals can considerably influence the marine ecosystem functioning at semi-enclosed or enclosed water bodies such as the eastern Mediterranean. The current work aims to determine the sources and the factors controlling the variability of nutrients in the eastern Mediterranean. Special focus has been given on trace elements solubility, considered either as key nutrients for phytoplankton growth such as iron (Fe), phosphorus (P) or inhibitors such as copper (Cu). This has been accomplished by analyzing size segregated aerosol samples collected at the background site of Finokalia in Crete for an entire year. Phosphorus concentrations indicate important increases in air masses influenced both by anthropogenic activities in the northeast European countries and by dust outbreaks. The last is confirmed by the correlation observed between total P and dust concentrations and by the air mass backward trajectories computed by running the NOAA Hysplit Model (Hybrid Single - Particle Langrangian Integrated Trajectory (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). Overall 73% of total P has been found to be associated with anthropogenic sources. The solubility of P and Fe has been found to be closely related to the acidity (pH) and dust amount in aerosols. The aerosol pH was predicted using thermodynamic modeling (ISORROPIA-II), meteorological observations (RH, T), and gas/particle observations. More specifically P and Fe solubility appears to be inversely related to the crustal elements levels, while it increases in acidic environment. The

  12. Active Learning Environments with Robotic Tangibles: Children's Physical and Virtual Spatial Programming Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Winslow S.; Harlow, Danielle B.; Nilsen, Katherine J.; Perlin, Ken; Freed, Natalie; Jensen, Camilla Nørgaard; Lahey, Byron; Lu, Patrick; Muldner, Kasia

    2018-01-01

    As computational thinking becomes increasingly important for children to learn, we must develop interfaces that leverage the ways that young children learn to provide opportunities for them to develop these skills. Active Learning Environments with Robotic Tangibles (ALERT) and Robopad, an analogous on-screen virtual spatial programming…

  13. Prospects of real-time single-particle biological aerosol analysis: A comparison between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddows, D.C.S.; Telle, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the prospects of real-time, in situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied for the identification and classification of bio-aerosols (including species of potential bio-hazard) within common urban aerosol mixtures. In particular, we address the issues associated with the picking out of bio-aerosols against common background aerosol particles, comparing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with data from a mobile single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (ATOFMS). The data from the latter provide statistical data over an extended period of time, highlighting the variation of the background composition. While single-particle bio-aerosols are detectable in principle, potential problems with small (∼ 1 μm size) bio-aerosols have been identified; constituents of the air mass other than background aerosols, e.g. gaseous CO 2 in conjunction with common background aerosols, may prevent unique recognition of the bio-particles. We discuss whether it is likely that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on its own can provide reliable, real-time identification of bio-aerosol in an urban environment, and it is suggested that more than one technique should be or would have to be used. A case for using a combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman (and/or) laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is made

  14. Dependent-Chance Programming Models for Capital Budgeting in Fuzzy Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Rui; GAO Jinwu

    2008-01-01

    Capital budgeting is concerned with maximizing the total net profit subject to budget constraints by selecting an appropriate combination of projects. This paper presents chance maximizing models for capital budgeting with fuzzy input data and multiple conflicting objectives. When the decision maker sets a prospec-tive profit level and wants to maximize the chances of the total profit achieving the prospective profit level, a fuzzy dependent-chance programming model, a fuzzy multi-objective dependent-chance programming model, and a fuzzy goal dependent-chance programming model are used to formulate the fuzzy capital budgeting problem. A fuzzy simulation based genetic algorithm is used to solve these models. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the simulation-based genetic algorithm and the po-tential applications of these models.

  15. Student performance in computing education: an empirical analysis of online learning in programming education environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiäinen, Elia

    2017-11-01

    The benefits of using online exercises have been analysed in terms of distance learning, automatic assessment and self-regulated learning. In this study, we have not found a direct proportional relationship between student performance in the course exercises that use online technologies and the exam grades. We see that the average submission rate to these online exercises is not positively correlated with the exercise points. Yet, our results confirm that doing exercises along supports student learning and skill accumulation equipping them with the knowledge of programming. While the student performance in programming courses is affected by factors such as prior background in programming, cognitive skills and the quality of teaching, completing the course exercises via learning-by-doing is an indispensable part of teaching. Based on the student feedback from the course survey, the students are highly satisfied with using online technologies as part of learning.

  16. Assessment of the impacts of the french nuclear program on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of the French nuclear program on atmosphere pollution is based on a macroeconomic long term model MELODY particularly detailed for the energy sector. The French energy strategy, characterized by its nuclear program, is compared with an alternative coal strategy based on coal-fired power plants. The coal strategy would have entailed different economic performances, a different energy balance, and, consequently, a different quality of air. For instance, by 1990, carbon emissions would have been 60% higher with the coal strategy; actually, they are 27% lower today than their 1973 level. The French nuclear program resulted both in a carbon emission reduction similar to the Toronto Conference target, and in a significant improvement of economic performances. 4 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Incorporating Geographic Information Science in the BSc Environ-mental Science Program in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2018-05-01

    Critical human capacity in Geographic Information Science (GISc) is developed at the Botswana International University of Science and Technology, a specialized, research university. Strategies employed include GISc courses offered each semester to students from various programs, the conduct of field-based projects, enrolment in online courses, geo-spatial initiatives with external partners, and final year research projects utilizing geospatial technologies. A review is made of available GISc courses embedded in the Bachelor of Science Environmental Science program. GISc courses are incorporated in three Bachelor degree programs as distinct courses. Geospatial technologies are employed in several other courses. Student researches apply GIS and Remote Sensing methods to environmental and geological themes. The overarching goals are to equip students in various disciplines to utilize geospatial technologies, and enhance their spatial thinking and reasoning skills.

  18. Aerosols, clouds and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, S [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1991-01-01

    Most of the so-called 'CO{sub 2} effect' is, in fact, an 'H{sub 2}O effect' brought into play by the climate modeler's assumption that planetary average temperature dictates water-vapor concentration (following Clapeyron-Clausius). That assumption ignores the removal process, which cloud physicists know to be influenced by the aerosol, since the latter primarily controls cloud droplet number and size. Droplet number and size are also influential for shortwave (solar) energy. The reflectance of many thin to moderately thick clouds changes when nuclei concentrations change and make shortwave albedo susceptible to aerosol influence.

  19. A stratospheric aerosol increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Large disturbances were noted in the stratospheric aerosol content in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere commencing about 7 months after the eruption of La Soufriere and less than 1 month after the eruption of Sierra Negra. The aerosol was characterized by a very steep size distribution in the 0.15 to 0.25 micron radius range and contained a volatile component. Measurements near the equator and at the South Pole indicate that the disturbance was widespread. These observations were made before the May 18 eruption of Mt. St. Helens.

  20. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  1. Sensing Aerosol Height in the O2 A and B Bands from Lagrange-1 Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, J.; Torres, O.; Yang, Y.; Marshak, A.; Reid, J. S.; Miller, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol vertical distribution is an important but poorly constrained variable that determines the impacts of aerosols on earth's climate and environment. Detailed aerosol profile can be probed by space-borne Lidar such as the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization), but its spatial coverage is limited as a "curtain" captured along the Lidar's sub-orbital track. Passive techniques, though of less accuracy, can add an important augmentation due to the better spatial coverage. In this study, we present an algorithm for sensing aerosol height and optical depth using radiance measured in the oxygen A and B bands by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC), an instrument aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) residing at Lagrange-1 point. The algorithm was applied to EPIC imagery of dust plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean. Retrieved aerosol heights and optical depths were evaluated against counterparts observed by CALIOP, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The accuracies in EIPC retrieved aerosol heights and optical depths are found better than ±0.5 km and ±(0.1+10%), respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of EPIC measurements for retrieving global aerosol height multiple times daily, which are essential for evaluating aerosol profile simulated in climate models and for better estimating aerosol radiative effects.

  2. Aerosol Activation Properties within and above Mixing Layer in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Ran, L.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles, serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), may modify the properties of clouds and have an impact on climate. The vertical distribution of aerosols and their activation properties is critical to quantify the effect of aerosols on clouds. An intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP 2013), was conducted in the North China Plain during the late July and early August 2013 to measure the vertical profiles of atmospheric components in this polluted region and estimate their effects on atmospheric environment and climate. Aerosols were measured with in-situ instruments and Lidar. Particularly, the aerosols were collected at 1000 m height with a 1 m3 bag sampler attached to a tethered balloon, and subsequently measured with combined scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and CCN counter. Comparisons of size-resolved activation ratios at ground level and 1000 m height showed that aerosols in upper atmosphere were not only less concentrated, but also less CCN-active than those at the surface. The difference in aerosol properties between upper atmosphere and the ground indicates that the analysis of impacts of aerosols on cloud might be misleading in heavily polluted region based on the relationship of cloud properties and surface aerosols or column without considering the vertical distribution of aerosol activation abilities.

  3. AN IMAGE ENHANCEMENT ENVIRONMENT DESIGNED AT 32-BIT VERSION OF VISUAL BASIC 4 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE USING THE WIN32 API FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın KIZILKAYA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the Win32 API (Application Programming Interface functions and MDI (Multiple Document Interface programming technique, which is main principle of Windows system, designed an image enhancement environment at 32-bit version of Visual Basic 4 programming language is investigated. Image enhancement algorithms could be easily applied in this environment and each of results obtained could be separately showed in frames on same environment. Image enhancement techniques used in this environment are observed in spatial domain. With this program observing image enhancement techniques are contrast stretching, histogram equalization, thresholding, negative imaging, low-pass filtering, high-pass filtering and median filtering. In the filtering process of the images are utilized of the convolution techniques at this environment.

  4. Development and Study the Usage of Blended Learning Environment Model Using Engineering Design Concept Learning Activities to Computer Programming Courses for Undergraduate Students of Rajabhat Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasame Tritrakan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study and Synthesise the components, to develop, and to study the usage of blended learning environment model using engineering design concept learning activities to computer programming courses for undergraduate students of Rajabhat universities. The research methodology was divided into 3 phases. Phase I: surveying presents, needs and problems in teaching computer programming of 52 lecturers by using in-depth interview from 5 experienced lecturers. The model’s elements were evaluated by 5 experts. The tools were questionnaire, interview form, and model’s elements assessment form. Phase II: developing the model of blended learning environment and learning activities based on engineering design processes and confirming model by 8 experts. The tools were the draft of learning environment, courseware, and assessment forms. Phase III evaluating the effects of using the implemented environment. The samples were students which formed into 2 groups, 25 people in the experiment group and 27 people in the control group by cluster random sampling. The tools were learning environment, courseware, and assessment tools. The statistics used in this research were means, standard deviation, t-test dependent, and one-way MANOVA. The results found that: 1 Lecturers quite agreed with the physical, mental, social, and information learning environment, learning processes, and assessments. There were all needs in high level. However there were physical environment problems in high level yet quite low in other aspects. 2 The developed learning environment had 4 components which were a 4 types of environments b the inputs included blended learning environment, learning motivation factors, and computer programming content c the processes were analysis of state objectives, design learning environment and activities, developing learning environment and testing materials, implement, ation evaluation and evaluate, 4 the outputs

  5. Aerosol measurements and nuclear accidents: a reconsideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.

    1988-01-01

    Within its radioactivity environmental monitoring programme, the Commission of the European Communities and in particular its Joint Research Centre wants to encourage the qualitative improvement of radioactivity monitoring. On 3 and 4 December 1987 an experts' meeting has been organized by the Ispra Joint Research Centre in collaboration with the Gesellschaft fuer Aerosolforschung, in order to discuss measuring techniques for radioactive aerosols in the environment in case of a nuclear accident. During the workshop, current practices in routine monitoring programmes in the near and far field of nuclear power plants were confronted with the latest developments in the metrology of aerosols and radioactivity. The need and feasibility of implementing advanced aerosol and radioactivity techniques in routine monitoring networks have been discussed. This publication gives the full text of 12 presentations and a report of the roundtable discussion being held afterwards. It does not intend to give a complete picture of all activities going on in the field of radioactive aerosol metrology; it rather collects a number of common statements of people who approach the problem from quite different directions

  6. Alberta Environment's weir safety program : options for rehabilitation to improve public safety : a case study of the Calgary weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, D [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Alberta Environment Water Management Operations (WMO) owns and operates 46 dams and 800 kilometres of canals in Alberta. The WMO consists of 120 staff and several contract operators to take care of this infrastructure. Most of the infrastructure supplies water for irrigation use, which adds 5 billion dollars to the provincial economy annually. Other water uses include stock watering, domestic use, municipal use, recreational use and habitat. Alberta Environment's weir safety program was also discussed along with options for rehabilitation to improve public safety. A case study of Calgary's Weir Dam on the Bow River was highlighted. A brief history of the dam was offered and safety programs around provincially-owned weirs were discussed. Photographs were included to illustrate some of the additional safety measures at the Calgary weir, such as suspended safety buoys upstream of the boom directing paddlers to the portage trail, and signage on the river that can be activated when the boom is out. Typical river users on the Calgary Bow River and safety history at the Calgary Weir were discussed along with other topics such as the Calgary Bow River weir project criteria; project design progress; pre-feasibility options; scale modelling; final design analysis; construction funding; and proposed changes to the safety program for the new weir configuration. figs.

  7. Atmospheric aerosol system: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospero, J.M.; Charlson, R.J.; Mohnen, V.; Jaenicke, R.; Delany, A.C.; Moyers, J.; Zoller, W.; Rahn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosols could play a critical role in many processes which impact on our lives either indirectly (e.g., climate) or directly (e.g., health). However, our ability to assess these possible impacts is constrained by our limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, both anthropogenic and natural. This deficiency is attributable in part to the fact that aerosols are the end product of a vast array of chemical and physical processes. Consequently, the properties of the aerosol can exhibit a great deal of variability in both time and space. Furthermore, most aerosol studies have focused on measurements of a single aerosol characteristic such as composition or size distribution. Such information is generally not useful for the assessment of impacts because the degree of impact may depend on the integral properties of the aerosol, for example, the aerosol composition as a function of particle size. In this overview we discuss recent work on atmospheric aerosols that illustrates the complex nature of the aerosol chemical and physical system, and we suggest strategies for future research. A major conclusion is that man has had a great impact on the global budgets of certain species, especially sulfur and nitrogen, that play a dominant role in the atmospheric aerosol system. These changes could conceivably affect climate. Large-scale impacts are implied because it has recently been demonstrated that natural and pollutant aerosol episodes can be propagated over great distances. However, at present there is no evidence linking anthropogenic activities with a persistent increase in aerosol concentrations on a global scale. A major problem in assessing man's impact on the atmospheric aerosol system and on global budgets is the absence of aerosol measurements in remote marine and continental areas

  8. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  9. KAPSE (Kernel ADA Programming Support Environment) Interface Team Public Report. Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    terination of a child . It was pointed out, .howmver, that CAIS processes are closely analogous to Ada programs, which may include nwiny tasks, so this...NMlc)) - Write a single haractesr end cojp; end PM;/ 5.3.8.10 Easing a qualified area pr~zocedueRSEA( PORN : in ont PO TYP); Purposes This procedure

  10. Successful Programs for Undergraduate Women in Science and Engineering: "Adapting" versus "Adopting" the Institutional Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Frank; Sonnert, Gerhard; Nikiforova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses upon programs for undergraduate women in science and engineering, which are a strategic research site in the study of gender, science, and higher education. The design involves both quantitative and qualitative approaches, linking theory, method, questions, and analyses in ways not undertaken previously. Using a comprehensive,…

  11. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation... announces U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (CBP's) plan to conduct a National Customs Automation Program... conveyance transporting the cargo to the United States. This data will fulfill merchandise entry requirements...

  12. Knowledge Sharing through Pair Programming in Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R. K.; Ahmed, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Agile software development is an iterative and incremental methodology, where solutions evolve from self-organizing, cross-functional teams. Pair programming is a type of agile software development technique where two programmers work together with one computer for developing software. This paper reports the results of the pair programming…

  13. Proposal of Modification Strategy of NC Program in the Virtual Manufacturing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Hirohisa; Chen, Lian-Yi; Fujimoto, Hideo; Shirase, Keiichi; Arai, Eiji

    Virtual manufacturing will be a key technology in process planning, because there are no evaluation tools for cutting conditions. Therefore, virtual machining simulator (VMSim), which can predict end milling processes, has been developed. The modification strategy of NC program using VMSim is proposed in this paper.

  14. Creating Healthier Afterschool Environments in the Healthy Eating Active Communities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Arnell J.; Yoshida, Sallie

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs in California have the potential to play a major role in obesity prevention given that they serve close to a million low-income children. A five-year initiative called the Healthy Eating Active Communities (HEAC) was funded in 2005 by the California Endowment to demonstrate that disparities related to childhood obesity and…

  15. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  16. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  17. The Proposed Model of Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment for Introductory Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mahfudzah; Othman, Muhaini

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the proposed model of the collaborative virtual learning system for the introductory computer programming course which uses one of the collaborative learning techniques known as the "Think-Pair-Share". The main objective of this study is to design a model for an online learning system that facilitates the…

  18. CALIPSO-Inferred Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects: Bias Estimates Using Ground-Based Raman Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Tyler; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Observational constraints on the change in the radiative energy budget caused by the presence of aerosols, i.e. the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE), have recently been made using observations from the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO). CALIPSO observations have the potential to provide improved global estimates of aerosol DRE compared to passive sensor-derived estimates due to CALIPSO's ability to perform vertically-resolved aerosol retrievals over all surface types and over cloud. In this study we estimate the uncertainties in CALIPSO-inferred aerosol DRE using multiple years of observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Raman lidars (RL) at midlatitude and tropical sites. Examined are assumptions about the ratio of extinction-to-backscatter (i.e. the lidar ratio) made by the CALIPSO retrievals, which are needed to retrieve the aerosol extinction profile. The lidar ratio is shown to introduce minimal error in the mean aerosol DRE at the top-of-atmosphere and surface. It is also shown that CALIPSO is unable to detect all radiatively-significant aerosol, resulting in an underestimate in the magnitude of the aerosol DRE by 30-50%. Therefore, global estimates of the aerosol DRE inferred from CALIPSO observations are likely too weak.

  19. Development of programming techniques for behaviors of nuclear robot in real environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Hirukawa, Hirohisa; Kitagaki, Kosei; Onda, Hiromu; Nakamura, Akira

    1998-01-01

    Combinations of surface elements needed to determine the position and the posture of a robot have been investigated based on the morphological properties of each object and expressed in a tree form. Here, a way to construct an environment model using the task-directional instructing tree was introduced. Several surface elements to be used for modeling were prioritized taking consideration of the kind of tasks in the tree. This modeling with the instructing tree was found to be an effective method which allows to flexibly respond to severe environments including occlusion and specular reflexion, which often appear in nuclear installation. In addition, pseudo-contact point monitoring method was implemented into ''Takumi'', a sensor-based manipulation system developed in the previous year and the effectiveness of this system was examined through an experiment of putting a seal on a paper with the manipulator, suggesting availability in real working conditions. (M.N.)

  20. System response of a DOE Defense Program package in a transportation accident environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.F.; Hovingh, J.; Kimura, C.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The system response in a transportation accident environment is an element to be considered in an overall Transportation System Risk Assessment (TSRA) framework. The system response analysis uses the accident conditions and the subsequent accident progression analysis to develop the accident source term, which in turn, is used in the consequence analysis. This paper proposes a methodology for the preparation of the system response aspect of the TSRA

  1. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  2. Service program package for processing and analysis of the data on the state of environment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Kornelyuk, V.A.; Kuz'menko, A.S.; Reznichenko, V.Yu.; Shestopalov, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    The problems related to the creation of universal service program packages (SPP) which are intended for processing the data on the state of environment and public health in the regions of large NPP dislocation are discussed. Peculiarities of the SSP, BMD and SENSOR SPPs as well as the ANGARA SPP developed on the base of the BMD and BMDP SPPs are considered. The ANGARA SPP is tested in the course of a large-scale medico-biological experiment, the purpose of which consisted in estimation of changes in the state of health of practically healthy people as bioindicator of slight changes in the environment. As a result of the analysis between 300 factors 45 most informative ones have been selected

  3. An intelligent environment for dynamic simulation program generation of nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Hiroaki; Gofuku, Akio; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2004-01-01

    A graphical user interface system was developed for the two dynamic simulation systems based on modular programming methods: MSS and DSNP. The following works were made in conjunction with the system development: (1) conversion of the module libraries of both DSNP and MSS, (2) extension of DSNP- pre-compiler, (3) graphical interface for module integration, and (4) automatic converter of simple language descriptions for DSNP, where (1) and (2) were made on an engineering work station, while the rest (3) and (4), on Macintosh HyperCard. By using the graphical interface, a user can specify the structure of a simulation model, geometrical data, initial values of variables, etc. only by handling modules as icon on the pallet fields. The use of extended DSNP pre-compiler then generates the final product of dynamic simulation program automatically. The capability and effectiveness of the system was confirmed by a sample simulation of PWR SBLOCA transient in PORV stuck open event. (author)

  4. Private Administration – Favorable Environment for Implementing Programs and Campaigns of Public Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona HAIDAU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper refer to decision of the private administration organizations from the region northeast of Romania to implement programs and public relations campaigns from the socio-economic context in the current period. This decision of organizations above mentioned is strongly influenced by nature non-profit purposes they have, more precisely, to be involved in carrying out the public interest or community.

  5. Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, J. L.; Cunningham, D.; Gilberry, J.; Kim, S.; Smith, E. E.; Ratnesar-Shumate, S.; Quizon, J.

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

  6. Measurement of size distribution for 220Rn progeny attached aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Guo Qiuju; Zhuo Weihai

    2008-01-01

    The size distribution of radioactive aerosols is a very important factor for evaluating the inner exposure dose contributed by radon and thoron progeny in environments. In order to measure the size distribution of thoron progeny attached radioactive aerosols, a device was developed using wire screens. The count median diameter (CMD) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of attached radioactive aerosols were calculated by collecting ThB and using CR-39 as detector. Field measurement results at Yangjiang City in Guangdong Province show that the CMDs distribute between 30 and 130 nm, and the GSDs are between 1.9 and 3.3. It also shows that the more humid country, the smaller CMDs, and the ventilation has great influence on the size distribution of aerosols. The CMDs of adobe house are smaller than that of the concrete houses. (authors)

  7. Italian Antarctic Research Program: environmental radioactivity survey around the Italian base (1987-1991) Terra Nova Bay - Ross Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubertini, O.; Bettoli, M.G.; Cantelli, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Investigations have been carried out by the Italian Antartic Research Program to determine the natural and artificial radioactivity levels of both the marine and terrestrial environments. Also, natural and anthropogenic fluxes of aerosol particles onto the Antartic surface have been examined. (Author).

  8. Italian Antarctic Research Program: environmental radioactivity survey around the Italian base (1987-1991) Terra Nova Bay - Ross Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubertini, O.; Bettoli, M.G.; Cantelli, L.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out by the Italian Antartic Research Program to determine the natural and artificial radioactivity levels of both the marine and terrestrial environments. Also, natural and anthropogenic fluxes of aerosol particles onto the Antartic surface have been examined. (Author)

  9. The remediation process: Approach and elements of the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program in a Superfund environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates a large industrial complex located at various production, processing, testing, and research and development installations across the country. During the 40+ years of operation, this complex generated and managed waste to then-current standards. However, some of these waste management practices have subsequently been proven to be inadequate for long-term environmental protection. The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established in 1989, when DOE's top priority changed from nuclear weapons production to environmental cleanup. The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within EM was tasked to ensure that risks to human health and the environment posed by DOE's past operations at its nuclear facilities and sites are eliminated or reduced to prescribed, safe levels. Since its creation, the ER Program has been one of the fastest growing programs in the Department, demonstrating the Secretary's commitment to the new clean-up priority. (The 1989 budget was $400 million, while the 1993 budget is $1.8 billion.) As new technologies are developed and new management strategies implemented, the program will continue to expand. This paper describes the environmental remediation process from its early assessment phase to the final compliance effort

  10. Final Report from The University of Texas at Austin for DEGAS: Dynamic Global Address Space programming environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erez, Mattan

    2018-02-21

    The Dynamic, Exascale Global Address Space programming environment (DEGAS) project will develop the next generation of programming models and runtime systems to meet the challenges of Exascale computing. Our approach is to provide an efficient and scalable programming model that can be adapted to application needs through the use of dynamic runtime features and domain-specific languages for computational kernels. We address the following technical challenges: Programmability: Rich set of programming constructs based on a Hierarchical Partitioned Global Address Space (HPGAS) model, demonstrated in UPC++. Scalability: Hierarchical locality control, lightweight communication (extended GASNet), and ef- ficient synchronization mechanisms (Phasers). Performance Portability: Just-in-time specialization (SEJITS) for generating hardware-specific code and scheduling libraries for domain-specific adaptive runtimes (Habanero). Energy Efficiency: Communication-optimal code generation to optimize energy efficiency by re- ducing data movement. Resilience: Containment Domains for flexible, domain-specific resilience, using state capture mechanisms and lightweight, asynchronous recovery mechanisms. Interoperability: Runtime and language interoperability with MPI and OpenMP to encourage broad adoption.

  11. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  12. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment; La combustione di biomassa nella Foresta Amazzonica Aerosoli organici e impatto sull'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecinato, A; Mabilia, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo, RM (Italy); De Castro Vasconcellos, P [Sao Paulo Universidad, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Dept. de Engenharia Quimica Ambiental

    2001-03-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region. [Italian] Una campagna di misura realizzata nella regione amazzonica nel 1993 ha dimostrato la ricaduta sull'area circostante dei prodotti di combustione della biomassa forestale, attraverso la speciazione degli aerosoli atmosferici raccolti in un sito urbano posto ai margini della foresta, tuttavia le poveri sospese rivelano l'origine dolosa degli incendi. La composizione chimica degli aerosoli organici provenienti dalla combustione di biomassa sembra favorire i processi di smog fotochimico nella regione.

  13. Aerosol Size and Chemical Composition in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y. W.; Hayes, P. L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Croft, B.; O'Neill, N. T.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic aerosol have a strong annual cycle, with winter months dominated by long range transport from lower latitudes resulting in high mass loadings. Conversely, local emissions are more prominent in the summer months because of the decreased influence of transported aerosol, allowing us to regularly observe both transported and local aerosol. This study will present observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution collected at the Polar Environment Artic Research Laboratory and the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory at Eureka (80N, 86W) and Alert (82N, 62W), Nunavut, respectively. Summer time observations of the number size distribution reveal a persistent mode of particles centered between 30-50 nm, with occasional bursts of smaller particles. The non-refractory aerosol chemical composition, measured by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, is primarily organic, with contributions from both aged and fresher organic aerosol. Factor analysis will be conducted to better understand these sources. The site at Eureka is more susceptible to long range transport since it is at the top of a mountain ridge (610 m above sea level) and will be compared to the site at Alert on an elevated plain (200 m above sea level). This will allow us to determine the relative contributions from processes and sources at the sites at different elevations. Comparisons with aerosol optical depth and GEOS-Chem model output will also be presented to put these surface measurements into context with the overlying and regional atmosphere. Results from this study contribute to our knowledge of aerosol in the high Arctic.

  14. Why do we have such difficulty assessing aerosol impacts in Southeast Asia? Examining the representativeness of regional in situ, remote sensing, and modeling data using examples from a recent field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Lagrosas, N.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Campbell, J. R.; Chew, B.; Cook, J.; Di Girolamo, L.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Johnson, R. S.; Jonsson, H.; Lynch, P.; Sessions, W.; Simpas, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia faces numerous climate change issues, and the interaction between aerosol particles, clouds, and precipitation is thought to impact the environment in this region at both weather and climate scales. Aerosol particles have direct radiative effects, indirect effects through interaction with clouds and precipitation, and also act as a tracer for other processes affecting the carbon cycle or atmospheric chemistry. Southeast Asia also hosts some of the most complex meteorological phenomenon of the world, challenging in situ, remote sensing and modeling systems. Indeed, there is more diversity in satellite based aerosol, fire, cloud, and precipitation products in Southeast Asia than perhaps anywhere else in the world outside of the poles. In addition to serious direct challenges to aerosol observability in Southeast Asia, such as persistent ubiquitous cloud cover, there are also contextual biases (such as for aerosol retrievals the classic clear sky bias). Contextual bias affects the representativeness of nearly all aerosol assessments in Southeast Asia. As part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, a small intensive study was conducted in Singapore and the Palawan Archipelago in September 2011 to study the flow of biomass burning smoke through the South China/East Sea and into the summertime monsoonal trough. Analysis of field data coupled with multiple satellite and model products allowed us to investigate questions on the representativeness of data and to what extent they capture the 'true' state of the meteorological and aerosol environment. Four specific representativeness issues are presented based on IOP examples: 1) Individual biases in retrievals or model simulations; 2) Sampling biases at short time scales based on product coverage; 3) Temporal and spatial scale biases inherent in large and point based measurements; 4) Contextual biases that develop from the aggregation of data products. Considering all four of these issues we

  15. Programming HTML5 Applications Building Powerful Cross-Platform Environments in JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Kessin, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    HTML5 is not just a replacement for plugins. It also makes the Web a first-class development environment by giving JavaScript programmers a solid foundation for building industrial-strength applications. This practical guide takes you beyond simple site creation and shows you how to build self-contained HTML5 applications that can run on mobile devices and compete with desktop apps. You'll learn powerful JavaScript tools for exploiting HTML5 elements, and discover new methods for working with data, such as offline storage and multithreaded processing. Complete with code samples, this book is

  16. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C G; Newland, M S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  17. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  18. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350 o C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs

  19. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AN APPLICATION OF MECHATRONICS IN MANUFACTURING WITH OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN A WINDOWS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. J. Jürgens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This project is part of a program to establish mechatronics knowledge and skills in the Department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Stellenbosch. A low-cost, but accurate mechatronic application was developed by automating a pipe-bending machine. Accelerating software development through object-oriented programming was also investigated. The object-oriented software was developed with a structure that increases the independence between the application object and the data acquisition system. A teach-pendant and large, multicolour displays with interactive buttons were developed to ensure a user-friendly machine. .The positioning of the headstock was controlled by a pulsing control algorithm, which achieved an accuracy of ±0.15 degrees and a repeatability of ±0.24 degrees. The design of the machine and software and experimental results are discussed in this paper.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie projek vorm deeI van 'n program om kennis en vaardighede in die aanwending van megatronika in die Departement Bedryfsingenieurswese van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch te vestig. 'n Lae koste, maar akkurate megatronika toepassing is ontwikkel deur 'n pypbuigmasjien te outomatiseer. Versnelling van sagteware-ontwikkeling deur die toepassing van objek-georienteerde programmering is ook ondersoek. Die objek-georienteerde sagteware is ontwikkel met 'n struktuur wat onafhanklikheid tussen die toepassings-objek en die dataver-samelingstelsel bevorder. 'n Handkontrole eenheid en groot veelkleurige rekenaarvertoonskerms met interaktiewe drukknoppe om 'n gebruikersvriendelike masjien te vereker is ontwikkel. Die posisionering van die kopstuk word beheer deur 'n puls-algoritrne wat 'n akkuraatheid van ±O.l5 grade en 'n herhaalbaarheid van ±0.24 grade lewer. Die ontwerp van die masjien en sagteware en eksperimentele resultate word in hierdie artikel bespreek.