WorldWideScience

Sample records for programmable resistive elements

  1. Radioactive resistance of memory elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, B.; Stankovic, S.; Novakovic, D.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the results of semiconductor memories radioactive resistance examination (EPROM and EEPROM) are presented. Performance of semiconductor memories is most important, when working under high risk condition where there is an influence of radiation. This research is particularly interesting for specific applications in military industry and space technology. Therefore, the analysis of the degradation mechanism of these components as well as the possibilities to increase their radiation resistivity have been considered by many authors. The aim of this work is the examination of the reliability of EPROM and EEPROM characteristics under radiation. Total dose results are presented for the JL 27C512D EPROM and ST 24C02 EEPROM. There is evidence that EPROM are more sensitive to y radiation than EEPROM. The results obtained are analyzed theoretically via the interaction of gamma radiation with oxide layer. (authors)

  2. Resistive RAMs as analog trimming elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Perez, A.; Portal, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the use of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) as an analog trimming device. The analog storage feature of the RRAM cell is evaluated and the ability of the RRAM to hold several resistance states is exploited to propose analog trim elements. To modulate the memory cell resistance, a series of short programming pulses are applied across the RRAM cell allowing a fine calibration of the RRAM resistance. The RRAM non volatility feature makes the analog device powers up already calibrated for the system in which the analog trimmed structure is embedded. To validate the concept, a test structure consisting of a voltage reference is evaluated.

  3. 49 CFR 236.527 - Roadway element insulation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element insulation resistance. 236.527 Section 236.527 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... element insulation resistance. Insulation resistance between roadway inductor and ground shall be...

  4. Nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document includes 10 final reports on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Report on an IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document includes 10 final reports on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs.

  6. WHO/IAEA joint research programme on trace elements in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    After several years of support by WHO and IAEA for the joint research programme on trace elements in cardiovascular diseases, a consultants' meeting was held (1) to examine the present status of the programme with a view to advising on actions necessary for its completion, and (2) to advise on the form, content and timing of a final report. The meeting was attended by the invited experts and other persons. The main work of this research programme is divided, as before, between two projects, (1) on Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and other elements in relation to ischaemic heart disease, and (2) on Cd, Se and Zn in relation to arterial hypertension

  7. 24 CFR 3280.307 - Resistance to elements and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and rain. Metal coverings and exposed metal structural members shall be of corrosion resistant materials or shall be protected to resist corrosion. All joints between portions of the exterior covering... Construction Requirements § 3280.307 Resistance to elements and use. (a) Exterior coverings shall be of...

  8. Lichen elements as pollution indicators: evaluation of methods for large monitoring programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated...

  9. Developing core elements and checklist items for global hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes: a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, C; Binda, F; Lamkang, A S; Trett, A; Charani, E; Goff, D A; Harbarth, S; Hinrichsen, S L; Levy-Hara, G; Mendelson, M; Nathwani, D; Gunturu, R; Singh, S; Srinivasan, A; Thamlikitkul, V; Thursky, K; Vlieghe, E; Wertheim, H; Zeng, M; Gandra, S; Laxminarayan, R

    2018-04-03

    With increasing global interest in hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, there is a strong demand for core elements of AMS to be clearly defined on the basis of principles of effectiveness and affordability. To date, efforts to identify such core elements have been limited to Europe, Australia, and North America. The aim of this study was to develop a set of core elements and their related checklist items for AMS programmes that should be present in all hospitals worldwide, regardless of resource availability. A literature review was performed by searching Medline and relevant websites to retrieve a list of core elements and items that could have global relevance. These core elements and items were evaluated by an international group of AMS experts using a structured modified Delphi consensus procedure, using two-phased online in-depth questionnaires. The literature review identified seven core elements and their related 29 checklist items from 48 references. Fifteen experts from 13 countries in six continents participated in the consensus procedure. Ultimately, all seven core elements were retained, as well as 28 of the initial checklist items plus one that was newly suggested, all with ≥80% agreement; 20 elements and items were rephrased. This consensus on core elements for hospital AMS programmes is relevant to both high- and low-to-middle-income countries and could facilitate the development of national AMS stewardship guidelines and adoption by healthcare settings worldwide. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  10. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  11. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Fleischhauer, G.S.; Hajaligol, M.R.; Lilly, A.C. Jr.

    1997-04-15

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, {=}0.05% Zr or ZrO{sub 2} stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or {>=}0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, {<=}2% Ti, {<=}2% Mo, {<=}1% Zr, {<=}1% C, {<=}0.1% B, {<=}30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, {<=}1% rare earth metal, {<=}1% oxygen, {<=}3% Cu, balance Fe. 64 figs.

  12. Co-ordinated research programme on nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) was started by the Agency in 1985, within the framework of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology in the Asia and Pacific Region (RCA). Its main purpose has been to obtain comparative data on existing elemental concentrations of potentially toxic elements in foodstuffs in various Asian countries. The elements to be studied include the potentially most toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) as well as others of relevance to national monitoring programmes, such as Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Sb, Tl, and Zn. An important supplementary purpose of the programme is to help establish analytical expertise for work of this kind in the individual countries. Scientists from several RCA Member States have participated in it, namely from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand, and also from institutes in several countries outside the region, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Jamaica and The Netherlands. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the programme from 20-24 November 1989, in Jakarta, Indonesia. This document includes the progress reports presented by the participants as well as discussions and conclusions drawn from the meeting

  13. Elements for designing ALARA programmes for the maintenance and routine operations of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the three fundamental elements for designing ALARA programmes for the maintenance and routine operations of nuclear facilities. These are the need for commitment of all parties involved, the need for specific ALARA organizational structures and the systematic use of ALARA tools. (UK)

  14. GEAR: A database of Genomic Elements Associated with drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Ying; Chen, Wei-Hua; Xiao, Pei-Pei; Xie, Wen-Bin; Luo, Qibin; Bork, Peer; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is becoming a serious problem that leads to the failure of standard treatments, which is generally developed because of genetic mutations of certain molecules. Here, we present GEAR (A database of Genomic Elements Associated with drug Resistance) that aims to provide comprehensive information about genomic elements (including genes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and microRNAs) that are responsible for drug resistance. Right now, GEAR contains 1631 associations between 201 human drugs and 758 genes, 106 associations between 29 human drugs and 66 miRNAs, and 44 associations between 17 human drugs and 22 SNPs. These relationships are firstly extracted from primary literature with text mining and then manually curated. The drug resistome deposited in GEAR provides insights into the genetic factors underlying drug resistance. In addition, new indications and potential drug combinations can be identified based on the resistome. The GEAR database can be freely accessed through http://gear.comp-sysbio.org. PMID:28294141

  15. Resistance Element Welding of Magnesium Alloy/austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manladan, S. M.; Yusof, F.; Ramesh, S.; Zhang, Y.; Luo, Z.; Ling, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-material design is increasingly applied in the automotive and aerospace industries to reduce weight, improve crash-worthiness, and reduce environmental pollution. In the present study, a novel variant of resistance spot welding technique, known as resistance element welding was used to join AZ31 Mg alloy to 316 L austenitic stainless steel. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated. It was found that the nugget consisted of two zones, including a peripheral fusion zone on the stainless steel side and the main fusion zone. The tensile shear properties of the joints are superior to those obtained by traditional resistance spot welding.

  16. Co-ordinated research programme on nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) is to obtain comparative data on the existing elemental concentrations of potentially toxic elements in foodstuffs in various countries. This study is also intended to provide information on the dietary intakes of toxic elements as a means to detect potential health hazards to the population groups concerned. This study has important economic implications since trade in foodstuffs is dependent on compliance with regulations pertaining to maximum permissible concentrations. An important supplementary purpose of the programme is to help establish analytical expertise for work of this kind in individual countries, allowing such laboratories to offer analytical quality control services. The programme has centred its objective on the determination of important toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, in addition to Cu, Sb and Zn, which are also potentially toxic but are generally of minor importance from the point of view of public health. The matrices of interest are foodstuffs which comprise together more than 50% of the average daily intake. Drinking water is also of high importance and should be analysed as well. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  18. ACINO: Report on the design of programmability elements for in-operation network control

    OpenAIRE

    Sköldström Pontus; Junique Stéphane; Marsico Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This ACINO deliverable presents the work performed in task “Design of the programmability elements for in-operation network control” to design the northbound interface of the ACINO orchestrator. The document begins with a review of the requirements of the northbound interface, derived from previous work done related to use cases and application requirements and the expected properties of the ACINO framework (see report "ACINO: The framework for the application-centric network orchestra...

  19. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  20. Aesthetic Proximity: the Role of Stylistic Programme Elements in Format Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien van Keulen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Implications of the transnationalisation of television are often studied by focusing on the localisation of the content of formatted programmes. Although television is essentially an audio-visual medium, little attention has been paid to the aesthetic aspects of television texts in relation to transnationalisation and formatting. Transnationalisation of production practices, such as through formatting, implies a transnational aesthetic. At the same time, aspects of style are specific to place, culture or audience. In this article, the localisation of stylistic programme elements is explored using a comparison of two reality format adaptations. It is argued that style plays an important role in the expression of the local in a transnational industry.

  1. Spatial scan statistics to assess sampling strategy of antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2009-01-01

    Pie collection and analysis of data on antimicrobial resistance in human and animal Populations are important for establishing a baseline of the occurrence of resistance and for determining trends over time. In animals, targeted monitoring with a stratified sampling plan is normally used. However...... sampled by the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP), by identifying spatial Clusters of samples and detecting areas with significantly high or low sampling rates. These analyses were performed for each year and for the total 5-year study period for all...... by an antimicrobial monitoring program....

  2. A computer programme for use in the development of multi-element x-ray-fluorescence methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computer programme (written in BASIC) is described for the evaluation of spectral-line intensities in X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. The programme is designed to assist the analyst while he is developing new analytical methods, because it facilitates the selection of the following evaluation parameters: calculation models, spectral-line correction factors, calibration curves, calibration ranges, and point deletions. In addition, the programme enables the analyst to undertake routine calculations of data from multi-element analyses in which variable data-reduction parameters are used for each element

  3. Analysis and Implementation of an Open Programmable Router Based on Forwarding and Control Element Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ming Wang; Li-Gang Dong; Bin Zhuge

    2008-01-01

    A router architecture based upon ForCES (Forwarding and Control Element Separation), which is being standardized by IETF ForCES working group, gains its competitive advantage over traditional router architectures in flexibility, programmability, and cost-effectiveness. In this paper, design and implementation of a ForCES-based router (ForTER) is illustrated. Firstly, the implementation architecture of ForTER is discussed. Then, a layered software model,which well illustrates ForCES features, is proposed. Based on the model, design and implementation of Control Element (CE) and Forwarding Element (FE) in ForTER are introduced in detail. Moreover, security for ForTER is considered and an algorithm to prevent DoS attacks is presented. Lastly, experiments of ForTER are illustrated for routing and running routing protocols, network management, DoS attack prevention, etc. The experimental results show the feasibility of the ForTER design. Consequently, the ForTER implementation basically testifies the feasibility of ForCES architecture and some IETF ForCES specifications.

  4. UKAEA fast reactor project research and development programme on fuel element cladding and sub-assembly wrapper materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Research and development work on fuel element component (cladding, subassembly wrappers, etc.) materials for the U.K. sodium cooled fast reactor programme has been conducted at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) establishments at Dounreay, Harwell, Risley, and Springfields during the past fifteen years or so. This work has formed an integral part of, and has been co-ordinated by, the UKAEA Fast Reactor Project and has involved close liaison with the Nuclear Power Company (NPC) and the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). The research and development were initially related to the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) but the scope has now been extended to cover the first Civil Fast Reactor (CFR1), which has recently been re-designated the Civil Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR). The paper outlines the present status of the development of sodium cooled fast reactors in the U.K. and proceeds to summarize the principal PFR and CDFR core and fuel element parameters which have determined the planning and direction of the fuel element materials programme. The current position on the fuel element cladding and wrapper research and development programme is reviewed, and the facilities and future irradiation programme to be carried out in PFR are described

  5. A SHORT-TERM CIRCUIT RESISTANCE PROGRAMME REDUCED EPICARDIAL FAT IN OBESE AGED WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosety, Miguel Angel; Pery, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Pareja, Maria Antonia; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety, Jesus; Garcia, Natalia; Brenes-Martin, Francisco; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Toro, Rocío; Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Rosety, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    this study was conducted to ascertain the effects of resistance circuit training on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in obese aged women. A secondary objective was to assess muscle damage induced by supervised resistance training to confirm the intervention program was effective and safe. in the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Two experienced observers assessed EAT by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using one-step sandwich assays for creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin (MB) concentration. as was hypothesized, resistance training significantly reduced EAT thickness (8.4 ± 1.0 vs. 7.3 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014; d = 0.76) in the experimental group. Resistance training induced no significant changes in markers of muscle damage such as CK (181.6 ± 36.9 vs. 194.2 ± 37.8 U/l; p = 0.31) and MB (62.4 ± 7.1 vs. 67.3 ± 7.7 ng/ml; p = 0.26). No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. resistance training reduced EAT in aged obese women. A secondary finding was that the training program was effective and safe. While current results are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer programme for the derivation of transfer functions for multivariable systems (solutions of determinants with polynomial elements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, C.B.

    1962-03-01

    In the methods adopted in this report transfer functions in the form of the ratio of two polynomials of the complex variable s are derived from sets of laplace transformed simultaneous differential equations. The set of algebraic simultaneous equations are solved using Cramer's Rule and this gives rise to determinants having polynomial elements. It is shown how the determinants are formed when transfer functions are specified. The procedure for finding the polynomial coefficients from a given determinant is fully described. The first method adopted is a direct one and reduces a determinant with first degree polynomial elements to secular form and follows this by an application of the similarity transformation to reduce the determinant to a form from which the polynomial coefficients can be read out directly. The programme is able to solve a single determinant with polynomial elements and this can be used to reduce an eigenvalue problem in the form of a secular determinant to polynomial form if the need arises. A description is given of the way in which the data is to be set out for solution by the programme. A description is also given of a method used in an earlier programme for solving polynomial determinants by curve fitting techniques using Chebyshev Polynomials. In this method determinants with polynomial elements of any degree can be solved. (author)

  7. Effects of alloying elements on nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alloying and impurity elements (tin, iron, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, oxygen, aluminum, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus) on the nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys were studied. The improving effect of iron, nickel and niobium in nodular corrosion resistance were observed. The uniform corrosion resistance was also improved by nickel, niobium and tantalum. The effects of impurity elements, nitrogen, aluminum and phosphorus were negligibly small but increasing the silicon content seemed to improve slightly the uniform corrosion resistance. Hydrogen pick-up fraction were not changed by alloying and impurity elements except nickel. Nickel addition increased remarkably hydrogen pick-up fraction. Although the composition of secondary precipitates changed with contents of alloying elements, the correlation of composition of secondary precipitates to corrosion resistance was not observed. (author)

  8. FARME DB: a functional antibiotic resistance element database

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, James C.; Port, Jesse A.; Smith, Marissa N.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a major global public health threat but few resources exist that catalog AR genes outside of a clinical context. Current AR sequence databases are assembled almost exclusively from genomic sequences derived from clinical bacterial isolates and thus do not include many microbial sequences derived from environmental samples that confer resistance in functional metagenomic studies. These environmental metagenomic sequences often show little or no similarity to AR se...

  9. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental study on radiation resistant properties of seismic isolation elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, G.; Nojima, O.; Aizawa, S.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ikenaga, M.; Yoshizawa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, studies on the application of a seismic isolation system to a reactor building and or the equipment of a nuclear power plant has been carried out. This study aims at investigating the influence which is exerted upon the mechanical properties of the seismic isolation elements by radiation. The authors conducted irradiation tests, using γ rays, on natural rubber bearings (NRB), lead rubber bearings (LRB), high damping rubber bearings (HRB), and the viscous fluid used in viscous dampers. The maximum radiation intensity was 5 x 10 7 R (Roentgen). The comparison between the mechanical properties of each seismic isolation element before and after the irradiation test are reported in the following. (author)

  11. Antibiotic and antiseptic resistance genes are linked on a novel mobile genetic element: Tn6087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Lena; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Tn916-like elements are one of the most common types of integrative and conjugative element (ICE). In this study we aimed to determine whether novel accessory genes, i.e. genes whose products are not involved in mobility or regulation, were present on a Tn916-like element (Tn6087) isolated from Streptococcus oralis from the human oral cavity. Methods A minocycline-resistant isolate was analysed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on amplicons derived from Tn916 and DNA sequencing to determine whether there were genetic differences in Tn6087 compared with Tn916. Mutational analysis was used to determine whether the novel accessory gene found was responsible for an observed extra phenotype. Results A novel Tn916-like element, Tn6087, is described that encodes both antibiotic and antiseptic resistance. The antiseptic resistance protein is encoded by a novel small multidrug resistance gene, designated qrg, that was shown to encode resistance to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), also known as cetrimide bromide. Conclusions This is the first Tn916-like element described that confers both antibiotic and antiseptic resistance, suggesting that selection of either antibiotic or antiseptic resistance will also select for the other and further highlights the need for prudent use of both types of compound. PMID:21816764

  12. Finite-element semi-discretization of linearized compressible and resistive MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, W.; Jakoby, A.; Lerbinger, K.

    1985-08-01

    The full resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as an initial-value problem. The semi-discretization using cubic and quadratic finite elements for the spatial discretization and a fully implicit time advance yields very accurate results even for small values of the resistivity. In the application different phenomena such as waves, resistive instabilities and overstable modes are addressed. (orig.)

  13. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on antibiotic usage and resistance in a tertiary hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-G; Chen, F; Ou, Y

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial misuse has been commonly observed in China. This phenomenon can cause antibiotic resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme implemented in a tertiary hospital in China from 2011 to 2014. The antimicrobial stewardship programme began in 2011. Data on the consumption of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance between 2011 and 2014 were collected. Comparison of the 2011 data with those of 2014 showed that antibiotic defined daily doses/per 100 patient-days decreased from 92.5±2.8 to 35.8±1.2 (Padministrative management, especially information management, was effective in reducing antibiotic consumption and lessening antibiotic resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Programmable liquid crystal waveplate polarization gratings as elements for polarimetric and interference applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, I.; Davis, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    We review the use of a parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator as a very useful and flexible device for polarimetric and interferometric applications. The device acts as a programmable pixelated waveplate, and the encoding of a linear grating permits its use as a polarization beam splitter. When a grating with a reduced period is encoded, the diffracted beams are spatially separated and the device can be used for polarimetric analysis. On the contrary when a large period grating is displayed, the beams are not spatially separated, and they are useful to realize a common path interferometric system with polarization sensitivity. The flexibility offered by the programmability of the display allows non-conventional uses, including the analysis of light beams with structured spatial polarizations.

  15. Molecular analysis of diverse elements mediating VanA glycopeptide resistance in enterococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palepou, M.F.I.; Adebiyi, A.M.A.; Tremlett, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Differences were examined among 24 distinct elements mediating VanA-type glycopeptide resistance in enterococci isolated from hospital patients and non-human sources in the UK. The methods used included long-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (L-PCR RFLP) analysis and DNA hybridization...... characterized by the presence of an IS1216V/IS3-like/orf1 complex and a point mutation in vanX, both of which were absent from the other 23 groups of VanA elements. This finding is consistent with the dissemination of a stable resistance element. We conclude that L-PCR RFLP analysis, combined with DNA...

  16. Mechanism and degree of chemical elements effect on atmosphere corrosion resistance of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Din' Vuj

    1991-01-01

    It follows from the proposed regression equations that falourable effect of chemical elements on steel resistance to atmospheric corrosion is determined by their ability to increase interatom bond stability in iron crystal lattice and form corrosion products with high protection properties. Element positive influence on steel corrosion resistance decreases in the following order: S, P, Si, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, C in semiurban tropical atmosphere and S, Mn, Sr, Cu, Ni, Cr in coastal atmosphere. In the latter case C increases corrosion in a greater degree as compared to P. Small ammounts of Mo decrease steel resistance in semiurban atmosphere and almost do not influence it in the coastal one. Possible mechanisms of individual element influence on steel corrosion resistance are considered

  17. Elements for Designing Stakeholders’ Programmes of Encouraging Young People to Engage in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Omerbegović-Bijelović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a way to help in solving the high levels of unemployment amongst the young (in Serbia – by designing and realising stakeholders’ programmes which would allow inclusion of the young in the entrepreneurial world (through either self-employment or employment of others. The idea is to identify and recommend to stakeholders the competencies and motives that drive the nowadays young entrepreneurs – as models for enabling and motivating unemployed youth to engage into the entrepreneurial world. On the basis of facts obtained by research – which pinpoint the competencies - both practical and theoretical, on the basis of the motives of the young entrepreneurs in Serbia, as well as on the basis of their beliefs/attitudes about the same aspects of starting and undertaking entrepreneurial projects, some recommendations for stakeholders have been generated for designing a programme to encourage those young people to join the ranks of entrepreneurs. What remains is for the relevant authorities - in the legal and even family settings, i.e., all those who can recognise some self-interest, is to get started and dedicate themselves to the young and their entry into the world of entrepreneurship. The contribution of this paper is in the suggestions for the different types of stakeholders which would help them design programmes to bring the young generations into the entrepreneurial sphere. We also consider even the very fact of pointing out the different roles of the varied social subjects/stakeholders to be useful in bringing the younger generations into the world of entrepreneurship, as a form of care for the young generations.

  18. A Programmable Biopotential Aquisition Front-end with a Resistance-free Current-balancing Instrumentation Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARAGO, P.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of wearable biomedical equipment benefits from low-power and low-voltage circuit techniques for reduced battery size and battery, or even battery-less, operation. This paper proposes a fully-differential low-power resistance-free programmable instrumentation amplifier for the analog front-end of biopotential monitoring systems. The proposed instrumentation amplifier implements the current balancing technique. Low power consumption is achieved with subthreshold biasing. To reduce chip area and enable integration, passive resistances have been replaced with active equivalents. Accordingly, the instrumentation amplifier gain is expressed as the ratio of two transconductance values. The proposed instrumentation amplifier exhibits two degrees of freedom: one to set the desired range and the other for fine-tuning of the voltage gain. The proposed IA is employed in a programmable biopotential acquisition front-end. The programmable frequency-selective behavior is achieved by having the lower cutoff frequency of a Gm-C Tow-Thomas biquad varied in a constant-C tuning approach. The proposed solutions and the programmability of the operation parameters to the specifications of particular bio-medical signals are validated on a 350nm CMOS process.

  19. HIV diversity and drug resistance from plasma and non-plasma analytes in a large treatment programme in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Rami; DeLong, Allison; Balamane, Maya; Schreier, Leeann; Lloyd, Robert M; Injera, Wilfred; Kamle, Lydia; Mambo, Fidelis; Muyonga, Sarah; Katzenstein, David; Hogan, Joseph; Buziba, Nathan; Diero, Lameck

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon first-line failure by the IAS-USA mutation list, at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), a major treatment programme in western Kenya. Plasma and four non-plasma analytes, dried blood-spots (DBS), dried plasma-spots (DPS), ViveST(TM)-plasma (STP) and ViveST-blood (STB), were compared to identify diversity and evaluate sequence concordance. Among 122 patients, 62 were treatment-naïve and 60 treatment-experienced; 61% were female, median age 35 years, median CD4 182 cells/µL, median viral-load 4.6 log10 copies/mL. One hundred and ninety-six sequences were available for 107/122 (88%) patients, 58/62 (94%) treatment-naïve and 49/60 (82%) treated; 100/122 (82%) plasma, 37/78 (47%) attempted DBS, 16/45 (36%) attempted DPS, 14/44 (32%) attempted STP from fresh plasma and 23/34 (68%) from frozen plasma, and 5/42 (12%) attempted STB. Plasma and DBS genotyping success increased at higher VL and shorter shipment-to-genotyping time. Main subtypes were A (62%), D (15%) and C (6%). Transmitted resistance was found in 1.8% of plasma sequences, and 7% combining analytes. Plasma resistance mutations were identified in 91% of treated patients, 76% NRTI, 91% NNRTI; 76% dual-class; 60% with intermediate-high predicted resistance to future treatment options; with novel mutation co-occurrence patterns. Nearly 88% of plasma mutations were identified in DBS, 89% in DPS and 94% in STP. Of 23 discordant mutations, 92% in plasma and 60% in non-plasma analytes were mixtures. Mean whole-sequence discordance from frozen plasma reference was 1.1% for plasma-DBS, 1.2% plasma-DPS, 2.0% plasma-STP and 2.3% plasma-STB. Of 23 plasma

  20. Radiation resistance of pyrocarbon-boned fuel and absorbing elements for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, V.A.; Konotop, Yu.F.; Odejchuk, N.P.; Shirochenkov, S.D.; Yakovlev, V.K.; Aksenov, N.A.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Lebedev, I.G.; Samsonov, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    In choosing the reactor type, problems of nuclear and radiation safety are outstanding. The analysis of the design and experiments show that HTGR type reactors helium cooled satisfy all the safety requirements. It has been planned in the Soviet Union to construct two HTGR plants, VGR-50 and VG-400. Later it was decided to construct an experimental plant with a low power high temperature reactor (VGM). Spherical uranium-graphite fuel elements with coated fuel particles are supposed to be used in HTGR core. A unique technology for producing spherical pyrocarbon-bound fuel and absorbing elements of monolithic type has been developed. Extended tests were done to to investigate fuel elements behaviour: radiation resistance of coated fuel particles with different types of fuel; influence of the coated fuel particles design on gaseous fission products release; influence of non-sphericity on coated fuel particle performance; dependence of gaseous fission products release from fuel elements on the thickness of fuel-free cans; confining role of pyrocarbon as a factor capable of diminishing the rate of fission products release; radiation resistance of spherical fuel elements during burnup; radiation resistance of spherical absorbing elements to fast neutron fluence and boron burnup

  1. Programmes of cell death and autolysis in tracheary elements: when a suicidal cell arranges its own corpse removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2014-03-01

    Tracheary element (TE) differentiation represents a unique system to study plant developmental programmed cell death (PCD). TE PCD occurs after deposition of the secondary cell walls when an unknown signal induces tonoplast rupture and the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. TE PCD is tightly followed by autolysis of the protoplast and partial hydrolysis of the primary cell walls. This review integrates TE differentiation, programmed cell death (PCD), and autolysis in a biological and evolutionary context. The collective evidence from the evolutionary and molecular studies suggests that TE differentiation consists primarily of a programme for cell death and autolysis under the direct control of the transcriptional master switches VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN 6 (VND6) and VND7. In this scenario, secondary cell walls represent a later innovation to improve the water transport capacity of TEs which necessitates transcriptional regulators downstream of VND6 and VND7. One of the most fascinating features of TEs is that they need to prepare their own corpse removal by expression and accumulation of hydrolases that are released from the vacuole after TE cell death. Therefore, TE differentiation involves, in addition to PCD, a programmed autolysis which is initiated before cell death and executed post-mortem. It has recently become clear that TE PCD and autolysis are separate processes with separate molecular regulation. Therefore, the importance of distinguishing between the cell death programme per se and autolysis in all plant PCD research and of careful description of the morphological, biochemical, and molecular sequences in each of these processes, is advocated.

  2. Safety studies on oxide fuel elements for the fast neutron programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, H.; Truffert, J.

    1976-01-01

    Studies leading to the definition of a fuel element and instructions for its use overlap with safety studies to the extent that they must guarantee, for nominal running conditions, a failure rate consistent with the working rules of the Station. Given the present state of knowledge on the causes and kinetics of damage affecting the cladding, it is mainly dealt with the principles of this research. The advantages of applying statistical computing methods to the two factors which govern the lifetime of the pins: their working conditions and quality, are demonstrated [fr

  3. Hyperthermophilic Composting Accelerates the Removal of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Mobile Genetic Elements in Sewage Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Hanpeng; Lu, Xiaomei; Rensing, Christopher; Friman, Ville Petri; Geisen, Stefan; Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhen; Wei, Zhong; Zhou, Shungui; Zhu, Yongguan

    2018-01-01

    Composting is an efficient way to convert organic waste into fertilizers. However, waste materials often contain large amounts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that can reduce the efficacy of antibiotic treatments when transmitted to humans. Because

  4. Continuous administration of an elemental diet induces insulin resistance in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously showed that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to intermittent enteral feeding of a milk-based formula induces insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in neonatal pigs. We hypothesized that intravenous (IV) feeding rather than the nature of the diet (elemental vs polymeric) or ...

  5. HIV drug resistance following a decade of the free antiretroviral therapy programme in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Karade

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the overall burden of resistance against first-line ART agents remained steady over the study decade, periodic monitoring is essential. There is the need to develop an HIV-1 subtype C-specific resistance database in India.

  6. Parallelized Three-Dimensional Resistivity Inversion Using Finite Elements And Adjoint State Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaa, Ralf; Gross, Lutz; Du Plessis, Jaco

    2015-04-01

    The resistivity method is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods, which employs one pair of electrodes to inject current into the ground and one or more pairs of electrodes to measure the electrical potential difference. The potential difference is a non-linear function of the subsurface resistivity distribution described by an elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) of the Poisson type. Inversion of measured potentials solves for the subsurface resistivity represented by PDE coefficients. With increasing advances in multichannel resistivity acquisition systems (systems with more than 60 channels and full waveform recording are now emerging), inversion software require efficient storage and solver algorithms. We developed the finite element solver Escript, which provides a user-friendly programming environment in Python to solve large-scale PDE-based problems (see https://launchpad.net/escript-finley). Using finite elements, highly irregular shaped geology and topography can readily be taken into account. For the 3D resistivity problem, we have implemented the secondary potential approach, where the PDE is decomposed into a primary potential caused by the source current and the secondary potential caused by changes in subsurface resistivity. The primary potential is calculated analytically, and the boundary value problem for the secondary potential is solved using nodal finite elements. This approach removes the singularity caused by the source currents and provides more accurate 3D resistivity models. To solve the inversion problem we apply a 'first optimize then discretize' approach using the quasi-Newton scheme in form of the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) method (see Gross & Kemp 2013). The evaluation of the cost function requires the solution of the secondary potential PDE for each source current and the solution of the corresponding adjoint-state PDE for the cost function gradients with respect to the subsurface

  7. RELATIONS AMONG WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM RESISTANCE TRAITS AND ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MAIZE GERMPLASM ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Brkić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm – WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important maize pest in Croatia. Using native resistance of maize germplasm could reduce chemical treatments and other costs in maize production. Objectives of this study were: i to assess variability of WCR resistance traits (root injury, regrowth and size and concentrations of nine elements in roots of 128 maize genotypes, and ii to determine correlations among the traits and ion concentrations. Results revealed high variability of maize genotypes for both WCR resistance traits and ion concentrations. Significant moderate negative correlations (>-0.4 were detected between root injury and boron as well as between root regrowth and iron, manganese and zinc concentrations in root. Consequently, ion concentration in maize roots might have an impact on WCR resistance research.

  8. The emergence of insecticide resistance in central Mozambique and potential threat to the successful indoor residual spraying malaria control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilding Craig S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control by indoor residual spraying was reinitiated in 2006 with DDT in Zambézia province, Mozambique. In 2007, these efforts were strengthened by the President's Malaria Initiative. This manuscript reports on the monitoring and evaluation of this programme as carried out by the Malaria Decision Support Project. Methods Mosquitoes were captured daily through a series of 114 window exit traps located at 19 sentinel sites, identified to species and analysed for sporozoites. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected resting indoors and tested for insecticide resistance following the standard WHO protocol. Annual cross sectional household parasite surveys were carried out to monitor the impact of the control programme on prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in children aged 1 to 15 years. Results A total of 3,769 and 2,853 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus, respectively, were captured from window exit traps throughout the period. In 2010 resistance to the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin and the carbamate, bendiocarb was detected in An. funestus. In 2006, the sporozoite rate in An. gambiae s.s. was 4% and this reduced to 1% over 4 rounds of spraying. The sporozoite rate for An. funestus was also reduced from 2% to 0 by 2008. Of the 437 Anopheles arabiensis identified, none were infectious. Overall prevalence of P. falciparum in the sentinel sites fell from 60% to 32% between October 2006 and October 2008. Conclusion Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus were controlled effectively with the DDT-based IRS programme in Zambézia, reducing disease transmission and burden. However, the discovery of pyrethroid resistance in the province and Mozambique's policy change away from DDT to pyrethroids for IRS threatens the gains made here.

  9. Flexible Connection Elastomeric Rubber as a Pounding Resisting Element between Two Adjacent Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuskar Lase

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve pounding problem of two adjacent buildings, structural designer usually employs a dilatation between the structures or make the two structures as a monolith structure. Other alternative is by using an elastomeric rubber as a pounding resisting element between the two structures. Effectiveness in applying elastomeric rubber component as flexible connection of two adjacent structures is the main focus of this paper. Various simulations such as structure models, earthquake excitations and openings in gap element are studied. Observation of maximum structural responses will be performed for structure model with elastomeric rubber in comparison with (1 monolith structure model and (2 structure model with rigid element (steel element. Simulation results show that application of elastomeric rubber component to prevent structures from pounding problem provides advantages especially in reducing internal forces in the shorter building. However, it slightly increases displacement of both structures.

  10. Design of a Negative Differential Resistance Circuit Element Using Single-Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D. C.; Heij, C. P.; Hadley, P.; Mooij, J. E.

    1998-03-01

    Electronic circuit elements displaying negative differential resistance (NDR), such as tunnel diodes, have a wide variety of device applications, including oscillators, amplifiers, logic, and memory. We present a two-terminal device using two single-electron transistors (SET's) that demonstrates an NDR profile tuneable with gate voltages. If the capacitive coupling between the SET's is sufficiently larger than the junction capacitances, the device exhibits multiply-peaked NDR, allowing its use as a multi-valued digital element. We will also report recent experimental progress in measurements of such a device, fabricated using standard Al tunnel junctions, but with an additional overlap capacitor to allow the required inter-SET coupling.

  11. Commensal E. coli as an Important Reservoir of Resistance Encoding Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mahmoudi-Aznaveh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrheagenic E. coli is the most important cause of diarrhea in children and is a public health concern in developing countries. A major public problem is acquisition and transmission of antimicrobial resistance via mobile genetic elements including plasmids, conjugative transposons, and integrons which may occur through horizontal gene transfer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of class 1 and 2 integrons among commensal and enteropathogenic E. coli isolates and assess the role of commensal E. coli population as a reservoir in the acquisition and transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods: Swabs were collected directly from stool samples of the children with diarrhea admitted to three hospitals in Tehran, Iran during July 2012 through October 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR analysis were performed for analysis of the resistance pattern and integron content of isolates. Results: A total of 20 enteropathogenic E.coli (identified as eae+stx1-stx2- and 20 commensal E.coli were selected for analysis. The resistance pattern in commensal and pathogenic E.coli was very similar. In both groups a high rate of resistance was seen to tetracycline, streptomycin, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, and minocycline. Of 20 EPEC strains, 3 strains (15 % and 1 strain (5% had positive results for int and hep genes, respectively. Among 20 commensal, 65% (13 strains and 10% (2 strains had positive results for int and hep genes, respectively. Conclusions: The higher rate of class 1 integron occurrence among commensal population proposes the commensal intestinal organisms as a potential reservoir of mobile resistance gene elements which could transfer the resistance gene cassettes to other pathogenic and/or nonpathogenic organisms in the intestinal lumen at different occasions.

  12. CULTURAL PROGRAMMES POSITIONING AS AN ELEMENT OF PUBLIC SERVICE TELEVISION MISSION IN NRK BASED ON ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAMME OFFER IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Chacinska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 2010 the culture editor of the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten called the Norwegian television NRK “the best public service broadcaster in the world” and „the biggest and most important Norwegian cultural institution”. The article is an attempt to verify this statement through identifying the place of cultural programmes in NRK schedule in 2009. The author analyses how the cultural mission is described in current legal documents concerning Norwegian public service media mission. Furthermore the article is an attempt to identify how NRK defines cultural programmes and how it classifies them. In the second part of the article the author analyses the television programme of NRK1 and NRK2 in 2009, and presents the results of a more detailed analysis of selected three weeks of that year concerning the execution of its cultural mission.

  13. Unpacking Resistance to Change within-School Reform Programmes with a Social Justice Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Previous research in the area of resistance has inadequately described opposition to change within-school reform initiatives with a social justice orientation. A lack of attention to, and agreement on, the nature and causes of resistance may explain why so many equity-minded educational reforms fail to be sustained. This article highlights various…

  14. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  15. HIV drug resistance following a decade of the free antiretroviral therapy programme in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karade, Santosh; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Sen, Sourav; Joshi, Rajneesh K; Kulkarni, Smita S; Shankar, Subramanian; Gangakhedkar, Raman R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review was to assess the burden of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in Indian adults exposed to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) as per national guidelines. An advanced search of the published literature on HIV drug resistance in India was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases. Data pertaining to age, sex, CD4 count, viral load, and prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM were extracted from each publication. Year-wise Indian HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were retrieved from the Los Alamos HIV database and mutation analyses were performed. A time trend analysis of the proportion of sequences showing NRTI resistance mutations among individuals exposed to first-line ART was conducted. Overall, 23 studies (1046 unique RT sequences) were identified indicating a prevalence of drug resistance to NRTI and NNRTI. The proportion of RT sequences with any DRM, any NRTI DRM, and any NNRTI DRM was 78.39%, 68.83%, and 73.13%, respectively. The temporal trend analysis of individual DRM from sequences retrieved during 2004-2014 indicated a rising trend in K65R mutations (p=0.013). Although the overall burden of resistance against first-line ART agents remained steady over the study decade, periodic monitoring is essential. There is the need to develop an HIV-1 subtype C-specific resistance database in India. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Decoupling pipeline influences in soil resistivity measurements with finite element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, R. N.; Azoor, R. M.; Zhang, C.; Kodikara, J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Periodic inspection of pipeline conditions is an important asset management strategy conducted by water and sewer utilities for efficient and economical operations of their assets in field. The Level 1 pipeline condition assessment involving resistivity profiling along the pipeline right-of-way is a common technique for delineating pipe sections that might be installed in highly corrosive soil environment. However, the technique can suffer from significant perturbations arising from the buried pipe itself, resulting in errors in native soil characterisation. To address this problem, a finite element model was developed to investigate the degree to which pipes of different a) diameters, b) burial depths, and c) surface conditions (bare or coated) can influence in-situ soil resistivity measurements using Wenner methods. It was found that the greatest errors can arise when conducting measurements over a bare pipe with the array aligned parallel to the pipe. Depending upon the pipe surface conditions, in-situ resistivity measurements can either be underestimated or overestimated from true soil resistivities. Following results based on simulations and decoupling equations, a guiding framework for removing pipe influences in soil resistivity measurements were developed that can be easily used to perform corrections on measurements. The equations require simple a-prior information on the pipe diameter, burial depth, surface condition, and the array length and orientation used. Findings from this study have immediate application and is envisaged to be useful for critical civil infrastructure monitoring and assessment.

  17. Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

  18. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-02-01

    The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N2 in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr2N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitro`gen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T1). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N2-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential corrosion. The Cr2N precipitation led to relatively poor resistance to pitting corrosion in three HAZs and pure Ar shielding GTAW weld root. The N2-supplemented shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint by increasing PREN of secondary austenite and suppressing Cr2N precipitation. In addition, the FCAW WM had much poorer resistance to pitting corrosion than the GTAW WM due to many O-Ti-Si-Mn inclusions. In the BM, since the austenite with lower PREN compared

  19. A managed multidisciplinary programme on multi-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Danish university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are resistant to commonly used antimicrobials. In 2008, routine monitoring revealed a clonal hospital outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP). METHODS: At a 510-bed Danish university hospital...... the application of a managed, multi-faceted intervention that does not require ongoing antibiotic stewardship....

  20. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the austenite. • Secondary austenite had higher Ni but lower Cr and Mo than primary austenite. • Pitting corrosion preferentially occurred at secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N. • Adding N{sub 2} in shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint. • E2209T{sub 1} weld metal had very poor pitting corrosion resistance due to inclusions. - Abstract: The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N{sub 2} in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr{sub 2}N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitrogen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T{sub 1}). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential

  1. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas; Schulz, Alexander; Jensen, Kaare H

    2015-04-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h(-1) for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h(-1) for gymnosperm trees. Similar values resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order to investigate the influence of SE anatomy on the hydraulic resistance, anatomical data on SEs and sieve pores were collected by transmission electron microscopy analysis and from the literature for 18 tree species. Calculations showed that the hydraulic resistance is significantly higher in the gymnosperm than in angiosperm trees. The higher resistance is only partially offset by the considerably longer SEs of gymnosperms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Finite element analysis and fracture resistance testing of a new intraradicular post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eron Toshio Colauto Yamamoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate a prefabricated intraradicular threaded pure titanium post, designed and developed at the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - UNESP, Brazil. This new post was designed to minimize stresses observed with prefabricated post systems and to improve cost-benefits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fracture resistance testing of the post/core/root complex, fracture analysis by microscopy and stress analysis by the finite element method were used for post evaluation. The following four prefabricated metal post systems were analyzed: group 1, experimental post; group 2, modification of the experimental post; group 3, Flexi Post, and group 4, Para Post. For the analysis of fracture resistance, 40 bovine teeth were randomly assigned to the four groups (n=10 and used for the fabrication of test specimens simulating the situation in the mouth. The test specimens were subjected to compressive strength testing until fracture in an EMIC universal testing machine. After fracture of the test specimens, their roots were sectioned and analyzed by microscopy. For the finite element method, specimens of the fracture resistance test were simulated by computer modeling to determine the stress distribution pattern in the post systems studied. RESULTS: The fracture test presented the following averages and standard deviation: G1 (45.63±8.77, G2 (49.98±7.08, G3 (43.84±5.52, G4 (47.61±7.23. Stress was homogenously distributed along the body of the intraradicular post in group 1, whereas high stress concentrations in certain regions were observed in the other groups. These stress concentrations in the body of the post induced the same stress concentration in root dentin. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental post (original and modified versions presented similar fracture resistance and better results in the stress analysis when compared with the commercial post systems tested (08/2008-PA/CEP.

  3. Resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots calculated by boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2002-01-01

    In order to calculate the resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used. The result at 1 GHz is Re(ZL/L) = 6.689×10−3 Ω/m, Re(Zx/L) = 1.251 Ω/m2, Re(Zy/L) = 1.776 Ω/m2, andRe(2Z0,2 cos/kL) = −0.525 Ω/m2, assuming σ = 5.8 × 109 /Ωm.

  4. Impact of the PROVAUR stewardship programme on linezolid resistance in a tertiary university hospital: a before-and-after interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Lucrecia; Gracia-Ahulfinger, Irene; Machuca, Isabel; Cantisán, Sara; De La Fuente, Soraya; Natera, Clara; Pérez-Nadales, Elena; Vidal, Elisa; Rivero, Antonio; Rodríguez-Lopez, Fernando; Del Prado, José Ramón; Torre-Cisneros, Julián

    2016-09-01

    There is little evidence of the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programmes on antimicrobial resistance. To study the efficacy and safety of a package of educational and interventional measures to optimize linezolid use and its impact on bacterial resistance. A quasi-experimental study was designed and carried out before and after implementation of a stewardship programme in hospitalized patients with Gram-positive infections treated with linezolid. The intervention reduced linezolid consumption by 76%. The risk of linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.27-0.49; P linezolid use can contribute to reducing the resistance rate of CoNS and E. faecalis to this antibiotic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Characterisation of SCCmec elements in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh; Afshar, Mastaneh; Asghari, Babak; Rastegar Lari, Abdolaziz

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, especially in burn units all around the world. Because of the emergence of the β-lactam antibiotic-resistant strains since 1961, concern about the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increased in these units. Resistance to methicillin is mediated by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that have enough affinity for binding to the β-lactam ring, but another kind of protein (PBP2α), which is encoded by the mecA gene, has a lower affinity for binding to these antibiotics. The mecA gene is transferred by SCCmec (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec) as a mobile genetic element, exclusively found in the Staphylococcus genus. Identification of the frequency of the mecA gene, different SCCmec types and also its incidence may have benefit in surveillance prevention and control of MRSA strains in burn units. In this study, 40 S. aureus isolates were collected from patients hospitalised in Motahari burn center of Tehran, during 2012-2013. Conventional microbiological methods were applied and the confirmed isolates were stored at -20°C for molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The antibiotic resistance pattern was performed by disc diffusion method and finally the different SCCmec types were determined by specific primers. During this research, 40 isolates of S. aureus were collected from burn patients, of which (37.5%) of the specimens belonged to female patients and 62.5% to male patients. The aetiology of the burn was classified as follows: open flame (35%), liquid (32.5%), chemical (5%) and other (27.5%). By a disc diffusion method, no resistance pattern was observed to vancomycin and fosfomycin. Based on a multiplex PCR assay, the five different SCCmec types were detected as: 47.5% type III, 25% type IV, 10% type V, 10% type II and 7.5% type I. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on monitoring methodology for trace elements in the environment through chemical analysis of hair. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear methods in health-related monitoring of trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, I.

    1981-06-01

    An attempt was made to monitor community exposure to environmental As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb and Se using hair analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Hair samples were collected from male and female subjects from six Japanese localities. Samples from each locality were respectively mixed and analysed for elements of interest. The results indicated that this approach was effective in revealing geographical differences of hair elemental levels. The method is suitable for a routine monitoring programme of community exposure to environmental metal pollutants

  7. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  8. Beam Studies of the Segmented Resistive WELL: a Potential Thin Sampling Element for Digital Hadron Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arazi, Lior; Breskin, Amos; Bressler, Shikma; Moleri, Luca; Natal da Luz, Hugo; Oliveri, Eraldo; Pitt, Michael; Rubin, Adam; Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Joaquim; Calapez Albuquerque Veloso, João Filipe; White, Andrew Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) have the potential of constituting thin, robust sampling elements in Digital Hadron Calorimetry (DHCAL) in future colliders. We report on recent beam studies of new single- and double-THGEM-like structures; the multiplier is a Segmented Resistive WELL (SRWELL) - a single-faced THGEM in contact with a segmented resistive layer inductively coupled to readout pads. Several 10$\\times$10 cm$^2$ configurations with a total thickness of 5-6 mm (excluding electronics) with 1 cm$^2$ pads coupled to APV-SRS readout were investigated with muons and pions. Detection efficiencies in the 98$%$ range were recorded with average pad-multiplicity of $\\sim$1.1. The resistive anode resulted in efficient discharge damping, with potential drops of a few volts; discharge probabilities were $\\sim10^{-7}$ for muons and $\\sim10^{-6}$ for pions in the double-stage configuration, at rates of a few kHz/cm$^2$. Further optimization work and research on larger detectors are underway.

  9. Electrical resistivity of liquid iron with high concentration of light element impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, F.; Steinle-Neumann, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's outer core mainly consists of liquid iron, enriched with several weight percent of lighter elements, such as silicon, oxygen, sulfur or carbon. Electrical resistivities of alloys of this type determine the stability of the geodynamo. Both computational and experimental results show that resistivites of Fe-based alloys deviate significantly from values of pure Fe. Using optical conductivity values computed with the Kubo-Greenwood formalism for DFT-based molecular dynamics results, we analyze the high-P and T behavior of resitivities for Fe-alloys containing various concentrations of sulfur, oxygen and silicon. As the electron mean free path length in amorphous and liquid material becomes comparable to interatomic distances at high P and T, electron scattering is expected to be dominated by the short-range order, rather than T-dependent vibrational contributions, and we describe such correlations in our results. In analogy to macroscopic porous media, we further show that resistivity of a liquid metal-nonmetal alloy is determined to first order by the resistivity of the metallic matrix and the volume fraction of non-metallic impurities.

  10. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Avda. de la Universitat, s/n, 46100-Burjassot (Spain); Cardoso, S. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); Ferreira, R. [INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal); Freitas, P. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal)

    2015-06-15

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  11. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D.; Cardoso, S.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P.

    2015-01-01

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others

  12. Complete genome analysis of three Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in China for insight into the diversification of drug resistance elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Yan, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhou, Qiming; Zhou, Jinchun; Wakeland, Edward K; Fang, Xiangdong; Xuan, Zhenyu; Shen, Dingxia; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition of drug-resistant elements during bacterial infection, we performed complete genome analysis on three newly isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains from Beijing using next-generation sequencing technology. Whole genome comparison revealed that all 3 strains share some common drug resistant elements including carbapenem-resistant bla OXA-23 and tetracycline (tet) resistance islands, but the genome structures are diversified among strains. Various genomic islands intersperse on the genome with transposons and insertions, reflecting the recombination flexibility during the acquisition of the resistant elements. The blood-isolated BJAB07104 and ascites-isolated BJAB0868 exhibit high similarity on their genome structure with most of the global clone II strains, suggesting these two strains belong to the dominant outbreak strains prevalent worldwide. A large resistance island (RI) of about 121-kb, carrying a cluster of resistance-related genes, was inserted into the ATPase gene on BJAB07104 and BJAB0868 genomes. A 78-kb insertion element carrying tra-locus and bla OXA-23 island, can be either inserted into one of the tniB gene in the 121-kb RI on the chromosome, or transformed to conjugative plasmid in the two BJAB strains. The third strains of this study, BJAB0715, which was isolated from spinal fluid, exhibit much more divergence compared with above two strains. It harbors multiple drug-resistance elements including a truncated AbaR-22-like RI on its genome. One of the unique features of this strain is that it carries both bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-58 genes on its genome. Besides, an Acinetobacter lwoffii adeABC efflux element was found inserted into the ATPase position in BJAB0715. Our comparative analysis on currently completed Acinetobacter baumannii

  13. Complete genome analysis of three Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in China for insight into the diversification of drug resistance elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition of drug-resistant elements during bacterial infection, we performed complete genome analysis on three newly isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains from Beijing using next-generation sequencing technology.Whole genome comparison revealed that all 3 strains share some common drug resistant elements including carbapenem-resistant bla OXA-23 and tetracycline (tet resistance islands, but the genome structures are diversified among strains. Various genomic islands intersperse on the genome with transposons and insertions, reflecting the recombination flexibility during the acquisition of the resistant elements. The blood-isolated BJAB07104 and ascites-isolated BJAB0868 exhibit high similarity on their genome structure with most of the global clone II strains, suggesting these two strains belong to the dominant outbreak strains prevalent worldwide. A large resistance island (RI of about 121-kb, carrying a cluster of resistance-related genes, was inserted into the ATPase gene on BJAB07104 and BJAB0868 genomes. A 78-kb insertion element carrying tra-locus and bla OXA-23 island, can be either inserted into one of the tniB gene in the 121-kb RI on the chromosome, or transformed to conjugative plasmid in the two BJAB strains. The third strains of this study, BJAB0715, which was isolated from spinal fluid, exhibit much more divergence compared with above two strains. It harbors multiple drug-resistance elements including a truncated AbaR-22-like RI on its genome. One of the unique features of this strain is that it carries both bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-58 genes on its genome. Besides, an Acinetobacter lwoffii adeABC efflux element was found inserted into the ATPase position in BJAB0715.Our comparative analysis on currently completed

  14. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order......In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape...... and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h−1 for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h−1 for gymnosperm trees. Similar values...

  15. Extended spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases and mobile genetic elements responsible for antibiotics resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Salabi, Allaaeddin; Walsh, Timothey R; Chouchani, Chedly

    2013-05-01

    Infectious diseases due to Gram-negative bacteria are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antimicrobial agents represent one major therapeutic tools implicated to treat these infections. The misuse of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the emergence of resistant strains of Gram-negatives in particular Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters; they have an effect not only on a human but on the public health when bacteria use the resistance mechanisms to spread in the hospital environment and to the community outside the hospitals by means of mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. They have developed several mechanisms by which they can withstand to antimicrobials, these mechanisms include the production of Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, furthermore, Gram-negative bacteria are now capable of spreading such resistance between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters using mobile genetic elements as vehicles for such resistance mechanisms rendering antibiotics useless. Therefore, addressing the issue of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance is considered one of most urgent priorities. This review will help to illustrate different resistance mechanisms; ESBLs, carbapenemases encoded by genes carried by mobile genetic elements, which are used by Gram-negative bacteria to escape antimicrobial effect.

  16. Trace elements in human milk. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.

    1981-01-01

    New analytical methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis were developed for the determination of Sn, V, I and Se at nanogram levels in biological materials, particularly in milk and other foodstuffs. By the application of these and similar methods, results for trace elements in human and cow's milk were collected from which the normal concentration ranges of up to 12 trace elements were established. Significant data on vanadium levels were also collected allowing assessment of the dietary intake and body pool of this element and a reappraisal of its significance in nutrition. Similar data on a smaller scale were also collected for tin. Results were also obtained for several different trace elements in a range of biological reference materials

  17. Effects of Si as alloying element on corrosion resistance of weathering steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejía Gómez, J.A.; Antonissen, J.; Palacio, C.A.; De Grave, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Weathering steels with different concentrations of Si as alloying element were exposed to laboratory atmospheric conditions. ► The iron oxides formed as corrosion products were characterized and analyzed by XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. ► Silicon affects the corrosion resistance of weathering steels. ► Silicon promotes the formation of goethite as corrosion product with small particle size. - Abstract: The corrosion resistance in saline conditions of weathering steel with different concentrations of Si (1, 2 and 3 wt.%) exposed to dip dry tests (simulating wet/dry cycles of atmospheric corrosion) was studied by weight loss, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the steels exhibit better corrosion performance with increasing Si concentration. The formation of Fe-oxides such as goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite was observed. Superparamagnetic goethite is the dominant phase in the rust developed on the Si steels, indicating that Si favors the formation of goethite with small particle size.

  18. Responding to the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis crisis: mainstreaming programmatic management to the Philippine National Tuberculosis Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelapio, M I D; Mira, N R C; Orillaza-Chi, R B; Belen, V; Muñez, N; Belchez, R; Egos, G E; Evangelista, M; Vianzon, R; Tupasi, T E

    2010-06-01

    The Philippines ranks eighth among 27 priority countries for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). To describe a model of public-private partnership in MDR-TB management. An exploratory study of integrating MDR-TB management initiated in private-public mix DOTS into the National TB Programme (NTP). Recognising that MDR-TB was a threat to DOTS, the Tropical Disease Foundation initiated MDR-TB management in 1999. An official mandate for the integration of MDR-TB services into the NTP was issued by the Department of Health in 2008. With an increased government budget augmented by support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 1294 MDR-TB patients were placed on treatment from 1999 to 2008. The treatment success rate improved from 64% in 1999 to 75% in 2005. There are now five MDR-TB treatment centres with 181 treatment sites in Metro Manila, and three culture centres. People trained include 12 master trainers, 31 trainers, 25 treatment centre and 381 treatment site staff. Mainstreaming into the NTP of this unique model of MDR-TB management through a dynamic public-private collaboration can be considered best practice in implementation science of an evidence-based intervention leading to change in health care policy and practice.

  19. Novel Tn916-like elements confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambarev, Stanimir; Pecorari, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane

    2018-02-09

    Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides. However, the underlying antibiotic resistance mobilome of Sgg remains poorly understood. To investigate the mobile genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in multiresistant clinical Sgg. Isolate NTS31106099 was recovered from a patient with IE and CRC at Nantes University Hospital, France and studied by Illumina WGS and comparative genomics. Molecular epidemiology of the identified mobile element(s) was performed using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), PCR, PFGE and WGS. Mobility was investigated by PCR and filter mating. Two novel conjugative transposons, Tn6263 and Tn6331, confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical Sgg. They display classical family Tn916/Tn1545 modular architecture and harbour an aph(3')-III→sat4→ant(6)-Ia→erm(B) multiresistance gene cluster, related to pRE25 of Enterococcus faecium. These and/or closely related elements are highly prevalent among genetically heterogeneous clinical isolates of Sgg. Previously unknown Tn916-like mobile genetic elements conferring aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance make Sgg, collectively with other gut Firmicutes such as enterococci and eubacteria, a potential laterally active reservoir of these antibiotic resistance determinants among the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  20. Electrical Resistivity Tomography using a finite element based BFGS algorithm with algebraic multigrid preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, A. L.; Gross, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a new inversion method for Electrical Resistivity Tomography which, in contrast to established approaches, minimizes the cost function prior to finite element discretization for the unknown electric conductivity and electric potential. Minimization is performed with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method (BFGS) in an appropriate function space. BFGS is self-preconditioning and avoids construction of the dense Hessian which is the major obstacle to solving large 3-D problems using parallel computers. In addition to the forward problem predicting the measurement from the injected current, the so-called adjoint problem also needs to be solved. For this problem a virtual current is injected through the measurement electrodes and an adjoint electric potential is obtained. The magnitude of the injected virtual current is equal to the misfit at the measurement electrodes. This new approach has the advantage that the solution process of the optimization problem remains independent to the meshes used for discretization and allows for mesh adaptation during inversion. Computation time is reduced by using superposition of pole loads for the forward and adjoint problems. A smoothed aggregation algebraic multigrid (AMG) preconditioned conjugate gradient is applied to construct the potentials for a given electric conductivity estimate and for constructing a first level BFGS preconditioner. Through the additional reuse of AMG operators and coarse grid solvers inversion time for large 3-D problems can be reduced further. We apply our new inversion method to synthetic survey data created by the resistivity profile representing the characteristics of subsurface fluid injection. We further test it on data obtained from a 2-D surface electrode survey on Heron Island, a small tropical island off the east coast of central Queensland, Australia.

  1. Surveillance for linezolid resistance via the Zyvox® Annual Appraisal of Potency and Spectrum (ZAAPS) programme (2014): evolving resistance mechanisms with stable susceptibility rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Hogan, Patricia A; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to report the linezolid in vitro activity observed during the Zyvox(®) Annual Appraisal of Potency and Spectrum (ZAAPS) programme for 2014. In total, 7541 organisms causing documented infections were consecutively collected in 66 centres in 33 countries, excluding the USA. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. Isolates displaying linezolid MIC results of ≥4 mg/L were molecularly characterized. Linezolid inhibited all Staphylococcus aureus at ≤2 mg/L, with MIC50 results of 1 mg/L, regardless of methicillin resistance. A similar linezolid MIC50 result (i.e. 0.5 mg/L) was observed against CoNS, with the vast majority of isolates (99.4%) also inhibited at ≤2 mg/L. Six CoNS that exhibited elevated linezolid MIC values were found to contain alterations in the 23S rRNA and/or L3 ribosomal protein. Linezolid exhibited consistent modal MIC and MIC50 results (1 mg/L) against enterococci, regardless of species or vancomycin resistance. Three Enterococcus faecalis from Galway and Dublin (Ireland) and Kelantan (Malaysia) showed MIC results of 4 to 8 mg/L and carried optrA. All Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans-group streptococci and β-haemolytic streptococci were inhibited by linezolid at ≤2, ≤2 and ≤1 mg/L, respectively, with equivalent MIC90 results (1 mg/L for all groups). These results document the continued long-term and stable in vitro potency of linezolid and reveal a limited number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to linezolid (i.e. MIC ≥4 mg/L). The latter isolates primarily showed mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and/or L3 protein, but cfr was not detected. Moreover, this study shows that isolates carrying the newly described ABC transporter optrA are not restricted to China. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. New Seeds are Resistant to Wheat Stem Rust (Ug99) Multinational Programme Supported by FAO and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A multinational effort supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization marked a key milestone this week when a Kenyan university debuted two new varieties of disease-resistant wheat to the nation's farmers. Over the past two days, thousands of Kenyan farmers have visited Eldoret University in western Kenya for a two-day agriculture fair highlighting the latest farming technologies. Supporting the development of the new varieties were the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Department and the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. They manage an interregional Technical Cooperation project to develop varieties of wheat that are resistant to a devastating type of fungus, causing a disease known as wheat stem rust. Wheat stem rust under control for over 30 years, but a resurgence of the disease was discovered in 1999 in Uganda that swiftly spread to neighbouring Kenya. The wheat stem rust, caused by the strain of the fungus known as Ug99, named after its place and year of origin, has since spread to Iran, Yemen and South Africa and threatens crops as far away as India as spores are carried by wind. Parasitic rusts threaten global wheat production, reducing plant growth and crop yields. The disease can destroy up to 70-100 percent of the yield of wheat crop if not prevented. 'Improving food security in developing countries through the use of nuclear techniques is an important priority of the IAEA', said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. 'I am pleased that we have been able to make an important contribution to fighting wheat rust'. 'Wheat rusts, particularly the Ug99 strain, are a major threat to food security because rust epidemics can result in devastating yield losses. This international project involving affected countries, plant scientists and breeders and international organizations is a major breakthrough. It clearly shows the benefits of FAO/IAEA collaboration and that

  3. Development of Single-Event Upset hardened programmable logic devices in deep submicron CMOS; Developpement de circuits logiques programmables resistants aux aleas logiques en technologie CMOS submicrometrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonacini, S

    2007-11-15

    The electronics associated to the particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will operate in a very harsh radiation environment. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components cannot be used in the vicinity of particle collision due to their poor radiation tolerance. This thesis is a contribution to the effort to cover the need for radiation-tolerant SEU-robust (Single Event Upset) programmable components for application in high energy physics experiments. Two components are under development: a Programmable Logic Device (PLD) and a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The PLD is a fuse-based, 10-input, 8-I/O general architecture device in 0.25 {mu}m CMOS technology. The FPGA under development is a 32*32 logic block array, equivalent to {approx} 25 k gates, in 0.13 {mu}m CMOS. The irradiation test results obtained in the CMOS 0.25 {mu}m technology demonstrate good robustness of the circuit up to an LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 79.6 cm{sup 2}*MeV/mg, which make it suitable for the target environment. The CMOS 0.13 {mu}m circuit has showed robustness to an LET of 37.4 cm{sup 2}*MeV/mg in the static test mode and has increased sensitivity in the dynamic test mode. This work focused also on the research for an SEU-robust register in both the mentioned technologies. The SEU-robust register is employed as a user data flip-flop in the FPGA and PLD designs and as a configuration cell as well in the FPGA design.

  4. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Xie, Lianyan; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Yong; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    ICE Sag37 , a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae . Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae , Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. Sma I-PFGE revealed a new Sma I fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICE Sag37 , which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICE Sag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae . Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA , which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICE Sag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [ erm(B) ], tetracycline [ tet(O) ], and aminoglycosides [ aadE, aphA , and ant(6) ]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system ( nisK/nisR ), were also observed in ICE Sag37 . S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICE Sag37 is the first ICE Sa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae .

  5. Novel types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements identified in clonal complex 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Skov, R.L.; Han, X.; Larsen, A.R.; Larsen, J.; Sorum, M.; Wulf, M.; Voss, A.; Hiramatsu, K.; Ito, T.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements carried by 31 clonal complex 398 (CC398) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from the participants at a conference were analyzed. The SCCmecs were classified into novel types, namely, IX, X,

  6. A new discrete-element approach for the assessment of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calio, I.; Cannizzaro, F.; Marletta, M.; Panto, B.; D'Amore, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a new discrete-element approach for the evaluation of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry structures is presented. In the proposed model, unreinforced masonry panels are modelled by means of two-dimensional discrete-elements, conceived by the authors for modelling masonry structures, whereas the reinforced concrete elements are modelled by lumped plasticity elements interacting with the masonry panels through nonlinear interface elements. The proposed procedure was adopted for the assessment of the seismic response of a case study confined-masonry building which was conceived to be a typical representative of a wide class of residential buildings designed to the requirements of the 1909 issue of the Italian seismic code and widely adopted in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake for the reconstruction of the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria

  7. Effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to care for sputum-smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renzhong; Ruan, Yunzhou; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Xiexiu; Chen, Mingting; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yanlin; Zhao, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Caihong; Su, Wei; Pang, Yu; Cheng, Jun; Chi, Junying; Wang, Qian; Fu, Yunting; Huan, Shitong; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Yu; Chin, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    China has a quarter of all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) worldwide, but less than 5% are in quality treatment programmes. In a before-and-after study we aimed to assess the effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up for MDRTB in four Chinese cities (population 18 million). We designated city-level hospitals in each city to diagnose and treat MDRTB. All patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in Center for Disease Control (CDC) clinics and hospitals were tested for MDRTB with molecular and conventional drug susceptibility tests. Patients were treated with a 24 month treatment package for MDRTB based on WHO guidelines. Outpatients were referred to the CDC for directly observed therapy. We capped total treatment package cost at US$4644. Insurance reimbursement and project subsidies limited patients' expenses to 10% of charges for services within the package. We compared data from a 12 month programme period (2011) to those from a retrospective survey of all patients with MDRTB diagnosed in the same cities during a baseline period (2006-09). 243 patients were diagnosed with MDRTB or rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis during the 12 month programme period compared with 92 patients (equivalent to 24 per year) during the baseline period. 172 (71%) of 243 individuals were enrolled in the programme. Time from specimen collection for resistance testing to treatment initiation decreased by 90% (from median 139 days [IQR 69-207] to 14 days [10-21]), the proportion of patients who started on appropriate drug regimen increased 2·7 times (from nine [35%] of 26 patients treated to 166 [97%] of 172), and follow-up by the CDC after initial hospitalisation increased 24 times (from one [4%] of 23 patients to 163 [99%] of 164 patients). 6 months after starting treatment, the proportion of patients remaining on treatment increased ten times (from two [8%] of 26 patients to 137 [80

  8. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...... of the observing programme....

  9. Measurement of shear strength resistance in flexion test on PUR sandwich panels: analysis of difficulties and finite element method simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chillón Moreno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the composite construction elements combining different materials with complementary characteristics, it has spread increasingly. The sandwich panels composed by external metallic sheets that they contributes resistance and core of rigid insulating thermal foam, that provides qualities that improve the thermal comfort inside all kinds of constructions. They are in use in closings and covers that shape the surrounding one of the buildings. Of the different quality controls to which they have to surrender. In this article one proposes an improvement to the indicated one in the procedure for the determination of the resistance to the shear strength, Managing to avoid many anomalous results obtained by the utilization of rigid plates in the supports. Finally, so much the problem observed as the proposed solution, they are modeled and simulate by means of the method of finite elements.

  10. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  11. Investigations into the corrosion resistance of copper aluminium alloys. Effect of phosphorus as corrosion resistant third alloying element in the ternary system CuAl20P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwardt, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes is studied in detail in this work. A literature review showed that there are a lot of things known about the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Al-bronzes. In spite of their corrosion resistance the corrosion properties and the structure of the protective oxide films of Al-bronzes were seldom a matter of interest. Systematic studies of the influence of different alloying elements on the oxide film and the corrosion properties are rare. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, made by alloying particular elements. The high corrosion resistance of the new alloy CuAl 20 P 1 was the reason to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion properties of Al-bronzes in more detail. A systematic study of the microstructure and the corrosion properties of Cu, CuP x , CuAl 20 and CuAl 20 P x offers an insight into the effect of aluminium and phosphorus on the formation of the oxide film on Al-bronzes. It was found that there exists a critical amount of 1 at.-% of phosphorus. Above and below this amount the corrosion resistance becomes worse. This behaviour could be explained by XPS-and electrochemical measurements. Although there are still some questions about the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, this work has produced some important results, which in the future may be helpful to develop new high corrosion resistant Al-bronzes more efficiently: - on clean surface Al-bronze, the oxidation of Al and Cu takes place simultaneously, - Al promotes the formation of Cu 2 O but impedes the formation of Cu(II)-oxide/-hydride in neutral solutions, - P impedes the formation of Cu 2 O and as a consequence promotes the formation of aluminium oxide. This results in a higher amount of Al in the oxide film on the surface of the alloy, which leads to a better corrosion resistance. (author) figs., tabs., 106 refs

  12. Incorpararion of Topography Effect Into Two-Dimensional DC Resistivity Modelling by Using Finite-Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, E.

    2007-01-01

    In earth investigation done by using the direct current resistivity technique, impact of the change in the examined surface topography on determining the resistivity distrubition in the earth has been a frequently faced question. In order to get more fruitful results and make more correct interpretetions in earth surveying carried on the areas where topographical changes occur, modelling should be done by taking the change in surface topography into account and topography effect should be included into inversion. In this study impact of topography to the direct current resistivity method has been analysed. For this purpose, 2-D forward modeling algorithm has been developed by using finite element method. In this algorithm impact of topography can be incorporate into the model. Also the pseudo sections which is produced from the program can be imaged with topography. By using this algorithm response of models under different surface topography has been analysed and compared with the straight topography of same models

  13. Detection and linkage to mobile genetic elements of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Rabadan, Sonia; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Escherichia coli the genes involved in the acquisition of tetracycline resistance are mainly tet(A) and tet(B). In addition, tet(M) is the most common tetracycline resistance determinant in enterococci and it is associated with conjugative transposons and plasmids. Although tet......(M) has been identified in E. coli, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports studying the linkage of the tet(M) gene in E. coli to different mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of tet(A), tet(B), and tet(M) genes in doxycycline-resistant E. coli isolates...... from pigs, as well as the detection of mobile genetic elements linked to tet(M) in E. coli and its possible transfer from enterococci. Results: tet(A) was the most frequently detected gene (87.9%) in doxycycline-resistant isolates. tet(M) was found in 13.1% E. coli isolates. The tet(M) gene...

  14. Elemental segregation during resistance spot welding of boron containing advanced high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.; Van der Aa, E.M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Hermans, M.J.M.; Richardson, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    The partitioning behaviour of carbon, phosphorous and boron during the solidification of a resistance spot weld pool was studied using experimental simulations and a phase field model. Steels with varying carbon, phosphorous and boron contents were designed and subjected to a range of resistant spot

  15. Phenotypic evidence suggests a possible major-gene element to weevil resistance in Sitka spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    John N. King; René I. Alfaro; Peter Ott; Lara vanAkker

    2012-01-01

    The weevil resistance breeding program against the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), particularly for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), is arguably one of the most successful pest resistance breeding programs for plantation forest species, and it has done a lot to rehabilitate...

  16. Alloying element's substitution in titanium alloy with improved oxidation resistance and enhanced magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ang-Yang, E-mail: ayyu@imr.ac.cn; Wei, Hua; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2017-01-15

    First-principles method is used to characterize segregation and magnetic properties of alloyed Ti/TiO{sub 2}interface. We calculate the segregation energy of the doped Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface to investigate alloying atom's distribution. The oxidation resistance of Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface is enhanced by elements Fe and Ni but reduced by element Co. Magnetism could be produced by alloying elements such as Co, Fe and Ni in the bulk of titanium and the surface of Ti at Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface. The presence of these alloying elements could transform the non-magnetic titanium alloys into magnetic systems. We have also calculated the temperature dependence of magnetic permeability for the doped and pure Ti/TiO{sub 2} interfaces. Alloying effects on the Curie temperature of the Ti/TiO{sub 2} interface have been elaborated. - Highlights: • We consider the segregation of alloying atoms on the Ti(101¯0)/TiO{sub 2}(100) interface. • Alloying the Ti//TiO{sub 2} interface with Fe and Ni has a great advantage of improving the oxidation resistance. • Fe, Co and Nican enhance the magnetic properties of the investigated system. • The variation of permeability with temperature has been presented.

  17. Development of highly heat-resistant target elements for fusion reactors; Entwicklung hochwaermebestaendiger Targetelemente fuer Fusionsreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, Jean; Stadler, R.; Greuner, H.; Smirnow, M.; Drescher, N.; Boeswirth, B.; Tretter, J.; Mendelevitch, B.

    2016-06-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Scientific and technical results for divertor components (''target elements'') of the Wendelstein 7-X facility, development of nondestructive test procedures at the cooling structures, development of an automatized procedure for the visual inspection, the ''scraper''-element. (HSI)

  18. High levels of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in new and treatment-failure patients from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in an urban metropolis (Mumbai in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol Mark

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India, China and Russia account for more than 62% of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB globally. Within India, locations like urban metropolitan Mumbai with its burgeoning population and high incidence of TB are suspected to be a focus for MDRTB. However apart from sporadic surveys at watched sites in the country, there has been no systematic attempt by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP of India to determine the extent of MDRTB in Mumbai that could feed into national estimates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST is not routinely performed as a part of programme policy and public health laboratory infrastructure, is limited and poorly equipped to cope with large scale testing. Methods From April 2004 to January 2007 we determined the extent of drug resistance in 724 {493 newly diagnosed, previously untreated and 231 first line treatment failures (sputum-smear positive at the fifth month after commencement of therapy} cases of pulmonary tuberculosis drawn from the RNTCP in four suboptimally performing municipal wards of Mumbai. The observations were obtained using a modified radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay and validated by the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, a supranational reference laboratory. Data was analyzed utilizing SPSS 10.0 and Epi Info 2002. Results This study undertaken for the first time in RNTCP outpatients in Mumbai reveals a high proportion of MDRTB strains in both previously untreated (24% and treatment-failure cases (41%. Amongst new cases, resistance to 3 or 4 drug combinations (amplified drug resistance including isoniazid (H and rifampicin (R, was greater (20% than resistance to H and R alone (4% at any point in time during the study. The trend for monoresistance was similar in both groups remaining highest to H and lowest to R. External quality control revealed good agreement for H and R resistance (k = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively. Conclusion

  19. High levels of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in new and treatment-failure patients from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in an urban metropolis (Mumbai) in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Desiree T B; Mistry, Nerges F; Vira, Tina S; Dholakia, Yatin; Hoffner, Sven; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Nicol, Mark; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2009-06-29

    India, China and Russia account for more than 62% of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) globally. Within India, locations like urban metropolitan Mumbai with its burgeoning population and high incidence of TB are suspected to be a focus for MDRTB. However apart from sporadic surveys at watched sites in the country, there has been no systematic attempt by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) of India to determine the extent of MDRTB in Mumbai that could feed into national estimates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) is not routinely performed as a part of programme policy and public health laboratory infrastructure, is limited and poorly equipped to cope with large scale testing. From April 2004 to January 2007 we determined the extent of drug resistance in 724 {493 newly diagnosed, previously untreated and 231 first line treatment failures (sputum-smear positive at the fifth month after commencement of therapy)} cases of pulmonary tuberculosis drawn from the RNTCP in four suboptimally performing municipal wards of Mumbai. The observations were obtained using a modified radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay and validated by the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, a supranational reference laboratory. Data was analyzed utilizing SPSS 10.0 and Epi Info 2002. This study undertaken for the first time in RNTCP outpatients in Mumbai reveals a high proportion of MDRTB strains in both previously untreated (24%) and treatment-failure cases (41%). Amongst new cases, resistance to 3 or 4 drug combinations (amplified drug resistance) including isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R), was greater (20%) than resistance to H and R alone (4%) at any point in time during the study. The trend for monoresistance was similar in both groups remaining highest to H and lowest to R. External quality control revealed good agreement for H and R resistance (k = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively). Levels of MDRTB are much higher in both previously

  20. The benefits of combining elemental sulfur with a DMI fungicide to control Monilinia fructicola isolates resistant to propiconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, Imre J; Schnabel, Guido

    2008-02-01

    Management of demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide resistance in Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey is a priority in peach orchards of the southeastern United States, but DMI fungicides are still an important component of antiresistance strategies in view of the few effective alternatives. The goal of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a sulfur/propiconazole mixture for the control of propiconazole-resistant isolates. The mixture provided the best control for propiconazole-resistant isolates, regardless of protective or curative application timings, or the presence or absence of fruit injury. Propiconazole-resistant isolates developed disease on detached fruit after protective or curative applications of propiconazole or its mixture with sulfur, but protective applications of the mixture significantly reduced (P = 0.05) disease symptoms compared with the individual compounds. Additive to slightly synergistic effects were observed for the mixture in protective treatments of peaches inoculated with propiconazole-resistant isolates. The results suggest that the addition of elemental sulfur to a DMI fungicide is likely to be a relatively inexpensive means to improve brown rot control in peach production areas where reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicides is suspected but has not led to noticeable control failure.

  1. Finite element analysis on the influence of contact resistivity in an extraordinary magnetoresistance magnetic field micro sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-08-06

    In this paper, an extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device made of an InSb/Au hybrid structure was investigated. Those devices have a large potential in becoming a new generation of highly sensitive and cheap magnetic micro sensors. A crucial factor for the performance is the interface between the InSb and Au, which suffers from a certain contact resistivity. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed to simulate the current redistribution in the device, under an applied magnetic field. Specifically, the influence of the contact resistivity between the InSb bulk and Au shunt was studied. In a device with optimized geometry and without contact resistivity between the layers of InSb and Au, the EMR effect and the sensitivity show values of 1.89 × 104% and 0.02%/(10-4 T), respectively, at 1 Tesla. For values of contact resistivity up to 10-8cm2 the EMR effect is almost constant, while for higher values the EMR effect decreases exponentially. However, the sensitivity of the device does not decrease until 5 × 10-6 cm2 of contact resistivity. Only beyond this value the sensitivity, which in most cases is associated with the performance of the device, will deteriorate. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

  2. Report D : self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for infrastructure elements - creep, shrinkage and abrasion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete specimens were fabricated for shrinkage, creep, and abrasion resistance : testing. Variations of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and conventional concrete were : all tested. The results were compared to previous similar testing programs an...

  3. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Significant reduction in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization and bacteraemia after introduction of a bleach-based cleaning-disinfection programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, E A; Mahony, A A; Cameron, D R M; Martin, R D; Heland, M; Davey, P; Petty, M; Xie, S; Grayson, M L

    2012-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonization and infection have increased at our hospital, despite adherence to standard VRE control guidelines. We implemented a multi-modal, hospital-wide improvement programme including a bleach-based cleaning-disinfection programme ('Bleach-Clean'). VRE colonization, infection and environmental contamination were compared pre and post implementation. The programme included a new product (sodium hypochlorite 1000 ppm + detergent), standardized cleaning-disinfection practices, employment of cleaning supervisors, and modified protocols to rely on alcohol-based hand hygiene and sleeveless aprons instead of long-sleeved gowns and gloves. VRE was isolated using chromogenic agar and/or routine laboratory methods. Outcomes were assessed during the 6 months pre and 12 months post implementation, including proportions (per 100 patients screened) of VRE colonization in high-risk wards (HRWs: intensive care, liver transplant, renal, haematology/oncology); proportions of environmental contamination; and episodes of VRE bacteraemia throughout the entire hospital. Significant reductions in newly recognized VRE colonizations (208/1948 patients screened vs 324/4035, a 24.8% reduction, P = 0.001) and environmental contamination (66.4% reduction, P = 0.012) were observed, but the proportion of patients colonized on admission was stable. The total burden of inpatients with VRE in the HRWs also declined (median percentage of colonized inpatients per week, 19.4% vs 17.3%, P = 0.016). Hospital-wide VRE bacteraemia declined from 14/2935 patients investigated to 5/6194 (83.1% reduction; P Clean programme was associated with marked reductions in new VRE colonizations in high-risk patients, and VRE bacteraemia across the entire hospital. These findings have important implications for VRE control in endemic healthcare settings. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elemental micro-PIXE mapping of hypersensitive lesions in Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae) resistant to Sphaerotheca fuliginea (powdery mildew)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Straker, C. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Genotypes of the Southern African cucurbit, Lagenaria sphaerica, that are resistant to powdery-mildew ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea) exhibit foliar hypersensitive (HS) lesions on inoculation with this fungal pathogen. Elemental distributions across radially symmetrical HS lesions, surrounding unlesioned leaf tissue and uninoculated leaf tissue, were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous PIXE and BS point analyses. The composition of cellulose (C 6H 10O 5) was used as constant matrix composition for scans, and the sample thickness was found from BS spectra. Si and elements heavier than Ca contributed to matrix composition within HS lesions and the locally elevated Ca raised the limits of detection for some trace metals of interest. In comparison to uninoculated tissue, inoculated tissue was characterised by higher overall concentrations of all measured elements except Cu. Fully developed, 6 day-old HS lesions and the surrounding tissue could be divided into five zones, centred on the fungal infection site. Each zone was characterized by distinct local elemental distributions (either depletion, or accumulation to potentially phytotoxic levels).

  6. Time-programmable drug dosing allows the manipulation, suppression and reversal of antibiotic drug resistance in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Mari; Galiñanes Reyes, Sabrina Galiñanes; Tsuda, Soichiro; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug strategies have been attempted to prolong the efficacy of existing antibiotics, but with limited success. Here we show that the evolution of multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli can be manipulated in vitro by administering pairs of antibiotics and switching between them in ON/OFF manner. Using a multiplexed cell culture system, we find that switching between certain combinations of antibiotics completely suppresses the development of resistance to one of the antibiotics. Using thi...

  7. Finite Element Method Based Modeling of Resistance Spot-Welded Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloud Zaoui

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with Finite Element refined and simplified models of a mild steel spot-welded specimen, developed and validated based on quasi-static cross-tensile experimental tests. The first model was constructed with a fine discretization of the metal sheet and the spot weld was defined as a special geometric zone of the specimen. This model provided, in combination with experimental tests, the input data for the development of the second model, which was constructed with respect to the mesh size used in the complete car finite element model. This simplified model was developed with coarse shell elements and a spring-type beam element was used to model the spot weld behavior. The global accuracy of the two models was checked by comparing simulated and experimental load-displacement curves and by studying the specimen deformed shapes and the plastic deformation growth in the metal sheets. The obtained results show that both fine and coarse finite element models permit a good prediction of the experimental tests.

  8. Molecular characteristics of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius harboring arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching; Wan, Min-Tao; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Chen, Charles; Hsiao, Yun-Hsia; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and its associated molecular characteristics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Among the 72 S. pseudintermedius recovered from various infection sites of dogs and cats, 52 (72.2%) were MRSP. ACME-arcA was detected commonly (69.2%) in these MRSP isolates, and was more frequently detected in those from the skin than from other body sites (P=0.047). There was a wide genetic diversity among the ACME-arcA-positive MRSP isolates, which comprised three SCCmec types (II-III, III and V) and 15 dru types with two predominant clusters (9a and 11a). Most MRSP isolates were multidrug-resistant. Since S. pseudintermedius could serve as a reservoir of ACME, further research on this putative virulence factor is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Connecting elements for wind power plants with an enhanced vibration resistance; Verbindungselemente fuer Windenergieanlagen mit erhoehter Schwingfestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, Uwe; Braun, Tobias [Peiner Umformtechnik GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In wind power plants, large quantities of screws with large dimensions are used. This concerns to steel construction screws according to the regulations DIN EN 14399-4 or DASt 021. These screws are hot-galvanized. The wind power plants are exposed to large stochastic oscillation loads. Therefore, there exist fatigue proof procedures which follow a regulation from the construction sector (DIN EN 1993-1-9) and still are continued to specify in a certification guideline of the Germanic Lloyd. Within the range of mechanical engineering of wind power plants, a strength verification of the screwed joints follows the VDI regulation 2230. The vibration resistance of the screw is an input for the proof of vibration resistance. During the production of screws with an enhanced vibration resistance in the hot-galvanized condition one may dispense with the reducing coefficients for hot-galvanizing due to the technical measures. The use of connecting elements with enhanced vibration resistance enables the dimensioning of ring flange joints with less or smaller screws. This economically can be of advantage, since this positively affects the dimensions of the flange. In the borderline case with enhanced swinging loads the computational proof is enabled yet.

  10. Mapping of a Leishmania major gene/locus that confers pentamidine resistance by deletion and insertion of transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Adriano C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentamidine (PEN is an alternative compound to treat antimony-resistant leishmaniasis patients, which cellular target remains unclear. One approach to the identification of prospective targets is to identify genes able to mediate PEN resistance following overexpression. Starting from a genomic library of transfected parasites bearing a multicopy episomal cosmid vector containing wild-type Leishmania major DNA, we isolated one locus capable to render PEN resistance to wild type cells after DNA transfection. In order to map this Leishmania locus, cosmid insert was deleted by two successive sets of partial digestion with restriction enzymes, followed by transfection into wild type cells, overexpression, induction and functional tests in the presence of PEN. To determine the Leishmania gene related to PEN resistance, nucleotide sequencing experiments were done through insertion of the transposon Mariner element of Drosophila melanogaster (mosK into the deleted insert to work as primer island. Using general molecular techniques, we described here this method that permits a quickly identification of a functional gene facilitating nucleotide sequence experiments from large DNA fragments. Followed experiments revealed the presence of a P-Glycoprotein gene in this locus which role in Leishmania metabolism has now been analyzed.

  11. Improvement of wear resistance of machine elements by plasma spraying followed by hardening in the chlorine-barium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.V.; Stepanov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed is the mathematical model, allowing to choose the optimal regime of sprayed coating hardening in the BaCl 2 salt melt. The method of hardening of machine elements by spraying wear resistance coatings of the Ni-Cr-B-Si alloys is described. It is established that diffusion heating followed by coating melting in the BaCl 2 solution increases the adhesion of sprayed layer to substrate metal. The formation of intermediate intermetallic compounds of the Ni 3 Si and Ni 3 Fe types takes place as a result of diffusion of interacting material atoms and valence electron joining

  12. The influence of mobile genetic elements on fitness, virulence and drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chlebowicz, Monika Anna

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is een belangrijke ziekteverwekker van mens en dier. Het ziekmakende vermogen van de bacterie is afhankelijk van een groot aantal virulentiefactoren, die kolonisatie en invasie van de gastheer mogelijk maken. S. aureus is bovendien in hoge mate resistent tegen antibiotica.

  13. Plant Growth Enhancement, Disease Resistance, and Elemental Modulatory Effects of Plant Probiotic Endophytic Bacillus sp. Fcl1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Aswathy; Krishna, Arathy; Mohan, Mahesh; Nair, Indu C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-04-13

    Endophytic bacteria have already been studied for their beneficial support to plants to manage both biotic and abiotic stress through an array of well-established mechanisms. They have either direct or indirect impact on mobilizing diverse nutrients and elements from soil to plants. However, detailed insight into the fine-tuning of plant elemental composition by associated microorganism is very limited. In this study, endophytic Bacillus Fcl1 characterized from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was found to have broad range of plant growth-promoting and biocontrol mechanisms. The organism was found to have indole acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase production properties along with nitrogen fixation. The Bacillus Fcl1 could also inhibit diverse phytopathogens as confirmed by dual culture and well diffusion. By LC-MS/MS analysis, chemical basis of its antifungal activity has been proved to be due to the production of iturin A and a blend of surfactin compounds. Moreover, the organism was found to induce both plant growth and disease resistance in vivo in model plant system. Because of these experimentally demonstrated multiple plant probiotic features, Bacillus Fcl1 was selected as a candidate organism to study its role in modulation of plant elemental composition. ICP-MS analysis of Bacillus Fcl1-treated plants provided insight into relation of bacterial interaction with elemental composition of plants.

  14. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-05-14

    In this paper we present a goal-oriented self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) with shared data structures and a parallel multi-frontal direct solver. The algorithm automatically generates (without any user interaction) a sequence of meshes delivering exponential convergence of a prescribed quantity of interest with respect to the number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of meshes is generated from a given initial mesh, by performing h (breaking elements into smaller elements), p (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal-oriented adaptivity and the solver work fully in parallel. We describe the parallel self-adaptive hp-FEM algorithm with shared computational domain, as well as its efficiency measurements. We apply the methodology described to the three-dimensional simulation of the borehole resistivity measurement of direct current through casing in the presence of invasion.

  15. Report on 1982 research result on the R and D of environmental resistance reinforcing element; 1982 nendo taikankyo kyoka soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This research was intended to establish technology for the substrate of an environmental resistance reinforcing element in which environmental resistance was enhanced against radiation, heat, mechanical shock, etc., for the purpose of realizing various kinds of equipment and devices for performing advanced information processing under severe environmental conditions of outer space, nuclear reactors, travelling objects such as automobiles and aircrafts, and plants. In the R and D of the technology of a MOS type silicon integrated circuit element, a technological improvement was conducted for the trial element of 1981 and the basic circuit structure. In the actual mounting technology, a radiation test for example was performed on a trial basic gate mounted on a package. with malfunction analysis started. In the R and D of the technology of a bipolar type silicon integrated circuit element, a preliminary investigation was carried out on the radiation resistance properties of the package materials, with basic data obtained for the evaluation test. In the R and D of the technology for a compound semiconductor integrated circuit element, development was performed for the element structure, which reinforced the radiation resistance of the basic integrated circuit element developed in 1981, as well as for its manufacturing technology. In the actual mounting technology, an environmental resistance test began for the basic integrated circuit of the 1981 trial production. (NEDO)

  16. Whole Genome Sequencing and Plasmid Genomics of Antimicrobial Resistance – Salmonella’s mobile genetic elements and the antimicrobial resistance genes they carry

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR), multidrug resistance (MDR), and carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), the specter of widespread untreatable bacterial infections threatens human and animal health. The ability of these emerging resistances to transfer between bacteria on mob...

  17. Frequency and distribution of the brown rust resistance gene Bru1 and implications for the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane posing an increasing threat to sugarcane industries worldwide. A major gene, Bru1, has been shown to contribute a significant proportion of brown rust resistance in multiple sugarcane industries. The recent...

  18. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Hill-Cawthorne

    Full Text Available Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec. We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA, a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (∼4% of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates.

  19. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2014-06-27

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (?4%) of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates. © 2014 Hill-Cawthorne et al.

  20. Recombinations in staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements compromise the molecular detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Hudson, Lyndsey O.; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Piepenburg, Olaf; Nair, Mridul; Dodgson, Andrew; Forrest, Matthew S.; Clark, Taane G.; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are increasingly using molecular tests for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening. However, primers have to be targeted to a variable chromosomal region, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We initially screened 726 MRSA isolates from a single UK hospital trust by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), a novel, isothermal alternative to PCR. Undetected isolates were further characterised using multilocus sequence, spa typing and whole genome sequencing. 96% of our tested phenotypically MRSA isolates contained one of the six orfX-SCCmec junctions our RPA test and commercially available molecular tests target. However 30 isolates could not be detected. Sequencing of 24 of these isolates demonstrated recombinations within the SCCmec element with novel insertions that interfered with the RPA, preventing identification as MRSA. This result suggests that clinical laboratories cannot rely solely upon molecular assays to reliably detect all methicillin-resistance. The presence of significant recombinations in the SCCmec element, where the majority of assays target their primers, suggests that there will continue to be isolates that escape identification. We caution that dependence on amplification-based molecular assays will continue to result in failure to diagnose a small proportion (?4%) of MRSA isolates, unless the true level of SCCmec natural diversity is determined by whole genome sequencing of a large collection of MRSA isolates. © 2014 Hill-Cawthorne et al.

  1. Finite Element and Experimental Study of Shunting in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedian Choobi, M.; Nielsen, C. V.; Bay, N.

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on one of the problems frequently encountered in spot welding in industry. In many applications several spot welds are made close to each other. The spots made after the first spot may become smaller in size due to shunt effect. A numerical and experimental study has been...... conducted to investigate the effect of shunting on nugget size in spot welding of HSLA steel sheets. Different cases with different spacing between weld spots have been examined. The nugget sizes have been measured by metallographic examination and have been compared with 3D finite element simulations...

  2. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Wiederhold, J C; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Blank, B A; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Lozeva, R; Zacarias, S M; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Velten, P; Araujo escalona, V I; Boudreau, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Javaji, A; Engel, R Y; Wiehr, S; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Colosimo, S J; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Bracco, A; Guttormsen, M S; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Ujeniuc, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Donets, E D; Golovkov, M; Schweitzer, D K; Vranicar, A; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Nannini, A; Strisovska, J; Wolf, E; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Rainovski, G I; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Maier, F M; Bonanni, A; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Lenzi, S M; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; Acosta sanchez, L A; Chavez lomeli, E R; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Lopes leal, T J; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Laurent, B G; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Araujo mendes, C M; Agramunt ros, J; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Dapo, H; Papka, P; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Heylen, H; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Wolf, N R; Ways, M; Steinsberger, T P; Riisager, K; Ruotsalainen, P A; Bastin, B; Duval, F T; Penessot, G; Flechard, X D; Desrues, P; Giovinazzo, J; Kurtukian nieto, T; Ascher, P E L; Roccia, S; Matea, I; Croizet, H A G; Bonnin, C M; Morfouace, P; Smith, A J; Guin, R; Banerjee, D; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Ohtsubo, T; Zhukov, M V; Tengborn, E A; Welker, A; Giannopoulos, E; Dessagne, P; Juscamaita vivanco, Y; Da costa pereira, L M; Hustings, J; Yu, H; Kruecken, R; Nowak, A K; Jankowski, M; Cano ott, D; Galve lahoz, P; Murphy, A S J; Shand, C M; Jones, G D; Herzberg, R; Ikin, P; Revill, J P; Everett, C; Napoli, D R; Scarel, G; Larsen, A; Tornyi, T G; Pascu, S G; Stroe, L; Toma, S; Jansson, K; Dronjak fahlander, M; Krupko, S; Hurst, A M; Veskovic, M; Nikolov, J; Masenda, H; Sibanda, W N; Rocchini, M; Klimo, J; Deicher, M; Wichert, T; Kronenberg, J; Helmke, A; Meliani, Z; Ivanov, V S; Green, B L; Keatings, J M; Kuti, I; Halasz, Z; Henry, M O; Bras de sequeira amaral, V; Espirito santo, F; Da silva, D J; Rosendahl, S; Vianden, R J; Speidel, K; Agarwal, I; Faul, T; Kownacki, J M; Martins correia, J G; Lorenz, K; Costa miranda, S M; Granadeiro costa, A R; Zyabkin, D; Kotthaus, T; Pfeiffer, M; Gironi, L; Jensen, A; Romstedt, F; Constantino silva furtado, I; Heredia cardona, J A; Jordan martin, M D; Montaner piza, A; Zacate, M O; Plewinski, F; Mesli, A; Akakpo, E H; Pichard, A; Hergemoller, F; Neu, W; Fallis starhunter, J P; Voulot, D; Mrazek, J; Ugryumov, V; Savreux, R P; Kojouharov, I M; Kern, R O; Papst, O; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Kirsebom, O S; Jensen, K L; Jokinen, A; Rahkila, P J; Hager, U D K; Konki, J P; Dubois, M; Orr, N A; Fabian, X; Huikari, J E; Goigoux, T; Magron, C; Zakari, A A; Maietta, M; Bachelet, C E M; Roussiere, B; Li, R; Canavan, R L; Lorfing, C; Foster, R M; Gislason, H P; Shayestehaminzadeh, S; Qi, B; Mukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Willmann, L; Kurcewicz, W; Wimmer, K; Meisel, Z P; Dorvaux, O; Nowacki, F; Koudriavtsev, I; Lievens, P; Delaure, B J P; Neyens, G; Ceruti, S; Bunka, M; Vermeulen, C; Umbricht, C A; De boer, J; Podadera aliseda, I; Alcorta moreno, M; Pesudo fortes, V; Zielinska, M; Korten, W; Wang, C H; Lotay, G J; Mason, P; Rice, S J; Regan, P H; Willenegger, L M; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Hass, M; Kumar, V; Valiente dobon, J J; Crespo campo, L; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Clisu, C; Jeppesen, H B; Wu, C; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Wuosmaa, A H; Szilner, S; Colovic, P; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Newton, M E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Figuera, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Bengtsson, L; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; 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Cerato, L; Radchenko, V; Molholt, T E; Tabares giraldo, J A; Srnka, D; Dlouhy, Z; Beck, D; Werner, V R; Homm, I; Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Probst, M B; Kaiser, C J; Martin, J A; Refsgaard, J; Peura, P J; Greenlees, P T; Auranen, K; Delahaye, P; Traykov, E K; Perez loureiro, D; Mery, A A; Couratin, C; Tsekhanovich, I; Lunney, D; Gaulard, C V; Mottram, A D; Cullen, D M; Das, S K; Van de walle, J; Mazzocchi, C; Jonson, B N G; Woehr, A; Lesher, S R; Zuber, K T; Filippin, L; De witte, H J; Van den bergh, P A M; Raabe, R; Dirkx, D; Parnefjord gustafsson, F O A; Dunlop, R A; Tarasava, K; Gernhaeuser, R A; Weinzierl, W; Berger, C; Wendt, K; Achtzehn, T; Gottwald, T; Schug, M; Rossel, R E; Dominguez reyes, R R; Fraile prieto, L M; Briz monago, J A; Koester, U H; Bunce, M R; Bowry, M D; Nakhostin, M; Shearman, R; Cresswell, J R; Joss, D T; Gredley, A; Groombridge, D; Laird, A M; Aslanoglou, X; Siem, S; Weterings, J A; Renstrom, T; Szpak, B T; Luczkowski, M J; Ghita, D; Bezbakh, A; Soltz, R A; Bollmann, J; Bhattacharya, P; Roy, S; Rahaman, M A; Wlodarski, T; Carvalho soares, J; Barzakh, A; Schertz, F; Froemmgen, N E; Liberati, V; Foy, B E; Baptista barbosa, M; Weinheimer, C P; Zboril, M; Simon, R E; Popescu, L A; Czosnyka, T; Miranda jana, P A; Leimbach, D; Naskrecki, R; Plociennik, W A; Ruchowska, E E; Chiara, C J; Walters, W; Eberth, J H; Thomas, T; Thole, P; Queiser, M T; Lo bianco, G; D'amico, F; Muller, S; Sanchez alarcon, R M; Tain enriquez, J L; Orrigo, S E A; Orlandi, R; Masango, S; Plazaola muguruza, F C; Lepareur, N G; Fiebig, J M; Ceylan, N; Wildner, E; Kowalska, M; Malbrunot, S; Garcia ruiz, R F; Pallada, S; Slezak, M; Roeckl, E; Schrieder, G H; Ilieva, S K; Koenig, K L; Amoretti, M A; Lommen, J M; Fynbo, H O U; Weyer, G O P; Koldste, G T; Madsboll, K; Jensen, J H; Nieminen, A M; Reponen, M; Villari, A; Thomas, J; Saint-laurent, M; Sorlin, O H; Carniol, B; Pereira lopez, J; Grevy, S; Plaisir, C; Marie-jeanne, M J; Georgiev, G P; Etile, A M; Le blanc, F M; Verney, D; Stefan, G I; Assie, M; Suzuki, D; Guillot, J; Vazquez rodriguez, L; Campbell, P; Deacon, A N; Ware, T; Flueras, A; Xie, L; Banerjee, K; Piersa, M; Galaviz redondo, D; Johansson, H T; Schwarz, S; Toysa, A S; Aumont, J; Van duppen, P L E; Atanasov, D; Zadvornaya, A; Renaud, M A; Xu, Z; Garrett, P E; Rapisarda, E; Reber, J A; Mattolat, C F; Raeder, S; Habs, D; Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Modamio hoybjor, V; Klintefjord, M L; Ingeberg, V W; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Kusoglu, A; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Hoffman, C R; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Gladnishki, K A; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Cakirli mutlu, R B; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Nogwanya, T; Neidherr, D M; Morales lopez, A I; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Abrahams, K J; Martin montes, E J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Chalil, A; Xing, R; Dos santos augusto, R M; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Trujillo hernandez, J S; Kalaninova, Z; Andel, B; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Karthein, J; Julin, R J; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Grinyer, G F; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Lynch, K M; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Godefroid, M; Mallion, S N; Gins, W A M; Stegemann, S T; Koszorus, A; Mcnulty, J F; Lin, P; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Tengblad, O; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Corradi, L; Galtarossa, F; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Malatji, K L; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Coombes, B J; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Molkanov, P; Adhikari, R; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Carvalho teixeira, R C; Redondo cubero, A; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Wiedeking, M; Herlert, A J; Mehl, C V; Judge, S M; Gaertner, D; Divinskyi, S; Karabasov, M O; Zagoraios, G; Boztosun, I; Van zyl, J J; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Wenander, F J C; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Boukhari, A; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Severijns, N; Huyse, M L; Ferrer garcia, R; Verlinde, M N S; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Naubereit, P; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Hadynska-klek, K; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Patronis, N; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Mengoni, D; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Kelly, N A; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Vetter, U; Wolak, J M; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Majola, S N; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O; Hu, B; Ntshangase, S S; Sanchez-segovia, J

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  3. Recognition elements in rRNA for the tylosin resistance methyltransferase RlmA(II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebars, Isabelle; Husson, Clotilde; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2007-01-01

    The methyltransferase RlmA(II) (formerly TlrB) is found in many Gram-positive bacteria, and methylates the N-1 position of nucleotide G748 within the loop of hairpin 35 in 23S rRNA. Methylation of the rRNA by RlmA(II) confers resistance to tylosin and other mycinosylated 16-membered ring macrolide......RNA substrate indicated that multiple contacts occur between RlmA(II) and nucleotides in stem-loops 33, 34 and 35. RlmA(II) appears to recognize its rRNA target through specific surface shape complementarity at the junction formed by these three helices. This means of recognition is highly similar...

  4. Finite-element modelling of superconductors in over-critical regime with temperature dependent resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duron, J; Grilli, F; Antognazza, L; Decroux, M; Stavrev, S; Dutoit, B; Fischer, Oe

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new numerical model, in which both the thermal and the electromagnetic aspects of the over-critical current regime of HTS materials are taken into account. The electromagnetic and thermal equations have been implemented in finite-element method (FEM) software in order to obtain a novel, closer to reality model for investigating the behaviour of the superconductor when the current exceeds I c . This model has been applied for studying the behaviour of strip lines of an YBCO/Au FCL with a sapphire substrate. Simulations with currents largely exceeding I c have been performed, showing that the total current limitation occurs only when the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters is taken into consideration. Such modelling can replace experiments with currents far exceeding I c which may damage or destroy the studied sample or HTS device

  5. Report on 1985 research result on the R and D of environmental resistance reinforcing element; 1985 nendo taikankyo kyoka soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This research was intended to establish technology for the substrate of an environmental resistance reinforcing element in which environmental resistance was enhanced against radiation, heat, mechanical shock, etc., for the purpose of realizing various kinds of equipment and devices for performing advanced information processing under severe environmental conditions of outer space, nuclear reactors, travelling objects such as automobiles and aircrafts, and plants. In the R and D of the technology of a MOS type silicon integrated circuit element, a low temperature generalizing process technology was developed, with selection made for SOS and bulk silicon. In addition, strength of a wiring connecting part was examined, as was the heat dissipation of the package. In the R and D of the technology of a bipolar type silicon integrated circuit element, examined were the element design/integration-technology/materials, evaluation and optimization of the processing technology, reproducibility of the factor processing technology, environmentally resistant plastic packages, etc. In the R and D of the technology of a compound semiconductor integrated circuit element, analysis of a gate electrode structure and deteriorating mechanism was made, as was the influence of the element structure parameter on environmental resistance, with an improved trial manufacturing and an environmental test performed for the actually mounted bodies. (NEDO)

  6. 3-D direct current resistivity anisotropic modelling by goal-oriented adaptive finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Qiu, Lewen; Tang, Jingtian; Wu, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Zilong

    2018-01-01

    Although accurate numerical solvers for 3-D direct current (DC) isotropic resistivity models are current available even for complicated models with topography, reliable numerical solvers for the anisotropic case are still an open question. This study aims to develop a novel and optimal numerical solver for accurately calculating the DC potentials for complicated models with arbitrary anisotropic conductivity structures in the Earth. First, a secondary potential boundary value problem is derived by considering the topography and the anisotropic conductivity. Then, two a posteriori error estimators with one using the gradient-recovery technique and one measuring the discontinuity of the normal component of current density are developed for the anisotropic cases. Combing the goal-oriented and non-goal-oriented mesh refinements and these two error estimators, four different solving strategies are developed for complicated DC anisotropic forward modelling problems. A synthetic anisotropic two-layer model with analytic solutions verified the accuracy of our algorithms. A half-space model with a buried anisotropic cube and a mountain-valley model are adopted to test the convergence rates of these four solving strategies. We found that the error estimator based on the discontinuity of current density shows better performance than the gradient-recovery based a posteriori error estimator for anisotropic models with conductivity contrasts. Both error estimators working together with goal-oriented concepts can offer optimal mesh density distributions and highly accurate solutions.

  7. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlinov Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  8. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  9. Analysis of fatigue resistance of continuous and non-continuous welded rectangular frame intersections by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M. L.; Moradi, R.; Lankarani, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural and construction equipment are commonly implemented with rectangular tubing in their structural frame designs. A typical joining method to fabricate these frames is by welding and the use of ancillary structural plating at the connections. This aids two continuous members to pass through an intersection point of the frame with some degree of connectivity, but the connections are highly unbalanced as the tubing centroids exhibit asymmetry. Due to the practice of welded continuous member frame intersections in current agricultural equipment designs, a conviction may exist that welded continuous member frames are superior in structural strength over that of structural frame intersections implementing welded non-continuous members where the tubing centroids lie within two planes of symmetry, a connection design that would likely fabricating a more fatigue resistant structural frame. Three types of welded continuous tubing frame intersections currently observed in the designs of agricultural equipment were compared to two non-continuous frame intersection designs. Each design was subjected to the same loading condition and then examined for stress levels using the Finite Element Method to predict fatigue life. Results demonstrated that a lighter weight, non-continuous member frame intersection design was two magnitudes superior in fatigue resistance than some current implemented frame designs when using Stress-Life fatigue prediction methods and empirical fatigue strengths for fillet welds. Stress-Life predictions were also made using theoretical fatigue strength calculations for the fatigue strength at the welds for comparison to the empirical derived weld fatigue strength

  10. Validation of the finite element simulation to estimate the rolling resistance of a non-driving wheel with experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dibagar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encountering soil from the viewpoint of management and product manufacturing has always been considered important, and an attempt is always made hat the tools and contrasting methods of soil be designed in such a way that itself prevents, as much as possible, the destructive consequences or energy waste that include economical or environmental limitations. Enhancing the soil encountering methods, quality reformation, and its related equipment, requires performing reliable tests in actual soil conditions. Considering the complexity and variety of variables in soil and machine contrast, this is a hard task. Hence, the numeral simulations are the key of all optimizations that illustrate efficient models by removing the costly farm tests and reducing research time. Tire is one of the main factors engaged with soil, and it is one of those tools that are discussable in both farms, and software environments. Despite the complexities in soil behavior, and tire geometry, modeling, tire movement on the soil has been the researchers’ objective from the past. Materials and methods: A non-linear finite element (FE model of the interaction of a non-driving tire with soil surface was developed to investigate the influence of the forward speed, tire inflation pressure and vertical load on rolling resistance using ABAQUS/Explicit code. In this research numerical and experimental tests were done under different conditions in order to estimate tire rolling resistance. In numerical tests, the soil part was simulated as a one-layer viscous-elastic material with a Drucker-Prager model by considering realistic soil properties. These properties included elastic and plastic properties which were obtained in the soil laboratory using relevant tests. The soil samples were prepared from the soil which was inside the soil bin. The same soil was utilized in experimental tests. Finite strain hyper elasticity model is developed to model nearly incompressible

  11. PDE-based geophysical modelling using finite elements: examples from 3D resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaa, R.; Gross, L.; du Plessis, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a general finite-element solver, escript, tailored to solve geophysical forward and inverse modeling problems in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) with suitable boundary conditions. Escript’s abstract interface allows geoscientists to focus on solving the actual problem without being experts in numerical modeling. General-purpose finite element solvers have found wide use especially in engineering fields and find increasing application in the geophysical disciplines as these offer a single interface to tackle different geophysical problems. These solvers are useful for data interpretation and for research, but can also be a useful tool in educational settings. This paper serves as an introduction into PDE-based modeling with escript where we demonstrate in detail how escript is used to solve two different forward modeling problems from applied geophysics (3D DC resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics). Based on these two different cases, other geophysical modeling work can easily be realized. The escript package is implemented as a Python library and allows the solution of coupled, linear or non-linear, time-dependent PDEs. Parallel execution for both shared and distributed memory architectures is supported and can be used without modifications to the scripts.

  12. PDE-based geophysical modelling using finite elements: examples from 3D resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaa, R; Gross, L; Du Plessis, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a general finite-element solver, escript, tailored to solve geophysical forward and inverse modeling problems in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) with suitable boundary conditions. Escript’s abstract interface allows geoscientists to focus on solving the actual problem without being experts in numerical modeling. General-purpose finite element solvers have found wide use especially in engineering fields and find increasing application in the geophysical disciplines as these offer a single interface to tackle different geophysical problems. These solvers are useful for data interpretation and for research, but can also be a useful tool in educational settings. This paper serves as an introduction into PDE-based modeling with escript where we demonstrate in detail how escript is used to solve two different forward modeling problems from applied geophysics (3D DC resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics). Based on these two different cases, other geophysical modeling work can easily be realized. The escript package is implemented as a Python library and allows the solution of coupled, linear or non-linear, time-dependent PDEs. Parallel execution for both shared and distributed memory architectures is supported and can be used without modifications to the scripts. (paper)

  13. Increasing Wear Resistance of Titanium Alloys by Anode Plasma Electrolytic Saturation with Interstitial Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, P. N.; Kusmanov, S. A.; Dyakov, I. G.; Silkin, S. A.; Smirnov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    In our previous studies, we have shown that anode plasma electrolytic saturation of titanium alloys with nitrogen and carbon can improve their tribological properties. Obtained structure containing oxide layer and solid solution of diffused element in titanium promotes the enhancement of running-in ability and the decrease in the wear rate in some special cases. In this paper, further investigations are reported regarding the tribological properties of alpha- and beta-titanium alloys in wear test against hardened steel (50 HRC) disk using pin-on-disk geometry and balls of Al2O3 (6.25 mm in diameter) or bearing steel (9.6 mm in diameter) with ball-on-plate one and normal load from 5 to 209 N. Reproducible results were obtained under testing samples treated by means of the plasma electrolytic nitriding (PEN) with the mechanical removal of the oxide layer. Friction coefficient of nitrided samples is 0.5-0.9 which is somewhat higher than that for untreated one (0.48-0.75) during dry sliding against Al2O3 ball. An increase in the sliding speed results in the polishing of nitrided samples and reduction of their wear rate by 60 times. This result is obtained for 5 min at 850 °C using PEN in electrolyte containing 5 wt.% ammonia and 10 wt.% ammonium chloride followed by quenching in solution. Optical microscope was employed to assist in the evaluation of the wear behavior. Sizes of wear tracks were measured by profilometer TR200.

  14. Method and apparatus for sensing a desired component of an incident magnetic field using magneto resistive elements biased in different directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing a desired component of a magnetic field using an isotropic magnetoresistive material. This is preferably accomplished by providing a bias field that is parallel to the desired component of the applied magnetic field. The bias field is applied in a first direction relative to a first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements, and in an opposite direction relative to a second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements. In this configuration, the desired component of the incident magnetic field adds to the bias field incident on the first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements, and subtracts from the bias field incident on the second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements. The magnetic field sensor may then sense the desired component of the incident magnetic field by simply sensing the difference in resistance of the first set of magnetoresistive sensor elements and the second set of magnetoresistive sensor elements.

  15. A new mosaic integrative and conjugative element from Streptococcus agalactiae carrying resistance genes for chloramphenicol (catQ) and macrolides [mef(I) and erm(TR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Eleonora; Simoni, Serena; Brenciani, Andrea; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Varaldo, Pietro E; Mingoia, Marina

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the genetic basis of catQ-mediated chloramphenicol resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae. Two clinical strains of catQ-positive chloramphenicol-resistant S. agalactiae (Sag236 and Sag403) were recently isolated, typed (MLST, PFGE pulsotypes, capsular types) and their antibiotic resistances investigated by phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Several molecular methods (PCR mapping, restriction assays, Southern blotting, sequencing and sequence analysis, conjugal transfer assays) were used to determine the genetic context of catQ and characterize a genetic element detected in the isolates. Sag236 and Sag403 shared the same ST (ST19), but exhibited a different capsular type (III and V, respectively) and pulsotype. Both harboured the macrolide resistance genes mef(I) and erm(TR) and the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M). Accordingly, they were resistant to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline. catQ and mef(I) were associated in an IQ module that was indistinguishable in Sag236 and Sag403. In mating assays, chloramphenicol and erythromycin resistance proved transferable, at low frequency, only from Sag236. Transconjugants carried not only catQ and mef(I), but also erm(TR), suggesting a linkage of the three resistance genes in a mobile element, which, though seemingly non-mobile, was also detected in Sag403. The new element (designated ICESag236, ∼110 kb) results from recombination of two integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) originally described in different streptococcal species: S. agalactiae ICESagTR7, carrying erm(TR); and Streptococcus pneumoniae ICESpn529IQ, carrying the prototype IQ module. These findings strengthen the notion that widespread streptococcal ICEs may form mosaics that enhance their diversity and spread, broaden their host range and carry new cargo genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  16. Role of integrons, plasmids and SXT elements in multidrug resistance of Vibrio cholerae and Providencia vermicola obtained from a clinical isolate of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha eRajpara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolates of Vibrio cholerae and Providencia vermicola obtained from a diarrhoeal patient were investigated for genetic elements governing their drug resistance phenotypes. Out of fourteen antibiotics tested, V. cholerae Vc IDH02365 isolate showed resistance to nine antibiotics, while P. vermicola Pv NBA2365 was found to be resistant to all the antibiotics except polymyxin B. Though SXT integrase was depicted in both the bacteria, class 1 integron was found to be associated only with Pv NBA2365. Integrons in Pv NBA2365 conferred resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and trimethoprim. Pv NBA2365 carried two transformable plasmids imparting distinct antibiotic resistance traits to their Escherichia coli transformants. In rabbit ileal loop assays, Pv NBA2365 did not show any fluid accumulation in contrast with Vc IDH02365 that showed high fluid accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a highly drug resistant P.vermicola and additionally co-existence of multidrug resistant V. cholerae and P. vermicola. Both the microbes appeared to possess a wide array of mobile genetic elements for a large spectrum of antimicrobial agents, some of which are being used in the treatment of acute diarrhoea.

  17. Evaluation of a Staff Training Programme using Positive Psychology coaching with film and theatre elements in care homes: views and attitudes of residents, staff and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Azucena; Wenborn, Jennifer; Ledgerd, Ritchard; Orrell, Martin

    2017-03-01

    There is a recognised need to improve staff training in care homes. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the Ladder to the Moon Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme (CCSEP), a staff training programme aimed at enhancing staff-resident communication. Focus groups were conducted with residents able to provide consent; staff and relatives and managers were interviewed in two care homes. A theoretical framework was developed to interpret the impact of CCSEP using Framework Analysis. Residents noted that the programme appeared to result in staff interacting more with them, as well as enjoying working together as a team. Staff reported an improved sense of teamwork, developing more positive attitudes towards residents, as well as their concerns about using theatrical techniques in the care setting. Relatives identified care home organisational aspects as being barriers to implementation, and some regarded CCSEP simply as 'entertainment' rather than 'creative care'. This study provides an insight into the potential of this staff training programme to improve staff-resident interactions. However, participants' varying views of CCSEP highlight the need to brief staff, residents and relatives before implementation so as to enable full understanding of the aim. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development of Nevirapine Resistance in Children Exposed to the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Programme in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antunes

    Full Text Available Single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP has been the main option for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV-1 in low-resource settings. However, sd-NVP can induce the selection of HIV-1 resistant mutations in mothers and infants. In Mozambique, there are limited data regarding the profile of NVP resistance associated mutations (RAM in the context of PMTCT.To assess the prevalence and the factors associated with NVP RAM among children born to HIV-1 infected mothers enrolled in the PMTCT programme adopted in Mozambique.One hundred and fifty seven children aged 6 to 48 weeks were sequentially included (July 2011 to March 2012 at four centres in Maputo. Genotyping of RAM was performed in samples with HIV-1 RNA≥ 100 copies/μL (Viroseq. Sequencing was performed with ABI 3100 (Applied Biosystems. Logistic regression modelling was undertaken to identify the factors associated with NVP RAM.Seventy-nine children had their samples genotyped. Their median age was 7.0 (3-12 months and 92.4% received prophylaxis with sd-NVP at birth plus daily NVP. 35.4% of mothers received antiretrovirals (ARVs for PMTCT. ARV RAM were detected in 43 (54.4% of the children. 45.6% of these children had at least one NVP RAM. The most common mutations associated with NVP resistance were K103N (n = 16 and Y181C (n = 15. NVP RAM was significantly associated with mother exposure to PMTCT (crude odds ratio [OR] 30.3, 95% CI 4.93-186.34 and with mother's CD4 count < 350 cells/mm3 (crude OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.02-9.32. In the multivariable analysis the mother's exposure to PMTCT was the only variable significantly associated with NVP RAM (adjusted OR 48.65, 95% CI 9.33-253.66.We found a high prevalence of NVP RAM among children who were exposed to the drug regimen for PMTCT in Mozambique. The mothers' exposure to PMTCT significantly increased the risk of NVP RAM.

  19. Trace element analysis of human hair by neutron activation technique. Part of a coordinated programme on health-related environmental research, using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    Hair mineral analysis was performed to measure population exposure to a number of environmental elemental pollutants. A total of 44 scalp hair samples from young Korean army recruits living in Seoul were analysed by INAA for 26 elements, including such elements of environmental health interest as As, Cd, and Hg. The levels reported were comparable with those reported in open literature. These results indicated that there was no evidence of any harmful exposure of the individuals studied to the metal pollutants monitored

  20. The human tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP): involvement of the hemin responsive elements (HRE) in transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, E C; Dirks, W G; Drexler, H G

    2000-02-01

    The biochemical properties and protein structure of the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an iron-containing lysosomal glycoprotein in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system, are well known. In contrast, little is known about the physiology and genic structure of this unique enzyme. In some diseases, like hairy cell leukemia, Gaucher's disease and osteoclastoma, cytochemically detected TRAP expression is used as a disease-associated marker. In order to begin to elucidate the regulation of this gene we generated different deletion constructs of the TRAP 5'-flanking region, placed them upstream of the luciferase reporter gene and assayed them for their ability to direct luciferase expression in human 293 cells. Treatment of these cells with the iron-modulating reagents transferrin and hemin causes opposite effects on the TRAP promoter activity. Two regulatory GAGGC tandem repeat sequences (the hemin responsive elements, HRE) within the 5'-flanking region of the human TRAP gene were identified. Studies with specific HRE-deletion constructs of the human TRAP 5'-flanking region upstream of the luciferase reporter gene document the functionality of these HRE-sequences which are apparently responsible for mediating transcriptional inhibition upon exposure to hemin. In addition to the previously published functional characterization of the murine TRAP HRE motifs, these results provide the first description of a new iron/hemin-responsive transcriptional regulation in the human TRAP gene.

  1. Just in time. Goals and key elements of the German air pollution abatement programme; Just in time. Ziele und Eckpfeiler des Klimaschutzprogramms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, F.

    2001-03-01

    After prolonged discussions, the German government agreed on a new, 421 page, air pollution abatement programme on 18 October 2000. Funds will be provided from the sales of the UMTS licences. [German] Nach zaehen Verhandlungen innerhalb der Bundesregierung und den finanziellen Moeglichkeiten, die sich aus der Versteigerung der UMTS-Lizenzen voellig unerwartet ergaben, hat das Kabinett am 18. Oktober 2000 dem neuen - 421 Seiten starken - Klimaschutzprogramm zugestimmt. (orig.)

  2. Report on 1981 research result on the R and D of environmental resistance reinforcing element; 1981 nendo taikankyo kyoka soshi no kenkyuu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This research was intended to establish technology for the substrate of an environmental resistance reinforcing element in which environmental resistance was enhanced against radiation, heat, mechanical shock, etc., for the purpose of realizing various kinds of equipment and devices for performing advanced information processing under severe environmental conditions of outer space, nuclear reactors, travelling objects such as automobiles and aircrafts, and plants. A grasp of the present point at issue and the examination of improving methods were conducted primarily on a ceramic package, for the purpose of R and D of the technology of a MOS type silicon integrated circuit element; further, in the evaluation test technology, the problems of the status quo were grasped through the understanding of the data of the existing elements. In the technology for a bipolar type silicon integrated circuit element. change in the properties by irradiation of radioactive rays was grasped on oxidized silicon and silicon substrate crystals as the technology for the element. In the R and D of the technology for a compound semiconductor integrated circuit element, the point at issue of the present technology grasped, with the improving method examined, primarily on the tri-plate structure of ceramics. (NEDO)

  3. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  4. Final quality of life and safety data for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with cabazitaxel in the UK Early Access Programme (EAP) (NCT01254279).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Amit; Masson, Susan; Malik, Zafar; Birtle, Alison J; Sundar, Santhanam; Jones, Rob J; James, Nicholas D; Mason, Malcolm D; Kumar, Satish; Bottomley, David; Lydon, Anna; Chowdhury, Simon; Wylie, James; de Bono, Johann S

    2015-12-01

    To compile the safety profile and quality of life (QoL) data for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with cabazitaxel in the UK Early Access Programme (UK EAP). A total of 112 patients participated at 12 UK cancer centres. All had mCRPC with disease progression during or after docetaxel. Patients received cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks with prednisolone 10 mg daily for up to 10 cycles. Safety assessments were performed before each cycle and QoL was recorded at alternate cycles using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). The safety profile was compiled after completion of the UK EAP and QoL measures were analysed to record trends. No formal statistical analysis was carried out. The incidences of neutropenic sepsis (6.3%), grade 3 and 4 diarrhoea (4.5%) and grade 3 and 4 cardiac toxicity (0%) were low. Neutropenic sepsis episodes, though low, occurred only in patients who did not receive prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. There were trends towards improved VAS and EQ-5D-3L pain scores during treatment. The UK EAP experience indicates that cabazitaxel might improve QoL in mCRPC and represents an advance and a useful addition to the armamentarium of treatment for patients whose disease has progressed during or after docetaxel. In view of the potential toxicity, careful patient selection is important. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Br-rich tips of calcified crab claws are less hard but more fracture resistant: a comparison of mineralized and heavy-element biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Robert M S; Niedbala, Jack C; Nesson, Michael H; Tao, Ye; Shokes, Jacob E; Scott, Robert A; Latimer, Matthew J

    2009-06-01

    We find that the spoon-like tips of the chelipeds (large claws) of the crab Pachygrapsus crassipes differ from the rest of the claw in that they are not calcified, but instead contain about 1% bromine--thus they represent a new example of a class of structural biological materials that contain heavy elements such as Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Br bound in an organic matrix. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest that the bromine is bound to phenyl rings, possibly in tyrosine. We measure a broad array of mechanical properties of a heavy-element biological material for the first time (abrasion resistance, coefficient of kinetic friction, energy of fracture, hardness, modulus of elasticity and dynamic mechanical properties), and we make a direct comparison with a mineralized tissue. Our results suggest that the greatest advantage of bromine-rich cuticle over calcified cuticle is resistance to fracture (the energy of fracture is about an order of magnitude greater than for calcified cuticle). The greatest advantage relative to unenriched cuticle, represented by ant mandible cuticle, is a factor of about 1.5 greater hardness and modulus of elasticity.The spoon-like tips gain additional fracture resistance from the orientation of the constituent laminae and from the viscoelasticity of the material. We suggest that fracture resistance is of greater importance in smaller organisms, and we speculate that one function of heavy elements in structural biological materials is to reduce molecular resonant frequencies and thereby increase absorption of energy from impacts.

  6. Synthesizing A Phase Changing Bistable Electroactive Polymer And Silver Nanoparticles Coated Fabric As A Resistive Heating Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi

    Transducer technologies that convert energy from one form to another (e.g. electrical energy to mechanical energy or thermal energy and vise versa) are considered as the basic building blocks of robots and wearable electronics, two of the rapidly emerging technologies that impact our daily life. With an emphasis on developing the essential smart materials, this dissertation focuses on two specific transducer technologies, bistable large-strain electro-mechanical actuation and resistive Joule heating, in pursuit of refreshable Braille electronic displays and wearable thermal management element, respectively. Dielectric elastomers (DEs) have been intensively studied for their promising ability to mimic human muscles in providing efficient electro-mechanical actuation. They exhibit a unique combination of properties, including large strain, fast response, high energy density, mechanical compliancy, lightweight, and low cost. However, the softness of the DE materials, which is a prerequisite for electrically induced large actuation strain, has been hindering their application in adaptive structures. In these applications such as braille displays, a certain amount of mechanical support is necessary in addition to large strains for the device or system to function. Bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) that leverage the electrically induced large-strain actuation of DE actuators and the bi-stable rigid-to-rigid deformation of shape memory polymers are innovated to provide large electrical actuation strain in their rubbery state and fix the deformation by cooling down to room temperature to incorporate mechanical rigidity. BSEP materials that can suppress electromechanical instability and exhibit stable mechanical properties in the rubbery state are desired. A bimodal BSEP material with a glass transition temperature right above room temperature has been synthesized employing simple UV curing process. The BSEP has a large storage modulus over 1GPa at room temperature

  7. Crystal Structure of the Zorbamycin-Binding Protein ZbmA, the Primary Self-Resistance Element in Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D. [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Bigelow, Lance [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Changsoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuff, Marianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lohman, Jeremy R. [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Chang, Chin-Yuan [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Ma, Ming [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Yang, Dong [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States); Clancy, Shonda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Babnigg, Gyorgy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Joachimiak, Andrzej [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, George N. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Shen, Ben [Scripps Research Inst., Jupiter, FL (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The bleomycins (BLMs), tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycin, and zorbamycin (ZBM) are members of the BLM family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics. The BLM-producing Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and the TLM-producing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158 both possess at least two self-resistance elements, an N-acetyltransferase and a binding protein. The N-acetyltransferase provides resistance by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotic that is required for activity, while the binding protein confers resistance by sequestering the metal-bound antibiotic and preventing drug activation via molecular oxygen. We recently established that the ZBM producer, Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892, lacks the N-acetyltransferase resistance gene and that the ZBM-binding protein, ZbmA, is sufficient to confer resistance in the producing strain. To investigate the resistance mechanism attributed to ZbmA, we determined the crystal structures of apo and Cu(II)-ZBM-bound ZbmA at high resolutions of 1.90 and 1.65 angstrom, respectively. A comparison and contrast with other structurally characterized members of the BLM-binding protein family revealed key differences in the protein ligand binding environment that fine-tunes the ability of ZbmA to sequester metal-bound ZBM and supports drug sequestration as the primary resistance mechanism in the producing organisms of the BLM family of antitumor antibiotics.

  8. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  9. Emergence of Sequence Type 779 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Harboring a Novel Pseudo Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR Composite Element in Irish Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnevey, Peter M.; Shore, Anna C.; Brennan, Grainne I.; Sullivan, Derek J.; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Slickers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods. PMID:23147725

  10. Emergence of sequence type 779 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring a novel pseudo staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR composite element in Irish hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinnevey, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878\\/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods.

  11. Interplay of a non-conjugative integrative element and a conjugative plasmid in the spread of antibiotic resistance via suicidal plasmid transfer from an aquaculture Vibrio isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Lisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Fumito; Hirose, Yuu; Onishi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Satoru; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Michiaki; Yano, Hirokazu

    2018-01-01

    The capture of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) plays a critical role in resistance acquisition for human-associated bacteria. Although aquaculture environments are recognized as important reservoirs of ARGs, intra- and intercellular mobility of MGEs discovered in marine organisms is poorly characterized. Here, we show a new pattern of interspecies ARGs transfer involving a 'non-conjugative' integrative element. To identify active MGEs in a Vibrio ponticus isolate, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of a transconjugant obtained by mating between Escherichia coli and Vibrio ponticus. This revealed integration of a plasmid (designated pSEA1) into the chromosome, consisting of a self-transmissible plasmid backbone of the MOBH group, ARGs, and a 13.8-kb integrative element Tn6283. Molecular genetics analysis suggested a two-step gene transfer model. First, Tn6283 integrates into the recipient chromosome during suicidal plasmid transfer, followed by homologous recombination between the Tn6283 copy in the chromosome and that in the newly transferred pSEA1. Tn6283 is unusual among integrative elements in that it apparently does not encode transfer function and its excision barely generates unoccupied donor sites. Thus, its movement is analogous to the transposition of insertion sequences rather than to that of canonical integrative and conjugative elements. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized type of MGE in a marine organism, highlighting diversity in the mode of interspecies gene transfer.

  12. Research and development of basic technologies for the next generation industries, 'environment resistance strengthened elements'. Evaluation on the first term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 'taikankyo kyoka soshi'. Daiikki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-30

    Research, development and evaluation were performed with an objective of developing environment resistance strengthened elements, with emphasis placed respectively on radiation resistance, heat resistance, and integration degree according to specific requirements in the using environments. The objective for the first term is to develop the basic technology on element structures required to raise the environment resistance, and the methods of testing them. With regard to heat resistant elements, {beta}-SiC single crystal thin films were formed, and a prospect was obtained on using them as the elements. Regarding MOS integrated circuit, bipolar integrated circuit, and GaAs element, points presenting the largest issue in radiation resistance were noticed according to respective elements. Thus, temperature for gate oxide film formation was lowered, element structures were improved, and gate lengths were decreased to enhance the radiation resistance. For the evaluation test technology, a provisional testing method was prepared for the radiation resistance, a prototype in-situ irradiation testing device was fabricated and so was a prototype high-temperature testing device usable up to 500 degrees C. These achievements lead to a belief that the targets for the first term have been achieved. (NEDO)

  13. The effects of bio-available copper on macrolide antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements during tylosin fermentation dregs co-composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Meng Meng; Wang, Bing; Xin, Yanjun; Gao, Jiaqi; Liu, Huiling

    2018-03-01

    In this study, aerobic co-composting of tylosin fermentation dregs (TFDs) and sewage sludge with different adding concentrations of copper (Cu) was investigated to inspect the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), metal resistance genes (MRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Results showed that two concentrations of Cu did affect not only the abiotic factors but the relative abundances of resistance genes. High concentration of Cu inhibited the metabolic capacity of microbial community and the nitrogen-fixing process while had little effect on the degradation of TYL and TOC. The abundance of ermT, mefA, mphA increased partly attributed to the toxic effects and co-selective pressure from heavy metal reflected by MRGs. There was significant correlation among some environmental factors like pH, bio-Cu, organic matters and ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Macrolide resistance gene erm(TR) and erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements in Streptococcus agalactiae: characterization of ICESagTR7, a new composite element containing IMESp2907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Marini, Emanuela; Brenciani, Andrea; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate macrolide-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates harbouring erm(TR), an erm(A) gene subclass, with emphasis on their erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements. Four erm(TR)-carrying elements have been described to date: three closely related (ICE10750-RD.2, Tn1806 and ICESp1108) in Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, respectively; and one completely different (IMESp2907, embedded in ICESp2906 to form ICESp2905) in S. pyogenes. Seventeen macrolide-resistant erm(TR)-positive S. agalactiae isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Their erm(TR)-carrying elements were explored by analysing the distinctive recombination genes of known erm(TR)-carrying integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and by PCR mapping. The new genetic context and organization of IMESp2907 in S. agalactiae were explored using several experimental procedures and in silico analyses. Five isolates harboured ICE10750-RD.2/Tn1806, five isolates harboured ICESp1108 and five isolates bore unknown erm(TR)-carrying elements. The remaining two isolates, exhibiting identical serotypes and pulsotypes, harboured IMESp2907 in a new genetic environment, which was further investigated in one of the two isolates, SagTR7. IMESp2907 was circularizable in S. agalactiae, as described in S. pyogenes. The new IMESp2907 junctions were identified based on its site-specific integration; the att sites were almost identical to those in S. pyogenes. In strain SagTR7, erm(TR)-carrying IMESp2907 was embedded in an erm(TR)-less internal element related to ICE10750-RD.2/Tn1806, which, in turn, was embedded in an ICESde3396-like element. The resulting whole ICE, ICESagTR7 (∼129 kb), was integrated into the chromosome downstream of the rplL gene, and was excisable in circular form and transferable by conjugation. This is the first study exploring erm(TR)-carrying genetic elements in S. agalactiae. © The Author 2015. Published by

  15. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  16. Crispv programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovicj, N.

    CRISPV (Criticality and Spectrum code) is a multigroup neutron spectrum code for homogeneous reactor cores and is actually a somewhat modified version of the original CRISP programme. It is a combination of DATAPREP-II and BIGG-II programmes. It is assumed that the reactor cell is a cylindrical fuel rod in the light or heavy water moderator. DATEPREP-II CODE forms the multigroup data for homogeneous reactor and prepares the input parameters for the BIGG-II code. It has its own nuclear data library on a separate tape in binary mode. BIGG-II code is a multigroup neutron spectrum and criticality code for a homogenized medium. It has as well its own separate data library. In the CRISPV programme the overlay structure enables automatic handling of data calculated in the DATAPREP-II programme and needed in the BIGG-II core. Both programmes are written in FORTRAN for CDC 3600. Using the programme is very efficient and simple

  17. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in enterococci and genomic DNA during anaerobic digestion of pharmaceutical waste sludge with different pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Lu, XueTing; Zhang, JunYa; Sui, Qianwen; Wang, Rui; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-07-01

    Pharmaceutical waste sludge harbors large amounts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and it is necessary to study the reduction of ARGs and MGEs during sludge treatment. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of enterococci, and the ARGs and MGEs in genomic DNA were investigated during anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave (MW), thermal hydrolysis (TH) and ozone pretreatment. Results showed that sludge pretreatment increased the occurrence of the resistance phenotypes and genotypes of enterococci. During AD, the resistance of enterococci to macrolides decreased, except for in the MW-pretreated sludge. Horizontal gene transfer and co-occurrence of ermB and tetM in enterococci resulted in increased tetracycline resistance of enterococci throughout the sludge treatment. MGEs such as intI1, ISCR1 and Tn916/1545 had a significant effect on the distribution of ARGs. AD with pretreatment, especially TH pretreatment, resulted in greater ARGs and MGEs reduction and improved methane production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Corrosion and flow resistance of metal filter elements used in the cleanup of syngas from the Transport Gasifier at the Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Dahlin; E. Carl Landham; Xiaofeng Guan [Southern Research Institute, Wilsonville, AL (United States). Power Systems Development Facility

    2008-07-01

    At the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), a variety of filter elements and failsafes are being tested for the cleanup of coal-generated syngas from the Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) Transport Gasifier. Thus far, no evidence of corrosion or plugging has been found in the HR-160 failsafes or sinterned metal fiber elements. However, a progressive corrosion and increase in pressure drop has been noted in the iron aluminide elements. The corrosion was first detected as reddish-brown spots of iron oxide after about 2,000 to 3,000 hours of syngas exposure. As the corrosion progressed, the spots of iron oxide merged to form a continuous scale after about 5,000 to 5,500 hours of exposure. With additional exposure, a black scale containing iron sulfide also appeared, and localized areas of sulfidation and plugging were noted in element cross sections. These effects have not resulted in any significant reduction in tensile strength, but a gradual increase in the clean element pressure drop has been noted. Flow test results suggest that there is an interaction between the corroded filter surface and the dustcake that effectively increases the residual cake flow resistance and baseline pressure drop. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  20. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.; Pardo, David; Paszyński, Maciej R.

    2011-01-01

    (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal

  1. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 96 positively regulates Arabidopsis resistance to necrotrophic pathogens by direct binding to GCC elements of jasmonate - and ethylene-responsive defence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinot, Jérémy; Huang, Jing-Bo; Huang, Pin-Yao; Tseng, Min-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Lan; Gu, Shin-Yuan; Lo, Wan-Sheng; Wang, Long-Chi; Chen, Yet-Ran; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    The ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family is composed of transcription factors (TFs) that are critical for appropriate Arabidopsis thaliana responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we identified and characterized a member of the ERF TF group IX, namely ERF96, that when overexpressed enhances Arabidopsis resistance to necrotrophic pathogens such as the fungus Botrytis cinerea and the bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum. ERF96 is jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) responsive and ERF96 transcripts accumulation was abolished in JA-insensitive coi1-16 and in ET-insensitive ein2-1 mutants. Protoplast transactivation and electrophoresis mobility shift analyses revealed that ERF96 is an activator of transcription that binds to GCC elements. In addition, ERF96 mainly localized to the nucleus. Microarray analysis coupled to chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR of Arabidopsis overexpressing ERF96 revealed that ERF96 enhances the expression of the JA/ET defence genes PDF1.2a, PR-3 and PR-4 as well as the TF ORA59 by direct binding to GCC elements present in their promoters. While ERF96-RNAi plants demonstrated wild-type resistance to necrotrophic pathogens, basal PDF1.2 expression levels were reduced in ERF96-silenced plants. This work revealed ERF96 as a key player of the ERF network that positively regulates the Arabidopsis resistance response to necrotrophic pathogens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Absence of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Adipocytes Causes Systemic Insulin Resistance and Impairs Glucose Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Vijayakumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower adipose-ChREBP and de novo lipogenesis (DNL are associated with insulin resistance in humans. Here, we generated adipose-specific ChREBP knockout (AdChREBP KO mice with negligible sucrose-induced DNL in adipose tissue (AT. Chow-fed AdChREBP KO mice are insulin resistant with impaired insulin action in the liver, muscle, and AT and increased AT inflammation. HFD-fed AdChREBP KO mice are also more insulin resistant than controls. Surprisingly, adipocytes lacking ChREBP display a cell-autonomous reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport that is mediated by impaired Glut4 translocation and exocytosis, not lower Glut4 levels. AdChREBP KO mice have lower levels of palmitic acid esters of hydroxy stearic acids (PAHSAs in serum, and AT. 9-PAHSA supplementation completely rescues their insulin resistance and AT inflammation. 9-PAHSA also normalizes impaired glucose transport and Glut4 exocytosis in ChREBP KO adipocytes. Thus, loss of adipose-ChREBP is sufficient to cause insulin resistance, potentially by regulating AT glucose transport and flux through specific lipogenic pathways.

  3. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  4. [Mechanism of the dentino-enamel junction on the resist-crack propagation of human teeth by the finite element method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zheng; Tiezhou, Hou; Hong, Tao; Xueyan, Guo; Cui, Wu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to identify the crack tip stress intensity factor of the propagation process, crack propagation path, and the changes in the shape of the crack tip by the finite element method. The finite element model of dentino-enamel junction was established with ANSYS software, and the length of the initial crack in the single edge was set to 0.1 mm. The lower end of the sample was fixed. The tensile load of 1 MPa with frequency of 5 Hz was applied to the upper end. The stress intensity factor, deflection angle, and changes in the shape of the crack tip in the crack propagation were calculated by ANSYS. The stress intensity factor suddenly and continuously decreased in dentino-enamel junction as the crack extended. A large skewed angle appeared, and the stress on crack tip was reduced. The dentino-enamel junction on human teeth may resist crack propagation through stress reduction.

  5. Accelerated Evolution in Distinctive Species Reveals Candidate Elements for Clinically Relevant Traits, Including Mutation and Cancer Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ferris

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice. ARs in the elephant, the largest land mammal, are uniquely enriched near elephant DNA damage response genes. The genomic hotspot for elephant ARs is the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia complex, a master regulator of DNA repair. Additionally, ARs in the six species are associated with specific human clinical phenotypes that have apparent concordance with overt traits in each species.

  6. Finite element analysis on the influence of contact resistivity in an extraordinary magnetoresistance magnetic field micro sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    .89 × 104% and 0.02%/(10-4 T), respectively, at 1 Tesla. For values of contact resistivity up to 10-8cm2 the EMR effect is almost constant, while for higher values the EMR effect decreases exponentially. However, the sensitivity of the device does

  7. Transcriptional attenuation controls macrolide inducible efflux and resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and in other Gram-positive bacteria containing mef/mel(msr(D)) elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancey, Scott T; Bai, Xianhe; Kumar, Nikhil; Drabek, Elliott F; Daugherty, Sean C; Colon, Thomas; Ott, Sandra; Sengamalay, Naomi; Sadzewicz, Lisa; Tallon, Luke J; Fraser, Claire M; Tettelin, Hervé; Stephens, David S

    2015-01-01

    Macrolide resistance, emerging in Streptococcus pneumoniae and other Gram-positive bacteria, is increasingly due to efflux pumps encoded by mef/mel(msr) operons found on discrete mobile genetic elements. The regulation of mef/mel(msr) in these elements is not well understood. We identified the mef(E)/mel transcriptional start, localized the mef(E)/mel promoter, and demonstrated attenuation of transcription as a mechanism of regulation of macrolide-inducible mef-mediated macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae. The mef(E)/mel transcriptional start site was a guanine 327 bp upstream of mef(E). Consensus pneumococcal promoter -10 (5'-TATACT-3') and -35 (5'-TTGAAC-3') boxes separated by 17 bp were identified 7 bp upstream of the start site. Analysis of the predicted secondary structure of the 327 5' region identified four pairs of inverted repeats R1-R8 predicted to fold into stem-loops, a small leader peptide [MTASMRLR, (Mef(E)L)] required for macrolide induction and a Rho-independent transcription terminator. RNA-seq analyses provided confirmation of transcriptional attenuation. In addition, expression of mef(E)L was also influenced by mef(E)L-dependent mRNA stability. The regulatory region 5' of mef(E) was highly conserved in other mef/mel(msr)-containing elements including Tn1207.1 and the 5612IQ complex in pneumococci and Tn1207.3 in Group A streptococci, indicating a regulatory mechanism common to a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria containing mef/mel(msr) elements.

  8. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of an Insecticide Resistant Housefly Strain: Insights about SNPs and Regulatory Elements in Cytochrome P450 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Højland, Dorte H; Asp, Torben; Kristensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in the housefly, Musca domestica, has been investigated for more than 60 years. It will enter a new era after the recent publication of the housefly genome and the development of multiple next generation sequencing technologies. The genetic background of the xenobiotic response can now be investigated in greater detail. Here, we investigate the 454-pyrosequencing transcriptome of the spinosad-resistant 791spin strain in relation to the housefly genome with focus on P450 genes. The de novo assembly of clean reads gave 35,834 contigs consisting of 21,780 sequences of the spinosad resistant strain. The 3,648 sequences were annotated with an enzyme code EC number and were mapped to 124 KEGG pathways with metabolic processes as most highly represented pathway. One hundred and twenty contigs were annotated as P450s covering 44 different P450 genes of housefly. Eight differentially expressed P450s genes were identified and investigated for SNPs, CpG islands and common regulatory motifs in promoter and coding regions. Functional annotation clustering of metabolic related genes and motif analysis of P450s revealed their association with epigenetic, transcription and gene expression related functions. The sequence variation analysis resulted in 12 SNPs and eight of them found in cyp6d1. There is variation in location, size and frequency of CpG islands and specific motifs were also identified in these P450s. Moreover, identified motifs were associated to GO terms and transcription factors using bioinformatic tools. Transcriptome data of a spinosad resistant strain provide together with genome data fundamental support for future research to understand evolution of resistance in houseflies. Here, we report for the first time the SNPs, CpG islands and common regulatory motifs in differentially expressed P450s. Taken together our findings will serve as a stepping stone to advance understanding of the mechanism and role of P450s in xenobiotic detoxification.

  10. Epidemiology and ecology of enterococci, with special reference to antibiotic resistant strains, in animals, humans and the environment - Example of an ongoing project within the European research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, I.; Iversen, A.; Burman, L. G.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to generate knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of enterococci in the food chain by studying the following: (1) the population structure (in measures of abundance, number of vancomycin resistant strains, antibiotic resistance patterns, diversity...... of enterococci and (4) the diversity of the drug resistance genes in enterococci, So far, 1578 samples have been collected from different countries within the EU (Sweden, Denmark, UK and Spain), and from different habitats (pig farms, carcasses in slaughter houses, soil, manure, water, sewage, and humans). Total...

  11. Comparison of frictional resistance among conventional, active and passive selfligating brackets with different combinations of arch wires: a finite elements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sandra L; Montoya, Yesid; Garcia, Nora L; Virgen, Ana L; Botero, Javier E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance among conventional, passive and active selfligating brackets using Finite Elements Analysis (FEA). Seventynine (79) slide tests were performed by combining an upper first bicuspid conventional bracket, 0.018" stainless steel wires and 0.010" ligature by means of an INSTRON 3345 load system to obtain average maximum static frictional resistance (MSFR). This value was compared to the FR (frictional resistance) obtained by simulation of a slide of the same combination by FEA following conventional bracket modeling by means of Computer Aided Design (CAD). Once the FEA was validated, bracket CADs were designed (upper right first bicuspid conventional, active and passive selfligating bracket) and bracket properties calculated. MSFR was compared among conventional, active and passive selfligating brackets with different alloys and archwire cross sections such as 0.018", 0.019" x 0.025"and 0.020" x 0.020". Passive selfligating brackets had the lowest MSFR, followed by conventional brackets and active selfligating brackets. In conventional brackets, a 0.018" archwire produced a linear pattern of stress with maximum concentration at the center. Conversely, stress in 0.020 x 0.020" and 0.019 x 0.025" archwires was distributed across the width of the slot. The highest normal forces were 1.53 N for the 0.018" archwire, 4.85 N for the 0.020 x 0.020" archwire and 8.18 N for the 0.019 x 0.025" archwire. Passive selfligating brackets presented less frictional resistance than conventional and active selfligating brackets. Regardless of bracket type, greater contact area between the slot and the archwire and the spring clip increased frictional resistance. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. First and second line drug resistance among treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a district under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Prasad Myneedu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information of level of drug resistance to first-line and second line anti-tuberculosis agents in treatment naïve pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients from the Indian region. Therefore, the present prospective study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line and second line anti-TB drug resistance in such patients. Sputum samples from consecutive treatment naïve PTB cases registered in Lala Ram Sarup (LRS district, under RNTCP containing 12 Directly Observed Treatment Centre’s (DOTS, were enrolled using cluster sampling technology. A total of 453 samples were received from July 2011 to June 2012. All samples were cultured on solid medium followed by drug susceptibility to first and second line anti-tubercular drugs as per RNTCP guidelines. Primary multi-drug resistance (MDR was found to be 18/453; (4.0%. Extensively drug resistance (XDR was found in one strain (0.2%, which was found to be resistant to other antibiotics. Data of drug resistant tuberculosis among treatment naïve TB patients are lacking in India. The presence of XDR-TB and high MDR-TB in small population studied, calls for conducting systematic multi-centric surveillance across the country.

  13. Accelerated Evolution in Distinctive Species Reveals Candidate Elements for Clinically Relevant Traits, Including Mutation and Cancer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Elliott; Abegglen, Lisa M; Schiffman, Joshua D; Gregg, Christopher

    2018-03-06

    The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs) in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice. ARs in the elephant, the largest land mammal, are uniquely enriched near elephant DNA damage response genes. The genomic hotspot for elephant ARs is the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia complex, a master regulator of DNA repair. Additionally, ARs in the six species are associated with specific human clinical phenotypes that have apparent concordance with overt traits in each species. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spread of ISCR1 Elements Containing blaDHA-1 and Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Leading to Increase of Flomoxef Resistance in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liu, Jien-Wei; Li, Chia-Chin; Chien, Chun-Chih; Tang, Ya-Fen; Su, Lin-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Increasing resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and/or cephamycins in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae exacerbates the already limited antibiotic treatment options for infections due to these microbes. In this study, the presence of resistance determinants for these antimicrobial agents was examined by PCR among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) isolates that caused bacteremia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to differentiate the clonal relationship among the isolates studied. Transferability and the location of the resistance genes were analyzed by conjugation experiments, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Among the 94 ESBL-KP isolates studied, 20 isolates of flomoxef-resistant ESBL-KP were identified. They all carried a DHA-1 gene and were genetically diverse. CTX-M genes were found in 18 of the isolates. Among these DHA-1/CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, ISCR1 was detected in 13 (72%) isolates, qnr genes (1 qnrA and 17 qnrB genes) were detected in 18 (100%), aac(6′)-Ib-cr was detected in 11 (61%), and 16S rRNA methylase (all armA genes) was detected in 14 (78%). Four transconjugants were available for further analysis, and qnrB4, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, armA, and blaDHA-1 were all identified on these self-transferable blaCTX-M-carrying plasmids. The genetic environments of ISCR1 associated with armA, blaDHA-1, and qnrB4 genes in the four transconjugants were identical. Replicon-type analysis revealed a FIIA plasmid among the four self-transferable plasmids, although the other three were nontypeable. The cotransfer of multiple resistance genes with the ISCR1 element-carrying plasmids has a clinical impact and warrants close monitoring and further study. PMID:21746945

  15. Spread of ISCR1 elements containing blaDHA-₁ and multiple antimicrobial resistance genes leading to increase of flomoxef resistance in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liu, Jien-Wei; Li, Chia-Chin; Chien, Chun-Chih; Tang, Ya-Fen; Su, Lin-Hui

    2011-09-01

    Increasing resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and/or cephamycins in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae exacerbates the already limited antibiotic treatment options for infections due to these microbes. In this study, the presence of resistance determinants for these antimicrobial agents was examined by PCR among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) isolates that caused bacteremia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to differentiate the clonal relationship among the isolates studied. Transferability and the location of the resistance genes were analyzed by conjugation experiments, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Among the 94 ESBL-KP isolates studied, 20 isolates of flomoxef-resistant ESBL-KP were identified. They all carried a DHA-1 gene and were genetically diverse. CTX-M genes were found in 18 of the isolates. Among these DHA-1/CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, ISCR1 was detected in 13 (72%) isolates, qnr genes (1 qnrA and 17 qnrB genes) were detected in 18 (100%), aac(6')-Ib-cr was detected in 11 (61%), and 16S rRNA methylase (all armA genes) was detected in 14 (78%). Four transconjugants were available for further analysis, and qnrB4, aac(6')-Ib-cr, armA, and bla(DHA-1) were all identified on these self-transferable bla(CTX-M)-carrying plasmids. The genetic environments of ISCR1 associated with armA, bla(DHA-1), and qnrB4 genes in the four transconjugants were identical. Replicon-type analysis revealed a FIIA plasmid among the four self-transferable plasmids, although the other three were nontypeable. The cotransfer of multiple resistance genes with the ISCR1 element-carrying plasmids has a clinical impact and warrants close monitoring and further study.

  16. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......, as is the occurrence of resistance in other countries. The results of this study show the present level of resistance to antimicrobial agents among a number of bacterial species isolated from food animals in Denmark. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies has been established, enabling......This study describes the establishment and first results of a continuous surveillance system of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs, cattle and broilers in Denmark. The three categories of bacteria tested were: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis...

  17. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis . Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species ( Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes , and S. suis ) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICE Sp 1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICE Sa 2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICE Sa 2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs.

  18. Evolution and diversity of the antimicrobial resistance associated mobilome in Streptococcus suis: a probable mobile genetic elements reservoir for other streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR determinants. Although previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs, prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and S. suis revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICESp1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICESa2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs’ expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICESa2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs.

  19. Molecular cloning and preliminary function study of iron responsive element binding protein 1 gene from cypermethrin-resistant Culex pipiens pallens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wenbin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance jeopardizes the control of mosquito populations and mosquito-borne disease control, which creates a major public health concern. Two-dimensional electrophoresis identified one protein segment with high sequence homology to part of Aedes aegypti iron-responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP. Method RT-PCR and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA end were used to clone a cDNA encoding full length IRE-BP 1. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the transcriptional level changes in the Cr-IRE strain Aedes aegypti compared to the susceptible strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. The expression profile of the gene was established in the mosquito life cycle. Methyl tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR was used to observe the cypermethrin resistance changes in C6/36 cells containing the stably transfected IRE-BP 1 gene of Cx. pipiens pallens. Results The complete sequence of iron responsive element binding protein 1 (IRE-BP 1 has been cloned from the cypermethrin-resistant strain of Culex pipiens pallens (Cr-IRE strain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the IRE-BP 1 transcription level was 6.7 times higher in the Cr-IRE strain than in the susceptible strain of 4th instar larvae. The IRE-BP 1 expression was also found to be consistently higher throughout the life cycle of the Cr-IRE strain. A protein of predicted size 109.4 kDa has been detected by Western blotting in IRE-BP 1-transfected mosquito C6/36 cells. These IRE-BP 1-transfected cells also showed enhanced cypermethrin resistance compared to null-transfected or plasmid vector-transfected cells as determined by 3H-TdR incorporation. Conclusion IRE-BP 1 is expressed at higher levels in the Cr-IRE strain, and may confer some insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.

  20. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  1. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  2. Antibiotic resistance monitoring: the Spanish programme. The VAV Network. Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L; Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C

    2000-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a problem in modern public health and antimicrobial use and especially misuse, the most important selecting force for bacterial antibiotic resistance. As this resistance must be monitored we have designed the Spanish network 'Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario'. This network covers the three critical points of veterinary responsibility, bacteria from sick animals, bacteria from healthy animals and bacteria from food animals. Key bacteria, antimicrobials and animal species have been defined for each of these groups along with laboratory methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility and for data analysis and reporting. Surveillance of sick animals was first implemented using Escherichia coli as the sentinel bacterium. Surveillance of E. coli and Enterococcus faecium from healthy pigs was implemented in 1998. In July 1999, data collection on Salmonella spp. was initiated in poultry slaughterhouses. Additionally, the prevalence of vancomycin resistant E. faecium was also monitored. This network has specific topics of interest related to methods of determining resistance, analysis and reporting of data, methods of use for veterinary practitioners and collaboration with public health authorities.

  3. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobs, Vanessa Cristine; Ferreira, Jéssica Augustini; Bobrowicz, Thaís Alexandra; Ferreira, Leslie Ecker; Deglmann, Roseneide Campos; Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; França, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78), and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71). The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69) showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7) showed susceptibility to carbapenems. The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  4. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristine Kobs

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. METHODS: Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78, and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71. The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69 showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7 showed susceptibility to carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  5. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  6. Thermomechanical Modelling of Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes a generic programme for analysis, optimization and development of resistance spot and projection welding. The programme includes an electrical model determining electric current and voltage distribution as well as heat generation, a thermal model calculating heat...

  7. Application of resistivity measurements to research on structural elements in the Nord-Limousin (France) uraniferous basin (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcia, J.A.; Bonnet, J.; Combe, R.

    1960-01-01

    The authors discuss the difficulties encountered in the exploration of a typical deposit in the Nord-Limousin, using the resistivity measurement method. In the zone in question the over-thrust was very variable and difficult to predict. The uraniferous deposits had two types of aspect, the passage from one to the other being often very sudden: long thin veins without gangue; short and thick lens-shape deposits which were strongly contaminated by clay towards their edges. After several unsatisfactory attempts, the device known as the 'rectangular map' was adopted and gave an acceptable structural representation rapidly and cheaply. For the placing of the probes however, methods are required which are more refined and sensitive. It is in any case useless to expect to obtain a satisfactory representation and a sufficient accuracy using a single technique; especially in the region under consideration. (author) [fr

  8. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  9. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  10. Research and development of basic technologies for the next generation industries, 'environment resistance strengthened elements'. Evaluation on the second term research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 'Taikankyo kyoka soshi'. Dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-31

    In the research and development of the environment resistance strengthened elements with emphasis placed respectively on radiation resistance, heat resistance, and integration degree according to specific requirements in the using environments, the second term has developed an integration technology and its evaluation technology based on the achievements in the first term. In developing the heat resistant element technology, the technology to grow {beta}-SiC crystals was expanded to obtaining thin film crystals with high migratory performance by using higher temperatures. At the same time, development was performed on a technology to manufacture multiple number of transistors on one substrate, such as the doping technology and etching technology. Using this technology, schottky diodes and p-n junction elements being the basic structures of MES-FET and bipolar transistors were fabricated. In the evaluation and testing technology, the {gamma} dose measuring method using TLD was improved, the traceability of {gamma} ray irradiation amount was assured, the simplified irradiation testing method using X-ray was established, and the heat resistance testing technology for electronic parts was established. Furthermore, attempts were made on enhancing radiation resistance of the elements, such as in MOS silicon integrated circuit, bipolar silicon integrated circuit, and compound semiconductor integrated circuit. (NEDO)

  11. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  12. Realization of Current Mode Universal Filter and a Dual-Mode Single Resistance Controlled Quadrature Oscillator Employing VDCC and Only Grounded Passive Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript presents a circuit that can act as a universal filter as well as a single resistence controlled oscillator by unpretentiously changing the switch positions. The circuit employs only two active devices and all grounded passive elements. The utilization of only grounded passive components makes this circuit a better choice for integrated circuit implementation. The current mode biquadratic filter offers all the five basic responses along with independent tunability of its quality factor. The dual-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator offers explicit current outputs along with voltage outputs. The circuit also offers a simple and uncoupled condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation. The typical analysis such as non-ideal, sensitivity and parasitic analysis along with the regular simulation results as well as experimental results are exposed here, to strengthen the design idea.

  13. Trace elements profile is associated with insulin resistance syndrome and oxidative damage in thyroid disorders: Manganese and selenium interest in Algerian participants with dysthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, Naima; Meskine, Djamila; Alamir, Barkahoum; Koceir, Elhadj-Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between dysthyroidism and antioxidant trace elements (ATE) status is very subtle during oxidative stress (OS). This relationship is mediated by thyroid hormone (TH) disorder, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate ATE such as selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) status on thyroid dysfunction, and their interaction with antioxidant enzyme activities, mainly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), TH profile (TSH, T(3), T(4)) and IRS clusters. The study was undertaken on 220 Algerian adults (30-50 years), including 157 women and 63 men who were divided to 4 groups: subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 50), overt hypothyroidism (n = 60), Graves's disease hyperthyroidism (n = 60) and euthyroid controls (n = 50). The IRS was confirmed according to NCEP (National Cholesterol Education Program). Insulin resistance was evaluated by HOMA-IR model. Trace elements were determined by the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The antioxidant enzymes activity and metabolic parameters were determined by biochemical methods. The TH profile and anti-Thyroperoxidase Antibodies (anti-TPO-Ab) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Results showed that the plasma manganese levels were significantly increased in all dysthyroidism groups (p ≤ 0.01). However, the plasma copper and zinc concentrations were maintained normal or not very disturbed vs control group. In contrast, the plasma selenium levels were highly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) and positively correlated with depletion of glutathione peroxidase activity; and associated both with anti-TPO-Ab overexpression and fulminant HS-CRP levels. This study confirms the oxidative stress-inflammation relationship in the dysthyroidism. The thyroid follicles antioxidant protection appears preserved in the cytosol (Cu/Zn-SOD), while it is altered in the mitochondria (Mn-SOD), which gives this cell organelle, a status of

  14. Effect of rare earth elements yttrium and lanthanum on high temperature oxidation resistance of Mo-Si-B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, 0.2 to 2 at% Y and La alloyed Mo-9Si-8B were consolidated using mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering. Isothermal oxidation studies were conducted in a wide temperature range from 650 to 1300℃. Detailed characterization studies of the oxide scale using SEM, EDS, FIB, TEM reveal the formation of Y x Mo 18 O 32 and 3La 2 O 3 ·MoO 3 oxide phases, respectively, for Y and La-containing alloys reduce the evaporation of MoO 3 . The growth rate of protective silica scale is also enhanced due to faster formation of Y and La rich oxide particles which probably act as nucleation sites for silica. At higher temperatures (at 1100℃), the oxidation behavior of unalloyed and RE-alloyed Mo-9Si-8B are comparable. A transient weight loss followed by a steady state is reached due to protective amorphous silica-rich scale formation beyond 1100℃. Therefore, alloying with rare earth elements provides a broader application temperature window for silicide based materials starting from 750℃ to 1300℃

  15. High Levels of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Their Correlations with Bacterial Community and Mobile Genetic Elements in Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenda Tao

    Full Text Available To understand the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment bioreactors, the ARGs in sludge from two full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs were investigated and compared with sludge samples from three sewage treatment plants (STPs using metagenomic approach. The results showed that the ARG abundances in PWWTP sludge ranged from 54.7 to 585.0 ppm, which were higher than those in STP sludge (27.2 to 86.4 ppm. Moreover, the diversity of ARGs in PWWTP aerobic sludge (153 subtypes was higher than that in STP aerobic sludge (118 subtypes. In addition, it was found that the profiles of ARGs in PWWTP aerobic sludge were similar to those in STP aerobic sludge but different from those in PWWTP anaerobic sludge, suggesting that dissolve oxygen (DO could be one of the important factors affecting the profiles of ARGs. In PWWTP aerobic sludge, aminoglycoside, sulfonamide and multidrug resistance genes were frequently detected. While, tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin and polypeptide resistance genes were abundantly present in PWWTP anaerobic sludge. Furthermore, we investigated the microbial community and the correlation between microbial community and ARGs in PWWTP sludge. And, significant correlations between ARG types and seven bacterial genera were found. In addition, the mobile genetic elements (MGEs were also examined and correlations between the ARGs and MGEs in PWWTP sludge were observed. Collectively, our results suggested that the microbial community and MGEs, which could be affected by DO, might be the main factors shaping the profiles of ARGs in PWWTP sludge.

  16. Mentoring Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give an introduction to the definition and learning process of mentoring, a structured overview of the value of mentoring for mentees, mentors, organisations and society, as well as present the key element for designing and implementing successful mentoring...

  17. Magnesium implant alloy with low levels of strontium and calcium: The third element effect and phase selection improve bio-corrosion resistance and mechanical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornapour, M., E-mail: mandana.bornapour@mail.mcgill.ca [Light Metals and Advanced Magnesium Materials, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Biointerface Lab, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Celikin, M. [Light Metals and Advanced Magnesium Materials, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Cerruti, M. [Biointerface Lab, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Pekguleryuz, M. [Light Metals and Advanced Magnesium Materials, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Low density, non-toxicity, biodegradability and mechanical properties similar to human tissues such as bone make magnesium (Mg) alloys attractive for biomedical applications ranging from bone to cardiovascular implants. The most important challenge that still prevents the widespread use of Mg implants is their rapid degradation rate. In this study we investigate the combined effect of calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) on the corrosion behavior of Mg via in vitro immersion and electrochemical tests in simulated body fluid (SBF), and analyze changes in mechanical properties. We show that the combined addition of 0.3 wt.% Sr and 0.4 wt.% Ca decreases the corrosion rate of Mg both in terms of mass loss and hydrogen evolution more effectively than the single addition of either alloying element. We investigate the microstructure of as-cast specimens and the morphology of the corrosion products using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe micro-analysis, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Tensile and three point bending tests reveal that the ternary alloy Mg–0.3Sr–0.3Ca has a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance with hydrogen evolution rates of 0.01 mL/cm{sup 2}/h in SBF. Higher concentrations of Sr and Ca alter the resulting microstructure leading to increased corrosion rates in SBF by promoting the micro-galvanic corrosion between the α-Mg matrix and intermetallic phases of Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2} and Mg{sub 2}Ca along the grain boundaries. These results indicate that the combined addition of optimal amounts of Ca and Sr is a promising approach to decrease the high degradation rate of Mg implants in physiological conditions, as well as attaining high ductility in the alloy. The better properties of the Mg–0.3Sr–0.3Ca alloy are related to the new intermetallic phases found in this sample. The optimum composition is attributed to the “third element effect”, as seen in the corrosion

  18. Evolution of insect pest and disease resistant, high-yielding and improved quality varieties of cotton by use of ionizing radiation. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of induced mutations for disease resistance in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasti, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Disease resistant, high yielding and higher quality cotton varieties were developed. 42 interspecific hybrid progenies of earlier crosses between Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium tomentosum or Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum were included. Out of these, 22 progenies in F 3 generation were irradiated by gamma radiation doses of 20 and 25 kR. A list is given of interspecific hybrid progenies, as are the lists of boll rot susceptible and resistant plants in the irradiated and non-irradiated populations and/or successful crosses made between 1977 and 1978

  19. Surveillance of drug resistance for tuberculosis control: why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulet, P; Boulahbal, F; Grosset, J

    1995-12-01

    The resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antibiotics, which reflects the quality of the chemotherapy applied in the community, is one of the elements of epidemiological surveillance used in national tuberculosis programmes. Measurement of drug resistance poses problems for biologists in standardization of laboratory methods and quality control. The definition of rates of acquired and primary drug resistance also necessitates standardization in the methods used to collect information transmitted by clinicians. Finally, the significance of the rates calculated depends on the choice of the patients sample on which sensitivity tests have been performed. National surveys of drug resistance therefore require multidisciplinary participation in order to select the only useful indicators: rates of primary resistance and of acquired resistance. These indicators, gathered in representative groups of patients over a long period, are a measurement of the impact of modern chemotherapy regimens on bacterial ecology.

  20. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  1. Effect of rare earth element yttrium addition on microstructures and properties of a 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Ma, Xiaocong; Wang, Longmei; Ye, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Applications of Y in 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel. → Sensible characteristics of microstructure and properties have been observed. → Y has been found be effective in improving hot ductility of 21Cr-11Ni steel. → Inhibitory effect of Y on S segregation to the grain boundary has been observed. -- Abstract: In this comparative study, the microstructure and the mechanical properties of a 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel with and without addition of rare earth (RE) element yttrium have been investigated. The results show that a number of fine spherical yttrium-rich oxide particles are not uniformly distributed in the matrix of steel with yttrium; instead, they are aligned along the rolling direction. The grains surrounding the alignment are nearly one order of magnitude smaller than those farther away from the alignment. The approximate calculation results indirectly show that the grain refinement may be mainly attributed to the stimulation for nucleation of recrystallization rather than to pinning by particles. Furthermore, the alignment has resulted in significant loss in transverse impact toughness and tensile elongation at room temperature. There is a trough in the hot ductility-temperature curve, which is located between 973 and 1173 K. The ductility trough of steel with yttrium becomes shallow within a certain temperature range, especially around 1073 K, indicating that improvement on hot ductility is achieved by yttrium addition. The results may be attributed to the increase of grain boundary cohesion indicated by the effective improvement on intergranular failure tendency, and the inhibitory effect of yttrium on sulfur segregation to grain boundaries is believed to be an important cause.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Outpatients in Northern Japan: Increasing Tendency of ST5/ST764 MRSA-IIa with Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Meiji Soe; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Sumi, Ayako; Ito, Masahiko; Kudo, Kenji; Morimoto, Shigeo; Hosoya, Shino; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2017-07-01

    Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a genomic island of staphylococcus and is considered to confer enhanced ability to survive and growth on host bacterial cells. ACME has been typically identified in Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-positive ST8 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with SCCmec type IVa (USA300 clone), and it is also found in other lineages at low frequency. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of PVL + and/or ACME + MRSA were investigated for 624 clinical isolates collected from outpatients in northern Japan from 2013 to 2014. Both PVL genes and ACME type I were detected in nine isolates (1.4%), which were ST8-MRSA-SCCmec IVa/spa type t008/agr-I; whereas solely PVL genes were positive in two isolates, ST30-MRSA-SCCmec IV and ST59-MRSA-SCCmec V. ACME type II' (previously referred to as ACME ΔII) was detected in 36 isolates (5.8%) with SCCmec II and V (32 and 4 isolates, respectively), exhibiting an increased rate within SCCmec II-MRSA (7.1%) compared with our previous studies (0.86-4.5%, 2008-2011). ACME II'-positive MRSA strains were classified into ST5-SCCmec IIa/V or ST764-SCCmec IIa belonging to five different spa types, with t002 being dominant. They harbored mostly enterotoxin gene clusters (seg-sei-sem-sen-seo-seu) and some more enterotoxin genes (seb1, seb2, sec3, sel, sep), showing resistance to more antimicrobials than ST8-MRSA-SCCmec IVa. ACME-SCCmec composite island (CI) of the 36 ACME II'-positive MRSA was classified into five types (ii)-(vi), among which type (ii) (orfX-ΨSCC ΔJ1 SCCmec I -ACME II'-SCCmec II) was dominant and subdivided into the A3 variant and the less common A2 variant. CI types (v) and (vi) were considered novel genetic organizations having speG (acetyltransferase genes for polyamines) in inserted SCC4610/SCC266-like genetic elements. The present study revealed increased prevalence and genetic diversity of the ST5/ST764-MRSA-SCCmec II with ACME II' in northern Japan.

  3. QUESTÃO SOCIAL HOJE : A RESISTÊNCIA UM ELEMENTO EM CONSTRUÇÃO (THE SOCIAL QUESTION TODAY: THE RESISTENCE AS EM ELEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria Schons

    2007-01-01

    . The social question, basically composed of the economic and political elements, now may by manifested as pauperism. That one that perceives it taking consciousness and denouncing it, demanding another attendance, becomes the element of resistance, capable to inscribe this problem in the political agenda.I understand that in the social question today this element of the resistance is in construction. To arrive to this we point out what in the past was called “the classic social question” (XIX th. Century, from the resultant pauperism of the industrial revolution. We consider pauperism as “the son of industrialization”. Considering the political elements itis expressed in the organization and formation of the labor class, their unions, the left political parties, assuming the protagonism of the social question. To point out the social question today we have to detect the contradictions wich are revealed from the reorganization of the production, since the end of the last century and the beginning of the present, affirmed in the version of the “mundialização financeira”. It makes flexible and turns unsafe the work relations causing a structural unemployment, because “unloked” of the work weaken the “steady ones even though”.In the social question today there are, therefore, new manifestations of poverty, from the productive reorganization, but the actors and citizens to denounce this situation and to define a more favorable project, is an element still in construction.

  4. A Complementary Resistive Switch-based Crossbar Array Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Siemon, A.; Menzel, S.; Waser, R.; Linn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Redox-based resistive switching devices (ReRAM) are an emerging class of non-volatile storage elements suited for nanoscale memory applications. In terms of logic operations, ReRAM devices were suggested to be used as programmable interconnects, large-scale look-up tables or for sequential logic operations. However, without additional selector devices these approaches are not suited for use in large scale nanocrossbar memory arrays, which is the preferred architecture for ReRAM devices due to...

  5. Influences of Alloying Element and Annealing on the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Steam Generator Tubing Materials of Nuclear Power Plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Pari, Yong Soo; Kuk, Il Hiun

    1996-01-01

    Influences of alloying elements and annealing heat treatments on Alloy 690 and Alloy 600 for steam generator tubing materials of nuclear power plants were studied. OM, SEM, TEM, and XRD analyses were used to study the microstructural changes of the alloys. Mechanical properties were investigated by means of tension tests and Rockwell hardness tests, and corrosion resistance was evaluated using the anodic polarization tests and the 65% boiling nitric acid immersion tests. Increasing the carbon content of Alloy 690, the hardness and tensile strength were increased, but the elongation and grain size were decreased. However, increasing the annealing temperature, the tensile strength and hardness were decreased, but the elongation and grain size were increased. Increasing the carbon content of Alloy 690, the results of the anodic polarization tests and the nitric acid immersion tests showed that the annealing temperature to reveal a minimum corrosion rate was increased. This behavior seemed to be due to the combination of the solid solution of carbon in the matrix and grain growth with annealing. In this work, the corrosion properties of Alloy 690 were better than that of Alloy 600, and the range of the optimum annealing temperature of Alloy 690 was from 1100 .deg. C to 1150 .deg. C

  6. Impacts of biochar on the environmental risk of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements during anaerobic digestion of cattle farm wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Qian, Xun; Tuo, Xiaxia

    2018-05-01

    Biochar has positive effects on nitrogen conservation during anaerobic digestion, but its impacts on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are unclear. Therefore, the effect of biochar (0, 5, 20, and 50 g/L) on the environmental risk of ARGs during cattle manure wastewater anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results showed that 5 g/L biochar reduced the relative abundances (RAs) of 5/13 ARGs while 20 g/L biochar significantly reduced the total RAs of ARGs in the digestion products, where the RA of ISCR1 was 0.89 log lower than the control. Biochar mainly affected the distribution of ARGs by influencing the RAs of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and the influence of 20 g/L biochar was greater than that of 5 g/L. Mobile genetic elements also influenced the ARG profiles, especially intI2 and ISCR1. The addition of 20 g/L biochar to cattle farm wastewater anaerobic digestion systems could reduce the environmental risk of ARGs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bulk soil and maize rhizosphere resistance genes, mobile genetic elements and microbial communities are differently impacted by organic and inorganic fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolters, Birgit; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Organic soil fertilizers, such as livestock manure and biogas digestate, frequently contain bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) to antimicrobial substances and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The effects of different fertilizers (inorganic, manure, digestate) on RG and MGE abundance...... and microbial community composition were investigated in a field plot experiment. The relative abundances of RGs [sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W), qacEΔ1/qacE] and MGEs [intI1, intI2, IncP-1, IncP-1ε and LowGC plasmids] in total community (TC)-DNA from organic fertilizers, bulk soil and maize......, integrons and few genera affiliated to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in bulk soil, while digestate increased sul2, tet(W) and intI2. At harvest, treatment effects vanished in bulk soil. However, organic fertilizer effects were still detectable in the rhizosphere for RGs [manure: intI1, sul1; digestate: tet...

  8. Effects of superabsorbent polymers on the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes, mobile genetic elements, and the bacterial community during swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aiyun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ranran; Yin, Yanan; Sun, Wei; Tuo, Xiaxia; Zhang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg -1 of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%. The high SAP concentration significantly reduced the abundances of ARGs and MGEs, and changed the microbial community. Redundancy analysis indicated that the moisture content mainly explained the changes in ARGs and MGEs. Network analysis determined the potential hosts of ARGs and MGEs, and their co-occurrence. The results suggested that applying 15mgkg -1 SAP is appropriate for reducing ARGs in compost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparison of Pulsed-Gel Electrophoresis and a Commercial Repetitive-Element PCR Method for Assessment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clustering in Different Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Megan; Warrack, Simone; Maki, Dennis; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a common method used to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nosocomial investigations and epidemiological studies but is time-consuming and methodologically challenging. We compared typing results obtained using a commercial repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) system with PFGE in a sample of 86 unique MRSA isolates recovered from subjects in an academic referral hospital and two nursing homes in the same geographic region. Both methods reliably assigned isolates to the same Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pulsotype. PFGE was significantly more discriminatory (Simpson's index of diversity, 0.92 at the 95% strain similarity threshold) than the commercial rep-PCR system (Simpson's index of diversity, 0.58). The global (adjusted Rand coefficient, 0.10) and directional congruence (adjusted Wallace coefficientrepPCR→PFGE = 0.06; adjusted Wallace coefficientPFGE→repPCR = 0.52) between the two methods was low. MRSA strains recovered from study nursing homes that were clonal when typed by the commercial rep-PCR method were frequently noted to be genetically distinct when typed using PFGE. These data suggest that the commercial rep-PCR has less utility than PFGE in small-scale epidemiological assessments of MRSA in health care settings. PMID:24671801

  10. Preparation and property investigation of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films as high-performance electric heating (resistive heating element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films with a thickness of ~700 µm is prepared by a sequential process of premixing, post dispersing, film casting, and thermal curing. The effects of the physical shear dispersion on the properties of conductive polymer composites as the electric heating element are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that highly efficient conductive networks form with shear dispersions of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. The electrical resistivity decreases sharply from ~1015 Ω·cm for the neat epoxy resin to ~102 Ω·cm for the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs in accordance with the percolation behaviour, and a low percolation threshold of ~0.018 wt% is fitted. The electric heating behaviour of the composite film is observed at a low MWCNT content of 0.05 wt% due to the high electrical conductivity. For the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs, an equilibrium temperature of 115 °C is reached at an applied voltage of 40 V within 30 s. The excellent electric heating behaviour, including the rapid temperature response, electric heating efficiency, and operational stability, is primarily related to the conductive two-dimensional networks consisting of MWCNTs and the thermodynamically stable polymer matrix.

  11. Programming and supervision of resistance training leads to positive effects on strength and body composition: results from two randomised trials of community fitness programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Steele, James; Domone, Sarah; Wade, Matthew; Beedie, Chris

    2018-03-27

    Many sedentary adults have high body fat along with low fitness, strength, and lean body mass (LBM) which are associated with poor health independently of body mass. Physical activity can aid in prevention, management, and treatment of numerous chronic conditions. The potential efficacy of resistance training (RT) in modifying risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disease is clear. However, RT is under researched in public health. We report community-based studies of RT in sedentary (Study 1), and overweight and pre-diabetic (Study 2) populations. Study 1 - A semi randomised trial design (48-weeks): Participants choosing either a fitness centre approach, and randomised to structured-exercise (STRUC, n = 107), or free/unstructured gym use (FREE, n = 110), or not, and randomised to physical-activity-counselling (PAC, n = 71) or a measurement only comparator (CONT, n = 76). Study 2 - A randomised wait list controlled trial (12-weeks): Patients were randomly assigned to; traditional-supervised-exercise (STRUC, n = 30), physical-activity-counselling (PAC, n = 23), either combined (COMB, n = 39), or a wait-list comparator (CONT, n = 54). Outcomes for both were BF mass (kg), LBM (kg), BF percentage (%), and strength. Study 1: One-way ANCOVA revealed significant between group effects for BF% and LBM, but not for BF mass or strength. Post hoc paired comparisons revealed significantly greater change in LBM for the STRUC group compared with the CONT group. Within group changes using 95%CIs revealed significant changes only in the STRUC group for both BF% (- 4.1 to - 0.9%) and LBM (0.1 to 4.5 kg), and in FREE (8.2 to 28.5 kg) and STRUC (5.9 to 26.0 kg) for strength. Study 2: One-way ANCOVA did not reveal significant between group effects for strength, BF%, BF mass, or LBM. For strength, 95%CIs revealed significant within group changes for the STRUC (2.4 to 14.1 kg) and COMB (3.7 to 15.0 kg) groups. Strength increased in both

  12. MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    health, with the focus of DOTS programmes on cure of infectious TB patients and prevention of drug resistance. ... Despite highly effective drugs and disease control strategies, morbidity and mortality .... notification and registration system.

  13. National programme: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.

    1986-01-01

    Finland's programmes in the field of reactor pressure components are presented in this paper. The following information on each of these programmes is given: the brief description of the programme; the programme's schedule and duration; the name of the project manager

  14. Elemente de structură bacteriană și mecanismele transmiterii rezistenței la antibiotice / Elements of bacterial structure and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru O. Doma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this bibliographic essay is to refresh the knowledge of veterinarians in the field of therapy and bacterial resistance. Are summarized, in a didactic manner: the bacteria classification, the overall structure of the cell wall, the general characterization of antibiotics, the fundamental modes of action of antibiotics, the main interactions and side phenomena antibiotics and toxic products. Installing and effects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is presented in detail, being given the basic concepts about resistance mechanisms as: the drug inactivation or misappropriation of the pathway, enzyme target altering or structure, low accumulation of antibiotic resistance in bacterial cells. They are also presented: the natural antibiotic resistance (epigenetic, the gained antibiotic resistance, the genetic adaptation (by mutation and selection and the genetic acquisition. By means of resistance means all the mechanisms by which bacteria can reduce or total inactivate the antimicrobial activity. In this regard are presented: phases of the resistance installation and antibiotics’ modification / inactivation, not being omitted also the trends in the evolution of resistance to antibiotics and environmental impacts analysis, the results of the imprudent using of the anti-infectives (like veterinary antibiotics in soil and water, the antibiotic resistance in the genetic modified crops or the long-term effects on ecosystems and them consequences.

  15. Comparison of the DiversiLab Repetitive Element PCR System with spa Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Clonal Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babouee, B.; Frei, R.; Schultheiss, E.; Widmer, A. F.; Goldenberger, D.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an increasing problem worldwide in recent decades. Molecular typing methods have been developed to identify clonality of strains and monitor spread of MRSA. We compared a new commercially available DiversiLab (DL) repetitive element PCR system with spa typing, spa clonal cluster analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in terms of discriminatory power and concordance. A collection of 106 well-defined MRSA strains from our hospital was analyzed, isolated between 1994 and 2006. In addition, we analyzed 6 USA300 strains collected in our institution. DL typing separated the 106 MRSA isolates in 10 distinct clusters and 8 singleton patterns. Clustering analysis into spa clonal complexes resulted in 3 clusters: spa-CC 067/548, spa-CC 008, and spa-CC 012. The discriminatory powers (Simpson's index of diversity) were 0.982, 0.950, 0.846, and 0.757 for PFGE, spa typing, DL typing, and spa clonal clustering, respectively. DL typing and spa clonal clustering showed the highest concordance, calculated by adjusted Rand's coefficients. The 6 USA300 isolates grouped homogeneously into distinct PFGE and DL clusters, and all belonged to spa type t008 and spa-CC 008. Among the three methods, DL proved to be rapid and easy to perform. DL typing qualifies for initial screening during outbreak investigation. However, compared to PFGE and spa typing, DL typing has limited discriminatory power and therefore should be complemented by more discriminative methods in isolates that share identical DL patterns. PMID:21307215

  16. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage, polymerization shrinkage stress, wear resistance, and compressive strength of a silorane-based composite: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mitthra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. Aim: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR, and compressive strength (CS of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. Settings and Design: This study design was a numerical study using FEA. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D models of maxillary premolar with Class I cavities (2 mm depth, 4 mm length, and 2.5 mm width created and restored with silorane, nanohybrid, and microhybrid; Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Loads of 200–600 N were applied. Polymerization shrinkage was first determined by displacement produced in the X, Y, and Z planes. Maximum stress distribution due to shrinkage was calculated using AN SYS software. 3D cube models of composite resins were simulated with varying filler particle size. Similar loads were applied. WR and compressive stress were calculated: K W L/H and load/cross-sectional area, respectively. Statistical analysis done using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05. Results: Polymerization shrinkage (0.99% and shrinkage stress (233.21 Mpa of silorane were less compared to microhybrid (2.14% and 472.43 Mpa and nanohybrid (2.32% and 464.88 Mpa. Silorane (7.92×/1011 μm/mm3 and nanohybrid (7.79×/1011 showed superior WR than microhybrid (1.113×/1017. There was no significant difference in compressive stress among the groups. Conclusion: Silorane exhibited less polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress compared to methacrylates. Silorane and nanohybrid showed greater WR compared to microhybrid. CS of all groups was similar.

  17. Sequences of a co-existing SXT element, a chromosomal integron (CI) and an IncA/C plasmid and their roles in multidrug resistance in a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruibai; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing seventh cholera pandemic is attributed to Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains. Although antibiotic therapy ameliorates symptoms in patients and reduces pathogen transfer to the environment, multidrug resistance remains a major clinical threat. An O1 El Tor strain isolated from a patient in 1998 was intermediate or resistant to 13 antibiotics and could potentially produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), which is very rare in O1 strains. Using genome sequencing, three relevant genetic elements were identified in this strain: a hybrid SXT element (ICEVchCHN1307); a new IncA/C plasmid (pVC1307); and a chromosomal integron. Twenty antibiotic resistance genes were located on them, including blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-14 and phenotypically silenced tetRA genes. These data elucidate the role of individual genetic components in antibiotic resistance and the accumulation of drug resistance genes in V. cholerae. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Multiple cis-acting elements involved in up-regulation of a cytochrome P450 gene conferring resistance to deltamethrin in smal brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jian; Sun, Haina; Wang, Jinda; Wu, Min; Wang, Kangxu; Denholm, Ian; Han, Zhaojun

    2016-11-01

    As well as arising from single point mutations in binding sites or detoxifying enzymes, it is likely that insecticide resistance mechanisms are frequently controlled by multiple genetic factors, resulting in resistance being inherited as a quantitative trait. However, empirical evidence for this is still rare. Here we analyse the causes of up-regulation of CYP6FU1, a monoxygenase implicated in resistance to deltamethrin in the rice pest Laodelphax striatellus. The 5'-flanking region of this gene was cloned and sequenced from individuals of a susceptible and a resistant strain. A luminescent reporter assay was used to evaluate different 5'-flanking regions and their fragments for promoter activity. Mutations enhancing promoter activity in various fragments were characterized, singly and in combination, by site mutation recovery. Nucleotide diversity in flanking sequences was greatly reduced in deltamethrin-resistant insects compared to susceptible ones. Phylogenetic sequence analysis found that CYP6FU1 had five different types of 5'-flanking region. All five types were present in a susceptible strain but only a single type showing the highest promoter activity was present in a resistant strain. Four cis-acting elements were identified whose influence on up-regulation was much more pronounced in combination than when present singly. Of these, two were new transcription factor (TF) binding sites produced by mutations, another one was also a new TF binding site alternated from an existing one, and the fourth was a unique transcription start site. These results demonstrate that multiple cis-acting elements are involved in up-regulating CYP6FU1 to generate a resistance phenotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A mechanical-electrical finite element method model for predicting contact resistance between bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Xinmin; Liu, Dong' an; Peng, Linfa [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ni, Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Contact resistance between the bipolar plate (BPP) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays a significant role on the power loss in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. There are two types of contact behavior at the interface of the BPP and GDL, which are the mechanical one and the electrical one. Furthermore, the electrical contact behavior is dependent on the mechanical one. Thus, prediction of the contact resistance is a coupled mechanical-electrical problem. The current FEM models for contact resistance estimation can only simulate the mechanical contact behavior and moreover they are based on the assumption that the contact surface is equipotential, which is not the case in a real BPP/GDL assembly due to the round corner and margin of the BPP. In this study, a mechanical-electrical FEM model was developed to predict the contact resistance between the BPP and GDL based on the experimental interfacial contact resistivity. At first, the interfacial contact resistivity was obtained by experimentally measuring the contact resistance between the GDL and a flat graphite plate of the same material and processing conditions as the BPP. Then, with the interfacial contact resistivity, the mechanical and electrical contact behaviors were defined and the potential distribution of the BPP/GDL assembly was analyzed using the mechanical-electrical FEM model. At last, the contact resistance was calculated according to the potential drop and the current of the contact surface. The numerical results were validated by comparing with those of the model reported previously. The influence of the round corner of the BPP on the contact resistance was also studied and it is found that there exists an optimal round corner that can minimize the contact resistance. This model is beneficial in understanding the mechanical and electrical contact behaviors between the BPP and GDL, and can be used to predict the contact resistance in a new BPP/GDL assembly. (author)

  20. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.)

  1. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-02-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.).

  2. Ghana's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahafia, Albert K.

    1988-01-01

    The Paper gives the purpose of Ghana's Nuclear Programme and describes some specific research activities and peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, medicine and industry. A discussion of some of the problem facing the programme concludes the Paper. (author)

  3. Computer systems a programmer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, Randal E

    2016-01-01

    Computer systems: A Programmer’s Perspective explains the underlying elements common among all computer systems and how they affect general application performance. Written from the programmer’s perspective, this book strives to teach readers how understanding basic elements of computer systems and executing real practice can lead them to create better programs. Spanning across computer science themes such as hardware architecture, the operating system, and systems software, the Third Edition serves as a comprehensive introduction to programming. This book strives to create programmers who understand all elements of computer systems and will be able to engage in any application of the field--from fixing faulty software, to writing more capable programs, to avoiding common flaws. It lays the groundwork for readers to delve into more intensive topics such as computer architecture, embedded systems, and cybersecurity. This book focuses on systems that execute an x86-64 machine code, and recommends th...

  4. The Winfrith DSN programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescon, S.

    1963-05-01

    The programme, which is written in the Fortran language, solves the Carlson discrete S n approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation in cylindrical geometry. This report describes the input and output facilities of the WINFRITH DSN programme and the associated editing programme WED. (author)

  5. The Winfrith DSN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francescon, S [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-05-15

    The programme, which is written in the Fortran language, solves the Carlson discrete S{sub n} approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation in cylindrical geometry. This report describes the input and output facilities of the WINFRITH DSN programme and the associated editing programme WED. (author)

  6. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching

  7. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J; Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l'une des trois filieres suivantes: - filiere uranium

  8. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l

  9. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  10. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  12. Can a conditioning programme improve Handicap Index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of a conditioning programme on body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, ... The 14-week training programme consisted of a 60-minute supervised basic conditioning phase (Weeks 1-4: 9 resistance training exercises, 2-3 sets, 12-20 repetitions), ...

  13. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  14. A Programmable Microkernel for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems Christoph M. Kirsch Thomas A. Henzinger Marco A.A. Sanvido Report No. UCB/CSD-3-1250 June 2003...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems ∗ Christoph M

  15. Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes on University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Sánchez, Patricia P.; Jambrino-Maldonado, Carmen; Velasco, Antonio Peñafiel; Kokash, Husam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurship in Malaga University based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour model. There are two objectives: to analyse the influence of the main elements of orientation to entrepreneurship and to evaluate the efficiency of education programmes in the university system.…

  16. The Non-Destructive Testing of Fuel Elements and Their Components for the United Kingdom Power-Reactor Development Programme; Controle Non Destructif des Elements Combustibles et de Leurs Parties Constitutives dans le Cadre du Programme de Developpement des Reacteurs de Puissance au Royaume-Uni; Nedestruktivnoe ispytanie teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov i ikh komponentov dlya osushchestvleniya programmy soedinennogo korolevstva po razrabotke ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov; Ensayo No Destructivo de Elementos Combustibles y sus Componentes, en el Marco del Programa de Reactores de Potencia del Reino Unido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, C. A.; Campsie, I. C. [U.K.A.E.A., Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancs. (United Kingdom)

    1965-10-15

    The test procedures are described which have been developed in the Reactor Fuel Element Laboratories as part of the Reactor Group's development programme on fuel pins for a number of reactor systems. The sheaths of these pins are tubes in the range 5 mm- 15 mm diam; the materials are stainless steels and zirconium alloys. (a) Flaw detection in tubes is described. Ultrasonic inspection using two immersed probes. The tubes are traversed helically at high speeds through a stationary tank. Flaw signals are monitored and recorded. Spark-machined slots on the surfaces of tubes are used as references in setting up the system and in checking its stability. Eddy-current inspection is also employed in some cases. Two tests are described: an encircling coil system with rapid throughput, and a surface coil with helical scan. Phase selection and filtering of the output from a bridge circuit is used, at frequencies between 30 and 60 kHz. (b) Dimensional inspection of tubes and pellets is also discussed. Various mechanical, pneumatic, nuclear and electronic methods of measuring the tube dimensions are compared and the arrangements to prevent the scratching of the tubes are described. Techniques for measuring pellet diameter and circumferences are explained and it is suggested that with thin-walled tubes a more realistic approach to the pellet/gap problems can be obtained by comparing circumferences. With the development of efficient tube-traversing equipment it has been possible to combine the above development technique to form a completely integrated tube-testing facility operated by semi-skilled labour. The laboratory's requirement for precise information of tube sizes has been met by the automatic recording of measurements, eliminating a time-consuming and somewhat inaccurate method of manual recording of the results. For flaw detection in fuel pins, the techniques already mentioned can in general be applied to examine the sheaths of fuel pins, i.e. after fuel has been loaded

  17. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  18. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  19. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  20. Reactor physics in support of the naval nuclear propulsion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisley, P.G.; Beeley, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reactor physics is a core component of all courses but in particular two postgraduate courses taught at the department in support of the naval nuclear propulsion programme. All of the courses include the following elements: lectures and problem solving exercises, laboratory work, experiments on the Jason zero power Argonaut reactor, demonstration of PWR behavior on a digital computer simulator and project work. This paper will highlight the emphasis on reactor physics in all elements of the education and training programme. (authors). 9 refs

  1. Development of electrically heated rods with resistive element of graphite or carbon/carbon composites for simulating transients in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoro, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic problems, in nuclear plants are normally analysed by the use of electrically heated rods. The direct or indirect heater rods are limited in their use because, for high temperatures and high heat flux, the heating element temperature approach its melting point. The use of platinum or tantalum is not economically viable. Graphite and carbon/carbon composites are alternative materials because they are good electrical conductors and have good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Graphite and carbon/carbon composites were used to make heating elements for testing by indirect heating. The swaging process used to reduce the cladding diameter prevented the fabrication of graphite heater rods. Carbon/carbon composite used to make heating elements gave good results up to a heat flux of 100 W/cm 2 . It is easy to verify that this value can be exceeded if the choice of the complementary materials for insulator and cladding improved. (author) [pt

  2. SCCmec type IX element in Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus spa-type t337 (CC9 isolated from pigs and pork in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eVestergaard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have emerged among livestock in several countries. In this study, we describe the results of a screening performed in pigs and raw pork samples in Thailand. Ten pork samples and 15 nasal swabs from pigs were collected from two markets and one pig farm in the Samuth Songkhram province in Thailand. MRSA were isolated using selective isolation procedures and confirmed by mecA PCR. The MRSA were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and MLST. Resistance and virulence markers were screened using a microarray. Five of the pork samples and six pig nasal swabs were positive for MRSA. All 11 isolates belonged to spa type t337 and CC9 but showed diversity in antimicrobial resistance patterns and PFGE profiles. All isolates harbored SCCmec IX and were resistant to seven out of 14 tested antimicrobials; additional resistances were found in the pork isolates. Microarray analysis identified blaZ, aac-aphD, vga(A, tetM, and a tet efflux marker, in all strains and additionally ermB and aadD, cat and fex(A in the pork isolates. None of the isolates were found PVL-positive, but enterotoxins were identified in all isolates. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of MRSA in livestock and food products in Thailand and also the first observation of MRSA CC9 associated with SCCmec IX. This study indicates a likely widespread distribution of MRSA in pig and pork in Thailand and further investigation on the prevalence and importance of livestock associated MRSA in Thailand is needed.

  3. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  4. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.

    1995-05-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  5. Various ketogenic diets can differently support brain resistance against experimentally evoked seizures and seizure-induced elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Matusiak, K; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the influence of two different ketogenic diets (KDs) on the seizure-evoked elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation was examined. To achieve this purpose normal and pilocarpine treated rats previously fed with one of the two high fat and carbohydrate restricted diets were compared with animals on standard laboratory diet. The ketogenic ratios of the examined KDs were equal to 5:1 (KD1) and 9:1 (KD2). KD1 and standard diet fed animals presented similar patterns of seizure-evoked elemental changes in hippocampal formation. Also the analysis of behavioral data recorded after pilocarpine injection did not show any significant differences in intensity and duration of seizures between KD1 and standard diet fed animals. Higher ketogenic ratio KD2 introduced in the normal hippocampal formation prolonged changes in the accumulation of P, K, Zn and Ca. Despite this, both the intensity and duration of seizures were significantly reduced in rats fed with KD2 which suggests that its saving action on the nerve tissue may protect brain from seizure propagation. Also seizure-evoked elemental anomalies in KD2 animals were different than those observed for rats both on KD1 and standard diets. The comparison of seizure experiencing and normal rats on KD2, did not show any statistically significant differences in elemental composition of CA1 and H hippocampal areas whilst in CA3 area only Zn level changed as a result of seizures. DG was the area mostly affected by seizures in KD2 fed rats but areal densities of all examined elements increased in this hippocampal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. FUSION technology programme 2003-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.; Rantamaeki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarises the results of the FUSION technology programme during the period between 2003-2006. FUSION is a continuation of the previous FFusion and FFusion2 technology programmes that took place from 1993 to 2002. The FUSION technology programme was fully integrated into the European Fusion Programme in the sixth Framework Programme (Euratom), through the bilateral Contract of Association between Euratom and Tekes and the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). The Association Euratom-Tekes was established in 1995. At the moment, there are 26 Euratom Fusion associations working together as an European Research Area. There are four research areas in the FUSION technology programme: (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) vessel/in-vessel materials, joints and components, (3) in-vessel remote handling systems, and (4) system studies. The FUSION team consists of research groups from the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), the Helsinki, Tampere and Lappeenranta Universities of Technology and the University of Helsinki. The co-ordinating unit is VTT. A key element of the FUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT, the universities and the industry, which has resulted in dynamic and sufficiently large research teams to tackle challenging research and development projects. The distribution of work between research institutes and industry has also been clear. Industrial activities related to the FUSION programme are co-ordinated through the 'Big Science' Project by Finpro and Prizztech. The total expenditure of the FUSION technology programme for 2003-2006 amounted to euro 14,9 million in research work at VTT and the universities with an additional euro 3,5 million for projects by the Finnish companies including the industry co-ordination. The funding of the FUSION programme and related industrial projects was mainly provided by Tekes (37%), Euratom (38%) and the participating institutes and industry (24%). The

  7. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed......-cluster. Among all patients with isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistance, 77.0% had clustered strains. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, although drug resistance among untreated Danes was close to the rate estimated in good national programmes, close monitoring is needed in future years, as active transmission...

  8. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  9. Transplutonium elements - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.; Jadhav, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    The report surveys reported work on the discovery of transplutonium elements and their production through various methods like bombardment of heavy elements with charged ions, successive neutron captures on heavy elements in reactors and multiple neutron captures by heavy elements during nuclear explosions. Estimated yields of transplutonium elements in special targets irradiated in reactors, and also as byproducts from spent power reactor fuels are quoted. Various chemical procedures adopted for recovery of these elements from irradiated target and also from power reactor fuel reprocessing streams are described. A brief survey of shielded facilities available at various centres for transplutonium programmes is also included. Major uses of some of these heavy elements are described. (author)

  10. Spinoffs from radiological emergency preparedness programmes to generic emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the USA, the radiological emergency preparedness (REP) programme for nuclear power plants is being used to enhance emergency management programmes for other types of emergencies. The REP programme is particularly useful in developing plans and preparedness measures for chemical accidents. The Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) approach provides a means for maximizing relationships between the REP programme and other programmes. IEMS essentially involves applying common elements of planning and preparedness to all types of emergencies, while recognizing that unique characteristics of specific natural and man-made emergencies require special planning and preparedness considerations. Features of the REP programme that make it compatible with the IEMS approach and useful in coping with other types of emergencies are: (1) the close co-operation between the national nuclear regulatory and emergency management organizations; (2) the programme integration among all levels of government, the nuclear power industry, public interest groups and the general public and (3) the comprehensiveness and sophistication of the programme. The REP programme in the USA represents a state-of-the-art emergency management capability. Some of its elements are readily transferrable to most other types of emergency preparedness programmes, while other elements can be adapted more readily to other hazard-specific programmes. The Bhopal accident has been a catalyst for this adaptation to chemical accidents, in such areas as furnishing hazard-specific information to the public, alert and notification systems, definition of the hazards and risks involved, establishing planning zones and developing close working relationships among the industry, the public and government

  11. Optical programmable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Dai, Zijie; Liu, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    We suggest and demonstrate the concept of optical programmable metamaterials which can configure the device's electromagnetic parameters by the programmable optical stimuli. In such metamaterials, the optical stimuli produced by a FPGA controlled light emitting diode array can switch or combine the resonance modes which are coupled in. As an example, an optical programmable metamaterial terahertz absorber is proposed. Each cell of the absorber integrates four meta-rings (asymmetric 1/4 rings) with photo-resistors connecting the critical gaps. The principle and design of the metamaterials are illustrated and the simulation results demonstrate the functionalities for programming the metamaterial absorber to change its bandwidth and resonance frequency.

  12. NNP Life Management Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia Ruperez, F.

    1996-01-01

    Around the world, power station owners are increasingly concerned to optimise Plant Life Management. In response, they are setting up Life Management programmes, of more or less ambitious scope and depth. Strategic, economic and security concerns and the close link between life extension work and the improved maintenance practices that are so important today, will increase and global these programmes for monitoring and conservation or mitigation of ageing. These programmes are all based on knowledge of the precise condition of all components and population with the greatest effect on the economics and safety of the plant, and trends in changes in their condition. (Author)

  13. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  14. RERTR programme. French situation in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Ballagny, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the RERTR Programme in France in 1996. The reactors which are affected by the RERTR Programme are those that consume a considerable amount of fuel. These are the neutron beam reactors Orphee (at Saclay) and RHF (at Grenoble) and the irradiation reactors Osiris (at Saclay) and Siloe (at Grenoble). Plans to construct a new 100 MW, multi-purpose MTR reactor using LEU fuel at the Atomic Research Center at Cadarache are described. Two main topics of fuel research and development are summarized: (1) improving knowledge on the reference silicide fuel, including optimization of the manufacturing process, thermal properties, behavior with cladding failure, etc., and (2) research into low-enriched uranium fuel with a higher U-235 content in order to limit fuel assembly consumption and to improve performance levels. Tests planned in the research and development programme for the silicide fuel are tabulated. The fuel cycle option adopted by the CEA to get rid of spent fuel elements is reprocessing. The 'Caramel' fuel elements consumed in the Osiris reactor until 1995 are currently being reprocessed in CEA facilities at Marcoule. The UAl and UAlx fuel elements irradiated in Siloe and Orphee are currently being reprocessed in the Cogema facilities at Marcoule (Plant UP1). However, the U3Si2 fuel elements irradiated in the Osiris reactor since 1995 will be progressively sent to interim storage dry facilities located at Cadarache. (author)

  15. Differential behaviors of trastuzumab-sensitive and -resistant SKBR3 cells treated with menadione reveal the involvement of Notch1/Akt/FOXO1 signaling elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadimajd, Soraya; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2015-10-01

    Given that HER2 serves as a putative target for therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer, intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to trastuzumab (T) has been proposed to be the major obstacle in treatments. In addition, chemoresistance is commonly attributed to increased antioxidant capacity. In that regard, we evaluated the effect of menadione (M) alone and/or its combination with trastuzumab on proliferation, intracellular GSH and ROS contents as well as HER2 and Notch1 signaling pathways in both trastuzumab-resistant (SKBR3(R)) and -sensitive SKBR3 (SKBR3(S)) cells. In spite of increased level of ROS and reduced level of GSH in M-treated SKBR3(S) cells, M-treated SKBR3(R) cells showed a decreased content of ROS and GSH compared to untreated cells. However, M/T co-treatment of SKBR3 cells indicated no effect on ROS content, while decreased the level of GSH compared to untreated control cells. Based on the extent of apoptosis, colony formation and wound healing assays, M alone, and/or in combination with T had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation of SKBR3(R) cells relative to SKBR3(S) cells. These effects might be due to the stronger effects of M and/or M/T on downregulation of p-Akt, Hes1, NICD, and upregulation of FOXO1 among SKBR3(R) cells relative to the sensitive SKBR3 cells. These findings would certainly shed light on some of the signaling factors involved in induction of trastuzumab resistance and would be of value in designing more efficient chemosensitization strategies.

  16. Increasing the cracking resistance and the survivability of the elements the joints of the sections of the jib crane-manipulating installations of mobile machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new constructive method of increasing the cracking resistance and survivability of eyes swivel boom crane with hydraulic cylinders. Analysis of its efficiency on the basis of predicting the growth of fatigue cracks for the conven-tional and modified variants of the constructive execution of the connection nodes of the cylinders with the boom sec-tions. This research was supported by the grant no. MK-92.2014.8 of the President of Russian Federation for young scientist support.

  17. "Possible involvement of the long terminal repeat of transposable element 17.6 in regulating expression of an insecticide resistance-associated P450 gene in Drosophila.".

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, L C; Zelhof, A C; Shaw, B J; Ch'ang, L Y

    1992-01-01

    P450-A and P450-B are electrophoretically defined subsets of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster. P450-A is present among all strains tested, whereas expression of P450-B is associated with resistance to insecticides. Monoclonal antibodies were used to obtain cDNA clones for an enzyme from each P450 subset (i.e., P450-A1 and P450-B1). The P450-B1 cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for a P450 of 507 amino acids. Its gene has been named CYP6A2. Comparative molecular analyses of...

  18. On aging problem of glass Resistive Plate Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, S.S.; Datar, V.M.; Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Pant, L.M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) were chosen to be the active elements for a 50kton neutrino detector, which is proposed to be built by the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration. As part of the detector R and D programme, we have built a large number of prototype RPCs and studied their characteristics. While, the results obtained by us are in agreement with those reported in the literature, the RPCs were observed to suffer severe damage when operated continuously for a few months. We summarise here our studies on this problem

  19. Understanding corrosion via corrosion product characterization: II. Role of alloying elements in improving the corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Mg coatings on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovitch, P.; Vu, T.N.; Allely, C.; Abdel Aal, A.; Ogle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Origins of better corrosion resistance of ZnAlMg coatings than galvanized steel. → Comparative study of corrosion products formed on ZnAlMg, ZnMg and Zn coatings. → Modeling of dissolution and precipitation stages of corrosion. → At early stages Mg stabilizes protective zinc basic salts during dry-wet cycling. → At later stages Al dissolves at high pH forming protective layered double hydroxides. - Abstract: Corrosion products are identified on Zn, ZnMg and ZnAlMg coatings in cyclic corrosion tests with NaCl or Na 2 SO 4 containing atmospheres. For Mg-containing alloys the improved corrosion resistance is achieved by stabilization of protective simonkolleite and zinc hydroxysulfate. At later stages, the formation of layered double hydroxides (LDH) is observed for ZnAlMg. According to thermodynamic modeling, Mg 2+ ions bind the excess of carbonate or sulfate anions preventing the formation of soluble or less-protective products. A preferential dissolution of Zn and Mg at initial stages of corrosion is confirmed by in situ dissolution measurement. The physicochemical properties of different corrosion products are compared.

  20. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  1. (ARV) treatment training programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    Keywords:ARV, training, evaluation, HIV, health care provider. RÉSUMÉ .... workers, adequate laboratory facilities for measuring viral load and .... questionnaire guide, the head of unit of the ART ...... begins its scale-up programme. Some of ...

  2. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  3. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  4. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  5. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Radiation protection programme for nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzongomerwa, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation including the use of nuclear gauges can be very hazardous to humans and steps must be taken to minimize the risks so as to prevent deterministic effects and limiting chances for stochastic effects. The availability of a Radiation Protection Programme and its effective implementation ensures appropriate safety and security provisions for sealed radiation sources and promotes a safety culture within a facility that utilizes these sources. This study aims at establishing a guide on the radiation protection programme in nuclear gauges that comply with national requirements derived from current international recommendations. Elements that form part of a radiation protection programme are covered in detail as well as recommendations. The overall objective is to protect people (operators and the public) and the environment from the harmful effects of these sources if they are not properly controlled. Nuclear gauges for well logging and X-ray based gauges are outside the scope of this study. (au)

  7. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  8. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  9. Application of resistivity measurements to research on structural elements in the Nord-Limousin (France) uraniferous basin (1960); Application des mesures de resistivite a la recherche des elements structuraux dans le bassin uranifere du Nord-Limousin (France) (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J A; Bonnet, J; Combe, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors discuss the difficulties encountered in the exploration of a typical deposit in the Nord-Limousin, using the resistivity measurement method. In the zone in question the over-thrust was very variable and difficult to predict. The uraniferous deposits had two types of aspect, the passage from one to the other being often very sudden: long thin veins without gangue; short and thick lens-shape deposits which were strongly contaminated by clay towards their edges. After several unsatisfactory attempts, the device known as the 'rectangular map' was adopted and gave an acceptable structural representation rapidly and cheaply. For the placing of the probes however, methods are required which are more refined and sensitive. It is in any case useless to expect to obtain a satisfactory representation and a sufficient accuracy using a single technique; especially in the region under consideration. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent les difficultes rencontrees pour l'exploration, par la methode des mesures de resistivite, d'un gisement type du Nord-Limousin: il s'agissait d'une zone a recouvrement tres variable et difficilement previsible. Les occurences uraniferes y affectaient deux facies passant brutalement de l'un a l'autre: longs filonnets minces et sans gangue; lentilles courtes et puissantes avec alteration argileuses tres etendue aux epontes. Apres plusieurs essais peu satisfaisants, le dispositif dit 'carte des rectangles' a ete adopte pour obtenir rapidement et a bon compte un schema structural suffisant. Mais des methodes plus fines et plus sensibles sont necessaires pour guider l'implantation des sondages. Il est d'ailleurs vain d'esperer trouver a la fois la representativite d'ensemble et la precision, dans l'utilisation d'une seule technique, surtout dans la region envisagee. (auteur)

  10. Digital control programmer for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajore, S.B.; Kumar, S.V.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a PC based digital control programmer for controlling and programming temperature of a high vacuum resistance heating furnace and the software developed to control power using PID algorithm. It also describes the amplifier specially developed to suit the input requirement of the non-standard W5 thermocouple and the software and hardware protections introduced in the system. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  11. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  12. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  13. Survey of multidrug resistance integrative mobilizable elements SGI1 and PGI1 in Proteus mirabilis in humans and dogs in France, 2010-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eliette; Haenni, Marisa; Mereghetti, Laurent; Siebor, Eliane; Neuwirth, Catherine; Madec, Jean-Yves; Cloeckaert, Axel; Doublet, Benoît

    2015-09-01

    To characterize MDR genomic islands related to Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1) in Proteus mirabilis from human and animal sources in France in light of the previously reported cases. A total of 52 and 46 P. mirabilis clinical strains from human and animal sources, respectively, were studied for the period 2010-13. MDR was assessed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR detection of SGI1 and PGI1 and PCR mapping of the MDR regions. The diversity of the SGI1/PGI1-positive P. mirabilis strains was assessed by PFGE. Twelve P. mirabilis strains (5 humans and 7 dogs) were found to harbour an MDR island related to SGI1 or PGI1. Among them, several SGI1 variants were identified in diverse P. mirabilis genetic backgrounds. The variant SGI1-V, which harbours the ESBL bla VEB-6 gene, was found in closely genetically related human and dog P. mirabilis strains. The recently described PGI1 element was also identified in human and dog strains. Finally, one strain harboured a novel SGI genomic island closely related to SGI1 and SGI2 without an insertion of the MDR region. This study reports for the first time, to our knowledge, SGI1-positive and PGI1-positive P. mirabilis strains from dogs in France. The genetic diversity of the strains suggests several independent horizontal acquisitions of these MDR elements. The potential transmission of SGI1/PGI1-positive P. mirabilis strains between animals and humans is of public health concern, notably with regard to the spread of ESBL and carbapenemase genes, i.e. bla VEB-6 and bla NDM-1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Development and testing of the EDF-2 reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeyroux, P.

    1964-01-01

    This technical report reviews the work which has been necessary for defining the EDF-2 fuel element. After giving briefly the EDF-2 reactor characteristics and the preliminary choice of parameters which made it possible to draw up a draft plan for the fuel element, the authors consider the research proper: - Uranium studies: tests on the passage into the β phase of an internal crown of a tube, bending of the tube under the effect of a localized force, welding of the end-pellets and testing for leaks. The resistance of the tube to crushing and of the pellets to yielding under the external pressure have been studied in detail in another CEA report. - Can studies: conditions of production and leak proof testing of the can, resistance of the fins to creep due to the effect of the gas flow. - Studies of the extremities of the element: creep under compression and welding of the plugs to the can. - Cartridge studies: determination of the characteristics of the can fuel fixing grooves and of the canning conditions, verification of the resistance of the fuel element to thermal cycling, determination of the temperature drop at the can-fuel interface dealt with in more detail in another CEA report. - Studies of the whole assembly: this work which concerns the graphite jacket, the support and the cartridge vibrations has been carried out by the Mechanical and Thermal Study Service (Mechanics Section). In this field the Fuel Element Study Section has investigated the behaviour of the centering devices in a gas current. The outcome of this research is the defining of the plan of the element the production process and the production specifications. The validity of ail these out-of-pile tests will be confirmed by the in-pile tests already under way and by irradiation of the elements in the EDF-2 reactor itself. In conclusion the programme is given for improving the fuel element and for defining the fuel element for the second charge. (authors) [fr

  15. To study the concentration of natural radionuclides (uranium, thorium) and certain toxic trace elements (arsenic, mercury, antimony, lead) in hair of persons living in industrial and agricultural areas of Byelorussia. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear methods in health-treated monitoring of trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.

    1983-03-01

    Hair samples were collected from male and female donors living in selected industrial or agricultural areas of Byelorussia. Samples were analysed by INAA for As, Hg, Pb and Sb, while Th and U were determined by the solid track detector (STD) method. Overall, concentrations of the elements monitored were low with the exception of Pb for which relatively high concentrations were observed in industrial areas. No significant differences in the concentrations of the elements surveyed were observed between industrial and agricultural areas nor between male and female donors

  16. A new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber for improved determination of trace elements and Pb isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachler, Michael; Rausch, Nicole; Feuerbacher, Helmut; Klemens, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The use of a new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber arrangement consisting of a cyclonic spray chamber and a Scott-type spray chamber made from PFA and PEEK provides a straightforward approach for improving the performance of inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The characteristics of the tandem spray chamber were critically evaluated against a PEEK cyclonic and a PFA Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Sensitivity across the entire mass range was increased by about three times compared to the conventional setup utilizing only one spray chamber. Precision of the results, especially at low signal intensities, improved by 160% and 31% compared to the cyclonic and Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Using the tandem spray chamber, the oxide formation rate was lowered by about 50%. Signals as low as 30 counts could be determined under routine measurement conditions with a RSD of 2.4% thus allowing to precisely quantify small concentration differences at the ng l -1 concentration level. The excellent precision (0.02-0.07%) of 206 Pb / 207 Pb and 206 Pb / 208 Pb ratios determined in pore water samples was rather limited by the instrumental capabilities of the single collector ICP-MS instrument than by the performance of the tandem spray chamber

  17. Irradiation resistance of intravolume shading elements embedded in photomasks used for CD uniformity control by local intra-field transmission attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Eitan; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Oshemkov, Sergey; Pforr, Rainer; Hennig, Mario

    2006-05-01

    Intra-field CD variation is, besides OPC errors, a main contributor to the total CD variation budget in IC manufacturing. It is caused mainly by mask CD errors. In advanced memory device manufacturing the minimum features are close to the resolution limit resulting in large mask error enhancement factors hence large intra-field CD variations. Consequently tight CD Control (CDC) of the mask features is required, which results in increasing significantly the cost of mask and hence the litho process costs. Alternatively there is a search for such techniques (1) which will allow improving the intrafield CD control for a given moderate mask and scanner imaging performance. Currently a new technique (2) has been proposed which is based on correcting the printed CD by applying shading elements generated in the substrate bulk of the mask by ultrashort pulsed laser exposure. The blank transmittance across a feature is controlled by changing the density of light scattering pixels. The technique has been demonstrated to be very successful in correcting intra-field CD variations caused by the mask and the projection system (2). A key application criterion of this technique in device manufacturing is the stability of the absorbing pixels against DUV light irradiation being applied during mask projection in scanners. This paper describes the procedures and results of such an investigation. To do it with acceptable effort a special experimental setup has been chosen allowing an evaluation within reasonable time. A 193nm excimer laser with pulse duration of 25 ns has been used for blank irradiation. Accumulated dose equivalent to 100,000 300 mm wafer exposures has been applied to Half Tone PSM mask areas with and without CDC shadowing elements. This allows the discrimination of effects appearing in treated and untreated glass regions. Several intensities have been investigated to define an acceptable threshold intensity to avoid glass compaction or generation of color centers in

  18. Artificial Neural Network-Based Three-dimensional Continuous Response Relationship Construction of 3Cr20Ni10W2 Heat-Resisting Alloy and Its Application in Finite Element Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Wang, Li-yong

    2018-04-01

    The application of accurate constitutive relationship in finite element simulation would significantly contribute to accurate simulation results, which plays a critical role in process design and optimization. In this investigation, the true stress-strain data of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resisting alloy were obtained from a series of isothermal compression tests conducted in a wide temperature range of 1203-1403 K and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 testing machine. Then the constitutive relationship was modeled by an optimally constructed and well-trained back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The evaluation of the BP-ANN model revealed that it has admirable performance in characterizing and predicting the flow behaviors of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resisting alloy. Meanwhile, a comparison between improved Arrhenius-type constitutive equation and BP-ANN model shows that the latter has higher accuracy. Consequently, the developed BP-ANN model was used to predict abundant stress-strain data beyond the limited experimental conditions and construct the three-dimensional continuous response relationship for temperature, strain rate, strain, and stress. Finally, the three-dimensional continuous response relationship was applied to the numerical simulation of isothermal compression tests. The results show that such constitutive relationship can significantly promote the accuracy improvement of numerical simulation for hot forming processes.

  19. [Studies on high temperature oxidation of noble metal alloys for dental use. (III) On high temperature oxidation resistance of noble metal alloys by adding small amounts of alloying elements. (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, H

    1976-11-01

    The previous report pointed out the undesirable effects of high temperature oxidation on the casting. The influence of small separate additions of Zn, Mg, Si, Be and Al on the high temperature oxidation of the noble metal alloys was examined. These alloying elements were chosen because their oxide have a high electrical resistivity and they have much higher affinity for oxygen than Cu. The casting were oxidized at 700 degrees C for 1 hour in air. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The Cu oxides are not observed on the as-cast surface of noble metal alloys containing small amounts of Zn, Mg, Si, Be, and Al. The castings have gold- or silver-colored surface. 2. After heating of the unpolished and polished castings, the additions of Si, Be and Al are effective in preventing oxidation of Cu in the 18 carats gold alloys. Especially the golden surface is obtained by adding Be and Al. But there is no oxidation-resistance on the polished castings in the alloys containing Zn and Mg. 3. The zinc oxide film formed on the as-cast specimen is effective in preventing of oxidation Cu in 18 carats gold alloys. 4. It seems that the addition of Al is most available in dental application.

  20. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, M.

    1990-01-01

    EDF has long been interested in the use of nuclear energy for thermal power generation. After a period of apprenticeship and experiments, EDF launched a major PWR plant programme so as to reduce France's energy dependence and master generation costs. This programme, based on standardization, has achieved the desired results. It must now be adapted to suit the needs of the 21st century. For this programme, all those involved (Governmental authorities, EDF, manufacturers) were mobilized to an unprecedented extent and rigorous working methods were imposed. Experience feedback has been used to make improvements both to the installations themselves and to procedures. Results have proved satisfactory as regards nuclear safety but vigilance must be maintained. Public opinion on nuclear power is reserved we are sentenced to achieving a 'fault-free' track record, all the while mastering costs, so as to ensure the continuing use of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. The French nuclear programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, M [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, Institute National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette, Electricite de France (France)

    1990-06-01

    EDF has long been interested in the use of nuclear energy for thermal power generation. After a period of apprenticeship and experiments, EDF launched a major PWR plant programme so as to reduce France's energy dependence and master generation costs. This programme, based on standardization, has achieved the desired results. It must now be adapted to suit the needs of the 21st century. For this programme, all those involved (Governmental authorities, EDF, manufacturers) were mobilized to an unprecedented extent and rigorous working methods were imposed. Experience feedback has been used to make improvements both to the installations themselves and to procedures. Results have proved satisfactory as regards nuclear safety but vigilance must be maintained. Public opinion on nuclear power is reserved we are sentenced to achieving a 'fault-free' track record, all the while mastering costs, so as to ensure the continuing use of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  3. Probabilistic programmable quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, V.; Ziman, M.; Hillery, M.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze how to improve performance of probabilistic programmable quantum processors. We show how the probability of success of the probabilistic processor can be enhanced by using the processor in loops. In addition, we show that an arbitrary SU(2) transformations of qubits can be encoded in program state of a universal programmable probabilistic quantum processor. The probability of success of this processor can be enhanced by a systematic correction of errors via conditional loops. Finally, we show that all our results can be generalized also for qudits. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. A programme in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is beginning its transition from a scientific research programme to that of an engineering development programme aimed at practical applications. This transition is likely to last a decade or more because many scientific questions remain and because of the magnitude and cost of the engineering issues. This article reviews briefly the encouraging results produced at the Joint European Torus (JET) where 1.7 MW of fusion power was generated for 2 seconds in experiments in November 1991, the remaining scientific issues, the role of near-term experimental reactors like the International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) and other approaches to a demonstration power plant. (author)

  5. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  6. The National Institute for Health Research Leadership Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Molly Morgan; Wamae, Watu; Fry, Caroline Viola; Kennie, Tom; Chataway, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract RAND Europe evaluated the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leadership Programme in an effort to help the English Department of Health consider the extent to which the programme has helped to foster NIHR's aims, extract lessons for the future, and develop plans for the next phase of the leadership programme. Successful delivery of high-quality health research requires not only an effective research base, but also a system of leadership supporting it. However, research leaders are not often given the opportunity, nor do they have the time, to attend formal leadership or management training programmes. This is unfortunate because research has shown that leadership training can have a hugely beneficial effect on an organisation. Therefore, the evaluation has a particular interest in understanding the role of the programme as a science policy intervention and will use its expertise in science policy analysis to consider this element alongside other, more traditional, measures of evaluation. PMID:28083231

  7. The Computer in a Programmable Implantable Medication System (PIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, K. H.; Radford, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Programmable Implantable Medication System (PIMS) developed at APL can be used in the treatment of diabetes, reproductive hormone dysfunction, hypertension, cancer, chronic pain, thrombosis, and the delivery of growth hormone. The Implantable Programmable Infusion Pump (IPIP) is the implanted element of PIMS. Under control of a microprocessor, the IPIP administers medication and stores data pertaining to its operation. An external unit can read out the stored data, as well as program the ...

  8. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  9. Nuclear safety. Improvement programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the improvement programme of nuclear safety of the Mochovce NPP is presented in detail. In 1996, a 'Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvement Programme' was developed in the frame of unit 1 and 2 completion project. The programme has been compiled as a continuous one, with the aim to reach the highest possible safety level at the time of commissioning and to establish good preconditions for permanent safety improvement in future. Such an approach is in compliance with the world's trends of safety improvement, life-time extension, modernisation and nuclear station power increase. The basic document for development of the 'Programme' is the one titled 'Safety Issues and their Ranking for WWER 440/213 NPP' developed by a group of IAEA experts. The following organisations were selected for solution of the safety measures: EUCOM (Consortium of FRAMATOME, France, and SIEMENS, Germany); SKODA Prague, a.s.; ENERGOPROJEKT Prague, a.s. (EGP); Russian organisations associated in ATOMENERGOEXPORT; VUJE Trnava, a.s

  10. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-10-01

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  12. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  13. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  14. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  15. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  16. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  17. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  18. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  19. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  20. Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on flexibility in the ... which is especially essential in the maintenance of functional abilities of the ... the effects of a home- and gymnasium-based resistance training programme ...

  1. The regional seas programme of UNEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss-Guest, P.A. (United Nations Environment Programme, Geneva, Switzerland); Keckes, S.

    1982-04-01

    The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) outlined a ''master plan'' for protecting the world's environment which linked environmental assessment, environmental management, and supporting measures, as basic and inseparable elements - also recognizing the advantages of a regional approach in contributing to the solution of global problems. The development of UNEP's Regional Seas Programme, since the Action Plan for the Mediterranean was adopted in 1975, demonstrates that the basic concepts formulated at Stockholm can effectively foster regional cooperation among interested States, and that such cooperation can and does benefit greatly from the support of the United Nations as a whole. The viability of any long-term regional programme lies with the political and financial commitment of the Governments concerned. Within the UNEP Regional Seas Programme this commitment is usually formalized through binding regional legal agreements, and is manifested concretely through an agreed set of activities that are revised periodically by the Governments involved. It is expected that these activities will be adquately supported by financial resources put at the disposal of each of the regional programmes primarily by the Governments concerned.

  2. The European Communities' research programme on management of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Cecille, L.

    1989-01-01

    In the European Communities' third R and D programme on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes a large number of projects have been commissioned to develop treatment and conditioning processes for low and intermediate level wastes and to qualify the conditioned waste forms. The paper presents the main objectives of this research and summarizes some of the more important studies. In liquid waste treatment, the research includes processes to separate actinides by new extractive methods and application of selective inorganic ion exchangers as well as electrochemically controlled ion exchange processes and a series of purification methods involving membrane techniques. The most important issue of solid waste management in the programme is the treatment and conditioning of plutonium containing wastes, for which a strategic study had been commissioned to optimize the choice between different treatment and conditioning options. Processes being studied include two advanced decontamination techniques and a variety of conditioning methods for incinerator ash and fuel element hulls. Another task of the programme is devoted to the qualification of waste forms. This comprises the characterization of the most common low and intermediate level waste products with respect to leaching, waste form stability, radiation resistance and compatibility with the respective disposal environments. In the course of the programme, the development of methods for quality assurance and in particular quality control has become an important issue: the control of the nuclide inventory, of the chemical composition of the wastes and of the correct operation of treatment and conditioning processes is being investigated in special laboratories. (author). 21 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  4. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  5. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...

  6. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  7. Application of neutron activation and high resolution X-ray spectrometry to the development of analytical methods suitable for the assay of trace elements in biological materials. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantel, J.

    1980-12-01

    A new method for determining trace elements in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been investigated. This method is based on the measurement of low-energy X-rays emitted by the sample after appropriate activation with thermal neutrons. The X-rays were detected by a Si(Li) diode connected to a multichannel analyser. The background in the energy region of interest was reduced by means of an electromagnet which deflects high-energy beta-particles away from the detector. This method of measurement has been evaluated by application to a number of different biological reference materials. The use of the electromagnet for background reduction was shown to be extremely effective for several radionuclides that are common sources of disturbance in INAA. For 32 P the background was only 0.8% of its original value. For real samples the background reduction depends somewhat on the matrix and therefore varies from one material to another. Practical detection limits for typical biological materials were derived for 18 different trace elements. The use of a perspex absorber was also considered as an alternative to magnetic deflection of the beta rays. In practice, magnetic deflection is preferable for the lower-energy X-ray emitters such as the activation products of Co, Cr, Cu and Zn

  8. Loyalty Programmes of Selective Grocery Retailers in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with long term loyalty programmes of selective grocery retailers who operate in the market within the Czech Republic. Only those loyalty programmes designed for the end customers are taken into account, so this study is concerned with the B2C area. A long term loyalty programmes last at least for one year, i.e. twelve months (this time determination is valid for purposes of this paper. The main aim of this paper is to identify the single elements and principles occurring in long term loyalty programmes and then to develop an illustrative model. The presented output is a model of long term loyalty programmes that captures the three following phases: the establishment, development (or building and termination of the relationship. In addition, from the empirical research, an interesting fact has emerged: two of the analysed long term loyalty programmes were launched at a similar time. This could be explained through the tendency for companies to copy the successful activities insigated by their competitors. Furthermore, the next remarkable phenomenon is that one grocery chain runs two long term loyalty programmes at the same time and the target groups of these programmes overlap. A possible explanation could be that the chain is making efforts to interest as many as possible of its different customers.

  9. The impact of software and CAE tools on SEU in field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Wang, J.; McCollum, J.; Cronquist, B.

    1999-01-01

    Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, heavily used in spacecraft electronics, have grown substantially in size over the past few years, causing designers to work at a higher conceptual level, with computer aided engineering (CAE) tools synthesizing and optimizing the logic from a description. It is shown that the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) CAE tools can produce unreliable circuit designs when the device is used in a radiation environment and a flip-flop is upset. At a lower level, software can be used to improve the SEU performance of a flip-flop, exploiting the configurable nature of FPGA technology and on-chip delay, parasitic resistive, and capacitive circuit elements

  10. The TELEMAN programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordwall, H.J. de

    1990-01-01

    The TELEMAN programme is a five year cost-shared research programme covering remote handling in hazardous and disordered nuclear environments. TELEMAN's objective is to strengthen the scientific and engineering bases upon which the design of teleoperators for use throughout the nuclear industry rests. This will be done by providing new solutions to problems of manipulation, material transport and mobile surveillance in nuclear environments and by demonstrating their feasibility. The Commission's motivations lie in the potential teleoperators have to improve the separation of workers from radioactive equipment. The same technology will also enable plant operators and public authorities to deal more effectively with nuclear accidents. Finally, gains in productivity, particularly in the repair and maintenance area can be expected. Community support is justified by the cost of the reliability and autonomy required for the nuclear teleoperator, the need to rationalise R and D investment in an area of increasing industrial potential and a common interest in coherent responses to emergencies. (author)

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-10-01

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  12. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A programmable artificial retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, T.M.; Zavidovique, B.Y.; Devos, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm 2 CMOS 2-μm circuit are presented

  14. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D

    1998-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The Brazilian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Developing an energy policy for a country the size of Brazil is a formidable task. Large differences between the regions in geography and economic development do not allow for a uniform plan. In the mid 1970s, Brazil started a nuclear energy programme to provide it with another option in its energy planning. The objective of the programme was gradually to build a technical and industrial base for nuclear power in the country, so that it would be available when it was needed. It was recognized that it would not be easy for a developing country to acquire the necessary high technology. The organization of the industry is outlined, demand projections are presented and domestic supplies of uranium assessed. (author)

  16. The VIDA programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Iannone, Rosa Lisa

    and Innovation’ within the project ‘Curriculum Quality Analysis and Impact Review of European Education and Care’ (CARE). The programme at the centre of this case builds on theory drawn from research on child development, social disadvantage related to issues of social inequality, and research on organisational...... of innovation as “the development of new concepts, strategies and tools that support groups in achieving the objective of improved well-being”. Three research questions are explored: 1) How is the innovative approach to ECEC professional development conceptualised and translated into practice in the VIDA...... (mechanisms/aspects) affect the implementation of the innovative programme for practice change within ECEC? Methods used include a combination of qualitative data collected through interviews with ECEC educators, managers, consultants, a university college teachers, municipal directors and existing...

  17. Bioergia Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. The ACIGA data analysis programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Cusack, Benedict J; McClelland, David E

    2004-01-01

    The data analysis programme of the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) was set up in 1998 by Scott to complement the then existing ACIGA programmes working on suspension systems, lasers and optics and detector configurations. The ACIGA data analysis programme continues to contribute significantly in the field; we present an overview of our activities

  19. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  20. Programmable waveform controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable waveform controller (PWC) was developed for voltage waveform generation in the laboratory. It is based on the Intel 8080 family of chips. The hardware uses the modular board approach, sharing a common 44-pin bus. The software contains two separate programs: the first generates a single connected linear ramp waveform and is capable of bipolar operation, linear interpolation between input data points, extended time range, and cycling; the second generates four independent square waveforms with variable duration and amplitude

  1. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  2. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaele Vellone

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO 2 , The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  3. Basic elements of a regulatory programme for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture the objectives of IAEA TECDOC 1067: Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of sources (1999) is presented

  4. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  5. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  6. The transport safety programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    The transport safety programme is one of the smaller technical sub-programmes in the Radiation Safety Section of the Division of Nuclear Safety, in terms of both regular budget and professional staff allocations. The overall aim of the programme is to promote the safe movement of radioactive material worldwide. The specific objectives are the development, review and maintenance of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No 6, and its supporting documents Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80 and the assistance to Member States and International Organizations in the proper implementation of the Regulations. One of the important issues that emerged during an ongoing Review/Revision process is the transport of Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). Many of the radioactive waste materials fall in one of these categories. The subject has gained substance because it is expected that in the next decade radioactive waste could become available in so far unprecedented quantities and volumes due to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  7. Environmental monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    During 1989 there were about 1000 premises in England and Wales authorised to discharge radioactive wastes. The majority of these premises consisted of hospitals, universities and industrial, research or manufacturing centres. Discharges from these premises when made in accordance with the strict conditions specified in their authorisations will have been of little radiological significance. In the case of nuclear sites authorisations or approvals are issued jointly by the DoE and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) known collectively as the Authorising Departments. In Wales these functions are undertaken by the Welsh Office with the support of HMIP and MAFF. The Authorising Departments specify numerical limits on the amounts of radioactivity which operators may discharge to the environment. In addition operators are required to demonstrate that the best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges is undertaken. Operators are also required to carry out appropriate environmental monitoring to demonstrate the effectiveness of BPM. As part of their regulatory functions the Authorising Departments undertake their own environmental monitoring programmes to act as both a check on site operator's returns and to provide independent data on the exposure of the public. HM Inspectorate of Pollution has monitored levels of radioactivity in drinking water sources for many years and published results annually. MAFF undertakes two programmes to monitor radioactivity in the aquatic environment and in terrestrial foodstuffs and publishes annual reports. Environmental monitoring programmes undertaken by both nuclear site operators and government departments are summarised. (author)

  8. Large strengthening effect of a hip-flexor training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Zebis, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on hip-flexion strength of a 6-week hip-flexor training programme using elastic bands as resistance. We hypothesized that the training group, compared to a control group, would increase their hip-flexion strength more. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy subjects (45 ...

  9. Ceftolozane/tazobactam activity against drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing urinary tract and intraabdominal infections in Europe: report from an antimicrobial surveillance programme (2012-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Bassetti, Matteo; Duncan, Leonard R; Castanheira, Mariana

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam and comparators tested against European isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection or intraabdominal infections. A total of 6553 Gram-negative organisms (603 P. aeruginosa and 5950 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected from 41 hospitals located in 17 European countries plus Israel and Turkey. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria. Ceftolozane/tazobactam [MIC 50/90 0.25/1 mg/L; 93.5%/91.3% susceptible (S) (CLSI/EUCAST criteria)] and meropenem [MIC 50/90  ≤0.06/≤0.06 mg/L; 98.1%/98.3% S (CLSI/EUCAST)] were the most active compounds tested against Enterobacteriaceae. Among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 1.9% were carbapenem resistant (CRE), 15.2% exhibited an ESBL non-CRE phenotype, 14.6% were MDR, 2.2% were XDR and 32/>32 mg/L; 3.6% S) or PDR (MIC 50  >32 mg/L; 0.0% S) phenotype. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most potent (MIC 50/90 0.5/4 mg/L) β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa isolates, inhibiting 91.7% at an MIC of ≤4 mg/L. P. aeruginosa exhibited high rates of resistance to cefepime (20.6%), ceftazidime (23.1%), meropenem (9.0%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (26.9%) (EUCAST criteria). Among these four P. aeruginosa resistant phenotypes, 61.3%-70.4% were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most active β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated higher in vitro activity than currently available cephalosporins and piperacillin/tazobactam when tested against Enterobacteriaceae. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Screening of newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. Guidance for developing programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a condition that, if left untreated, can cause lifelong human suffering as a result of severe mental retardation and deficiency of growth. With the involvement of the IAEA, screening programmes to detect congenital hypothyroidism in newborn infants have been introduced successfully in a large number of countries. The cornerstone of these programmes is accurate and reliable screening methods involving isotope techniques and simple medical treatment. The suffering - and heavy social and economic burden - caused by congenital hypothyroidism prompted many countries to institute a formalized screening programme directed at newborns, just as a vaccination programme has become an integral part of child health care. In many other countries however, this type of formalized service has not yet been established. For these countries, the implementation of a neonatal screening programme will bring about a considerable improvement in child health care. It is hoped that the guidance in this publication will be especially useful to the signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several factors that prevail in a country - the climate, political environment, economic development, level of health care and the transportation system - have an influence on the overall operational systems, design and implementation of a screening programme. As such, the design of such a programme will differ greatly from country to country. Nevertheless, neonatal screening programmes have many elements in common. This book draws on the IAEA's experience in this area over more than a decade, and on the results of a regional technical cooperation programme on neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in East Asia (IAEA Project RAS6032). This publication provides guidance aimed specifically at implementing and sustaining programmes for the screening of newborn infants

  11. Nitrogen Research Programme STOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Van der Eerden, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution is one of the main threats to the environment now in the Netherlands as well as other parts of Europe. In order to address the main gaps on the issues of nitrogen pollution related to the local scale, the Ministries of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) and of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) have initiated a research programme, the Dutch Nitrogen Research Programme (STOP), which aims to provide a scientific basis to develop and implement policy on a local scale for the realisation and conservation of the EHS ('Dutch Mainframe of Natural Landscapes'). The results of the programme show that the description of emissions from manure in the field is difficult to describe and show large uncertainties. On the contrary, emissions from housings could be modelled well, if local actual data were available. The OPS model to describe the dispersion and deposition was evaluated with the measurements and the limitations were quantified. It appears that the model works well on the long term, whereas on the short term (hours) and short distance (tenths of meters) there is large uncertainty, especially in complex terrain. Critical loads for nitrogen for ecosystems were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of management options was quantified. A method to determine critical loads as a function of soil conditions, such as acidification and water availability was derived. This resulted in a combination of the soil model SMART and the so-called 'nature planner' (Natuurplanner). It was concluded that the combination of SMART, the nature planner and OPS provide a good tool to develop and support policy on the local scale. 4 refs

  12. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  13. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  14. IUR : organization and programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.

    1992-01-01

    I.U.R. is an international Association which aims to promote radioecology by exchange of scientific information, cooperation and the support of young scientists. The organizational chart involves a Board of Council which coordinates the various regional branches headed by a Bureau. Besides this vertical structure, it exists an horizontal one constituted by a series of Working Groups headed by a leader. The I.U.R. also cooperates to international programmes such as, i.e., VAMP (IAEA) and SCOPE-RADPATH. (author)

  15. Research and training programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research rather be left to experts? I can’t do the course; I have no research background!”

  16. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  17. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  18. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  19. Flexible programmable logic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  20. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  1. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C.; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-01

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  2. Predicting the behavior of microfluidic circuits made from discrete elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Krisna C; Thompson, Bryant; Iqbal, Danish; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-30

    Microfluidic devices can be used to execute a variety of continuous flow analytical and synthetic chemistry protocols with a great degree of precision. The growing availability of additive manufacturing has enabled the design of microfluidic devices with new functionality and complexity. However, these devices are prone to larger manufacturing variation than is typical of those made with micromachining or soft lithography. In this report, we demonstrate a design-for-manufacturing workflow that addresses performance variation at the microfluidic element and circuit level, in context of mass-manufacturing and additive manufacturing. Our approach relies on discrete microfluidic elements that are characterized by their terminal hydraulic resistance and associated tolerance. Network analysis is employed to construct simple analytical design rules for model microfluidic circuits. Monte Carlo analysis is employed at both the individual element and circuit level to establish expected performance metrics for several specific circuit configurations. A protocol based on osmometry is used to experimentally probe mixing behavior in circuits in order to validate these approaches. The overall workflow is applied to two application circuits with immediate use at on the bench-top: series and parallel mixing circuits that are modularly programmable, virtually predictable, highly precise, and operable by hand.

  3. Reflection of Loyalty Programmes with the Use of Bonuses in Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Sakharov Pavlo O.

    2013-01-01

    The article studies loyalty programmes that are used at modern trading enterprises and discovers main barriers on the way of development of methodical approaches of bonus accounting provided to the clients of loyalty programmes. It analyses theoretical and methodical aspects of bonus accounting in international practice and methods of reflection of loyalty programmes in accounting with the use of bonuses existing in Ukraine. Comparing electronic money and settlement elements of the loyalty pr...

  4. Questions for considerations in context of launch a nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The main problems to be considered at the beginning of a nuclear power programme were presented . This is polish translation of '' Considerations to launch a nuclear programme '' IAEA 2007, printed by National Atomic Agency - Document of Nuclear Power Support Group coordinated by IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy. Strategy elements influencing the political decision, the main programme factors concerning the first nuclear power plant, IAEA support and reference documents are included

  5. Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, M.; Chaloupka, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.
DATA SOURCES—Literature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California, Massachusetts, Arizona, Oregon, and Florida.
STUDY SELECTION—All ...

  6. A Peer Review of the RPII Environmental Monitoring Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.; Hunt, J.; Ledgerwood, K.; Nielsen, S.; O'Donnell, C

    2009-12-01

    The RPII has since the early 1980s carried out an environmental monitoring programme covering radioactivity in air, food and water. The primary focus of this programme has been the assessment of human exposure and the protection of human health. The programme aims to meet Irish and European Union legal requirements, other national and international commitments and to support the RPII's advisory and information provision functions. In 2009 the RPII had the scope and effectiveness of its monitoring programme reviewed by an international peer group. This report provides the background to the review; an overview of the documents provided to the peer group for conduction of the review; and the comments and recommendations by the peer group. The key objectives of the review was to consider whether the RPII environmental monitoring programme is meeting the stated aims and objectives and to provide recommendations for improvement if required. This exercise is part of a continual process of review and improvement of the RPII's monitoring programme. It addresses both continuous monitoring and project based elements of the programme. It was designed to be conducted at a strategic rather than an operational level

  7. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  8. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Raedt, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  9. Canadian programme overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a severe accident, hydrogen is released into containment. When it is well mixed, the hydrogen mixture is nonflammable because there is sufficient dilution by the large containment volume. This is the desired end point. However, the release may occur into smaller compartments of containment, stratification may occur, and local pockets of flammable mixtures may arise if hydrogen is released faster than processes that mix and disperse it. Long term hydrogen generation from water radiolysis must also be considered. Hydrogen mitigation and control strategies adopted or considered in Canada include fanforced mixing, glow plug igniters, recombiners, venting through filters, or combinations of these. The Canadian hydrogen programme is focussed on understanding hydrogen combustion behaviour and providing the data needed to demonstrate the adequacy of hydrogen mitigation and control strategies. The programme includes both experimental and modelling components of hydrogen combustion and distribution. Experiments include mixing tests, deflagration tests, diffusion flames, transition from deflagration to detonation, and testing the performance of igniters and recombiners. Modelling is focussing on the GOTHIC code as an industry standard. Detailed three dimensional modelling of gas mixing and combustion are underway, and a code validation matrix is being assembled for validation exercises. Significant progress has been made, highlights from which are being presented at this workshop. (author)

  10. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  11. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahimsa, Djali

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  13. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  14. Programmable electronic safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement fail-safe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL

  15. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL

  16. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  17. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Rethinking programme evaluation in health professions education: beyond 'did it work?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal; Morin, Marie-Paule; Parker, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    For nearly 40 years, outcome-based models have dominated programme evaluation in health professions education. However, there is increasing recognition that these models cannot address the complexities of the health professions context and studies employing alternative evaluation approaches that are appearing in the literature. A similar paradigm shift occurred over 50 years ago in the broader discipline of programme evaluation. Understanding the development of contemporary paradigms within this field provides important insights to support the evolution of programme evaluation in the health professions. In this discussion paper, we review the historical roots of programme evaluation as a discipline, demonstrating parallels with the dominant approach to evaluation in the health professions. In tracing the evolution of contemporary paradigms within this field, we demonstrate how their aim is not only to judge a programme's merit or worth, but also to generate information for curriculum designers seeking to adapt programmes to evolving contexts, and researchers seeking to generate knowledge to inform the work of others. From this evolution, we distil seven essential elements of educational programmes that should be evaluated to achieve the stated goals. Our formulation is not a prescriptive method for conducting programme evaluation; rather, we use these elements as a guide for the development of a holistic 'programme of evaluation' that involves multiple stakeholders, uses a combination of available models and methods, and occurs throughout the life of a programme. Thus, these elements provide a roadmap for the programme evaluation process, which allows evaluators to move beyond asking whether a programme worked, to establishing how it worked, why it worked and what else happened. By engaging in this process, evaluators will generate a sound understanding of the relationships among programmes, the contexts in which they operate, and the outcomes that result from them

  19. Implementing a Standardised Annual Programme Review Process in a Third-Level Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sheelagh; Brady, Malcolm; Ingle, Sarah; McMullan, Caroline; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Walshe, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Ideally, quality should be, and is, an integral element of education, yet capturing and articulating quality is not simple. Programme quality reviews in third-level education can demonstrate quality and identify areas for improvement, offering many potential benefits. However, details on the process of quality programme review are limited…

  20. Developing Civic Leaders through an Experiential Learning Programme for Holocaust Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that involvement in an experiential learning programme for Holocaust education had on college and university participants' worldviews and civic leadership development. Results indicate that involvement in specific elements of the programme did have an impact. The student-focused, experiential…

  1. Content, participants and outcomes of three diabetes care programmes in three low and middle income countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmen, J. van; Ku, G.M.; Darras, C.; Kalobu, J.C.; Bewa, E.; Pelt, M. van; Hen, H.; Acker, K. van; Eggermont, N.; Schellevis, F.; Kegels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To improve access and quality of diabetes care for people in low-income countries, it is important to understand which elements of diabetes care are effective. This paper analyses three diabetes care programmes in the DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines. Methods: Three programmes offering

  2. Content, participants and outcomes of three diabetes care programmes in three low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olmen, J.; Marie, K.G.; Christian, D.; Clovis, K.J.; Emery, B.; Maurits, V.P.; Heang, H.; Kristien, V.A.; Natalie, E.; Francois, S.; Guy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To improve access and quality of diabetes care for people in low-income countries, it is important to understand which elements of diabetes care are effective. This paper analyses three diabetes care programmes in the DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines. Methods Three programmes offering

  3. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  4. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  5. Postgraduate programme in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongyudh Vajaradul

    1999-01-01

    In 1992 in the Project Formulation Meeting of IAEA, the masters degree programme was proposed by Dr. Youngyudh Vajaradul, Thailand to upgrade the personnel of tissue bank and the person who had been working and involving in tissue banking. After The Bangkok Biomaterial Center proposed the degree programme and presented to Mahidol University, this programme was accepted by Ministry of University Affairs in 1998 and the masters degree programme under the name of 'Masters of Science in Biomaterial for Implantation' will be started in April 1999. IAEA will support the fellowship candidates from the region to study in masters degree programme. The programme includes 6 months of course work in Bangkok that is 12 credits and 24 is for the dissertation work which would be done in any country. The time of validity is 5 years

  6. Radiation research: the European programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of an oral presentation on the European Community's Radiation Protection Programme. Aspects of the programme discussed included its development which began 25 years ago, the administrative structure, the financial success and the funding for 1985/89. Finally, the six subject sectors of the programme were discussed, giving a broad description of where the emphases had been laid and how each sector had fared. (U.K.)

  7. The European fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    With the 1982-86 pluriannual programme, reactor technology became a separate chapter in the fusion research programme of the European Commission. It comprises work on materials, the breeder blanket, tritium management, magnet coils, maintenance and the safety and environmental aspects. After an overview of the programme each of these areas is discussed briefly and some remarks are made on the role played by the European fission energy and magnet laboratories. (author)

  8. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  9. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  10. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  11. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  12. Requirements for materials of dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlov, A.G.; Kashtanov, A.I.; Volkov, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for materials of dispersion fuel elements are considered. The necessity of structural and fissile materials compatibility at maximum permissible operation temperatures and temperatures arising in a fuel element during manufacture is pointed out. The fuel element structural material must be ductile, possess high mechanical strength minimum neutron absorption cross section, sufficient heat conductivity, good corrosion resistance in a coolant and radiation resistance. The fissile material must have high fissile isotope concentration, radiation resistance, high thermal conductivity, certain porosity high melting temperature must not change the composition under irradiation

  13. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  14. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  15. Cigotica programme: pediatric experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešović Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The alarming spread of obesity epidemic in children and adolsecents, as well as the absence of tested and efficient measures and programmes on obesity preven­tion indicate the necessity for the establishment of the Centre for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of obesity in children and adolescents and the 'Cigotica Programme' at the Special Hospital 'Zlatibor'. The advantage of the 'Cigotica' Programme is the multidisciplinary approach to treating obese children, which implies specific education, dietetic interventions with the reduction in the total daily calorie intake, physical activity, medical, educational and psychological support, change of behavior and lifestyle. Objective To define obesity complications, metabolic risk factors and treatment effects on body composition and metabolic parameters in adolescents participating in the 'Cigotica' Programme. Method 1,030 adolescents were examined (498 girls and 532 boys, aged 12 to 18, average age 15.45, diagnosed with primary obesity, hospitalized at the Centre for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of obesity in children and adolescents at the Special Hospital 'Zlatibor', in the period from 27/07/2008 to 03/10/2010. Hospitalization lasted 21 days. Obesity criterion was body mass index (BMI > +2 SD . Body The Special Hospital for the Thyroid Gland and Metabolism Zlatibor mass, BMI, % of fat were obtained by means of Tanita scales for determining body composition using the impendence method. Apart from medical examination, blood pressure was also taken. The levels of triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterols, uric acids and glycemia were determined on the second and twenty-first day of hospitalization after a 12-day fasting period. Results After the multidisciplinary treatment, the average reduction in body mass (p< 0.05 in all adolescents was 5.92 ± 2.71 kg, in boys - 6.24 ±3.24 kg, and in girls -5.86±2.4. During the 21-day hospitalization, the average

  16. Molecular laser isotope separation programme at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sisir K.; Parthasarathy, Venkatachari

    2007-09-01

    Little over thirty years ago, BARC ventured into a new frontier of scientific research: Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) programme based on the interaction of lasers with molecules. The initial project was a scheme to produce enriched uranium. The idea was to use the intense, monochromatic light of lasers to break the chemical bonds of only those molecules containing the fissionable isotope uranium-235. At present the programme is evolving around separation of low and middle mass isotopes, namely sulphur 34/33/32, oxygen 17/18, carbon 13/12, hydrogen T/D/H to be followed by an advanced engineering programme designed to lead to a demonstration plant. The latest results have come very close to the design parameters specified for a full-scale separation of carbon isotopes. All these expertise provide an infra structure for future front line R and D activities in the general area of Laser Photochemical Technology which would include i) LIS of other useful elements ii) Material processing and iii) Fuel reprocessing/ waste management (author)

  17. France's nuclear power programme; Le programme nucleaire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanius, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The prospects of development of France's consumption of electricity will widen the deficit of her national energy resources. Nuclear power stations should enable this deficit to be reduced, provided a certain number of uncertainties prevailing today are resolved. The first programme, put forward by Messrs. AILLERET and TARANGER at the 1955 Geneva Conference aimed at commissioning 850 MWe by 1965; the programme was devoted to developing the natural uranium graphite-gas sequence and reaches its completion with the construction of EDF 3, the world's first unit capable of 500 MWe. Before changing over from the prototype stage to their duplication, Electricite De France decided, in agreement with the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique to build EDF 4, which, while reproducing EDF 3's reactor, together with the referring equipment, the entire control equipment and various other systems, pioneers an important innovation by incorporating the heat exchangers and fans inside the prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core. At the same time, studies are being carried on on the same type of reactor enabling possible use of a new annular-shaped fuel element, whose use would considerably improve the performance of EDF 5, to be envisaged. On the heavy water side, the construction of EL 4 at Brennilis jointly by the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique and Electricite De France is continuing. Design work on a 500 MWe reactor of this type has already started. As regards pressurized water reactors, the Chooz power station is built jointly by Electricite De France and Belgian Utilities. Finally, the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique is continuing the construction of the 'Rapsodie' rapid neutron reactor at Cadarache, together with studies on a larger power reactor. It may thus be seen that the technical and economic knowledge gained on these various types of reactor mean that an equipment program may be contemplated which will endow nuclear power stations with a place of ever

  18. Iran's nuclear power programme revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-01-01

    Iran's new government has not yet made a final decision about the fate of that country's once ambitious nuclear power programme. If the programme is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway when the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear power programme between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrastructural, and political criticisms of the programme as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. (author)

  19. ATLAS Upgrade Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, S J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the already outstanding LHC luminosity performance, and planned LHC upgrades in the upcoming shutdowns, it is expected that within a short time-scale, the general purpose LHC experiments will have to cope with luminosities beyond their original design. In order to maintain detector performance and sensitivity to expected and new physics processes, ATLAS has defined a continuous upgrade programme which foresees staged enhancements during the next 10 years of operation, and then more widespread changes before the transition to the highest luminosities after 2022. This talk will describe several components of the ATLAS upgrade, focusing in particular on the Inner Detector and Trigger. The Inner Detector faces two challenges in the higher luminosity environment: high particle multiplicities and increased radiation dose. These will be addressed in the short term by a new layer of Pixel detectors, and in the long term by a complete replacement. The Trigger faces an increasingly difficult task of distinguishing...

  20. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  1. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  2. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  3. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  4. FGI - Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Chernobylsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    The main purpose of the RADIOECOLOGY Program focuses on studying the radioecological consequences of the accident mainly in the Kyiv, Zhytomyr regions of Ukraine, Gomel, Mogilev regions of Belarus and Bryansk, Kaluga regions of Russia. The results of solutions of tasks presented below are integrated into the geographic and technical Radio Ecological Database After Chernobyl, REDAC. This database we be used for the subsequent study of the impacts, for modeling, and for the development of strategies for the waste control and counter measures. The following task of the programme are highlighted: ecological portrait; contamination; wastes dumps and operational database; radionuclide transfers from soil to plants, by surfaces run off, in aquatic environment and from plants to animals; urban environment, implying modeling transfers and countermeasures; countermeasures in natural and agricultural areas.

  5. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  6. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  7. De-Radicalising Prisoners in Nigeria: developing a basic prison based de-radicalisation programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Barkindo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Counter Terrorism Strategy recognised that force alone was not enough to combat violent extremist elements in Nigeria and that a multi-faceted approach was required to counter the threat of violent extremism. The Office of the National Security Advisor (ONSA was tasked with developing an ambitious countering violent extremism (CVE programme consisting of three elements: community-based counter radicalisation; strategic communications; and de-radicalisation. The de-radicalisation element of the CVE programme included establishing a prison based de-radicalisation programme for sentenced and pre-trial prisoners. The challenge facing ONSA and the Nigerian Prisons Service (NPS in setting up the de-radicalisation programme was considerable. Prison conditions were basic; there were no existing offending behaviour programmes on which to build; risk assessment was rudimentary and focussed on escape risk; awareness among staff at all levels of de-radicalisation programmes, their content and how they should be managed, was minimal; specialist staff were in short supply and had no training in running interventions; and resources, both physical and financial, were limited. This paper sets out how ONSA and NPS went about establishing the de-radicalisation programme and describes key elements of that programme, including: creating a supportive operating environment; risk and needs assessment; types of intervention; and programme management and staffing. It highlights the challenges and lessons that can be drawn from the operation of the programme during its first 18 months, which will be of particular interest to low resource, post-conflict and fragile states that are seeking to establish their own basic de-radicalisation programmes.

  8. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  9. Smut resistance in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

  10. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  11. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and

  12. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  13. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  14. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  15. The Prince Henry Hospital dementia caregivers' training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, H; Gresham, M; Luscombe, G

    1997-02-01

    To describe the theory, elements and practice of a successful caregiver training programme; and report the 8-year outcome. Prospective, randomized control trial and longitudinal follow-up over approximately 8 years. Psychiatry unit, general teaching hospital, Sydney, Australia. 96 persons less than 80 years old with mild to moderate dementia and their cohabiting caregivers. All patients received a 10-day structured memory retraining and activity programme. Caregivers in the immediate and wait-list caregiver training groups received a structured, residential, intensive 10-day training programme, boosted by follow-ups and telephone conferences over 12 months. Those in the wait-list group entered the programme after waiting 6 months. The third group of caregivers received 10 days' respite (while patients underwent their memory retraining programme) and 12 months booster sessions as for the other groups. Nursing home admission; time until patient death. 64% of patients whose caregivers were in the immediate training group, 53% of wait-list group patients and 70% of memory retraining patients had died. Nursing home admission had occurred in 79% of the immediate training, 83% of the delayed and 90% of the memory retraining group. Eight-year survival analysis indicated that patients whose caregivers received training stayed at home significantly longer (p = 0.037) and tended to live longer (p = 0.08). Caregiver training programmes demonstrably can delay institutionalization of people with dementia.

  16. Horizontal schools-based health programme in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, James; Eder, Ben; Magnus, Dan; Amonje, Onguko David; Gant, Martina

    2017-09-01

    Primary school children in low-income countries are at risk of many diseases and poor health affects attendance, cognition and ability to learn. Developing school health and nutrition strategies has been extensively highlighted as a global priority, with a particular focus on complex programme design. However, such programmes are relatively untested in low-income settings. We implemented a complex school health and nutrition programme in two schools in Western Kenya over 3 years. There were numerous elements covering health policy, skills-based health education, infrastructure and disease prevention. A local non-governmental organisation, with involvement from local government and the community, performed programme implementation. Height-for-age, weight-for-age,height-for-weight, anaemia prevalence, academic performance and school attendance were the primary outcome measures. The programme improved nutrition, academic performance and anaemia prevalence. The number of underweight children fell from 20% to 11% (OR 0.51 95% CI 0.39 to 0.68 p=effect on school attendance, the reasons for which are unclear. These results are encouraging and demonstrate that complex schools health programmes can lead to positive gains in health, nutrition and importantly academic performance. There is a need for further evaluation of comprehensive school health interventions in poor communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Applications of field-programmable gate arrays in scientific research

    CERN Document Server

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut F W

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on resource awareness in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) design, Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research covers the principle of FPGAs and their functionality. It explores a host of applications, ranging from small one-chip laboratory systems to large-scale applications in ""big science."" The book first describes various FPGA resources, including logic elements, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable memory. It then presents principles and methods for controlling resources, such as process sequencing, location constraints, and in

  19. Multiplexing schemes for an achromatic programmable diffractive lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, M S; Perez-Cabre, E; Oton, J [Technical University of Catalonia, Dep. Optics and Optometry, Terrassa-Barcelona, 08222 (Spain)], E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu

    2008-11-01

    A multiplexed programmable diffractive lens, displayed on a pixelated liquid crystal device under broadband illumination, is proposed to compensate for the severe chromatic aberration that affects diffractive elements. The proposed lens is based on multiplexing a set of sublenses with a common focal length for different wavelengths. We consider different types of integration of the optical information (spatial only, temporal only and hybrid spatial-temporal) combined with a proper selection of the spectral bandwidth. The properties and limits of the achromatic programmable multiplexed lens are described. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  20. Multiplexing schemes for an achromatic programmable diffractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, M S; Perez-Cabre, E; Oton, J

    2008-01-01

    A multiplexed programmable diffractive lens, displayed on a pixelated liquid crystal device under broadband illumination, is proposed to compensate for the severe chromatic aberration that affects diffractive elements. The proposed lens is based on multiplexing a set of sublenses with a common focal length for different wavelengths. We consider different types of integration of the optical information (spatial only, temporal only and hybrid spatial-temporal) combined with a proper selection of the spectral bandwidth. The properties and limits of the achromatic programmable multiplexed lens are described. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  1. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  2. Quality Assurance Programme for Computed Tomography: Diagnostic and Therapy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    This publication presents a harmonized approach to quality assurance in the field of computed tomography applied to both diagnostics and therapy. It gives a careful analysis of the principles and specific instructions that can be used for a quality assurance programme for optimal performance and reduced patient dose in diagnostic radiology. In some cases, radiotherapy programmes are making a transition from 2-D to 3-D radiotherapy, a complex process which critically depends on accurate treatment planning. In this respect, the authors also provide detailed information about the elements needed for quality assurance testing, including those relating to accurate patient characterization as needed for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  3. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  4. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  5. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  6. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  7. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  8. The Swedish energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setterwall, M.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses factors affecting the present and future supply of energy in Sweden. Before 1973 Sweden had the highest per capita oil importation in the world; it has no indigenous oil, gas or coal but is well off for water power, about three quarters of which is at present exploited, the remaining quarter being nearly all sterilised for the time being on conservationist grounds. By 1985 twelve nuclear generators should be in action, but further nuclear development has been stopped by political decisions. Official policy is to reduce dependence upon imported oil by the present use of nuclear energy and without increased importation of coal, but by AD2010 completely to replace nuclear energy by energy saving, using indigenous wood and peat, and developing the alternative sources of sun and wind. Heavy subsidy of the last however has produced little result so far. The author views this programme with great scepticism and opines that the present political blocking of increased generation by oil, coal, water power and nuclear energy will have to be broken, and that nuclear energy will play a major role for a long time to come. (C.J.O.G.)

  9. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  10. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  11. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  12. Fire resistance of wood members with directly applied protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-resistive wood construction is achieved either by having the structural elements be part of fire-rated assemblies or by using elements of sufficient size that the elements themselves have the required fire-resistance ratings. For exposed structural wood elements, the ratings in the United States are calculated using either the T.T. Lie method or the National...

  13. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  14. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  15. Theoretical aspects of neutron interaction: part 1 - interaction programme for ibm 7094, part 2 - the shielding sub-programme, part 3 - listing of the programme; Aspects theoriques de l'interaction neutronique: annexe 1 - programme interaction pour ibm 7094 - annexe 2 - sous programme ombre - annexe 3 - liste du programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret-Bailly, J; Penet, F; Spinelli, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Part I. Methods are described for obtaining the equations for a system of elements containing fissile matter: a) by using the balance after fission, b) by using the balance before fission, c) by the evolution equations. All these methods lead to equivalent matrices whose greatest proper value is the multiplication coefficient for the system K. It is shown how to calculate K. From this it is possible to deduce the rules which generalize the criterion for the bounded solid angle. An IBM 7094 programme applies this theory to the calculation of the installations made up of a maximum of 500 elements. It calculates the effective values of K, the leaks, the solid angles and then K. Part. II. This sub-programme calculates the shielding between the elements. (authors) [French] Sommaire, - Annexe I. On expose les methodes permettant d'obtenir les equations d'un systeme d'elements contenant de la matiere fissile: a) par le bilan apres fission, b) par le bilan avant fission, c) par les equations d'evolution. Toutes ces methodes conduisent a des matrices equivalentes dont la plus grande valeur propre est le coefficient de multiplication de l'ensemble K. On montre comment K se calcule. On en deduit des regles qui generalisent le critere de l'angle solide limite. Un programme pour IBM 7094 applique cette theorie au calcul des installations comportant au maximum 500 elements. II calcule les k effectifs, les fuites, les angles solides puis K. Annexe II. Ce sous-programme calcule les ombres entre les elements. (auteurs)

  16. Design of a Programmable Gain, Temperature Compensated Current-Input Current-Output CMOS Logarithmic Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Gu; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a programmable gain, temperature compensated, current-mode CMOS logarithmic amplifier that can be used for biomedical signal processing. Unlike conventional logarithmic amplifiers that use a transimpedance technique to generate a voltage signal as a logarithmic function of the input current, the proposed approach directly produces a current output as a logarithmic function of the input current. Also, unlike a conventional transimpedance amplifier the gain of the proposed logarithmic amplifier can be programmed using floating-gate trimming circuits. The synthesis of the proposed circuit is based on the Hart's extended translinear principle which involves embedding a floating-voltage source and a linear resistive element within a translinear loop. Temperature compensation is then achieved using a translinear-based resistive cancelation technique. Measured results from prototypes fabricated in a 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the amplifier has an input dynamic range of 120 dB and a temperature sensitivity of 230 ppm/°C (27 °C- 57°C), while consuming less than 100 nW of power.

  17. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  18. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  19. Individual-level outcomes from a national clinical leadership development programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan; Fealy, Gerard; McNamara, Martin; Casey, Mary; Connor, Tom O; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2013-08-01

    A national clinical leadership development programme was instituted for Irish nurses and midwives in 2010. Incorporating a development framework and leadership pathway and a range of bespoke interventions for leadership development, including workshops, action-learning sets, mentoring and coaching, the programme was introduced at seven pilot sites in the second half of 2011. The programme pilot was evaluated with reference to structure, process and outcomes elements, including individual-level programme outcomes. Evaluation data were generated through focus groups and group interviews, individual interviews and written submissions. The data provided evidence of nurses' and midwives' clinical leadership development through self and observer-reported behaviours and dispositions including accounts of how the programme participants developed and displayed particular clinical leadership competencies. A key strength of the new programme was that it involved interventions that focussed on specific leadership competencies to be developed within the practice context.

  20. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagter, W.; Roodbergen, H.A.

    1975-07-01

    A numerical method has been applied to determine three-dimensional temperature distributions in small regions of hexagonal fuel rod assemblies with liquid metal cooling. The temperature calculations, based on the finite element method, centered on heat transport from the fuel rod surface into the adjacent subchannel and on heat transport between adjacent subchannels. The study is restricted to analysis of steady-state heat transfer in fuel rod assemblies of smooth parallel rods for the condition of prescribed heat flux and slug flow. The computed temperature profiles are expressed in terms of Nusselt or Stanton numbers and amplitudes of circumferential cladding temperature variations as a function of axial distances. In simple geometries like the circular duct, the method is applied to calculate the temperature distribution and the axial variation of the Nusselt number for the condition of laminar flow and uniform heat flux. The flow is hydrodynamically developed. Good agreement between numerical and theoretical solutions confirms the validity of the finite element method. The results obtained for fuel rod assemblies are compared with available experimental and theoretical predictions. It is found that the contribution of turbulence to intersubchannel heat transport in sodium equals that due to conduction. The novel feature of the method applied to convective heat transfer problems is the computation of detailed three-dimensional coolant temperature fields in large regions of fuel rod assemblies

  1. The VULCANO spreading programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Pierre, J.; Ramacciotti, M. [CEA (Atomic Energy Commission), DRN/DER - Bat. 212, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, some of them suppose corium spreading before cooling, in particular the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the stopping of spreading. In France, for some years, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. In this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted within an European frame, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. In 1997 and 1998, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various composition of melts. Although all the observed phenomena, in particular the differences between simulant and real material melts have not been yet totally explained, these tests have already provided a lot of information about: The behaviour of complex mixtures including refractory oxides, silica, iron oxides and in one case iron metal; Spreading progression, which was never stopped in any of these tests by a crust formation at the front; The structure of spread melts (porosity, crusts,...); Physico-chemical interaction between melt and the refractory substratum which was composed of zirconia bricks. (authors)

  2. The VULCANO spreading programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Pierre, J.; Ramacciotti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, some of them suppose corium spreading before cooling, in particular the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the stopping of spreading. In France, for some years, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. In this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted within an European frame, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. In 1997 and 1998, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various composition of melts. Although all the observed phenomena, in particular the differences between simulant and real material melts have not been yet totally explained, these tests have already provided a lot of information about: The behaviour of complex mixtures including refractory oxides, silica, iron oxides and in one case iron metal; Spreading progression, which was never stopped in any of these tests by a crust formation at the front; The structure of spread melts (porosity, crusts,...); Physico-chemical interaction between melt and the refractory substratum which was composed of zirconia bricks. (authors)

  3. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  5. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  6. Summer Research Fellowship Programme 2018

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 2 September 1957. Specialization: Cosmic Magnetic Fields, Structure Formation, Cosmology Address: Distinguished Professor & Dean, Visitor Academic Programmes, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, Maharashtra Contact: Office: (020) 2560 4101

  7. The Italian compliance assurance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelloni, S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is given of the compliance assurance programme that is applied in Italy and the role of the different competent authorities that have responsibilities for the transport of radioactive materials is described. (author)

  8. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  9. The programme PIP2 for lattice cell thermal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, A.J.

    1964-08-01

    The programme PIP2 solves the multigroup equations obtained by applying the method of collision probabilities to a fuel region (which may contain a cluster of fuel elements), and the SPECTROX flux assumption in a surrounding 'moderator'. The programme does not calculate collision probabilities for the fuel region and any geometry can be treated in the fuel region for which collision probabilities can be calculated. Lattice cell source problems may be treated and it is possible to include part of the physical moderator with the fuel region for treatment by the collision probability method. The programme is primarily intended for thermal fixed source problems, with the sources in the (physical moderator), but by including part of the moderator with the fuel it is possible to include fixed sources in the fuel for the study of fast effects. (author)

  10. Foresight and strategy in national research councils and research programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Borup, Mads

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of foresight and strategy processes of national research councils and research programmes. It is based on a study of strategy processes in national research councils and programmes and the challenges faced by their strategy activities. We analysed the strategy...... processes of two organisations: the Danish Technical Research Council and the Danish Energy Research Programme. We analysed the mechanisms of the strategy processes and studied the actors involved. The actors’ understanding of strategy was also included in the analysis. Based on these analyses we argue...... that the impact of foresight exercises can be improved if we have a better understanding of the traditions and new challenges faced by the research councils. We also argue that a more formal use of foresight elements might improve the legitimacy and impact of the strategic considerations of research councils...

  11. The European wind energy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Lalas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A general review is given of national wind energy programmes in European countries. First, tendencies of the past wind energy programmes are described and linked to the present developments. Not only the separate aspects are reviewed (R+D, wind turbine development, market stimulation, utility involvement, regulatory issues and operational experiences), but also the synergetic aspects of their integration is addressed. The main conclusion is that the integration of R+D, industrial development and market stimulation works. 4 ills., 3 tabs

  12. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  13. Family co-operation programme description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, H A; Terry, T

    1990-01-01

    Current parenting practices indicate a continuing trend towards less family interaction. Institutional attempts to intervene with parents often fail. The 'Family Co-operation Programme' provides a tangible method for families and schools to work together in preventing alcohol and drug abuse, by utilising the positive influence of the home and strengthening family relationships. The Board of Education for the State of Utah has tested and is currently implementing a unique, low-cost, alternative to impact on the home. Utilising a K-12 alcohol/drug abuse school-based curriculum, the child, based on his/her inclass training, becomes the resource for family co-operation activities. These include training in coping skills, decision-making, resistance to peer persuasion, increased self-esteem and alcohol/drug information. Grade level materials go home with the child, who returns a requested parent evaluation. Data for over one thousand families show the positive impact of the activities.

  14. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, Timothy M.; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M.; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. METHODS:

  15. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worswick, D.; Hindle, E.D.; Stacey, R.D.; Stevens, M.; Wickett, A.J.; GArlick, A.

    1989-08-01

    The MERLIN rig at the Northern Research Laboratories, Springfields, was intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this rig, an assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6x6 cluster) was subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The main aim of the MERLIN programme was to investigate the extent of sub-channel blockage produced during clad deformation under conditions of high mechanical restraint, in two phase cooling conditions. The programme was to consist of four test bundles, the final two of which would be used for ballooning experiments in which high sub-channel blockage would be produced by a suitable choice of test conditions. A major part of the programme was to provide validation data for reactor accident codes used in the CEGB clad ballooning safety case for Sizewell B. This report, one of a series which describes the programme in detail, is an overview of the MERLIN programme. It provides background, summarises those reports which discuss the programme in detail and draws attention to those areas where useful information has been obtained. (author)

  16. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  17. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  18. [Programmes against depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, M; Rouillon, F; Hegerl, U; Hamdani, N; Gorwood, Ph

    2006-01-01

    frequently criticized, as this may reduce efficacy. A multilevel approach is crucial for the success of action programmes against depression, because synergistic effects can be expected. In Germany, the "Nürnberger Bündnis gegen Depression" project was based on four levels, and effectively reduced the suicide rate. These levels of action included "cooperation with GPs", such as training sessions based on video, and presence of a phone hotline, "public relations activities", "training sessions for multipliers", such as priests, social workers and media, and "special offers for high risk groups and self-help activities". In France, such a program is clearly required.

  19. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  20. SURFAN, a programme for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoita, F.; Borcan, C.; Pantelica, D.

    1997-01-01

    Possible alternatives to Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) method of material analysis, overcoming the poor sensitivity to light elements of RBS, are the nuclear resonant reaction analysis (NRA) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The last one is especially useful in surface and thin film analysis. To simulate the spectra obtained with any of these methods a programme SURFAN was worked out. In comparison with the code RUMP, published by Doolittle, it allows to simply change the charge of the projectile nature, implies no limitation to the energy of incident projectiles and permits the use of any depth profile function. The basic ideas and the structure of SURFAN are presented. Its application to ERDA and RBS methods resulted in important information on the processes implied in special materials obtained by advanced technologies

  1. CORECOOL, model description of the programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Abel-Larsen, H.

    1978-11-01

    CORECOOL, Convection and Radiation Emergency Cooling, is a model for the two-phase flow and heat transfer in a fuel element during the core heat-up phase following a loss of coolant accident. The model for the two-phase flow is based on a solution of the conservation equations with a separate description of the two phases and thermodynamic non-equilibrium. The flow-regimes considered are drop flow and film flow. The heat transfer consists of convection, sputtering and radiation heat transfer. The documentation of CORECOOL consists of four parts: I) model description, II) programme description (COMMERCIAL), III) users guide (COMMERCIAL) IV) verification (COMMERCIAL). CORECOOL is a joint project between Risoe National Laboratory Denmark and General Electric Company, San Jose, USA. (author)

  2. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  3. Britain's Nuclear Electric pursues a major programme to enhance safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The UK state-owned nuclear utility, Nuclear Electric, is actively pursuing a major initiative inherited from its predecessor the Central Electricity Generating Board, known as the Station Enhancement Programme. The Enhancement Programme is a multi-million pound project and covers all Nuclear Electric's stations (including relevant aspects of the de-commissioning site at Berkeley). Its fundamental objective is to enhance the arrangements, practices and attitudes on the power stations to create an overall environment likely to promote ever safer and more reliable operation, and to take full account of the best international practices. The four year programme started in the spring of 1989, and is expected to be completed in 1993. Key elements of the programme include quality assurance based management systems; improvements to site and plant material conditions; a more formal approach to training; additional resources and controls to aid the management of maintenance defects; higher profile for the feedback of operational experience; management targets; a station evaluation programme; and formal feedback of lessons learned from the IAEA operational and safety review team visit to the Oldbury-on-Severn station in 1989. (author)

  4. Five years German AF-Programme: Review and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, G [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, Zentralabteilung Forschungsreaktoren, 5170 Juelich (Germany)

    1985-07-01

    The AF-Programme (reduced enrichment in research reactors) was officially launched by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the second half of 1979. Work under this programme carried out since then by industry and research laboratories covers the development of high-density LEU fuels up to the production stage, their qualification by irradiations and post-irradiation examinations as well as specific studies for converting the German research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel cycles. The programme was revised and updated approximately two years ago. The following decisions were made: - an extension by two years of the original period planned to expire at the end of 1984; - increased research into the development of LEU fuel fabrication technologies for application on an industrial scale; and - preference of the so-called one-step conversion of research reactors from HEU to LEU. The activities of the AF-Programme will be officially continued until the end of 1986. It will then be primarily necessary to conduct post- irradiation examinations as well as reactor conversion studies accompanying the licensing procedure. Work carried out to date has involved an extensive exchange of experience at various international meetings and on a bilateral basis. Particularly close cooperation was practised with the American RERTR programme, which made it possible to reduce the irradiations planned in Germany, especially due to the early tests of LEU plates of reduced size and fuel elements in the ORR, Oak Ridge, with subsequent post-examinations. (author)

  5. Competences and life management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunatti, S.; Bergara, A.; Ranalli, J.; Versaci, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry is, at present, at a crucial juncture, where it has to decide about the future of the first generation of nuclear plants, which are approaching the end of their licensed service life. At the same time, long term experience and new advances have established that it is possible to extend the life of nuclear plants beyond their initially licensed life by another 20-30 years. Extending the operating life of existing nuclear plants will help to reduce the short term need for new generating capacity - without new capital costs. However, these extensions must take place in the context of careful safety analysis and monitoring of equipment ageing concerns. A nuclear power plant must be managed in a safe and efficient manner throughout all the life cycle stages from design through decommissioning. The consequences of management decisions about nuclear power plants can have profound economic impacts for the nuclear power plant owner, and possibly for the national economy. In addition, the consequence of a major failure or accident can have catastrophic national socio-economic effects that may be felt internationally. The safe and effective management of a nuclear power plant therefore requires dramatically different perspectives in time from the majority of other industries. The impact of some decisions extends beyond the normal strategic perspective of both owners and governments. The integration of activities for ageing management, safety management and business management of a nuclear power plant are an essential element of 'life cycle management'. The loss of information at any stage of a nuclear power plants life deprives people, at later stages, of knowledge that could be important to safe, economic completion of work or which could aid the analysis of problems and options. It is costly to go through the learning process again, with a risk of potential events or incidents, programme delays, physical injury and increased regulatory

  6. NDA National Graduate Programme 'nucleargraduates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of

  7. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitud......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  8. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1997-06-01

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  9. Quality Assurance Programme for the Environmental Testing of the CMS Tracker Optical Links

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, K; Grabit, R; Troska, Jan K; Vasey, F; Zanet, A

    2001-01-01

    The QA programme is reviewed for the environmental compliance tests of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components for the CMS Tracker Optical link system. These environmental tests will take place in the pre-production and final production phases of the project and will measure radiation resistance, component lifetime, and sensitivity to magnetic fields. The evolution of the programme from small-scale prototype tests to the final pre-production manufacturing tests is outlined and the main env...

  10. Radon programmes and health marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Rovenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. (authors)

  11. Modernization programme at Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnka, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of each NPP is to produce electricity safely, economically and without influence to environment. For Dukovany NPP it means to upgrade all documentation and perform the Equipment Upgrading Programme. All these activities are time and money consuming and therefore the determination of priority of all items was necessary. In the presentation there are mentioned some important changes in documentation, results of PSA studies and reason for Equipment Upgrading Programme performance. It was selected the most important item from the list of Equipment Upgrading Programme the I and C upgrading. Management has decided that Dukovany NPP will become among the best NPPs with WWER type of reactor. It seems this decision is the best way how to extend lifetime of the NPP. (author)

  12. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  13. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  14. The internationalisation of postgraduate programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Andersen, Ole K.; Bak, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has for the inter......This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has...... for the international students are presented and discussed in terms of e.g. the teamwork situation, professional and cultural differences. A student enrolment programme, implemented through the provision of scholarships, jointly paid by government and industry funds is presented...

  15. Using data on resistance prevalence per sample in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Shuyu, Wu; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In most existing antimicrobial resistance monitoring programmes, one single bacterial colony from each collected sample is susceptibility tested against a panel of antimicrobials. Detecting the proportion of colonies resistant to different antimicrobials in each sample can provide...... quantitative data on antimicrobial resistance (resistance prevalence per sample). Methods: In this study, a total of 98 faecal samples from slaughter pigs were tested for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance in Escherichia coli using the single colony method, and these results were compared...... with the results obtained using the resistance prevalence per sample method. Results: The results obtained by the resistance prevalence per sample method showed a lower occurrence of resistance. Tetracycline resistance in E. coli was found in 36.7% of the samples using the single colony method, while the mean...

  16. Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant clinical Bacteroides fragilis isolates by whole genome shotgun sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Sóki, József; Hasman, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis constitutes the most frequent anaerobic bacterium causing bacteremia in humans. The genetic background for antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis is diverse with some genes requiring insertion sequence (IS) elements inserted upstream for increased expression. To evaluate whole...... genome shotgun sequencing as a method for predicting antimicrobial resistance properties, one meropenem resistant and five multidrug-resistant blood culture isolates were sequenced and antimicrobial resistance genes and IS elements identified using ResFinder 2.1 (http...

  17. Study on correlation of trace elements in human hair and internal organs by nuclear methods. A final report of the co-ordinated research programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1985 - October 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuandi, Cheng [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research

    1988-12-31

    Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn, by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements Se, Na, Mg, Cl, Br, S, Cr, Co, and Rb and by PIXE to determine Fe, Ca and Mn. 15 refs, 22 figs, 10 tabs.

  18. Study on correlation of trace elements in human hair and internal organs by nuclear methods. A final report of the co-ordinated research programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1985 - October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuandi

    1988-01-01

    Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn, by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements Se, Na, Mg, Cl, Br, S, Cr, Co, and Rb and by PIXE to determine Fe, Ca and Mn. 15 refs, 22 figs, 10 tabs

  19. The CEC radon research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olast, M.

    1990-01-01

    Following a council decision of 20 June 1989, a CEC research and training programme in the field of radiation protection has been adopted for the period 1990-1991. The european research programme is divided into three main areas, one being 'Risks and Management of Radiation Exposure': this includes a section on 'Exposure to natural radioactivity and evaluation of parameters influencing these risks'. The importance given to this field led to an impressive number of research proposals. The proposals accepted are grouped in three large multinational contracts covering radon exposure, and in one multinational contract dealing with environmental radon epidemiology. (author)

  20. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  1. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  2. National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Sushant

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the history of the growth and development of our National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP. The aims, strategy, means of eradication, the organizational structure have been discussed. Since the beginning of this programme, the prevalence rate and disability rate have shown a sharp decline. The number of cases detected and under treatment have also increased. The achievement made has been possible due to an excellent organization of leprosy relief work under NLEP with the active cooperation of the non- governmental organizations. Now that leprosy is on the decline, the need of education and rehabilitation of patients assumes a greater importance.

  3. Offshoots from beryllium development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.P.; Sinha, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents extraction and processing of beryllium metal as practiced in the beryllium facilities at Turbhe, New Bombay. These facilities have been set up to meet the indigenous requirements of the metal in space and nuclear science programmes. As offshoot of this beryllium development programme has been the development of a number of pyro and powder metallurgical equipment. Indigenous development of these pieces of equipment has been a professionally rewarding experience. Efforts are now on to promote these equipment for industrial use. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The need for theory evaluation in global citizenship programmes: The case of the GCSA programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, Sarah; Field, Carren; Goodman, Suki

    2018-02-01

    Many education programmes lack a documented programme theory. This is a problem for programme planners and evaluators as the ability to measure programme success is grounded in the plausibility of the programme's underlying causal logic. Where the programme theory has not been documented, conducting a theory evaluation offers a foundational evaluation step as it gives an indication of whether the theory behind a programme is sound. This paper presents a case of a theory evaluation of a Global Citizenship programme at a top-ranking university in South Africa, subsequently called the GCSA Programme. This evaluation highlights the need for documented programme theory in global citizenship-type programmes for future programme development. An articulated programme theory produced for the GCSA Programme, analysed against the available social science literature, indicated it is comparable to other such programmes in terms of its overarching framework. What the research found is that most other global citizenship programmes do not have an articulated programme theory. These programmes also do not explicitly link their specific activities to their intended outcomes, making demonstrating impact impossible. In conclusion, we argue that taking a theory-based approach can strengthen and enable outcome evaluations in global citizenship programmes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The IAEA's programme in analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the Analytical Quality Control Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency is to help laboratories in the Agency's Member States to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work in areas related to nuclear technology and radioisotope utilisation. This is done by the organisation of analytical intercomparisons and by the provision of certified or uncertified reference materials. Recently intercomparisons have been organised of trace element analysis in a soil and a lake sediment sample which have led to the certification of two new reference materials, SOIL-5 and SL-1 (lake sediment). A technique has been developed to recognise and to remove outlying results. Criteria have been established to classify element-concentration values into the categories ''established with a high degree of confidence'', ''established with a reasonable degree of confidence'' and ''information value only''. Four radionuclide intercomparisons have recently been carried out: W-1/1 and W-2/1 of the determination of selected radionuclides in water and Air-1/1 and Air-2/1 of that of selected radionuclides on simulated air filters. Details of the preparation of materials for these intercomparisons, and of data treatment and some results are discussed in the paper

  6. Extrachromosomal genetic elements in Micrococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micrococci are Gram-positive G + C-rich, nonmotile, nonspore-forming actinomycetous bacteria. Micrococcus comprises ten members, with Micrococcus luteus being the type species. Representatives of the genus play important roles in the biodegradation of xenobiotics, bioremediation processes, production of biotechnologically important enzymes or bioactive compounds, as test strains in biological assays for lysozyme and antibiotics, and as infective agents in immunocompromised humans. The first description of plasmids dates back approximately 28 years, when several extrachromosomal elements ranging in size from 1.5 to 30.2 kb were found in Micrococcus luteus. Up to the present, a number of circular plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance, the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, and osmotolerance are known, as well as cryptic elements with unidentified functions. Here, we review the Micrococcus extrachromosomal traits reported thus far including phages and the only quite recently described large linear extrachromosomal genetic elements, termed linear plasmids, which range in size from 75 kb (pJD12) to 110 kb (pLMA1) and which confer putative advantageous capabilities, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances (inferred from sequence analyses and curing experiments). The role of the extrachromosomal elements for the frequently proven ecological and biotechnological versatility of the genus will be addressed as well as their potential for the development and use as genetic tools.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  9. Leader Election and Shape Formation with Self-Organizing Programmable Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Daymude, Joshua J.; Derakhshandeh, Zahra; Gmyr, Robert; Strothmann, Thim; Bazzi, Rida; Richa, Andréa W.; Scheideler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We consider programmable matter consisting of simple computational elements, called particles, that can establish and release bonds and can actively move in a self-organized way, and we investigate the feasibility of solving fundamental problems relevant for programmable matter. As a suitable model for such self-organizing particle systems, we will use a generalization of the geometric amoebot model first proposed in SPAA 2014. Based on the geometric model, we present efficient local-control ...

  10. Modification of the sulphur resistance of platinum by addition of metals for aromatics hydrogenation; Modification de la thioresistance du platine par ajouts d'elements metalliques pour l'hydrogenation d'aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E

    1999-09-15

    The aim of this study is based on the understanding of sulphur resistance of platinum catalytic systems. In this work, bimetallic systems (Pt-Ge, Pt-Au and Pt-Pd) supported on {gamma}-alumina have been studied. Preparation methods have been chosen to give the best control of the physicochemical properties of final system. Electronic and geometrical properties of the metallic phase were characterised by various techniques (TPR, infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO (IR(CO)), EXAFS, LEIS). Ortho-xylene hydrogenation in presence of 100 ppm of sulphur was used as model catalytic test in order to study the sulphur resistance of the catalysts. It has been shown that germanium and palladium act as electro-acceptors toward platinum. The ranking of catalytic activity in presence of sulphur is as followed: Pt-Pd > Pt-Au {approx_equal} Pt >> Pt-Ge {approx_equal} 0. The best sulphur resistance for Pt-Pd was obtained for the composition Pt{sub 20}Pd{sub 80} (Pd/Pt=4). An eggshell PdS structure with Pt (sulfur free) core is proposed. These works show that the sulphur resistance of platinum is not only linked with its electronic properties. They allow us to propose an original concept of sulphur resistant catalyst taking into account each catalytic parameters such as chemical bonding of S and aromatic compounds on the metallic site, physico-chemical characteristics of the bimetallic aggregates (particle size, structure, surface composition) and electronic modification of surface atoms in bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  11. Modification of the sulphur resistance of platinum by addition of metals for aromatics hydrogenation; Modification de la thioresistance du platine par ajouts d'elements metalliques pour l'hydrogenation d'aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E.

    1999-09-15

    The aim of this study is based on the understanding of sulphur resistance of platinum catalytic systems. In this work, bimetallic systems (Pt-Ge, Pt-Au and Pt-Pd) supported on {gamma}-alumina have been studied. Preparation methods have been chosen to give the best control of the physicochemical properties of final system. Electronic and geometrical properties of the metallic phase were characterised by various techniques (TPR, infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO (IR(CO)), EXAFS, LEIS). Ortho-xylene hydrogenation in presence of 100 ppm of sulphur was used as model catalytic test in order to study the sulphur resistance of the catalysts. It has been shown that germanium and palladium act as electro-acceptors toward platinum. The ranking of catalytic activity in presence of sulphur is as followed: Pt-Pd > Pt-Au {approx_equal} Pt >> Pt-Ge {approx_equal} 0. The best sulphur resistance for Pt-Pd was obtained for the composition Pt{sub 20}Pd{sub 80} (Pd/Pt=4). An eggshell PdS structure with Pt (sulfur free) core is proposed. These works show that the sulphur resistance of platinum is not only linked with its electronic properties. They allow us to propose an original concept of sulphur resistant catalyst taking into account each catalytic parameters such as chemical bonding of S and aromatic compounds on the metallic site, physico-chemical characteristics of the bimetallic aggregates (particle size, structure, surface composition) and electronic modification of surface atoms in bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  12. Zinc resistance within swine associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in the USA is associated with MLST lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, on the type V SCCmec element. Since the czrC gene and the mecA gene are co-located on the SCCmec element, it has ...

  13. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  14. Final Draft Programme Support Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Ulrika; Schleimann, Finn; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    The HSPS III is the third phase of Danish support to the Ghanaian Health Sector. The support is in line with the Ministy of Health's Medium Term Strategy and the Second Five-Year Programme of Work; the latter also bring in line with the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. The majority of funds (340...

  15. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  16. The RESCueH Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible...

  17. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  18. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  19. National Programme for Radiological Protection in Medical Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    A national programme on radiation protection of patients can only be effective and sustainable if there is a joint effort between the regulatory body and the health authorities, and a cooperation with educational institutions, professional bodies and representatives of the industry. The regulatory body needs to promote a strategy of cooperation, and to identify obstacles that may prevent compliance with regulatory requirements and to address them. Not of least is the need for a continuous self-evaluation on the efficacy of the programme. Radiation safety of the patients is a responsibility of the users of the radiation sources involved in diagnostic and treatment. In particular, they are responsible for compliance with regulatory requirements. But safety depends also on aspects that are beyond the capabilities of those authorized to conduct practices. These aspects include educational programmes and institutions to implement them, calibration facilities, national protocols, professional bodies for the establishment of reference levels and contributions from the industry. Neither the users nor the regulatory body alone can achieve that these elements are in place. It needs a network of institutions and cooperation arrangements that involve educational and health authorities, laboratory facilities, professional bodies and the industry. A national programme has to include a strategy of cooperation, identification of obstacles that may prevent compliance with regulatory requirements and address them. Not of least is the need for a continuous self-evaluation on the efficacy of the programme. A group of regulatory agencies belonging to the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Agency have exchanged experiences, lessons learned and good practices over three years. This exchange included extensive collaboration with the health authorities. The result of this work is this document containing a self-evaluation approach for the regulatory programme on

  20. Calculation of optimum control rod operation programme for boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, L.

    1978-01-01

    Control rod operation programmes are calculated based on a three dimensional Boiling Water Reactor situation model. The position of the control rods at variosu burn-ups is chosen by an optimisation so that the sum of the square deviations of the load density distribution from an optimum distribution ('Haling' distribution) are minimised. Other conditions are remaining critical and observing the thermal limits for central fuel element melting and critical heat surface loading. As an example, an optimum control rod operation programme for the first cycle in Lengen nuclear power station is calculated and is compared with the programme actually used. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  1. Programme documentation to control programme for Solar-tracker; Programdokumentation til styringsprogram til Solar-tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudbeck, C.

    1995-07-01

    The report contains the programme documentation partly for a programme to control of a tracking system and partly a programme, which uses this programme to make measurements of transmittance for covering layer. Both the transmittance measurement programme and the programme is built in Borland Pascal v7.0, and is compiled in Real mode for the use on a processor of the 80X86-family. The source code for the programme for transmittance measurements and the programmes (the positioning routines) are described in Appendix B. (EHS)

  2. Antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Frieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control. Virulence, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile infection, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and control in the Emergency Department are also discussed. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Biofilms, Infections, Public health, Emergency Department

  3. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  4. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  5. Fast breeder fuel element development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Muehling, G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the papers which have been presented during a seminar ''Fast Breeder Fuel Element Development'' held on November 15/16, 1982 at KfK. The papers give a survey of the status, of the obtained results and of the necessary work, which still has to be done in the frame of various development programmes for fast breeder fuel elements. In detail the following items were covered by the presentations: - the requirements and boundary conditions for the design of fuel pins and elements both for the reference concept of the SNR 300 core and for the large, commercial breeder type of the future (presentation 1,2 and 6); - the fabrication, properties and characterization of various mixed oxide fuel types (presentations 3,4 and 5); - the operational fuel pin behaviour, limits of different design concepts and possible mechanism for fuel pin failures (presentations (7 and 8); - the situation of cladding- and wrapper materials development especially with respect to the high burn-up values of commercial reactors (presentations 9 and 10); - the results of the irradiation experiments performed under steady-state and non-stationary operational conditions and with failed fuel pins (presentations 11, 12, 13 and 14). (orig./RW) [de

  6. The International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Guibert, J.

    2007-12-01

    -cutting projects FRIEND (Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data Programme) and HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy Programme) and the supporting efforts from the network of water-related centers under the auspices of UNESCO, such as the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre (IGRAC) based in The Netherlands and the International Centre for Water and Hazard Risk Management (ICHARM) based in Japan will contribute key elements to the studies. Opportunities for collaboration with the American scientific community will be highlighted.

  7. Planning and implementation of nuclear research programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The planning and implementation of nuclear research programmes in developed and developing countries is discussed. The main aspects of these programmes in USA, France, Japan, India and Brazil are reported. (M.W.O.) [pt

  8. Sustainable Industrial Development Programmes of International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more insightful corporate entrepreneurship programmes with improved infrastructural and electric power facilities should be encouraged. Increasing support to firms through diverse channels would boost rapid economic development of the sub region. Key words: Sustainable programmes, economic development, ...

  9. South African Antarctic earth science research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...

  10. Prospective malaria control using entomopathogenic fungi: comparative evaluation of impact on transmission and selection for resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Penelope A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical insecticides against adult mosquitoes are a key element in most malaria management programmes, but their efficacy is threatened by the evolution of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. By killing only older mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi can in principle significantly impact parasite transmission while imposing much less selection for resistance. Here an assessment is made as to which of the wide range of possible virulence characteristics for fungal biopesticides best realise this potential. Methods With mathematical models that capture relevant timings and survival probabilities within successive feeding cycles, transmission and resistance-management metrics are used to compare susceptible and resistant mosquitoes exposed to no intervention, to conventional instant-kill interventions, and to delayed-action biopesticides with a wide range of virulence characteristics. Results Fungal biopesticides that generate high rates of mortality at around the time mosquitoes first become able to transmit the malaria parasite offer potential for large reductions in transmission while imposing low fitness costs. The best combinations of control and resistance management are generally accessed at high levels of coverage. Strains which have high virulence in malaria-infected mosquitoes but lower virulence in malaria-free mosquitoes offer the ultimate benefit in terms of minimizing selection pressure whilst maximizing impact on transmission. Exploiting this phenotype should be a target for product development. For indoor residual spray programmes, biopesticides may offer substantial advantages over the widely used pyrethroid-based insecticides. Not only do fungal biopesticides provide substantial resistance management gains in the long term, they may also provide greater reductions in transmission before resistance has evolved. This is because fungal spores do not have contact irritancy, reducing the chances that a blood

  11. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  12. Between the Dog and the Divine: Resistance and conventionalism in cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Gordon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the works of Diogenes and Zeno to argue that the cosmopolitan world view remains torn between negation and conformation; between anti-conventional resistance against and super-conventional organization of power. In their separate codes and relations to convention, Diogenes and Zeno expose complementary and conflictual sides of cosmopolitanism: in Diogenes, a challenge to local regimes, and in Zeno a plan for overcoming them; but in Diogenes a political programme that cannot attain its own ends, and in Zeno a political solution that comes unmoored from its foundations. Today, the International Criminal Court combines the two elements of cosmopolitanism in its responses to international crimes. In short, the particular practices of international criminal law and its grand gestures are in tension, undermining the aspiration to a positive programme of justice. We illustrate the tension that results through a discussion of two of the artworks that form the topic of this special issue of the Utrecht Law Review. As a result, the enterprise of international criminal justice, like the cosmopolitan programme that we trace back to Diogenes and Zeno, appears to become self-defeating.

  13. The Medical Activation Analysis Research Programme of the IAEA Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R. M. [Medical Applications Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-07-01

    Analyses carried out under the Agency's laboratory programme in medical activation analysis commended in 1967. This paper describes the laboratory facilities and experimental methods now in use, and reports briefly on results obtained to date. The analytical scheme places greatest emphasis on non-destructive methods (i.e. without radiochemistry), and by the use of a Ge(Li) detector and a 2-parameter Nal(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, presently allows the determination of up to 12 elements in unprocessed tissue samples. Projects completed or underway include (i) an investigation into the uniformity of distribution of mineral elements in human liver, (ii) studies of tissue concentrations of trace elements in relation to malnutrition and cardiovascular diseases, and (iii) the determination of iodine in food, natural waters and other biological materials in relation to the epidemiology of endemic goitre. (author)

  14. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  15. Evaluating disease management programme effectiveness: an introduction to the regression discontinuity design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy

    2006-04-01

    Although disease management (DM) has been in existence for over a decade, there is still much uncertainty as to its effectiveness in improving health status and reducing medical cost. The main reason is that most programme evaluations typically follow weak observational study designs that are subject to bias, most notably selection bias and regression to the mean. The regression discontinuity (RD) design may be the best alternative to randomized studies for evaluating DM programme effectiveness. The most crucial element of the RD design is its use of a 'cut-off' score on a pre-test measure to determine assignment to intervention or control. A valuable feature of this technique is that the pre-test measure does not have to be the same as the outcome measure, thus maximizing the programme's ability to use research-based practice guidelines, survey instruments and other tools to identify those individuals in greatest need of the programme intervention. Similarly, the cut-off score can be based on clinical understanding of the disease process, empirically derived, or resource-based. In the RD design, programme effectiveness is determined by a change in the pre-post relationship at the cut-off point. While the RD design is uniquely suitable for DM programme evaluation, its success will depend, in large part, on fundamental changes being made in the way DM programmes identify and assign individuals to the programme intervention.

  16. A theory evaluation of an induction programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick Hendricks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: An induction programme is commonly used to help new employees understand their job within the organisation. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine whether or not the programme theory of an induction programme was plausible and would lead to the intended outcomes as described by the programme manager. Motivation for the study: Induction training is one of the most common training programmes in an organisation. However, there is little research to evaluate whether or not the activities of an induction programme will lead to the intended outcomes of such a programme. Research design, approach and method: This theory evaluation used a descriptive design. One hundred and thirteen employees of a media company completed a ten-item, five-point Likert scale which measured their perceptions of the programme’s outcome, identification with the organisation and intentions to stay with the organisation. Main findings: From this theory evaluation it was apparent that an induction programme based on an implausible programme theory could be problematic. An implausible programme theory affects the design of the programme activities and unsuitable activities may not deliver the desired outcomes. Practical/managerial implications: The intention of the evaluation is to guide human resource managers through a process of replacing an implausible programme theory with one that is plausible, and which ensures better alignment of programme activities and outcomes. Contribution/value-add: The evaluators showed how a plausible programme theory could improve programme design. This redesigned induction programme may lead to benefits, such as staff retention and company identification, rather than the vague assumption that it has been conforming to a legal obligation.

  17. Practical assessment of the SWMM programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlustik, P.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of the SWMM programme user environment when working with it. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a programme developed by the U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). The SWMM programme is used worldwide to plan, analyse and design rainfall-runoff, combined and separate sanitary sewage systems and other drainage systems in urban areas [1]. The programme is freely available to download from the U.S. EPA website [2].

  18. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olof Selroos; Maciej Kupczyk; Piotr Kuna; Piotr Łacwik; Jean Bousquet; David Brennan; Susanna Palkonen; Javier Contreras; Mark FitzGerald; Gunilla Hedlin; Sebastian L. Johnston; Renaud Louis; Leanne Metcalf; Samantha Walker; Antonio Moreno-Galdó

    2015-01-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorse...

  19. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  20. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes