All optical programmable logic array (PLA)
Hiluf, Dawit
2018-03-01
A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.
Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2012-07-20
Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.
Programmable logic control applied to a coal preparation plant complex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krahenbil, L W
1979-02-01
The programmable Logic Controller (PLC), at its present stage of evolution, is now considered as a mature control system. The PLC combines the solid-state reliability of hard-wired logic and computer control systems with the simplicity of a relay ladder logic. Relay symbolic programming through a function-oriented keyboard provides a means which plant personnel can easily become accoustomed to work with. In a large coal facility, it is shown that the control engineer can provide improved control flexibility with the advanced capabilities of the PLC.
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivani, L.; Murali, N.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.
2014-01-01
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)
Analysis and Implementation of Cryptographic Hash Functions in Programmable Logic Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tautvydas Brukštus
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this day’s world, more and more focused on data pro-tection. For data protection using cryptographic science. It is also important for the safe storage of passwords for this uses a cryp-tographic hash function. In this article has been selected the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function to implement and explore, based on fact that it is now a popular and safe. SHA-256 cryp-tographic function did not find any theoretical gaps or conflict situations. Also SHA-256 cryptographic hash function used cryptographic currencies. Currently cryptographic currency is popular and their value is high. For the measurements have been chosen programmable logic integrated circuits as they less effi-ciency then ASIC. We chose Altera Corporation produced prog-rammable logic integrated circuits. Counting speed will be inves-tigated by three programmable logic integrated circuit. We will use programmable logic integrated circuits belong to the same family, but different generations. Each programmable logic integ-rated circuit made using different dimension technology. Choo-sing these programmable logic integrated circuits: EP3C16, EP4CE115 and 5CSEMA5F31. To compare calculations perfor-mances parameters are provided in the tables and graphs. Re-search show the calculation speed and stability of different prog-rammable logic circuits.
Supervisory control system implemented in programmable logical controller web server
Milavec, Simon
2012-01-01
In this thesis, we study the feasibility of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system realisation in a web server of a programmable logic controller. With the introduction of Ethernet protocol to the area of process control, the more powerful programmable logic controllers obtained integrated web servers. The web server of a programmable logic controller, produced by Siemens, will also be described in this thesis. Firstly, the software and the hardware equipment used for real...
Programmable combinational logic trigger system for high energy particle physics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platner, E.D.
1976-01-01
A fast logic system designed to select predetermined combinations of three hits in three detectors is described. Central to this system is a random access memory IC that was especially designed for this application
Generator of combined logical signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laviron, Andre; Berard, Claude.
1982-01-01
The invention concerns a generator of combined logical signals to form combinations of two outputs at logical level 1 and N-2 outputs at logical level 0, among N generator outputs. This generator is characterized in that it includes a set of N means for storing combinations. Means enable the N storage means to be loaded with the logical levels corresponding to a pre-set starting combination, to control the operations for shifting the contents of the storage means and to control, by transfer facilities, the transfers of contents between these storage means. Controls enable the storage means to be actuated in order to obtain combinations of logical levels 1 and 0. The generation of combinations can be stopped after another pre-set combination. Application is for testing of safety circuits for nuclear power stations [fr
A new fast and programmable trigger logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.
1977-01-01
The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)
Relay Protection and Automation Systems Based on Programmable Logic Integrated Circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashin, A. V.; Kozyrev, A. V.
2015-01-01
One of the most promising forms of developing the apparatus part of relay protection and automation devices is considered. The advantages of choosing programmable logic integrated circuits to obtain adaptive technological algorithms in power system protection and control systems are pointed out. The technical difficulties in the problems which today stand in the way of using relay protection and automation systems are indicated and a new technology for solving these problems is presented. Particular attention is devoted to the possibility of reconfiguring the logic of these devices, using programmable logic integrated circuits
Field-Programmable Logic Devices with Optical Input Output
Szymanski, Ted H.; Saint-Laurent, Martin; Tyan, Victor; Au, Albert; Supmonchai, Boonchuay
2000-02-01
A field-programmable logic device (FPLD) with optical I O is described. FPLD s with optical I O can have their functionality specified in the field by means of downloading a control-bit stream and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as optical signal processing, optical image processing, and optical interconnects. Our device implements six state-of-the-art dynamically programmable logic arrays (PLA s) on a 2 mm 2 mm die. The devices were fabricated through the Lucent Technologies Advanced Research Projects Agency Consortium for Optical and Optoelectronic Technologies in Computing (Lucent ARPA COOP) workshop by use of 0.5- m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor self-electro-optic device technology and were delivered in 1998. All devices are fully functional: The electronic data paths have been verified at 200 MHz, and optical tests are pending. The device has been programmed to implement a two-stage optical switching network with six 4 4 crossbar switches, which can realize more than 190 10 6 unique programmable input output permutations. The same device scaled to a 2 cm 2 cm substrate could support as many as 4000 optical I O and 1 Tbit s of optical I O bandwidth and offer fully programmable digital functionality with approximately 110,000 programmable logic gates. The proposed optoelectronic FPLD is also ideally suited to realizing dense, statically reconfigurable crossbar switches. We describe an attractive application area for such devices: a rearrangeable three-stage optical switch for a wide-area-network backbone, switching 1000 traffic streams at the OC-48 data rate and supporting several terabits of traffic.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Universal programmable logic gate and routing method
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.
Implementation of BES-III TOF trigger system in programmable logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Wei; Liu Shubin; Liu Xuzong; An Qi
2009-01-01
The TOF trigger sub-system on the upgrading Beijing Spectrometer is designed to receive 368 bits fast hit signals from the front end electronics module to yield 7 bits trigger information according to the physical requirement. It sends the processed real time trigger information to the Global-Trigger-Logic to generate the primal trigger signal L1, and sends processed 136 bits real time position information to the Track-Match-Logic to calculate the particle flight tracks. The sub-system also packages the valid events for the DAQ system to read out. Following the reconfigurable concept, a large number of programmable logic devices are employed to increase the flexibility and reliability of the system, and decrease the complexity and the space requirement of PCB layout. This paper describes the implementation of the kernel trigger logic in a programmable logic device. (authors)
Zhu, Yi; Weng, T.; Cheng, Chung-Kuan
2009-01-01
Incorporating programmable logic devices (PLD) in digital design courses has become increasingly popular. The advantages of using PLDs, such as complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), have been discussed before. However, previous studies have focused on the experiences from the point of view of the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Idris Taib; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan
2010-01-01
Reactor Monitoring System is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current monitoring system is using analog system whereby all circuits are discrete circuit and all displays and indicators are not digitalized. The proposed new system will use using a Commercial Off-The-Shelf, state of the art, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system such as Programmable Logic Controller as well as Computer System. The implementations of Programmable Logic Controller are used for Data Acquisition System and as a sub-system for Computer System where all the activities involved are stored for operation record and report as well as use for research purposes. Programmable Logic Controller receives galvanised or optically isolated signal from Reactor Protection System. Programmable Logic Controller also receives signal from other parameters as a digital and analog input related to reactor system. (author)
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Combining Paraconsistent Logic with Argumentation
Grooters, Diana; Prakken, Hendrik
2014-01-01
One tradition in the logical study of argumentation is to allow for arguments that combine strict and defeasible inference rules, and to derive the strict inference rules from a logic at least as strong as classical logic. An unsolved problem in this tradition is how the trivialising effect of the
Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.
Lipsky, Kevin
This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…
Dependable Design Flow for Protection Systems using Programmable Logic Devices
Kwiatkowski, M
2011-01-01
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) are becoming more prevalent in protection and safety-related electronic systems. When employing such programmable logic devices, extra care and attention needs to be taken. The ﬁnal synthesis result, used to generate the bit-stream to program the device, must be shown to meet the design’s requirements. This paper describes how to maximize conﬁdence using techniques such as Formal Methods, exhaustive Hardware Description Language (HDL) code simulation and hardware testing. An example is given for one of the critical functions of the Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system, used in the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. CERN is also working towards an adaptation of the IEC- 61508 lifecycle designed for Machine Protection Systems (MPS), and the High Energy Physics environment, implementation of a protection function in FPGA code is only one small step of this lifecycle. The ultimate aim of this project is to cre...
Programmable logic controllers in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.4)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, S.C.; Bhaskar, R.; Maiti, A.; Venkatesu, G.; Satish, P.; Goel, R.K.
1992-01-01
Enhancement to plant operational flexibility has been achieved in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru by installing programmable logic controllers for its control equipment. The earlier sulfide based Heavy Water Plant, Kota is using relay logic and diode based program-matrix for binary controls. Performance improvement and advantages of PLC and experience in its operation are described. (author). 3 refs
Integrated plant automation using programmable logic controllers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qureshi, S.A.
2002-01-01
In the world of automation the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has became for control. It now not only replaces the earlier relay logic controls but also has taken over many additional control functions. Initially the PLC was used to replace relay logic, but is ever-increasing range of functions means that it is found in many and more complex applications. As the structure of the PLC is based on the same principles as those employed in computer architecture, it is capable of performance not only relay switching tasks, but also other applications such as counting, calculating, comparing and the processing of analogue signals. Due to the simplicity of entering and modifying the programmed instructions to suit the requirements of the process under control, the PLC is truly a versatile and flexible device that can be employed easily and efficiently to repeatedly control tasks that vary in nature and complexes. A photograph of the Siemens S-5 95U. To illustrate the advantage of using a PLC over a traditional relay logic system, consider a control system with 20 input/output points. This assembly could comprise 60-80 relays, some counter/timers and a great deal of wiring. This assembly would be cumbersome with a power consumption of 30-40VA. A considerable time would be required to design, test and commission the assembly and once it is in full working order any desired modification, even of minor nature, could require major hardware changes. (author)
Universal Programmable Logic Controller Software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azhar Shamsudin; Fadil Ismail; Muhammad Nor Atan; Anwar Abdul Rahman
2013-01-01
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is an electronic hardware which is widely used in manufacturing or processing industries. It is also serve as the main control system hardware to run the production and manufacturing process. There are more than ten (10) well known company producing PLC hardware, with their own specialties, including the method of programming and language used. Malaysia Nuclear Agency have various plant and equipment, runs and control by PLC, such as Mintex Sinagama Plant, Alurtron Plant, and few laboratory equipment. Since all the equipment and plant are equipped with various brand or different manufacture of PLC, it creates difficulties to the supporting staff to master the control program. The same problems occur for new application of this hardware, since there no policies to purchase only one specific brand of PLC. (author)
Memristive Perceptron for Combinational Logic Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidan Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The resistance of the memristor depends upon the past history of the input current or voltage; so it can function as synapse in neural networks. In this paper, a novel perceptron combined with the memristor is proposed to implement the combinational logic classification. The relationship between the memristive conductance change and the synapse weight update is deduced, and the memristive perceptron model and its synaptic weight update rule are explored. The feasibility of the novel memristive perceptron for implementing the combinational logic classification (NAND, NOR, XOR, and NXOR is confirmed by MATLAB simulation.
Project-Based Learning in Programmable Logic Controller
Seke, F. R.; Sumilat, J. M.; Kembuan, D. R. E.; Kewas, J. C.; Muchtar, H.; Ibrahim, N.
2018-02-01
Project-based learning is a learning method that uses project activities as the core of learning and requires student creativity in completing the project. The aims of this study is to investigate the influence of project-based learning methods on students with a high level of creativity in learning the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). This study used experimental methods with experimental class and control class consisting of 24 students, with 12 students of high creativity and 12 students of low creativity. The application of project-based learning methods into the PLC courses combined with the level of student creativity enables the students to be directly involved in the work of the PLC project which gives them experience in utilizing PLCs for the benefit of the industry. Therefore, it’s concluded that project-based learning method is one of the superior learning methods to apply on highly creative students to PLC courses. This method can be used as an effort to improve student learning outcomes and student creativity as well as to educate prospective teachers to become reliable educators in theory and practice which will be tasked to create qualified human resources candidates in order to meet future industry needs.
Application of programmable logic controller in nuclear experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponikvar, D.
1991-09-01
The applicability of programmable logic controller (PLC) in nuclear experiments was studied on an example that simulated the monitoring and control of an ion beam in an accelerator. Using infrared and laser light, a comparison was made between the complexity and suitability of PLC compared to a setup using a personal computer. The experiments are described in detail. The routines for registration of signals from appropriate sensors and for control of the stepper monitor were written in quick BASIC. (author). 5 figs
The Programmable Logic Controller and its application in nuclear reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palomar, J.; Wyman, R.
1993-09-01
This document provides recommendations to guide reviewers in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) to the control, monitoring and protection of nuclear reactors. The first topics addressed are system-level design issues, specifically including safety. The document then discusses concerns about the PLC manufacturing organization and the protection system engineering organization. Supplementing this document are two appendices. Appendix A summarizes PLC characteristics. Specifically addressed are those characteristics that make the PLC more suitable for emergency shutdown systems than other electrical/electronic-based systems, as well as characteristics that improve reliability of a system. Also covered are PLC characteristics that may create an unsafe operating environment. Appendix B provides an overview of the use of programmable logic controllers in emergency shutdown systems. The intent is to familiarize the reader with the design, development, test, and maintenance phases of applying a PLC to an ESD system. Each phase is described in detail and information pertinent to the application of a PLC is pointed out
The Programmable Logic Controller and its application in nuclear reactor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palomar, J.; Wyman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1993-09-01
This document provides recommendations to guide reviewers in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) to the control, monitoring and protection of nuclear reactors. The first topics addressed are system-level design issues, specifically including safety. The document then discusses concerns about the PLC manufacturing organization and the protection system engineering organization. Supplementing this document are two appendices. Appendix A summarizes PLC characteristics. Specifically addressed are those characteristics that make the PLC more suitable for emergency shutdown systems than other electrical/electronic-based systems, as well as characteristics that improve reliability of a system. Also covered are PLC characteristics that may create an unsafe operating environment. Appendix B provides an overview of the use of programmable logic controllers in emergency shutdown systems. The intent is to familiarize the reader with the design, development, test, and maintenance phases of applying a PLC to an ESD system. Each phase is described in detail and information pertinent to the application of a PLC is pointed out.
Roles of programmable logic controllers in fuel reprocessing plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, Hrishikesh; Balakrishnan, V.P.; Pandya, G.J.
1999-01-01
Fuel charging facility is another application of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) in fuel reprocessing plants, that involves automatic operation of fuel cask dolly, charging motor, pneumatic doors, clutches, clamps, stepper motors and rod pushers in a pre-determined sequence. Block diagram of ACF system is given for underlining the scope of control and interlocks requirements involved for automation of the fuel charging system has been provided for the purpose at KARP Plant, Kalpakkam
Programmable logic controller optical fibre sensor interface module
Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven
2011-12-01
Most automated industrial processes use Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for automated control. PLCs tend to be more common as they have much of the functionality of DCSs, although they are generally cheaper to install and maintain. PLCs in conjunction with a human machine interface form the basis of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, combined with communication infrastructure and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). RTU's basically convert different sensor measurands in to digital data that is sent back to the PLC or supervisory system. Optical fibre sensors are becoming more common in industrial processes because of their many advantageous properties. Being small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, means they are an ideal solution for a variety of diverse sensing applications. Here, we have developed a PLC Optical Fibre Sensor Interface Module (OFSIM), in which an optical fibre is connected directly to the OFSIM located next to the PLC. The embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors, are highly sensitive and can detect a number of different measurands such as temperature, pressure and strain without the need for a power supply.
Final Report and Documentation for the PLD11 Multipurpose Programmable Logic VME Board Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.; Tarman, Thomas D.; Witzke, Edward L.
1999-01-01
The PLD11 board is a 9U VME board containing 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices, controlled impedance clock tree, VME interface, programming inteface, 0C3 (155 Mbps) interface and serial port. The 11 Altera 10K100 Programmable Logic Devices arranged to provide four 96 bit wide buses for a total of 384 parallel digital data lines in and out of the board that can operate up to 100 Mhz for a aggrigate throughput of 38.4 Gpbs. The 14.44'' X 15.75'' board has over 1.1 million programmable gates that can be programmed through a serial interace. The board contains a clock reference and 50 ohm clock distribution tree that can drive each of the eleven 10K100 devices with two critically timed clock references. Five external clock references can be used to drive five additional PLD 11 boards for a total of six boards operating all from the same synchronous clock reference. A system of six boards provides just under 7 million programmable gates
A multi-channel scaler designed with programmable logic device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yongjie; Li Cheng; Xing Tao; Zhang Junjie
2004-01-01
This scaler used programmable logic device is a design for the electronics of telescope system of the beam. The scaler can scale 30 ECL inputs at the same time. With the EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) modes of the Parallel Port, the transmitted rate of data is 2 MB/s. This scaler can be used in the position system of MWPC (Multi-Wires Proportional Chamber). Tested with particles of 5 x 10 3 /s, the scaler gives a credible and stable result. (authors)
Introducing Programmable Logic to Undergraduate Engineering Students in a Digital Electronics Course
Todorovich, E.; Marone, J. A.; Vazquez, M.
2012-01-01
Due to significant technological advances and industry requirements, many universities have introduced programmable logic and hardware description languages into undergraduate engineering curricula. This has led to a number of logistical and didactical challenges, in particular for computer science students. In this paper, the integration of some…
Performance Testing Methodology for Safety-Critical Programmable Logic Controller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chang Ho; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ho; Sohn, Se Do
2009-01-01
The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for use in Nuclear Power Plant safety-related applications is being developed and tested first time in Korea. This safety-related PLC is being developed with requirements of regulatory guideline and industry standards for safety system. To test that the quality of the developed PLC is sufficient to be used in safety critical system, document review and various product testings were performed over the development documents for S/W, H/W, and V/V. This paper provides the performance testing methodology and its effectiveness for PLC platform conducted by KOPEC
K-maps: a vehicle to an optimal solution in combinational logic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
K-maps: a vehicle to an optimal solution in combinational logic design problems using digital multiplexers. ... Abstract. Application of Karnaugh maps (K-Maps) for the design of combinational logic circuits and sequential logic circuits is a subject that has been widely discussed. However, the use of K-Maps in the design of ...
Programmable Logic Controllers for Systems of Automatic of the Level Crossing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The railway crossings are vulnerable to incidence of high number of accidents often deadly. In order to face this problem, the modern systems of automatic of the level crossing have been introduced. These systems are based on Programmable Logic Controllers, which allow the designers to exploit self-control mechanisms, events acquiring, technical diagnostic which in turn enable remote control and acquisition of faults.
A Project-Based Learning Approach to Programmable Logic Design and Computer Architecture
Kellett, C. M.
2012-01-01
This paper describes a course in programmable logic design and computer architecture as it is taught at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The course is designed around a major design project and has two supplemental assessment tasks that are also described. The context of the Computer Engineering degree program within which the course is…
Broadband slow light in one-dimensional logically combined photonic crystals.
Alagappan, G; Png, C E
2015-01-28
Here, we demonstrate the broadband slow light effects in a new family of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are obtained by logically combining two photonic crystals of slightly different periods. The logical combination slowly destroys the original translational symmetries of the individual photonic crystals. Consequently, the Bloch modes of the individual photonic crystals with different wavevectors couple with each other, creating a vast number of slow modes. Specifically, we describe a photonic crystal architecture that results from a logical "OR" mixture of two one dimensional photonic crystals with a periods ratio of r = R/(R - 1), where R > 2 is an integer. Such a logically combined architecture, exhibits a broad region of frequencies in which a dense number of slow modes with varnishing group velocities, appear naturally as Bloch modes.
Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Tufoi
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.
Complex programmable logic device based alarm sequencer for nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khedkar, Ravindra; Solomon, J. Selva; KrishnaKumar, B.
2001-01-01
Complex Programmable Logic Device based Alarm Sequencer is an instrument, which detects alarms, memorizes them and displays the sequences of occurrence of alarms. It caters to sixteen alarm signals and distinguishes the sequence among any two alarms with a time resolution of 1 ms. The system described has been designed for continuous operation in process plants, nuclear power plants etc. The system has been tested and found to be working satisfactorily. (author)
Emergency Diesel: Safety-related instrumentation and control with programmable logic controllers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breidenich, G.; Luedtke, M.
2004-01-01
This report presents a new concept for the design of emergency diesel equipment protection circuits as a part of the safety related instrumentation in the nuclear power plant Biblis, units A and B. The concept was implemented with state of the art SIMATIC S7/316 programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and can be adapted to any system with high availability requirements (e.g. power plant turbines, aircraft engines, mining pumps etc). (orig.)
Stealth low-level manipulation of programmable logic controllers I/O by pin control exploitation
Abbasi, A.; Hashemi, M.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Havarneanu, G.; Setola, R.; Nassopoulos, H.; Wolthusen, S.
2016-01-01
Input/OutputisthemechanismthroughwhichProgrammable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interact with and control the outside world. Particularly when employed in critical infrastructures, the I/O of PLCs has to be both reliable and secure. PLCs I/O like other embedded devices are controlled by a pin based
Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Sasao, Tsutomu; Matsuura, Munehiro; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Yoshizumi, Kenichi; Nakahara, Hiroki; Iguchi, Yukihiro
2006-04-01
A large-scale memory-technology-based programmable logic device (PLD) using a look-up table (LUT) cascade is developed in the 0.35-μm standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process. Eight 64 K-bit synchronous SRAMs are connected to form an LUT cascade with a few additional circuits. The features of the LUT cascade include: 1) a flexible cascade connection structure, 2) multi phase pseudo asynchronous operations with synchronous static random access memory (SRAM) cores, and 3) LUT-bypass redundancy. This chip operates at 33 MHz in 8-LUT cascades at 122 mW. Benchmark results show that it achieves a comparable performance to field programmable gate array (FPGAs).
Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping
2005-01-01
The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)
Ghost in the PLC: stealth on-the-fly manipulation of programmable logic controllers’ I/O
Abbasi, Ali
2016-01-01
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are a family of embedded devices used for physical process control. Similar to other embedded devices, PLCs are vulnerable to cyber attacks. Because they are used to control the physical processes of critical infrastructures, compromised PLCs constitute a
Logic-based methods for optimization combining optimization and constraint satisfaction
Hooker, John
2011-01-01
A pioneering look at the fundamental role of logic in optimization and constraint satisfaction While recent efforts to combine optimization and constraint satisfaction have received considerable attention, little has been said about using logic in optimization as the key to unifying the two fields. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization develops for the first time a comprehensive conceptual framework for integrating optimization and constraint satisfaction, then goes a step further and shows how extending logical inference to optimization allows for more powerful as well as flexible
Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janda Žarko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.
Programmable Array Logic Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal
2007-01-01
Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)
Peptide Logic Circuits Based on Chemoenzymatic Ligation for Programmable Cell Apoptosis.
Li, Yong; Sun, Sujuan; Fan, Lin; Hu, Shanfang; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhou
2017-11-20
A novel and versatile peptide-based bio-logic system capable of regulating cell function is developed using sortase A (SrtA), a peptide ligation enzyme, as a generic processor. By modular peptide design, we demonstrate that mammalian cells apoptosis can be programmed by peptide-based logic operations, including binary and combination gates (AND, INHIBIT, OR, and AND-INHIBIT), and a complex sequential logic circuit (multi-input keypad lock). Moreover, a proof-of-concept peptide regulatory circuit was developed to analyze the expression profile of cell-secreted protein biomarkers and trigger cancer-cell-specific apoptosis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Programmable - logic equipment for ultrasound periodic inspections of reactor pressure vessels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haniger, L.
1980-01-01
Two alternatives are presented of programmable logic corresponding to the 2nd generation of the apparatus for performing periodic ultrasonic inspections of power reactor pressure vessels and a solution is outlined of inspecting the circumferential weld on the pressure vessel head. The apparatus will allow using any measuring head taken into consideration for operational inspection. Command words are taken from a punched type reader. Czechoslovak made RAM memories are used. The algorithm of instrument function is supposed to be controlled by a microprocessor as soon as necessary preconditions for this technology are created in Czechoslovakia
Regulatory issues on using programmable logic device in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, G. Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kwon, Y. I.; Park, H. S.; Jeong, C. H.
2012-01-01
For replacing obsolete analog equipment in nuclear power plant, the Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) using Hardware Description Language (HDL) have been widely adopted in digitalized Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems because of its flexibility. For safety reviews on Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs,) qualifying digitalized safety I and C system using PLDs is an important issue. As an effort to provide regulatory position on using PLDs in safety I and C system, there is a research project to provide the regulatory positions against emerging issues involved with digitalisation of I and C system including using PLDs. Therefore, this paper addresses the important considerations for using PLDs in safety I and C systems such as diversity, independence and qualification, etc. In this point, this study focuses on technical reports for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from EPRI,. U.S. NRC, and relevant technical standards
Regulatory issues on using programmable logic device in nuclear power plants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, G. Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kwon, Y. I.; Park, H. S.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
For replacing obsolete analog equipment in nuclear power plant, the Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) using Hardware Description Language (HDL) have been widely adopted in digitalized Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems because of its flexibility. For safety reviews on Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs,) qualifying digitalized safety I and C system using PLDs is an important issue. As an effort to provide regulatory position on using PLDs in safety I and C system, there is a research project to provide the regulatory positions against emerging issues involved with digitalisation of I and C system including using PLDs. Therefore, this paper addresses the important considerations for using PLDs in safety I and C systems such as diversity, independence and qualification, etc. In this point, this study focuses on technical reports for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) from EPRI,. U.S. NRC, and relevant technical standards.
Development of Single-Event Upset hardened programmable logic devices in deep submicron CMOS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonacini, S.
2007-11-01
The electronics associated to the particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will operate in a very harsh radiation environment. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components cannot be used in the vicinity of particle collision due to their poor radiation tolerance. This thesis is a contribution to the effort to cover the need for radiation-tolerant SEU-robust (Single Event Upset) programmable components for application in high energy physics experiments. Two components are under development: a Programmable Logic Device (PLD) and a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The PLD is a fuse-based, 10-input, 8-I/O general architecture device in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The FPGA under development is a 32*32 logic block array, equivalent to ∼ 25 k gates, in 0.13 μm CMOS. The irradiation test results obtained in the CMOS 0.25 μm technology demonstrate good robustness of the circuit up to an LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 79.6 cm 2 *MeV/mg, which make it suitable for the target environment. The CMOS 0.13 μm circuit has showed robustness to an LET of 37.4 cm 2 *MeV/mg in the static test mode and has increased sensitivity in the dynamic test mode. This work focused also on the research for an SEU-robust register in both the mentioned technologies. The SEU-robust register is employed as a user data flip-flop in the FPGA and PLD designs and as a configuration cell as well in the FPGA design
Reversible arithmetic logic unit for quantum arithmetic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert; Axelsen, Holger Bock
2010-01-01
This communication presents the complete design of a reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The presented ALU is garbage free and uses reversible updates to combine the standard reversible arithmetic...... and logical operations in one unit. Combined with a suitable control unit, the ALU permits the construction of an r-Turing complete computing device. The garbage-free ALU developed in this communication requires only 6n elementary reversible gates for five basic arithmetic-logical operations on two n......-bit operands and does not use ancillae. This remarkable low resource consumption was achieved by generalizing the V-shape design first introduced for quantum ripple-carry adders and nesting multiple V-shapes in a novel integrated design. This communication shows that the realization of an efficient reversible...
Project W-058 monitor and control system logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ROBERTS, J.B.
1999-01-01
This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console
Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KOCH, M.R.
1999-01-01
This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309/Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis
Local and Remote Laboratory User Experimentation Access using Digital Programmable Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian A Grout
2005-06-01
Full Text Available This paper will discuss the structure and operation of a programmable logic based experimentation arrangement that is suitable for both local and remote teaching and learning scenarios targeting electronic and microelectronic circuit design and test principles. With this experimentation arrangement, the ability to provide both local and Internet based Ã¢Â€ÂœremoteÃ¢Â€Â access for the student and the teacher can provide a number of advantages where physical laboratory accessibility is limited and/or the learning experience must be undertaken with one or more of the parties remotely based. The paper concentrates on the design and example use of a system developed within the University of Limerick.
Universal file processing program for field programmable integrated circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freytag, D.R.; Nelson, D.J.
1985-01-01
A computer program is presented that translates logic equations into promburner files (or the reverse) for programmable logic devices of various kinds, namely PROMs FPLAs, FPLSs and PALs. The program achieves flexibility through the use of a database containing detailed information about the devices to be programmed. New devices can thus be accommodated through simple extensions of the database. When writing logic equations, the user can define logic combinations of signals as new logic variables for use in subsequent equations. This procedure yields compact and transparent expressions for logic operations, thus reducing the chances for error. A logic simulation program is also provided so that an independent check of the design can be performed at the software level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahiska, Rasit; Mamur, Hayati
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A new TEG test measurement system with the PLC has been carried out. ► A new SCADA program has been written and tested for the test measurement system. ► An operator panel has been used for monitoring to the instant TEG data. ► All of the measurement data of TEG have been aggregated in the system. - Abstract: In this study, a new test measurement system and supervisory control and data acquisition application with programmable logic controller has been carried out to be enable the collection of the data of thermoelectric generator for the usage of thermoelectric modules as thermoelectric generator. During the production of the electric energy from the thermoelectric generator, the temperatures of the surfaces of the thermoelectric generator, current–voltage values obtained from output of the thermoelectric generator, hot and cold flows have been measured by the newly established system instantly. All these data have been monitored continuously from the computer and recorded by a supervisory control and data acquisition program. At the same time, in environments where there was no computer, an operator panel with the ability to communicate with the programmable logic controller has been added for the monitoring of the instant thermoelectric generator data. All of the measurement data of the thermoelectric generator have been aggregated in the new test measurement and supervisory control and data acquisition system. The setup test measurement system has been implemented on the thermoelectric generator system with about 10 W. Thermoelectric generators, Altec-GM-1 brand-coded have been examined by the new proposed test measurement system and the values of maximum power and thermoelectric generator efficiency were calculated by the programmable logic controller. When the obtained results were compared with the datasheets, the relative error for the maximum power was around 4% and the value for efficiency was below 3%.
Programmable logic controller (PLC) for safety systems of nuclear plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, S.K.; Karmakar, G.; Joseph, Jose; Patil, R.K.
2002-01-01
Full text: A programmable logic controller (PLC) has been developed by RCnD, BARC for use in the safety critical systems in nuclear power plants. This PLC uses qualified hardware developed in RCnD for use in NPP. The programming software conforms to IEC-61131 part 3. The application programming is done on function block diagram (FBD) editor and the FBD is automatically converted into code in high level language (C / C++). This feature makes the application easily decipherable and therefore easily subjected to reviews and other validation techniques. The key to make quality software for use in nuclear systems is to enforce various standards in the design and development of the software, something, which is not possible to do with a commercially available PLC. This PLC with its software completely transparent lends itself to rigorous verification and validation easily
Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.
Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud
2009-10-01
Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.
Design Techniques for Power-Aware Combinational Logic SER Mitigation
Mahatme, Nihaar N.
The history of modern semiconductor devices and circuits suggests that technologists have been able to maintain scaling at the rate predicted by Moore's Law [Moor-65]. With improved performance, speed and lower area, technology scaling has also exacerbated reliability issues such as soft errors. Soft errors are transient errors that occur in microelectronic circuits due to ionizing radiation particle strikes on reverse biased semiconductor junctions. These radiation induced errors at the terrestrial-level are caused due to radiation particle strikes by (1) alpha particles emitted as decay products of packing material (2) cosmic rays that produce energetic protons and neutrons, and (3) thermal neutrons [Dodd-03], [Srou-88] and more recently muons and electrons [Ma-79] [Nara-08] [Siew-10] [King-10]. In the space environment radiation induced errors are a much bigger threat and are mainly caused by cosmic heavy-ions, protons etc. The effects of radiation exposure on circuits and measures to protect against them have been studied extensively for the past 40 years, especially for parts operating in space. Radiation particle strikes can affect memory as well as combinational logic. Typically when these particles strike semiconductor junctions of transistors that are part of feedback structures such as SRAM memory cells or flip-flops, it can lead to an inversion of the cell content. Such a failure is formally called a bit-flip or single-event upset (SEU). When such particles strike sensitive junctions part of combinational logic gates they produce transient voltage spikes or glitches called single-event transients (SETs) that could be latched by receiving flip-flops. As the circuits are clocked faster, there are more number of clocking edges which increases the likelihood of latching these transients. In older technology generations the probability of errors in flip-flops due to SETs being latched was much lower compared to direct strikes on flip-flops or SRAMs leading to
Kneale, Dylan; Thomas, James; Harris, Katherine
2015-01-01
Logic models are becoming an increasingly common feature of systematic reviews, as is the use of programme theory more generally in systematic reviewing. Logic models offer a framework to help reviewers to 'think' conceptually at various points during the review, and can be a useful tool in defining study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy, identifying relevant outcomes, identifying mediating and moderating factors, and communicating review findings. In this paper we critique the use of logic models in systematic reviews and protocols drawn from two databases representing reviews of health interventions and international development interventions. Programme theory featured only in a minority of the reviews and protocols included. Despite drawing from different disciplinary traditions, reviews and protocols from both sources shared several limitations in their use of logic models and theories of change, and these were used almost unanimously to solely depict pictorially the way in which the intervention worked. Logic models and theories of change were consequently rarely used to communicate the findings of the review. Logic models have the potential to be an aid integral throughout the systematic reviewing process. The absence of good practice around their use and development may be one reason for the apparent limited utility of logic models in many existing systematic reviews. These concerns are addressed in the second half of this paper, where we offer a set of principles in the use of logic models and an example of how we constructed a logic model for a review of school-based asthma interventions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.
2010-01-01
Programmable Logic Device (PLD), especially Complex PLD (CPLD) or Field Programmable Logic Array (FPGA), has been growing in interest in nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) applications. PLD has been applied to replace an obsolete analog device or old-fashioned microprocessor, or to develop digital controller, subsystem or overall system on hardware aspects. This is the main reason why the PLD-based I and C design provides higher flexibility than the analog-based one, and the PLD-based I and C systems shows better real-time performance than the processor-based I and C systems. Due to the development of the PLD-based I and C systems, their nuclear qualification has been issued in the nuclear industry. Verification and Validation (V and V) is one of necessary qualification activities when a Hardware Description Language (HDL) is used to implement functions of the PLD-based I and C systems. The life cycle V and V process, described in this paper, has been defined as satisfying the nuclear V and V requirements, and it has been applied to verify Correctness, Completeness, and Consistency (3C) among design outputs in a safety-grade programmable logic controller and a safety-critical data communication system. Especially, software engineering techniques such as the Fagan Inspection, formal verification, simulated verification and automated testing have been defined for the life cycle V and V tasks of behavioral, structural, and physical design in VHDL
Combining fuzzy mathematics with fuzzy logic to solve business management problems
Vrba, Joseph A.
1993-12-01
Fuzzy logic technology has been applied to control problems with great success. Because of this, many observers fell that fuzzy logic is applicable only in the control arena. However, business management problems almost never deal with crisp values. Fuzzy systems technology--a combination of fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics and a graphical user interface--is a natural fit for developing software to assist in typical business activities such as planning, modeling and estimating. This presentation discusses how fuzzy logic systems can be extended through the application of fuzzy mathematics and the use of a graphical user interface to make the information contained in fuzzy numbers accessible to business managers. As demonstrated through examples from actual deployed systems, this fuzzy systems technology has been employed successfully to provide solutions to the complex real-world problems found in the business environment.
General purpose programmable accelerator board
Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.
2001-01-01
A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowell, J.L.; Akers, J.C.
1995-01-01
The system this document describes controls several functions of the Core Sample Truck(s) used to obtain nuclear waste samples from various underground storage tanks at Hanford. The system will monitor the sampling process and provide alarms and other feedback to insure the sampling process is performed within the prescribed operating envelope. The intended audience for this document is anyone associated with rotary or push mode core sampling. This document describes the Alarm and Control logic installed on Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) number-sign 2, 3, and 4. It is intended to define the particular requirements of the RMCST alarm and control operation (not defined elsewhere) sufficiently for detailed design to implement on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Logic-programming language enriches design processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.
1984-03-22
With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.
Optically controllable molecular logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun
2015-01-01
Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
WHITE, K.A.
2000-01-01
This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309/Rev.1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis
Reliability concerns with logical constants in Xilinx FPGA designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ostler, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Greg [JPL; Swift, Gary [XILINX; Tseng, Chen W [XILINX
2009-01-01
In Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays logical constants, which ground unused inputs and provide constants for designs, are implemented in SEU-susceptible logic. In the past, these logical constants have been shown to cause the user circuit to output bad data and were not resetable through off-line rcconfiguration. In the more recent devices, logical constants are less problematic, though mitigation should still be considered for high reliability applications. In conclusion, we have presented a number of reliability concerns with logical constants in the Xilinx Virtex family. There are two main categories of logical constants: implicit and explicit logical constants. In all of the Virtex devices, the implicit logical constants are implemented using half latches, which in the most recent devices are several orders of magnitudes smaller than configuration bit cells. Explicit logical constants are implemented exclusively using constant LUTs in the Virtex-I and Virtex-II, and use a combination of constant LUTs and architectural posts to the ground plane in the Virtex-4. We have also presented mitigation methods and options for these devices. While SEUs in implicit and some types of explicit logical constants can cause data corrupt, the chance of failure from these components is now much smaller than it was in the Virtex-I device. Therefore, for many cases, mitigation might not be necessary, except under extremely high reliability situations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonacini, S
2007-11-15
The electronics associated to the particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will operate in a very harsh radiation environment. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components cannot be used in the vicinity of particle collision due to their poor radiation tolerance. This thesis is a contribution to the effort to cover the need for radiation-tolerant SEU-robust (Single Event Upset) programmable components for application in high energy physics experiments. Two components are under development: a Programmable Logic Device (PLD) and a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The PLD is a fuse-based, 10-input, 8-I/O general architecture device in 0.25 {mu}m CMOS technology. The FPGA under development is a 32*32 logic block array, equivalent to {approx} 25 k gates, in 0.13 {mu}m CMOS. The irradiation test results obtained in the CMOS 0.25 {mu}m technology demonstrate good robustness of the circuit up to an LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 79.6 cm{sup 2}*MeV/mg, which make it suitable for the target environment. The CMOS 0.13 {mu}m circuit has showed robustness to an LET of 37.4 cm{sup 2}*MeV/mg in the static test mode and has increased sensitivity in the dynamic test mode. This work focused also on the research for an SEU-robust register in both the mentioned technologies. The SEU-robust register is employed as a user data flip-flop in the FPGA and PLD designs and as a configuration cell as well in the FPGA design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Ung Soo
1997-02-01
The dynamic safety system (DSS) is a computer based reactor protection system that has dynamic self-testing feature and fail-safe nature inherently. The inherent dynamic self-testing feature and fail-safe design provide a high level of reliability and low spurious trip rate. We can also reduce the time and human efforts to maintain the system by virtue of those features. Therefore, the application of the DSS to PWR has many advantages. The DSS has been applied only to advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) in the UK. In order to apply the DSS for PWR, the DSS has to be modified because there exist many differences between PWR and AGR for which the DSS was tested and installed. These differences are trip algorithms, monitored parameters, trip logics, and other conditions. In this study, the DSS algorithm is modified for PWR first. The modified DSS has several new features : 1) The modified DSS tests and processes time-dependent parameters, while the original DSS does not. 2) It has flexibility for handling several types of voting logic but the original DSS handles the only one type of voting - 2 out of 4 coincidence logic. Then, in this study, the modified DSS is implemented in programmable logic controller (PLC) using the ladder logic. Finally, the modified DSS is tested in two ways in this work : 1) The manual test is performed using direct input through the human computer interface (HCI) system. 2) The scenario based test is performed using input from the FISA-2/WS simulator. From the test results, it is shown that the modified DSS operates correctly in all conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, B.A.
1983-01-01
The Elmo Bumpy Torus - Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) device is designed with an instrumentation and control system based upon the use of an advanced Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The modern PLC incorporates many advanced programming features not available in earlier PLC's intended for application to conventional relay logic replacement. The additional power and flexibility of these modern PLC's is especially applicable to an experimental device such as EBT-P which is made up of several complex interrelated subsystems whose operational characteristics will be evolving throughout the lifetime of the device. The rationale for the selection of advanced PLC's for EBT-P and the approach taken to design of the software developed to control EBT-P are the topics addressed in this paper
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Introduction to fuzzy logic using Matlab
Sivanandam, SN; Deepa, S N
2006-01-01
Fuzzy Logic, at present is a hot topic, among academicians as well various programmers. This book is provided to give a broad, in-depth overview of the field of Fuzzy Logic. The basic principles of Fuzzy Logic are discussed in detail with various solved examples. The different approaches and solutions to the problems given in the book are well balanced and pertinent to the Fuzzy Logic research projects. The applications of Fuzzy Logic are also dealt to make the readers understand the concept of Fuzzy Logic. The solutions to the problems are programmed using MATLAB 6.0 and the simulated results are given. The MATLAB Fuzzy Logic toolbox is provided for easy reference.
Rodríguez, Manuel; Magdaleno, Eduardo; Pérez, Fernando; García, Cristhian
2017-03-28
Non-equispaced Fast Fourier transform (NFFT) is a very important algorithm in several technological and scientific areas such as synthetic aperture radar, computational photography, medical imaging, telecommunications, seismic analysis and so on. However, its computation complexity is high. In this paper, we describe an efficient NFFT implementation with a hardware coprocessor using an All-Programmable System-on-Chip (APSoC). This is a hybrid device that employs an Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) as Processing System with Programmable Logic for high-performance digital signal processing through parallelism and pipeline techniques. The algorithm has been coded in C language with pragma directives to optimize the architecture of the system. We have used the very novel Software Develop System-on-Chip (SDSoC) evelopment tool that simplifies the interface and partitioning between hardware and software. This provides shorter development cycles and iterative improvements by exploring several architectures of the global system. The computational results shows that hardware acceleration significantly outperformed the software based implementation.
Design of digital logic control for accelerator magnet power supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Fengli; Hu Wei; Cheng Jian
2008-01-01
For the accelerator magnet power supply, usually the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used to server as the controller for logic protection and control. Along with the development of modern accelerator technology, it is a trend to use fully-digital control to the magnet power supply. It is possible to integrate the logic control part into the digital control component of the power supply, for example, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The paper introduces to different methods which are designed for the logic protection and control for accelerator magnet power supplies with the FPGA as the control component. (authors)
Transforming equality logic to propositional logic
Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.
2003-01-01
Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...
Reconfigurable logic via gate controlled domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structure
Murapaka, C.; Sethi, P.; Goolaup, S.; Lew, W. S.
2016-01-01
An all-magnetic logic scheme has the advantages of being non-volatile and energy efficient over the conventional transistor based logic devices. In this work, we present a reconfigurable magnetic logic device which is capable of performing all basic logic operations in a single device. The device exploits the deterministic trajectory of domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic asymmetric branch structure for obtaining different output combinations. The programmability of the device is achieved by using a current-controlled magnetic gate, which generates a local Oersted field. The field generated at the magnetic gate influences the trajectory of the DW within the structure by exploiting its inherent transverse charge distribution. DW transformation from vortex to transverse configuration close to the output branch plays a pivotal role in governing the DW chirality and hence the output. By simply switching the current direction through the magnetic gate, two universal logic gate functionalities can be obtained in this device. Using magnetic force microscopy imaging and magnetoresistance measurements, all basic logic functionalities are demonstrated. PMID:26839036
Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom
Nordquist, Christopher D [Albuquerque, NM; Czaplewski, David A [Albuquerque, NM
2010-05-18
A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing
Luo, Zhaochu
2016-11-16
In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.
Reconfigurable Magnetic Logic Combined with Nonvolatile Memory Writing
Luo, Zhaochu; Lu, Ziyao; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhu, Tao; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhang, Xiaozhong
2016-01-01
In the magnetic logic, four basic Boolean logic operations can be programmed by a magnetic bit at room temperature with a high output ratio (>103%). In the same clock cycle, benefiting from the built-in spin Hall effect, logic results can be directly written into magnetic bits using an all-electric method.
PID Neural Network Based Speed Control of Asynchronous Motor Using Programmable Logic Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MARABA, V. A.
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the structure and characteristics of PID Neural Network controller for single input and single output systems. PID Neural Network is a new kind of controller that includes the advantages of artificial neural networks and classic PID controller. Functioning of this controller is based on the update of controller parameters according to the value extracted from system output pursuant to the rules of back propagation algorithm used in artificial neural networks. Parameters obtained from the application of PID Neural Network training algorithm on the speed model of the asynchronous motor exhibiting second order linear behavior were used in the real time speed control of the motor. Programmable logic controller (PLC was used as real time controller. The real time control results show that reference speed successfully maintained under various load conditions.
Process Monitoring by combining several signal-analysis results using fuzzy logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoonwelle, H.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E.
1996-01-01
In order to improve reliability in detecting anomalies in nuclear power plant performance, a method is presented which is based on acquiring various characteristics of signal data using autoregressive, wavelet and fractal-analysis techniques. These characteristics are combined using a decision making approach based on fuzzy logic. This approach is able to detect and distinguish several system states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, E.M.; Stofko, M.J.
1995-03-01
This report describes the implementation and experience with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for nuclear safety applications. Two applications are described. The first is an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) mitigation system provided as a Diverse Auxiliary Feedwater Actuation System (DAFAS). It was implemented at Arizona Public Service's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station and has been in commercial operation since early 1992. The second system described is an Emergency Diesel Generator Bus Load Sequencer installed at Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant. This system was installed as part of an upgrade to the emergency power system in 1988. The experience gained in the design, development, implementation and qualification of these systems will be beneficial to utilities that are considering the utilization of PLCs for their plant applications
Engineered modular biomaterial logic gates for environmentally triggered therapeutic delivery
Badeau, Barry A.; Comerford, Michael P.; Arakawa, Christopher K.; Shadish, Jared A.; Deforest, Cole A.
2018-03-01
The successful transport of drug- and cell-based therapeutics to diseased sites represents a major barrier in the development of clinical therapies. Targeted delivery can be mediated through degradable biomaterial vehicles that utilize disease biomarkers to trigger payload release. Here, we report a modular chemical framework for imparting hydrogels with precise degradative responsiveness by using multiple environmental cues to trigger reactions that operate user-programmable Boolean logic. By specifying the molecular architecture and connectivity of orthogonal stimuli-labile moieties within material cross-linkers, we show selective control over gel dissolution and therapeutic delivery. To illustrate the versatility of this methodology, we synthesized 17 distinct stimuli-responsive materials that collectively yielded all possible YES/OR/AND logic outputs from input combinations involving enzyme, reductant and light. Using these hydrogels we demonstrate the first sequential and environmentally stimulated release of multiple cell lines in well-defined combinations from a material. We expect these platforms will find utility in several diverse fields including drug delivery, diagnostics and regenerative medicine.
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turek, M.; Heiden, W.; Riesen, A.; Chhabda, T.A.; Schubert, J.; Zander, W.; Krueger, P.; Keusgen, M.; Schoening, M.J.
2009-01-01
The cross-sensitivity of chemical sensors for several metal ions resembles in a way the overlapping sensitivity of some biological sensors, like the optical colour receptors of human retinal cone cells. While it is difficult to assign crisp classification values to measurands based on complex overlapping sensory signals, fuzzy logic offers a possibility to mathematically model such systems. Current work goes into the direction of mixed heavy metal solutions and the combination of fuzzy logic with heavy metal-sensitive, silicon-based chemical sensors for training scenarios of arbitrary sensor/probe combinations in terms of an electronic tongue. Heavy metals play an important role in environmental analysis. As trace elements as well as water impurities released from industrial processes they occur in the environment. In this work, the development of a new fuzzy logic method based on potentiometric measurements performed with three different miniaturised chalcogenide glass sensors in different heavy metal solutions will be presented. The critical validation of the developed fuzzy logic program will be demonstrated by means of measurements in unknown single- and multi-component heavy metal solutions. Limitations of this program and a comparison between calculated and expected values in terms of analyte composition and heavy metal ion concentration will be shown and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turek, M. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Heiden, W.; Riesen, A. [Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Sankt Augustin (Germany); Chhabda, T.A. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Schubert, J.; Zander, W. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Krueger, P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Keusgen, M. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: m.j.schoening@fz-juelich.de
2009-10-30
The cross-sensitivity of chemical sensors for several metal ions resembles in a way the overlapping sensitivity of some biological sensors, like the optical colour receptors of human retinal cone cells. While it is difficult to assign crisp classification values to measurands based on complex overlapping sensory signals, fuzzy logic offers a possibility to mathematically model such systems. Current work goes into the direction of mixed heavy metal solutions and the combination of fuzzy logic with heavy metal-sensitive, silicon-based chemical sensors for training scenarios of arbitrary sensor/probe combinations in terms of an electronic tongue. Heavy metals play an important role in environmental analysis. As trace elements as well as water impurities released from industrial processes they occur in the environment. In this work, the development of a new fuzzy logic method based on potentiometric measurements performed with three different miniaturised chalcogenide glass sensors in different heavy metal solutions will be presented. The critical validation of the developed fuzzy logic program will be demonstrated by means of measurements in unknown single- and multi-component heavy metal solutions. Limitations of this program and a comparison between calculated and expected values in terms of analyte composition and heavy metal ion concentration will be shown and discussed.
Claude Ziad Bayeh
2015-01-01
The “Manual Logic Controller” also called MLC, is an electronic circuit invented and designed by the author in 2008, in order to replace the well known PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in many applications for its advantages and its low cost of fabrication. The function of the MLC is somewhat similar to the well known PLC, but instead of doing it by inserting a written program into the PLC using a computer or specific software inside the PLC, it will be manually programmed in a manner to h...
Le Balleur, J. C.
1988-01-01
The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, X.; Wan, C.H., E-mail: wancaihua@iphy.ac.cn; Yuan, Z.H.; Fang, C.; Kong, W.J.; Wu, H.; Zhang, Q.T.; Tao, B.S.; Han, X.F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn
2017-04-15
Confronting with the gigantic volume of data produced every day, raising integration density by reducing the size of devices becomes harder and harder to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-performance computers. One feasible path is to actualize more logic functions in one cell. In this respect, we experimentally demonstrate a prototype spin-orbit torque based spin logic cell integrated with five frequently used logic functions (AND, OR, NOT, NAND and NOR). The cell can be easily programmed and reprogrammed to perform desired function. Furthermore, the information stored in cells is symmetry-protected, making it possible to expand into logic gate array where the cell can be manipulated one by one without changing the information of other undesired cells. This work provides a prospective example of multi-functional spin logic cell with reprogrammability and nonvolatility, which will advance the application of spin logic devices. - Highlights: • Experimental demonstration of spin logic cell based on spin Hall effect. • Five logic functions are realized in a single logic cell. • The logic cell is reprogrammable. • Information in the cell is symmetry-protected. • The logic cell can be easily expanded to logic gate array.
G(sup 4)FET Implementations of Some Logic Circuits
Mojarradi, Mohammad; Akarvardar, Kerem; Cristoleveanu, Sorin; Gentil, Paul; Blalock, Benjamin; Chen, Suhan
2009-01-01
Some logic circuits have been built and demonstrated to work substantially as intended, all as part of a continuing effort to exploit the high degrees of design flexibility and functionality of the electronic devices known as G(sup 4)FETs and described below. These logic circuits are intended to serve as prototypes of more complex advanced programmable-logicdevice-type integrated circuits, including field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In comparison with prior FPGAs, these advanced FPGAs could be much more efficient because the functionality of G(sup 4)FETs is such that fewer discrete components are needed to perform a given logic function in G(sup 4)FET circuitry than are needed perform the same logic function in conventional transistor-based circuitry. The underlying concept of using G(sup 4)FETs as building blocks of programmable logic circuitry was also described, from a different perspective, in G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates (NPO-41698), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44. A G(sup 4)FET can be characterized as an accumulation-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) featuring two junction field-effect transistor (JFET) gates. The structure of a G(sup 4)FET (see Figure 1) is the same as that of a p-channel inversion-mode SOI MOSFET with two body contacts on each side of the channel. The top gate (G1), the substrate emulating a back gate (G2), and the junction gates (JG1 and JG2) can be biased independently of each other and, hence, each can be used to independently control some aspects of the conduction characteristics of the transistor. The independence of the actions of the four gates is what affords the enhanced functionality and design flexibility of G(sup 4)FETs. The present G(sup 4)FET logic circuits include an adjustable-threshold inverter, a real-time-reconfigurable logic gate, and a dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cell (see Figure 2). The configuration
MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation
Ilyas, Saad
2017-06-22
We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041
The application of computer logic design in the trigger system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Dixin; Ding Huiliang; Gu Jianhui
1996-01-01
The programmable logic devices PLD and FPGA, which are developing steadily recently, can be configured by user. Designers define the logic functions of the circuit and revise these functions when necessary. The application of these devices in the trigger system and development system is introduced
Using Pipelined XNOR Logic to Reduce SEU Risks in State Machines
Le, Martin; Zheng, Xin; Katanyoutant, Sunant
2008-01-01
Single-event upsets (SEUs) pose great threats to avionic systems state machine control logic, which are frequently used to control sequence of events and to qualify protocols. The risks of SEUs manifest in two ways: (a) the state machine s state information is changed, causing the state machine to unexpectedly transition to another state; (b) due to the asynchronous nature of SEU, the state machine's state registers become metastable, consequently causing any combinational logic associated with the metastable registers to malfunction temporarily. Effect (a) can be mitigated with methods such as triplemodular redundancy (TMR). However, effect (b) cannot be eliminated and can degrade the effectiveness of any mitigation method of effect (a). Although there is no way to completely eliminate the risk of SEU-induced errors, the risk can be made very small by use of a combination of very fast state-machine logic and error-detection logic. Therefore, one goal of two main elements of the present method is to design the fastest state-machine logic circuitry by basing it on the fastest generic state-machine design, which is that of a one-hot state machine. The other of the two main design elements is to design fast error-detection logic circuitry and to optimize it for implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture: In the resulting design, the one-hot state machine is fitted with a multiple-input XNOR gate for detection of illegal states. The XNOR gate is implemented with lookup tables and with pipelines for high speed. In this method, the task of designing all the logic must be performed manually because no currently available logic synthesis software tool can produce optimal solutions of design problems of this type. However, some assistance is provided by a script, written for this purpose in the Python language (an object-oriented interpretive computer language) to automatically generate hardware description language (HDL) code from state
Control Systems of Rubber Dryer Machinery Components Using Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
Hendra; Yulianto, A. S.; Indriani, A.; Hernadewita; Hermiyetti
2018-02-01
Application of programmable logic control (PLC) is widely used on the control systems in the many field engineering such as automotive, aviation, food processing and other industries [1-2]. PLC is simply program to control many automatic activity, easy to use, flexible and others. PLC using the ladder program to solve and regulated the control system component. In previous research, PLC was used for control system of rotary dryer machine. In this paper PLC are used for control system of motion component in the rubber dryer machinery. Component of rubber dryer machine is motors, gearbox, sprocket, heater, drying chamber and bearing. Principle working of rubber dryer machinery is wet rubber moving into the drying chamber by sprocket. Sprocket is driven by motors that conducted by PLC to moving and set of wet rubber on the drying chamber. Drying system uses greenhouse effect by making hanger dryer design in the form of line path. In this paper focused on motion control system motors and sensors drying rubber using PLC. The results show that control system of rubber dryer machinery can work in accordance control input and the time required to dry the rubber.
Contracts for Cooperation between Web Service Programmers and HTML Designers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Böttger, Henning; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.
2006-01-01
Interactive Web services consist of a mixture of HTML fragments and program code. The fragments, which are maintained by designers, are combined to form HTML pages that are shown to the clients. The code, which is maintained by programmers, is executed on the server to handle the business logic....... Current Web service frameworks provide little help in separating these constituents, which complicates cooperation between programmers and HTML designers. We propose a system based on XML templates and formalized contracts allowing a flexible separation of concerns. The contracts act as interfaces between...... the programmers and the HTML designers and permit tool support for statically checking that both parties fulfill their obligations. This ensures that (1) programmers and HTML designers work more independently focusing on their own expertises, (2) the Web service implementation is better structured and thus easier...
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-10-20
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein
2016-01-01
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Simultaneous G-Quadruplex DNA Logic.
Bader, Antoine; Cockroft, Scott L
2018-04-03
A fundamental principle of digital computer operation is Boolean logic, where inputs and outputs are described by binary integer voltages. Similarly, inputs and outputs may be processed on the molecular level as exemplified by synthetic circuits that exploit the programmability of DNA base-pairing. Unlike modern computers, which execute large numbers of logic gates in parallel, most implementations of molecular logic have been limited to single computing tasks, or sensing applications. This work reports three G-quadruplex-based logic gates that operate simultaneously in a single reaction vessel. The gates respond to unique Boolean DNA inputs by undergoing topological conversion from duplex to G-quadruplex states that were resolved using a thioflavin T dye and gel electrophoresis. The modular, addressable, and label-free approach could be incorporated into DNA-based sensors, or used for resolving and debugging parallel processes in DNA computing applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Technologies for faults diagnosis of FPGA logic blocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. U. Ngene
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The critical issues of testing field programmable gate arrays (FPGA with a view to diagnosing faults are an important step that ensures the reliability of FPGA designs. Correct diagnosis of faulty logic blocks of FPGAs guarantees restoration of functionality through replacement of faulty block with replacement units. This process can be done autonomously or without the intervention of an engineer depending on application area. This paper considers two methods for analysing test results of FPGA logic blocks with the purpose of localising and distinguishing faults. The algebraic logic and vector-logical methods are proposed for diagnosing faulty logic blocks in FPGA fabric. It is found that the algebraic logic method is more useful for processing of sparse faults tables when the number of coordinates with 1s values with respect to zero values is not more than 20%, whereas the vector-logical method facilitates the analysis of faults table with predominance of 1s values.
step by step process from logic model to case study method as an ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Global Journal
Logic models and case study approach to programme evaluation have proven ... in qualitative methodology. There is ... Note: IEHPs= internationally educated health professionals, ... interviews with the programme managers. .... programme assessed to ensure that the IEHPs are ready to face the certification ..... Comparison.
Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young
2012-01-01
The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices
Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment
A beginner's guide to mathematical logic
Smullyan, Raymond M
2014-01-01
Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.
"Modeling" Youth Work: Logic Models, Neoliberalism, and Community Praxis
Carpenter, Sara
2016-01-01
This paper examines the use of logic models in the development of community initiatives within the AmeriCorps program. AmeriCorps is the civilian national service programme in the U.S., operating as a grants programme to local governments and not-for-profit organisations and providing low-cost labour to address pressing issues of social…
Signal noise/interferer combiner unit programmable (SINCUP)
Martinezdepison, Emilio
1988-12-01
The Signal Noise Interferer Combiner Unit Programmable (SINCUP) has been developed to facilitate laboratory performance testing of Very Low Frequency (VLF/Low Frequency (LF) receivers. To accomplish this, the unit allows the combining in controlled amounts of various real-world environmental and manmade interference with an information carrying signal. The externally modulated signal is combined with internally/externally generated Gaussian noise and/or with an internally/externally generated interferer. In order to test modern digital processing techniques, such as Adaptive Null Steering, Eigenvector Sorting, and Widrow-Hoff adaptive filters, SINCUP is capable of generating and meeting much higher signal-to-noise plus interference ratios than earlier channel simulators. The present software has been written to accommodate a dynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) range from -60 to +60 dB. Higher dynamic range units could be implemented.
Optimized 4-bit Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit
Ayyoub, Slimani; Achour, Benslama
2017-08-01
Reversible logic has received a great attention in the recent years due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an important part of central processing unit (CPU) as the execution unit. This paper presents a complete design of a new reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The proposed ALU based on a reversible low power control unit and small performance parameters full adder named double Peres gates. The presented ALU can produce the largest number (28) of arithmetic and logic functions and have the smallest number of quantum cost and delay compared with existing designs.
A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag
2002-01-01
textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two
Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Bouzina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries - we only change the principle, then the system changes completely.
Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin
2016-06-22
In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved.
CAMAC modular programmable function generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.
1980-12-01
A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.
CAMAC modular programmable function generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.
1980-12-01
A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve
Reliability analysis of diverse safety logic systems of fast breeder reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravi Kumar, Bh.; Apte, P.R.; Srivani, L.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.
2006-01-01
Safety Logic for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is designed to initiate safety action against Design Basis Events. Based on the outputs of various processing circuits, Safety logic system drives the control rods of the shutdown system. So, Safety Logic system is classified as safety critical system. Therefore, reliability analysis has to be performed. This paper discusses the Reliability analysis of Diverse Safety logic systems of FBRs. For this literature survey on safety critical systems, system reliability approach and standards to be followed like IEC-61508 are discussed in detail. For Programmable Logic device based systems, Hardware Description Languages (HDL) are used. So this paper also discusses the Verification and Validation for HDLs. Finally a case study for the Reliability analysis of Safety logic is discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wahyu Dwi Kurniawan
2015-02-01
Program Logic Controller is subject that many complaints by students of Department of Mechanical Engineering FT-Unesa. This is due to the lack of learning devices are used so that learning becomes less favorable and become passive. This study aims to develop computer-based learning device mechatronics subject-oriented programmable logic controller directly on student learning Mechanical Engineering Department Unesa FT. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase I, the development of the learning refers to the design of the Model 4D Thiagarajan (1974, Phase II, trial learning in the classroom using a design of one group pretest-posttest design. The findings of the study: (1 an average score of 3.32 learning assessment tools (pretty good, (2 average scores on tests of learning implementation I of 3.59 (good and trials II of 3.70 (both , (3 student learning outcomes of cognitive and psychomotor aspects have achieved individually and classical mastery, (4 students showed a positive response to the stated learning tehadap interested, excited, and motivated to attend lectures mechatronics; activity of the most dominant college students are discussin /practices relevant to teaching and learning that is on trial I is 36.46% and trials II 38.19%. Based on the analysis of data, it can be concluded that the developed learning feasible for use in lectures mechatronics. Implementation of the computer-based learning mechatronics subjects PLC can improve the quality of teaching and learning, as students showed a positive response, implementation category learning and learning outcomes both cognitive and psychomotor aspects of students have achieved mastery individually and classical. Keywords: development, learning, mechatronics, computer, plc
Logic analysis and verification of n-input genetic logic circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan
2017-01-01
. In this paper, we present an approach to analyze and verify the Boolean logic of a genetic circuit from the data obtained through stochastic analog circuit simulations. The usefulness of this analysis is demonstrated through different case studies illustrating how our approach can be used to verify the expected......Nature is using genetic logic circuits to regulate the fundamental processes of life. These genetic logic circuits are triggered by a combination of external signals, such as chemicals, proteins, light and temperature, to emit signals to control other gene expressions or metabolic pathways...... accordingly. As compared to electronic circuits, genetic circuits exhibit stochastic behavior and do not always behave as intended. Therefore, there is a growing interest in being able to analyze and verify the logical behavior of a genetic circuit model, prior to its physical implementation in a laboratory...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....
A functional language for describing reversible logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal
2012-01-01
Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....
Bochvar-McCarthy logic and process algebra
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
1998-01-01
We propose a combination of Bochvar's strict three-valued logic, McCarthy's sequential three-valued logic, and process algebra via the conditional guard construct. This combination entails the introduction of a new constant meaningless in process algebra. We present an operational semantics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eli FLAXER
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We present a complete design of a multi channels PID controller for Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC using a pulse width modulation (PWM technique implemented by a dedicated programmable logic device (PLD programmed by VHDL. The PID control loop is implemented by software written by National Instrument Lab-Windows CVI. Due to the fact that the implementation is by a VHDL and PLD the design is modular, as a result, the circuit is very compact in size and very low cost as compared to any commercial product. In addition, since the control loop is implemented by software running on a personal computer (PC using a C language, it is easy to adjust the controller to various environmental conditions and for a width range of sensors like: a thermo couple (TC, thermistor, resistance temperature detectors (RTD etc. We demonstrate the performance of this circuit as a controller for a small incubator using thermistor as the temperature sensor.
Ostrowski, M; Paulevé, L; Schaub, T; Siegel, A; Guziolowski, C
2016-11-01
Boolean networks (and more general logic models) are useful frameworks to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be learned from a prior knowledge network structure and multiplex phosphoproteomics data. However, most efficient and scalable training methods focus on the comparison of two time-points and assume that the system has reached an early steady state. In this paper, we generalize such a learning procedure to take into account the time series traces of phosphoproteomics data in order to discriminate Boolean networks according to their transient dynamics. To that end, we identify a necessary condition that must be satisfied by the dynamics of a Boolean network to be consistent with a discretized time series trace. Based on this condition, we use Answer Set Programming to compute an over-approximation of the set of Boolean networks which fit best with experimental data and provide the corresponding encodings. Combined with model-checking approaches, we end up with a global learning algorithm. Our approach is able to learn logic models with a true positive rate higher than 78% in two case studies of mammalian signaling networks; for a larger case study, our method provides optimal answers after 7min of computation. We quantified the gain in our method predictions precision compared to learning approaches based on static data. Finally, as an application, our method proposes erroneous time-points in the time series data with respect to the optimal learned logic models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science (FLINS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Ruan
2000-01-01
FLINS is the acronym for Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science. In 1994, SCK-CEN launched a programme on FLINS. The first FLINS project dealt with the specific prototyping of fuzzy logic control (FLC) of the BR-1 research reactor. This project focussed on controlling the power level of the BR1 reactor added value of FLC for both safety and economic aspects for a nuclear reactor control operation. Main achievements in 1999 are reported
Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for Intelligent Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ching-Han Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy logic controller by which a robot can imitate biological behaviors such as avoiding obstacles or following walls. The proposed structure is implemented by integrating multiple ultrasonic sensors into a robot to collect data from a real-world environment. The decisions that govern the robot’s behavior and autopilot navigation are driven by a field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based fuzzy logic controller. The validity of the proposed controller was demonstrated by simulating three real-world scenarios to test the bionic behavior of a custom-built robot. The results revealed satisfactorily intelligent performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller. The controller enabled the robot to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in complex environments. Furthermore, the robot’s bionic functions satisfied its design objectives.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Software V and V methods for a safety - grade programmable logic controller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang Yeol Kim; Young Jun Lee; Kyung Ho Cha; Se Woo Cheon; Jang Soo Lee; Kee Choon Kwon
2006-01-01
This paper addresses the Verification and Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety- grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) projects. KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines and procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects. (author)
A Combinational Digital Logic Design Tool for Practice and Assessment in Engineering Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rasha Morsi
2016-08-01
Full Text Available As technology advances, computers are being used almost everywhere. In a 2013 US Census report (File and Ryan, 2014, 83.8% (up from 78.9% in 2012 of U.S. households reported owning a computer with 74.4% reporting internet use (73.4% high speed internet. In recent years, the shift in educational technologies has been moving towards gaming, more specifically serious gaming. Although this is an important trend, there is still much to be said about e-learning through a step-by-step interactive process using an online practice tool. This paper presents a detailed description of the Combinational Logic Design Tool (CLDT (Morsi and Russell (2007. CLDT was designed and developed under the CCLI project, #0737242, funded by the National Science Foundation, which aimed to develop and disseminate a novel online practice tool for on demand review and assessment in Electrical and Computer Engineering education. The paper also reports on a formal assessment conducted in a Digital Logic Design Classroom and presents the results of this assessment.
Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang
2015-02-01
A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer，a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Against All Odds: When Logic Meets Probability
van Benthem, J.; Katoen, J.-P.; Langerak, R.; Rensink, A.
2017-01-01
This paper is a light walk along interfaces between logic and probability, triggered by a chance encounter with Ed Brinksma. It is not a research paper, or a literature survey, but a pointer to issues. I discuss both direct combinations of logic and probability and structured ways in which logic can
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, W.A.; Turner, R.M.; McCammon, R.B.
1981-01-01
Integrated logic circuits were described as a means of formally representing genetic-geologic models for estimating undiscovered uranium resources. The logic circuits are logical combinations of selected geologic characteristics judged to be associated with particular types of uranium deposits. Each combination takes on a value which corresponds to the combined presence, absence, or don't know states of the selected characteristic within a specified geographic cell. Within each cell, the output of the logic circuit is taken as a measure of the favorability of occurrence of an undiscovered deposit of the type being considered. In this way, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data are incorporated explicitly into potential uranium resource estimates. The present report describes how integrated logic circuits are constructed by use of a computer graphics program. A user's guide is also included
Translating Dominant Institutional Logics in Practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Jensen, Tina Blegind
In this paper we examine the proliferation of a new mobile technology in a structured setting of home care in Denmark, focusing on how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology diffusion and institutionalization. The case study shows how a dominating field level logic...... that combining an institutional logic perspective with a translation perspective furthers our understanding of the malleability of institutional logics....
Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.
Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L
2015-01-01
We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carnevale, Federico J.
2010-01-01
Complex information extraction from images is a key skill of intelligent machines, with wide application in automated systems, robotic manipulation and human-computer interaction. However, solving this problem with traditional, geometric or analytical, strategies is extremely difficult. Therefore, an approach based on learning from examples seems to be more appropriate. This thesis addresses the problem of 3D orientation, aiming to estimate the angular coordinates of a known object from an image shot from any direction. We describe a system based on artificial neural networks to solve this problem in real time. The implementation is performed using a programmable logic device. The digital system described in this paper has the ability to estimate two rotational coordinates of a 3D known object, in ranges from -80 0 to 80 0 . The operation speed allows a real time performance at video rate. The system accuracy can be successively increased by increasing the size of the artificial neural network and using a larger number of training examples [es
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Razali Jidin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.
The PLC: a logical development
Walker, Mark; Bissell, Christopher; Monk, John
2010-01-01
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been used to control industrial processes and equipment for over 40 years, having their first commercially recognised application in 1969. Since then there have been enormous changes in the design and application of PLCs, yet developments were evolutionary rather than radical. The flexibility of the PLC does not confine it to industrial use and it has been used for disparate non-industrial control applications . This article reviews the history, deve...
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction
Conradie, Willem
2015-01-01
A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy
Asynchronous Operators of Sequential Logic Venjunction & Sequention
Vasyukevich, Vadim
2011-01-01
This book is dedicated to new mathematical instruments assigned for logical modeling of the memory of digital devices. The case in point is logic-dynamical operation named venjunction and venjunctive function as well as sequention and sequentional function. Venjunction and sequention operate within the framework of sequential logic. In a form of the corresponding equations, they organically fit analytical expressions of Boolean algebra. Thus, a sort of symbiosis is formed using elements of asynchronous sequential logic on the one hand and combinational logic on the other hand. So, asynchronous
Logic qualification of FPGA-based safety-related I and C systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Toshifumi; Oda, Naotaka; Ito, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Haren, Yasuhiko
2009-01-01
We established a logic qualification method for FPGA-Based I and C safety-related use in Nuclear Power Plants Systems. The FPGA is a programmable logic device and has advantages that the programming is rigorous, simple verifiable, and the technology is stable. However, logic qualification of FPGA had been an issue to be solved when it is used in the safety-related systems, because FPGA is relatively new technology for the nuclear power industry. We employed a software-life cycle approach, because its development process is similar to that of conventional computer-based systems. There are some differences between the FPGA-Based systems and the computer-based systems in the implementation and integration of logic. We examined the FPGA logic implementation and integration process to identify any FPGA-Based system specific hazards. The identified hazards are (1) small logic errors, (2) timing errors, (3) logic synthesis errors, (4) place and route errors, and (5) logic embedding errors. We took the appropriate countermeasures to mitigate these hazards, and employed this logic qualification method in the qualification of the Power Range Monitor System for BWR Power Plants. (author)
The need for theory evaluation in global citizenship programmes: The case of the GCSA programme.
Goodier, Sarah; Field, Carren; Goodman, Suki
2018-02-01
Many education programmes lack a documented programme theory. This is a problem for programme planners and evaluators as the ability to measure programme success is grounded in the plausibility of the programme's underlying causal logic. Where the programme theory has not been documented, conducting a theory evaluation offers a foundational evaluation step as it gives an indication of whether the theory behind a programme is sound. This paper presents a case of a theory evaluation of a Global Citizenship programme at a top-ranking university in South Africa, subsequently called the GCSA Programme. This evaluation highlights the need for documented programme theory in global citizenship-type programmes for future programme development. An articulated programme theory produced for the GCSA Programme, analysed against the available social science literature, indicated it is comparable to other such programmes in terms of its overarching framework. What the research found is that most other global citizenship programmes do not have an articulated programme theory. These programmes also do not explicitly link their specific activities to their intended outcomes, making demonstrating impact impossible. In conclusion, we argue that taking a theory-based approach can strengthen and enable outcome evaluations in global citizenship programmes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
All-spin logic operations: Memory device and reconfigurable computing
Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.
2018-02-01
Exploiting spin degree of freedom of electron a new proposal is given to characterize spin-based logical operations using a quantum interferometer that can be utilized as a programmable spin logic device (PSLD). The ON and OFF states of both inputs and outputs are described by spin state only, circumventing spin-to-charge conversion at every stage as often used in conventional devices with the inclusion of extra hardware that can eventually diminish the efficiency. All possible logic functions can be engineered from a single device without redesigning the circuit which certainly offers the opportunities of designing new generation spintronic devices. Moreover, we also discuss the utilization of the present model as a memory device and suitable computing operations with proposed experimental setups.
Buttigieg, Sandra Catherine; Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Cassar, Mary Rose
2016-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated patient-focused analytical framework to improve quality of care in accident and emergency (A & E) unit of a Maltese hospital. The study adopts a case study approach. First, a thorough literature review has been undertaken to study the various methods of healthcare quality management. Second, a healthcare quality management framework is developed using combined quality function deployment (QFD) and logical framework approach (LFA). Third, the proposed framework is applied to a Maltese hospital to demonstrate its effectiveness. The proposed framework has six steps, commencing with identifying patients' requirements and concluding with implementing improvement projects. All the steps have been undertaken with the involvement of the concerned stakeholders in the A & E unit of the hospital. The major and related problems being faced by the hospital under study were overcrowding at A & E and shortage of beds, respectively. The combined framework ensures better A & E services and patient flow. QFD identifies and analyses the issues and challenges of A & E and LFA helps develop project plans for healthcare quality improvement. The important outcomes of implementing the proposed quality improvement programme are fewer hospital admissions, faster patient flow, expert triage and shorter waiting times at the A & E unit. Increased emergency consultant cover and faster first significant medical encounter were required to start addressing the problems effectively. Overall, the combined QFD and LFA method is effective to address quality of care in A & E unit. PRACTICAL/IMPLICATIONS: The proposed framework can be easily integrated within any healthcare unit, as well as within entire healthcare systems, due to its flexible and user-friendly approach. It could be part of Six Sigma and other quality initiatives. Although QFD has been extensively deployed in healthcare setup to improve quality of care, very little has been
Power consumption of programmable controllers; Energieverbrauch von Prozesssteuerungen (SPS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schalcher, M.; Battaglia, U.; Busch, E.
2003-07-01
This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy addresses the field of programmable logic controllers and thus investigates a topic that has been neglected up to now - the energy consumption of such controllers. The results of measurements made on programmable logic controllers in use both in operational industrial plants and in the Automation Laboratory at the University of Applied Science in Chur, Switzerland are presented, where a detailed analysis was made on a demonstration plant. Also, technical documentation (catalogues) were evaluated and discussed with experts who had practical experience at their disposal. The results of the study are discussed: these show that the power consumption of any particular programmable logic controller is low in comparison to the energy consumption of the processes that are being controlled. Additionally, it was found that the optimisation of newer devices has to a great extent already been realised and that standard solutions for energy optimisation are not easy to put into practice. It is suggested that savings can possibly be made in the controllers by improving the efficiency of their power supply units and by choosing power ratings to better suit the actual power needed.
Dynamic logic architecture based on piecewise-linear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Haipeng; Liu Fei; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian; Wang Xue
2010-01-01
This Letter explores piecewise-linear systems to construct dynamic logic architecture. The proposed schemes can discriminate the two input signals and obtain 16 kinds of logic operations by different combinations of parameters and conditions for determining the output. Each logic cell performs more flexibly, that makes it possible to achieve complex logic operations more simply and construct computing architecture with less logic cells. We also analyze the various performances of our schemes under different conditions and the characteristics of these schemes.
First-order modal logic theorem proving and standard PROLOG
Nonnengart, A.
1992-01-01
Many attempts have been started to combine logic programming and modal logics. Most of them however, do not use classical PROLOG, but extend the PROLOG idea in order to cope with modal logic formulae directly. These approaches have the disadvantage that for each logic new logic programming systems are to be developed and the knowledge and experience gathered from PROLOG can hardly be utilized. Modal logics based on Kripke-style relational semantics, however, allow a direct translation from mo...
Programmable logic controller performance enhancement by field programmable gate array based design.
Patel, Dhruv; Bhatt, Jignesh; Trivedi, Sanjay
2015-01-01
PLC, the core element of modern automation systems, due to serial execution, exhibits limitations like slow speed and poor scan time. Improved PLC design using FPGA has been proposed based on parallel execution mechanism for enhancement of performance and flexibility. Modelsim as simulation platform and VHDL used to translate, integrate and implement the logic circuit in FPGA. Xilinx's Spartan kit for implementation-testing and VB has been used for GUI development. Salient merits of the design include cost-effectiveness, miniaturization, user-friendliness, simplicity, along with lower power consumption, smaller scan time and higher speed. Various functionalities and applications like typical PLC and industrial alarm annunciator have been developed and successfully tested. Results of simulation, design and implementation have been reported. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Methods of software V and V for a programmable logic controller in NPPs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Son, Han Seong; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon
2004-01-01
This paper addresses the Verification and Validation (V and V) process and methodology for embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety-grade PLC is being developed in the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) projects. KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) as well as safety-grade PLC. Safety-grade PLC will be a major component that composes the RPS systems and ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipments. This paper describes the V and V guidelines and procedure, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools by the KNICS projects. Specially, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the real-time operating system Software Requirement Specification(SRS) V and V of the PLC are the technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14(MOST-KSRG 7/Appendix 15 in Korea will be issued soon) criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects. (author)
Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.
Embedding Logics into Product Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baaz, M.; Hájek, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Švejda, David
1998-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 1 (1998), s. 35-47 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030601 Grant - others:COST(XE) Action 15 Keywords : fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Gödel logic * product logic * computational complexity * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.
Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng
2017-08-03
Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.
Field Programmable Gate Array-based I and C Safety System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Koh Eun; Kim, Young Geul; Kwon, Jong Soo
2014-01-01
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system used in the operating nuclear power plants has the disadvantages of the Common Cause Failure (CCF), high maintenance costs and quick obsolescence, and then it is necessary to develop the other platform to replace the PLC. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based Instrument and Control (I and C) safety system is safer and more economical than Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system. Therefore, in the future, FPGA-based I and C safety system will be able to replace the PLC-based I and C safety system in the operating and the new nuclear power plants to get benefited from its safety and economic advantage. FPGA-based I and C safety system shall be implemented and verified by applying the related requirements to perform the safety function
Field Programmable Gate Array-based I and C Safety System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Koh Eun; Kim, Young Geul; Kwon, Jong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-15
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system used in the operating nuclear power plants has the disadvantages of the Common Cause Failure (CCF), high maintenance costs and quick obsolescence, and then it is necessary to develop the other platform to replace the PLC. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based Instrument and Control (I and C) safety system is safer and more economical than Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system. Therefore, in the future, FPGA-based I and C safety system will be able to replace the PLC-based I and C safety system in the operating and the new nuclear power plants to get benefited from its safety and economic advantage. FPGA-based I and C safety system shall be implemented and verified by applying the related requirements to perform the safety function.
Orthogonal Algorithm of Logic Probability and Syndrome-Testable Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1990-01-01
A new method,orthogonal algoritm,is presented to compute the logic probabilities(i.e.signal probabilities)accurately,The transfer properties of logic probabilities are studied first,which are useful for the calculation of logic probability of the circuit with random independent inputs.Then the orthogonal algoritm is described to compute the logic probability of Boolean function realized by a combinational circuit.This algorithm can make Boolean function “ORTHOGONAL”so that the logic probabilities can be easily calculated by summing up the logic probabilities of all orthogonal terms of the Booleam function.
System and method for programmable bank selection for banked memory subsystems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Seebruck-Seeon, DE); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Sugavanam, Krishnan (Mahopac, NY)
2010-09-07
A programmable memory system and method for enabling one or more processor devices access to shared memory in a computing environment, the shared memory including one or more memory storage structures having addressable locations for storing data. The system comprises: one or more first logic devices associated with a respective one or more processor devices, each first logic device for receiving physical memory address signals and programmable for generating a respective memory storage structure select signal upon receipt of pre-determined address bit values at selected physical memory address bit locations; and, a second logic device responsive to each of the respective select signal for generating an address signal used for selecting a memory storage structure for processor access. The system thus enables each processor device of a computing environment memory storage access distributed across the one or more memory storage structures.
Application of fuzzy logic control in industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Wal, A.J.
1994-01-01
An overview is given of the various ways fuzzy logic can be used to improve industrial control. The application of fuzzy logic in control is illustrated by two case studies. The first example shows how fuzzy logic, incorporated in the hardware of an industrial controller, helps to finetune a PID controller, without the operator having any a priori knowledge of the system to be controlled. The second example is from process industry. Here, fuzzy logic supervisory control is implemented in software and enhances the operation of a sintering oven through a subtle combination of priority management and deviation-controlled timing
Logic verification system for power plant sequence diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Teshima, Toshiaki; Kan, Ken-ichi; Utsunomiya, Mitsugu.
1994-01-01
A logic verification system for sequence diagrams of power plants has been developed. The system's main function is to verify correctness of the logic realized by sequence diagrams for power plant control systems. The verification is based on a symbolic comparison of the logic of the sequence diagrams with the logic of the corresponding IBDs (interlock Block Diagrams) in combination with reference to design knowledge. The developed system points out the sub-circuit which is responsible for any existing mismatches between the IBD logic and the logic realized by the sequence diagrams. Applications to the verification of actual sequence diagrams of power plants confirmed that the developed system is practical and effective. (author)
V and V methods of a safety-critical software for a programmable logic controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Seung Ju [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2005-11-15
This paper addresses the Verification an Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety-grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System(KNICS) project KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines an procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects.
V and V methods of a safety-critical software for a programmable logic controller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kong, Seung Ju
2005-01-01
This paper addresses the Verification an Validation(V and V) process and the methodology for an embedded real time software of a safety-grade Programmable Logic Controller(PLC). This safety-grade PLC is being developed as one of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System(KNICS) project KNICS projects are developing a Reactor Protection System(RPS) and an Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System(ESF-CCS) as well as a safety-grade PLC. The safety-grade PLC will be a major component that encomposes the RPS systems and the ESF-CCS systems as nuclear instruments and control equipment. This paper describes the V and V guidelines an procedures, V and V environment, V and V process and methodology, and the V and V tools in the KNICS projects. Specifically, it describes the real-time operating system V and V experience which corresponds to the requirement analysis phase, design phase and the implementation and testing phase of the software development life cycle. Main activities of the V and V for the PLC system software are a technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, software safety analysis, and a software configuration management. The proposed V and V methodology satisfies the Standard Review Plan(SRP)/Branch Technical Position(BTP)-14 criteria for the safety software in nuclear power plants. The proposed V and V methodology is going to be used to verify the upcoming software life cycle in the KNICS projects
Combining Formal Logic and Machine Learning for Sentiment Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a formal logical method for deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts using machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging. To evaluate the method it is used for entity level sentiment analysis as an alternative to pure machine learning...
Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel E. Litvin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.
Miani, Celine; Marjanovic, Sonja; Jones, Molly Morgan; Marshall, Martin; Meikle, Samantha; Nolte, Ellen
2013-01-01
Abstract Leadership is seen to be central to improving the quality of healthcare and existing research suggests that absence of leadership is related to poor quality and safety performance. Leadership training might therefore provide an important means through which to promote quality improvement and, more widely, performance within the healthcare environment. This article presents an evaluation of the Fellowships in Clinical Leadership Programme, which combines leadership training and quality improvement initiatives with the placement of temporary external clinical champions in Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust. We assessed impacts of the Programme on individual and organisational change, alongside core enablers and barriers for Programme success. Analyses drew on the principles of a theory-of-change-led realist evaluation, using logic modelling to specify the underlying causal mechanisms of the Programme. Data collection involved a stakeholder workshop, online questionnaires of programme participants, senior managers and support staff (n=114), and follow-up in-depth semi-structured interviews with a subsample of survey participants (n=15). We observed that the Programme had notable impacts at individual and organisational levels. Examples of individual impact included enhanced communication and negotiation skills or increased confidence as a result of multi-modal leadership training. At the organisational level, participants reported indications of behaviour change among staff, with evidence of spill-over effects to non-participants towards a greater focus on patient-centred care. Our findings suggest that there is potential for combined leadership training and quality improvement programmes to contribute to strengthening a culture of care quality in healthcare organisations. Our study provides useful insights into strategies seeking to achieve sustainable improvement in NHS organisations. PMID:28083304
A History of Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio eRiguzzi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The field of Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP has seen significant advances in the last 20 years, with many proposals for languages that combine probability with logic programming. Since the start, the problem of learning probabilistic logic programs has been the focus of much attention. Learning these programs represents a whole subfield of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP. In Probabilistic ILP (PILP two problems are considered: learning the parameters of a program given the structure (the rules and learning both the structure and the parameters. Usually structure learning systems use parameter learning as a subroutine. In this article we present an overview of PILP and discuss the main results.
Pulse coded safety logic for PFBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anwer, Md. Najam; Satheesh, N.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Krishnakumar, B.
2002-01-01
Full text: Reactor safety logic is designed to initiate safety action against design basis events. The reactor is shutdown by de-energizing electromagnets and dropping the absorber rods under gravity. In prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), shutdown is affected by two independent shutdown systems, viz., control and safety rod drive mechanism (CSRDM) and diverse safety rod drive mechanism (DSRDM). Two separate safety logics are proposed for CSRDM and DSRDM, i.e. solid state logic with on-line fine impulse test (FIT) for CSRDM and pulse coded safety logic (PCSL) for DSRDM. The PCSL primarily utilizes the fact that the vast majority of faults in the logic circuitry result in static conditions at the output. It is arranged such that the presence of pulses are required to hold the shutdown actuators and any DC logic state, either logic 0 or logic 1 releases them. It is a dynamic, self-testing logic and used in a number of reactors. This paper describes the principle of operation of PCSL, its advantages, the concept of guard line logic (GLL), detection of stuck at 0 and stuck at 1 faults, fail safe and diversity features. The implementation of PCSL using Altera Max+Plus II software for PFBR trip signals and the results of simulation are discussed. This paper also describes a test jig using 80186 based system for testing PCSL for various input parameter's combinations and monitoring the outputs
A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, S. H.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.; Park, C. H.; Park, S. P.; Kim, H. S.
2014-01-01
As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system
A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, S. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Work Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. H. [LINE Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Park, S. P. [Ahnlab Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-15
As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system.
Configuration and debug of field programmable gate arrays using MATLAB[reg)/SIMULINK[reg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grout, I; Ryan, J; O'Shea, T
2005-01-01
Increasingly, the need to seamlessly link high-level behavioural descriptions of electronic hardware for modelling and simulation purposes to the final application hardware highlights the gap between the high-level behavioural descriptions of the required circuit functionality (considering here digital logic) in commonly used mathematical modelling tools, and the hardware description languages such as VHDL and Verilog-HDL. In this paper, the linking of a MATLAB[reg] model for digital algorithm for implementation on a programmable logic device for design synthesis from the MATLAB[reg] model into VHDL is discussed. This VHDL model is itself synthesised and downloaded to the target Field Programmable Gate Array, for normal operation and also for design debug purposes. To demonstrate this, a circuit architecture mapped from a SIMULINK[reg] model is presented. The rationale is for a seamless interface between the initial algorithm development and the target hardware, enabling the hardware to be debugged and compared to the simulated model from a single interface for use with by a non-expert in the programmable logic and hardware description language use
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poghossian, A., E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Malzahn, K. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Abouzar, M.H. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Mehndiratta, P. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Katz, E. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, NanoBio Laboratory (NABLAB), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Centre Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-11-01
Highlights: > Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. > The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. > Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). > The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
Integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poghossian, A.; Malzahn, K.; Abouzar, M.H.; Mehndiratta, P.; Katz, E.; Schoening, M.J.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Enzyme-based AND/OR logic gates are integrated with a capacitive field-effect sensor. → The AND/OR logic gates compose of multi-enzyme system immobilised on sensor surface. → Logic gates were activated by different combinations of chemical inputs (analytes). → The logic output (pH change) produced by the enzymes was read out by the sensor. - Abstract: The integration of biomolecular logic gates with field-effect devices - the basic element of conventional electronic logic gates and computing - is one of the most attractive and promising approaches for the transformation of biomolecular logic principles into macroscopically useable electrical output signals. In this work, capacitive field-effect EIS (electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor) sensors based on a p-Si-SiO 2 -Ta 2 O 5 structure modified with a multi-enzyme membrane have been used for electronic transduction of biochemical signals processed by enzyme-based OR and AND logic gates. The realised OR logic gate composes of two enzymes (glucose oxidase and esterase) and was activated by ethyl butyrate or/and glucose. The AND logic gate composes of three enzymes (invertase, mutarotase and glucose oxidase) and was activated by two chemical input signals: sucrose and dissolved oxygen. The developed integrated enzyme logic gates produce local pH changes at the EIS sensor surface as a result of biochemical reactions activated by different combinations of chemical input signals, while the pH value of the bulk solution remains unchanged. The pH-induced charge changes at the gate-insulator (Ta 2 O 5 ) surface of the EIS transducer result in an electronic signal corresponding to the logic output produced by the immobilised enzymes. The logic output signals have been read out by means of a constant-capacitance method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sambasivan, S. Ilango
2004-01-01
Full text : PFBR is provided with two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems to detect any abnormalities and to initiate safety action. Each system consists of sensors, signal processing systems, logics, drive mechanisms and absorber rods. The absorber rods of the first system are Control and Safety Rods (CSR) and that of the second are called as Diverse Safety Rods (DSR). There are nine CSR and three DSR. While CSR are used for startup, control of reactor power, controlled shutdown and SCRAM, the DSR are used only for SCRAM. The respective drive mechanisms are called as CSRDM and DSRDM. Each of these two systems is capable of executing the shutdown satisfactorily with single failure criteria. Two independent safety logic systems based on diverse principles have been designed for the two shut down systems. The analog outputs of the sensors of Core Monitoring Systems comprising of reactor flux monitoring, core temperature monitoring, failed fuel detection and core flow monitoring systems are processed and converted into binary signals depending on their instantaneous values. Safety logic systems receive the binary signals from these core-monitoring systems and process them logically to protect the reactor against postulated initiating events. Neutronic and power to flow (P/Q) signals form the inputs to safety logic system-I and temperature signals are inputs to the safety logic system II. Failed fuel detection signals are processed by both the shut down systems. The two logic systems to actuate the safety rods are also based on two diverse designs and implemented with solid-state devices to meet all the requirements of safety systems. Safety logic system I that caters to neutronic and P/Q signals is designed around combinational logic and has an on-line test facility to detect struck at faults. The second logic system is based on dynamic logic and hence is inherently safe. This paper gives an overview of the two logic systems that have been
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prather, J.C.; Smith, S.K.; Watson, C.R.
1991-12-01
The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives
The screening approach for review of accident management programmes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misak, J.
1999-01-01
In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles
Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor
1966-01-01
Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.
A Pure Logic-Based Approach to Natural Reasoning
Abzianidze, Lasha
2015-01-01
The paper presents a model for natural reasoning that combines theorem proving techniques with natural logic. The model is a tableau system for a higher-order logic the formulas of which resemble linguistic expressions. A textual entailment system LangPro, an implementation of the model, represents
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Poul Houman; Ritter, Thomas
2014-01-01
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
Design of synthetic biological logic circuits based on evolutionary algorithm.
Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chang, Yen-Chang; Jennawasin, Tanagorn; Chen, Po-Kuei
2013-08-01
The construction of an artificial biological logic circuit using systematic strategy is recognised as one of the most important topics for the development of synthetic biology. In this study, a real-structured genetic algorithm (RSGA), which combines general advantages of the traditional real genetic algorithm with those of the structured genetic algorithm, is proposed to deal with the biological logic circuit design problem. A general model with the cis-regulatory input function and appropriate promoter activity functions is proposed to synthesise a wide variety of fundamental logic gates such as NOT, Buffer, AND, OR, NAND, NOR and XOR. The results obtained can be extended to synthesise advanced combinational and sequential logic circuits by topologically distinct connections. The resulting optimal design of these logic gates and circuits are established via the RSGA. The in silico computer-based modelling technology has been verified showing its great advantages in the purpose.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ughade, A.V.; Singh, Ranjeet; Bhattacharya, P.K.; Kulkarni, R.K.; Chandra, Umesh
2005-01-01
PLC system was introduced for the first time in Kaiga-1,2 and RAPS-3,4 Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) for Station Logic Control of Non Safety Related (NSR) and Safety related (SR) systems. However, the safety system logics are still relay based. The experience on the deployment of PLC system, which is computer-based, has brought out various implementation issues. This paper give details of such experiences, the solutions emerged and applied for plants under operation/construction. (author)
The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits
2017-03-23
Introduction The widely practiced horizontal integrated circuit supply chain exposes a design to various types of attacks including the reverse engineering ...STT_CMOS designs for reverse- engineering prevention, DAC 2016. [5] M. E. Massad and et. al. Integrated circuit (IC) decamouflaging: reverse...The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits Raza Shafiq Hamid Mahmoodi Houman Homayoun Hassan
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel
2016-04-01
This contribution presents a methodology for defining optimal seasonal operating rules in multireservoir systems coupling expert criteria and stochastic optimization. Both sources of information are combined using fuzzy logic. The structure of the operating rules is defined based on expert criteria, via a joint expert-technician framework consisting in a series of meetings, workshops and surveys carried out between reservoir managers and modelers. As a result, the decision-making process used by managers can be assessed and expressed using fuzzy logic: fuzzy rule-based systems are employed to represent the operating rules and fuzzy regression procedures are used for forecasting future inflows. Once done that, a stochastic optimization algorithm can be used to define optimal decisions and transform them into fuzzy rules. Finally, the optimal fuzzy rules and the inflow prediction scheme are combined into a Decision Support System for making seasonal forecasts and simulate the effect of different alternatives in response to the initial system state and the foreseen inflows. The approach presented has been applied to the Jucar River Basin (Spain). Reservoir managers explained how the system is operated, taking into account the reservoirs' states at the beginning of the irrigation season and the inflows previewed during that season. According to the information given by them, the Jucar River Basin operating policies were expressed via two fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems that estimate the amount of water to be allocated to the users and how the reservoir storages should be balanced to guarantee those deliveries. A stochastic optimization model using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) was developed to define optimal decisions, which are transformed into optimal operating rules embedding them into the two FRBs previously created. As a benchmark, historical records are used to develop alternative operating rules. A fuzzy linear regression procedure was employed to
Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic
Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.
1980-01-01
A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.
Oztekin, Halit; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Gulbag, Ali
The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) design is one of the important topics in Computer Architecture and Organization course in Computer and Electrical Engineering departments. There are ALU designs that have non-modular nature to be used as an educational tool. As the programmable logic technology has developed rapidly, it is feasible that ALU design based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is implemented in this course. In this paper, we have adopted the modular approach to ALU design based on FPGA. All the modules in the ALU design are realized using schematic structure on Altera's Cyclone II Development board. Under this model, the ALU content is divided into four distinct modules. These are arithmetic unit except for multiplication and division operations, logic unit, multiplication unit and division unit. User can easily design any size of ALU unit since this approach has the modular nature. Then, this approach was applied to microcomputer architecture design named BZK.SAU.FPGA10.0 instead of the current ALU unit.
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
Miani, Celine; Marjanovic, Sonja; Jones, Molly Morgan; Marshall, Martin; Meikle, Samantha; Nolte, Ellen
2013-01-01
Leadership is seen to be central to improving the quality of healthcare and existing research suggests that absence of leadership is related to poor quality and safety performance. Leadership training might therefore provide an important means through which to promote quality improvement and, more widely, performance within the healthcare environment. This article presents an evaluation of the Fellowships in Clinical Leadership Programme, which combines leadership training and quality improvement initiatives with the placement of temporary external clinical champions in Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust. We assessed impacts of the Programme on individual and organisational change, alongside core enablers and barriers for Programme success. Analyses drew on the principles of a theory-of-change-led realist evaluation, using logic modelling to specify the underlying causal mechanisms of the Programme. Data collection involved a stakeholder workshop, online questionnaires of programme participants, senior managers and support staff (n=114), and follow-up in-depth semi-structured interviews with a subsample of survey participants (n=15). We observed that the Programme had notable impacts at individual and organisational levels. Examples of individual impact included enhanced communication and negotiation skills or increased confidence as a result of multi-modal leadership training. At the organisational level, participants reported indications of behaviour change among staff, with evidence of spill-over effects to non-participants towards a greater focus on patient-centred care. Our findings suggest that there is potential for combined leadership training and quality improvement programmes to contribute to strengthening a culture of care quality in healthcare organisations. Our study provides useful insights into strategies seeking to achieve sustainable improvement in NHS organisations.
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML...
Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron Sigal
1988-11-01
Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
D0 General Support: The Use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) at D0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hance, R.
2000-01-01
With the exception of control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ventilation fans, and their shutdown in the case of smoke in the ducts, all implementations of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in Dzero have been made within the fundamental premise that no uncertified PLC apparatus shall be entrusted with the safety of equipment or personnel. Thus although PLCs are used to control and monitor all manner of intricate equipment, simple hardware interlocks and relief devices provide basic protection against component failure, control failure, or inappropriate control operation. Nevertheless, this report includes two observations as follows: (1) It may be prudent to reconfigure the link between the Pyrotronics system and the HVAC system such that the Pyrotronics system provides interlocks to the ventilation fans instead of control inputs to the uncertified HVAC PLCs. Although the Pyrotronics system is certified and maintained to life safety standards, the HVAC system is not. A hardware or software failure of the HVAC system probably should not be allowed to result in the situation where the ventilation fans in a smoke filled duct continue to operate. Dan Markley is investigating this matter. (2) It may also be prudent to examine the network security of those systems connected to the Fermilab WAN (HVAC, Cryo, and Solenoid Controls). Even though the impact of a successful hack might only be to operations, it might nevertheless be disruptive and could be expensive. The risks should perhaps be analyzed. One of the most attractive features of these systems, from a user's viewpoint, is their unlimited networking. The unlimited networking that makes the systems so convenient to legitimate access also makes them vulnerable to illegitimate access.
Classical logic and logicism in human thought
Elqayam, Shira
2012-01-01
This chapter explores the role of classical logic as a theory of human reasoning. I distinguish between classical logic as a normative, computational and algorithmic system, and review its role is theories of human reasoning since the 1960s. The thesis I defend is that psychological theories have been moving further and further away from classical logic on all three levels. I examine some prominent example of logicist theories, which incorporate logic in their psychological account, includin...
Systematic Verification of the Modal Logic Cube in Isabelle/HOL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Benzmüller
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present an automated verification of the well-known modal logic cube in Isabelle/HOL, in which we prove the inclusion relations between the cube's logics using automated reasoning tools. Prior work addresses this problem but without restriction to the modal logic cube, and using encodings in first-order logic in combination with first-order automated theorem provers. In contrast, our solution is more elegant, transparent and effective. It employs an embedding of quantified modal logic in classical higher-order logic. Automated reasoning tools, such as Sledgehammer with LEO-II, Satallax and CVC4, Metis and Nitpick, are employed to achieve full automation. Though successful, the experiments also motivate some technical improvements in the Isabelle/HOL tool.
"Glitch Logic" and Applications to Computing and Information Security
Stoica, Adrian; Katkoori, Srinivas
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a new method of information processing in digital systems, and discusses its potential benefits to computing and information security. The new method exploits glitches caused by delays in logic circuits for carrying and processing information. Glitch processing is hidden to conventional logic analyses and undetectable by traditional reverse engineering techniques. It enables the creation of new logic design methods that allow for an additional controllable "glitch logic" processing layer embedded into a conventional synchronous digital circuits as a hidden/covert information flow channel. The combination of synchronous logic with specific glitch logic design acting as an additional computing channel reduces the number of equivalent logic designs resulting from synthesis, thus implicitly reducing the possibility of modification and/or tampering with the design. The hidden information channel produced by the glitch logic can be used: 1) for covert computing/communication, 2) to prevent reverse engineering, tampering, and alteration of design, and 3) to act as a channel for information infiltration/exfiltration and propagation of viruses/spyware/Trojan horses.
The REGENT-PLR-precompiler, execution logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enderle, G.; Steil, A.
1976-11-01
The REGENT-PLR-Precompiler is part of the integrated CAD-system REGENT. The algorithms of REGENT-subsystems are contained in modular program units, modules. Beyond the possibilities of the base language PL/1 the programmer of the moduls can be use the REGENT-facilities; dynamic program linkage, dynamic data management and error message handling. For easy and safe use of these facilities they are realized as PL/1-extensions. The PLR-Precompiler is able to translate the extensions into PL/1. This report contains a description of the internal program logic of the REGENT-PLR-Precompiler. (orig.) [de
Integrated development environment for fuzzy logic applications
Pagni, Andrea; Poluzzi, Rinaldo; Rizzotto, GianGuido; Lo Presti, Matteo
1993-12-01
During the last five years, Fuzzy Logic has gained enormous popularity, both in the academic and industrial worlds, breaking up the traditional resistance against changes thanks to its innovative approach to problems formalization. The success of this new methodology is pushing the creation of a brand new class of devices, called Fuzzy Machines, to overcome the limitations of traditional computing systems when acting as Fuzzy Systems and adequate Software Tools to efficiently develop new applications. This paper aims to present a complete development environment for the definition of fuzzy logic based applications. The environment is also coupled with a sophisticated software tool for semiautomatic synthesis and optimization of the rules with stability verifications. Later it is presented the architecture of WARP, a dedicate VLSI programmable chip allowing to compute in real time a fuzzy control process. The article is completed with two application examples, which have been carried out exploiting the aforementioned tools and devices.
CIFOL: Case-intensional first order logic. (I) Toward a theory of sorts
Belnap, Nuel; Müller, Thomas
2012-01-01
This is Part I of a two-part essay introducing case-intensional ﬁrst-order logic (CIFOL), an easy-to-use, uniform, powerful, and useful combination of ﬁrst order logic with modal logic resulting from philosophical and technical modiﬁcations of Bressan’s General interpreted modal calculus (Yale
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Applications of field-programmable gate arrays in scientific research
Sadrozinski, Hartmut F W
2011-01-01
Focusing on resource awareness in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) design, Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research covers the principle of FPGAs and their functionality. It explores a host of applications, ranging from small one-chip laboratory systems to large-scale applications in ""big science."" The book first describes various FPGA resources, including logic elements, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable memory. It then presents principles and methods for controlling resources, such as process sequencing, location constraints, and in
Programming Cell Adhesion for On-Chip Sequential Boolean Logic Functions.
Qu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Ge, Zhilei; Wang, Jianbang; Yao, Guangbao; Li, Jiang; Zuo, Xiaolei; Shi, Jiye; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Li, Li; Pei, Hao; Fan, Chunhai
2017-08-02
Programmable remodelling of cell surfaces enables high-precision regulation of cell behavior. In this work, we developed in vitro constructed DNA-based chemical reaction networks (CRNs) to program on-chip cell adhesion. We found that the RGD-functionalized DNA CRNs are entirely noninvasive when interfaced with the fluidic mosaic membrane of living cells. DNA toehold with different lengths could tunably alter the release kinetics of cells, which shows rapid release in minutes with the use of a 6-base toehold. We further demonstrated the realization of Boolean logic functions by using DNA strand displacement reactions, which include multi-input and sequential cell logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, and AND-OR). This study provides a highly generic tool for self-organization of biological systems.
Implementing a Microcontroller Watchdog with a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
Straka, Bartholomew
2013-01-01
Reliability is crucial to safety. Redundancy of important system components greatly enhances reliability and hence safety. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are useful for monitoring systems and handling the logic necessary to keep them running with minimal interruption when individual components fail. A complete microcontroller watchdog with logic for failure handling can be implemented in a hardware description language (HDL.). HDL-based designs are vendor-independent and can be used on many FPGAs with low overhead.
What makes children behave aggressively? The inner logic of Dutch children in special education
Visser, M.; Singer, E.; van Geert, P.L.C.; Kunnen, S.E.
2009-01-01
The ambiguous results of existing intervention programmes show the need for new ways in research on aggression among children. The present study focuses on the children's own perspective on their aggressive behaviour. Based on a constructivist approach, the inner logic of narratives about peer
An iLab for Teaching Advanced Logic Concepts with Hardware Descriptive Languages
Ayodele, Kayode P.; Inyang, Isaac A.; Kehinde, Lawrence O.
2015-01-01
One of the more interesting approaches to teaching advanced logic concepts is the use of online laboratory frameworks to provide student access to remote field-programmable devices. There is as yet, however, no conclusive evidence of the effectiveness of such an approach. This paper presents the Advanced Digital Lab, a remote laboratory based on…
National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prather, J. C. [Linfield Coll., McMinnville, OR (United States); Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1991-12-01
The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Graphene-ferroelectric metadevices for nonvolatile memory and reconfigurable logic-gate operations
Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Teun-Teun; Park, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Kanghee; Choi, Hyun Joo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Son, Jaehyeon; Park, Namkyoo; Min, Bumki
2016-01-01
Memory metamaterials are artificial media that sustain transformed electromagnetic properties without persistent external stimuli. Previous memory metamaterials were realized with phase-change materials, such as vanadium dioxide or chalcogenide glasses, which exhibit memory behaviour with respect to electrically/optically induced thermal stimuli. However, they require a thermally isolated environment for longer retention or strong optical pump for phase-change. Here we demonstrate electrically programmable nonvolatile memory metadevices realised by the hybridization of graphene, a ferroelectric and meta-atoms/meta-molecules, and extend the concept further to establish reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices. For a memory metadevice having a single electrical input, amplitude, phase and even the polarization multi-states were clearly distinguishable with a retention time of over 10 years at room temperature. Furthermore, logic-gate functionalities were demonstrated with reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices having two electrical inputs, with each connected to separate ferroelectric layers that act as the multi-level controller for the doping level of the sandwiched graphene layer.
A DNAzyme-mediated logic gate for programming molecular capture and release on DNA origami.
Li, Feiran; Chen, Haorong; Pan, Jing; Cha, Tae-Gon; Medintz, Igor L; Choi, Jong Hyun
2016-06-28
Here we design a DNA origami-based site-specific molecular capture and release platform operated by a DNAzyme-mediated logic gate process. We show the programmability and versatility of this platform with small molecules, proteins, and nanoparticles, which may also be controlled by external light signals.
Mailloux, Shay; Halámek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny
2014-03-07
A new Sense-and-Act system was realized by the integration of a biocomputing system, performing analytical processes, with a signal-responsive electrode. A drug-mimicking release process was triggered by biomolecular signals processed by different logic networks, including three concatenated AND logic gates or a 3-input OR logic gate. Biocatalytically produced NADH, controlled by various combinations of input signals, was used to activate the electrochemical system. A biocatalytic electrode associated with signal-processing "biocomputing" systems was electrically connected to another electrode coated with a polymer film, which was dissolved upon the formation of negative potential releasing entrapped drug-mimicking species, an enzyme-antibody conjugate, operating as a model for targeted immune-delivery and consequent "prodrug" activation. The system offers great versatility for future applications in controlled drug release and personalized medicine.
The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.
1993-08-01
The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-11-01
This Integrated Evaluation Framework (IEF) was developed by TC Evaluation with the aim of presenting in a comprehensive manner the logic of thinking used when evaluating projects and programmes. Thus, in the first place, the intended audience for this report are evaluation officers, so that when applying the evaluation procedures and check lists, data can be organized following a systematic and logical scheme and conclusions can be derived ''objectively''. The value of such a framework for reporting on performance and in providing a quality reference for disbursements represents one of its major advantages. However, when developing and applying the IEF, it was realized that a Logical Framework Approach (LFA), like the one upon which the IEF is based, needs to be followed throughout the project life cycle, from the Country Programme Framework planning stage, through project design and implementation. Then, the helpful consequences flow into project design quality and smooth implementation. It is only in such an environment that meaningful and consistent evaluation can take place. Therefore the main audience for this report are Agency staff involved in planning, designing and implementing TC projects as well as their counterparts in Member States. In this understanding, the IEF was subjected to review by a consultants meeting, which included both external consultants and Agency staff. This Consultants Review Meeting encouraged the Secretariat to further adopt the LFA into the TC management process
An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module
Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.
A combined PLC and CPU approach to multiprocessor control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, J.J.; Broesch, J.D.; Coon, R.M.
1995-10-01
A sophisticated multiprocessor control system has been developed for use in the E-Power Supply System Integrated Control (EPSSIC) on the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC provides control and interlocks for the ohmic heating coil power supply and its associated systems. Of particular interest is the architecture of this system: both a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and a Central Processor Unit (CPU) have been combined on a standard VME bus. The PLC and CPU input and output signals are routed through signal conditioning modules, which provide the necessary voltage and ground isolation. Additionally these modules adapt the signal levels to that of the VME I/O boards. One set of I/O signals is shared between the two processors. The resulting multiprocessor system provides a number of advantages: redundant operation for mission critical situations, flexible communications using conventional TCP/IP protocols, the simplicity of ladder logic programming for the majority of the control code, and an easily maintained and expandable non-proprietary system
Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions
Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhang, Zengxing
2017-09-01
Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.
Instantons in Self-Organizing Logic Gates
Bearden, Sean R. B.; Manukian, Haik; Traversa, Fabio L.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano
2018-03-01
Self-organizing logic is a recently suggested framework that allows the solution of Boolean truth tables "in reverse"; i.e., it is able to satisfy the logical proposition of gates regardless to which terminal(s) the truth value is assigned ("terminal-agnostic logic"). It can be realized if time nonlocality (memory) is present. A practical realization of self-organizing logic gates (SOLGs) can be done by combining circuit elements with and without memory. By employing one such realization, we show, numerically, that SOLGs exploit elementary instantons to reach equilibrium points. Instantons are classical trajectories of the nonlinear equations of motion describing SOLGs and connect topologically distinct critical points in the phase space. By linear analysis at those points, we show that these instantons connect the initial critical point of the dynamics, with at least one unstable direction, directly to the final fixed point. We also show that the memory content of these gates affects only the relaxation time to reach the logically consistent solution. Finally, we demonstrate, by solving the corresponding stochastic differential equations, that, since instantons connect critical points, noise and perturbations may change the instanton trajectory in the phase space but not the initial and final critical points. Therefore, even for extremely large noise levels, the gates self-organize to the correct solution. Our work provides a physical understanding of, and can serve as an inspiration for, models of bidirectional logic gates that are emerging as important tools in physics-inspired, unconventional computing.
Many-dimensional modal logics theory and applications
Gabbay, D M; Wolter, F; Zakharyaschev, M
2003-01-01
Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects.
Fuzzy logic guided inverse treatment planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Hui; Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Kim, Jae Ho
2003-01-01
A fuzzy logic technique was applied to optimize the weighting factors in the objective function of an inverse treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Based on this technique, the optimization of weighting factors is guided by the fuzzy rules while the intensity spectrum is optimized by a fast-monotonic-descent method. The resultant fuzzy logic guided inverse planning system is capable of finding the optimal combination of weighting factors for different anatomical structures involved in treatment planning. This system was tested using one simulated (but clinically relevant) case and one clinical case. The results indicate that the optimal balance between the target dose and the critical organ dose is achieved by a refined combination of weighting factors. With the help of fuzzy inference, the efficiency and effectiveness of inverse planning for IMRT are substantially improved
Saturday Programme for CineGlobe
Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia
2015-01-01
The saturday programme had a special kids session, the kick of the Science Storytelling Hackaton and the Award Ceremony WINNERS 2015 The Jury Prize for documentary: Fecal Matters, Paul Gallasch - AU The Jury Prize for Fiction: Hybris, Arjan Brentjes - NL Award of Excellence in Narrative: Final Draft, Scott Calonico - UK The Audience Award for documentary: Logically policed, Damiano Petrucci - UK The Audience Award for Fiction: Slapkick, Dat Nguyen Chon-- DE The Special Prize "Time Vizualisation": Danielle, Anthony Cerniello - US
Programmable full-adder computations in communicating three-dimensional cell cultures.
Ausländer, David; Ausländer, Simon; Pierrat, Xavier; Hellmann, Leon; Rachid, Leila; Fussenegger, Martin
2018-01-01
Synthetic biologists have advanced the design of trigger-inducible gene switches and their assembly into input-programmable circuits that enable engineered human cells to perform arithmetic calculations reminiscent of electronic circuits. By designing a versatile plug-and-play molecular-computation platform, we have engineered nine different cell populations with genetic programs, each of which encodes a defined computational instruction. When assembled into 3D cultures, these engineered cell consortia execute programmable multicellular full-adder logics in response to three trigger compounds.
Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunhua Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.
Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing
2017-09-19
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.
Raising a Programmer: Teaching Saudi Children How to Code
Meccawy, Maram
2017-01-01
Teaching computer coding to children from a young age provides with them a competitive advantage for the future in a continually changing workplace. Programming strengthens logical and critical thinking as well as problem-solving skills, which lead to creative solutions for today's problems. The Little Programmer is an application for mobile…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.A. Ramadan
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an improved adaptive fuzzy logic speed controller for a DC motor, based on field programmable gate array (FPGA hardware implementation. The developed controller includes an adaptive fuzzy logic control (AFLC algorithm, which is designed and verified with a nonlinear model of DC motor. Then, it has been synthesised, functionally verified and implemented using Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE and Spartan-3E FPGA. The performance of this controller has been successfully validated with good tracking results under different operating conditions.
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2014-01-01
In Choreographic Programming, a distributed system is programmed by giving a choreography, a global description of its interactions, instead of separately specifying the behaviour of each of its processes. Process implementations in terms of a distributed language can then be automatically...... projected from a choreography. We present Linear Compositional Choreographies (LCC), a proof theory for reasoning about programs that modularly combine choreographies with processes. Using LCC, we logically reconstruct a semantics and a projection procedure for programs. For the first time, we also obtain...... a procedure for extracting choreographies from process terms....
Manipulating potential wells in Logical Stochastic Resonance to obtain XOR logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storni, Remo; Ando, Hiroyasu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2012-01-01
Logical Stochastic Resonance (LSR) is the application of Stochastic Resonance to logic computation, namely the phenomenon where a nonlinear system driven by weak signals representing logic inputs, under optimal noise, can yield logic outputs. We extend the existing results, obtained in the context of bistable systems, to multi-stable dynamical systems, allowing us to obtain XOR logic, in addition to the AND (NAND) and OR (NOR) logic observed in earlier studies. This strategy widens the scope of LSR from the application point of view, as XOR forms the basis of ubiquitous bit-by-bit addition, and conceptually, showing the ability to yield non-monotonic input–output logic associations. -- Highlights: ► We generalize Logical Stochastic Resonance from bistable to multi-stable systems. ► We propose a tristable dynamical system formed of piecewise linear functions. ► The system can correctly reproduce XOR logic behavior using the LSR principle. ► The system yields different logic behavior without the need to change the dynamics.
Development of control system for multi-converter high voltage power supply using programmable SoC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dave, Rasesh; Singh, N.P.; Thakar, Aruna; Dhola, Hitesh; Gajjar, Sandip; Parmar, Darshan Kumar; Baruah, Ujjwal Kumar; Dharangutti, Jagruti; Zaveri, Tanish
2015-01-01
Multi-converter based High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPSs) find application in multi-megawatt accelerators, RF systems. Control system for HVPS must be a combination of superior parallel processing, real time performance, fast computation and versatile connectivity. The hardware platform is expected to be robust, easily scalable for future developments without any cost overhead. Typical HVPS control mechanism involves communication, generation of precise control signals/pulses for few hundred Nos of chopper and closed loop control in microsecond range for regulated output. Such kind of requirements can be met with Zynq All Programmable SoC, which is a combination of Dual core ARM Cortex A-9 Processing System (PS) and Xilinx 7 series FPGA based Programmable Logic (PL). Deterministic functions of power supply control system such as generation of control signals with precise inter-channel delay of nanosecond range and communication with individual chopper at 100kbps can be implemented on PL. PS should implement corrective tasks based on field feedback received from individual chopper, user interface and OS management that allows to take full advantage of system capabilities. PS and PL are connected with on-chip AXI-4 interface with low latency and higher bandwidth through 9 AXI ports. Typically PS boots first, this ensures secure booting and prevents external environment from tampering PL. This paper describes development of control system on Zynq All Programmable SoC for HVPS. (author)
Development of control system for multi-converter High voltage Power supply using programmable SoC
Dave, Rasesh; Dharangutti, Jagruti; Singh, N. P.; Thakar, Aruna; Dhola, Hitesh; Gajjar, Sandip; Parmar, Darshan; Zaveri, Tanish; Baruah, Ujjwal
2017-04-01
Multi-converter based High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPSs) find application in multi-megawatt accelerators, RF systems. Control system for HVPS must be a combination of superior parallel processing, real time performance, fast computation and versatile connectivity. The hardware platform is expected to be robust, easily scalable for future developments with minimal overheads. This paper describes development of control system on Zynq All Programmable SoC (System on Chip) for HVPS. Typical HVPS control mechanism involves communication, generation of precise control signals/pulses for few hundred numbers of chopper and closed loop control in microsecond range for regulated output. Such kind of requirements can be met with Zynq All Programmable SoC, which is a combination of Dual core ARM Cortex A-9 Processing System (PS) and Xilinx 7 series FPGA based Programmable Logic (PL). Deterministic functions of power supply control system such as generation of control signals with precise inter-channel delay of nanosecond range and communication with individual chopper at 100kbps can be implemented on PL. PS should implement corrective tasks based on field feedback received from individual chopper, user interface and OS management that allows to take full advantage of system capabilities. PS and PL are connected with on-chip AXI-4 interface with low latency and higher bandwidth through 9 AXI ports. Typically PS boots first, this ensures secure booting and prevents external environment from tampering PL.
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
Fast logic modules with programmed functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinov, V.G.; Selikov, A.V.
1987-01-01
Modern nuclear-physical experiment procedure requires automated control and adjustment of event selection and recording systems. Nanosecond programmed-control units realizing optional set of combinational logic functions are described. Programmed permanent storage device is the basis of one unit, and on-line storage device, preliminary provided with truth tables, is in the basis of the other units. The resolution time is 40 ns. By means of auxiliary unit the programmed logic devices with sequent storage elements (digital timer and pulse generator; multiple-phase generator; sequential digital controller) are realized. The units are performed in CAMAC standard, the modules size being 1M
Devaraju, Naga Sai Gopi K; Unger, Marc A
2012-11-21
Advances in microfluidics now allow an unprecedented level of parallelization and integration of biochemical reactions. However, one challenge still faced by the field has been the complexity and cost of the control hardware: one external pressure signal has been required for each independently actuated set of valves on chip. Using a simple post-modification to the multilayer soft lithography fabrication process, we present a new implementation of digital fluidic logic fully analogous to electronic logic with significant performance advances over the previous implementations. We demonstrate a novel normally closed static gain valve capable of modulating pressure signals in a fashion analogous to an electronic transistor. We utilize these valves to build complex fluidic logic circuits capable of arbitrary control of flows by processing binary input signals (pressure (1) and atmosphere (0)). We demonstrate logic gates and devices including NOT, NAND and NOR gates, bi-stable flip-flops, gated flip-flops (latches), oscillators, self-driven peristaltic pumps, delay flip-flops, and a 12-bit shift register built using static gain valves. This fluidic logic shows cascade-ability, feedback, programmability, bi-stability, and autonomous control capability. This implementation of fluidic logic yields significantly smaller devices, higher clock rates, simple designs, easy fabrication, and integration into MSL microfluidics.
Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2013-01-01
interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....
Excitonic AND Logic Gates on DNA Brick Nanobreadboards
2015-01-01
A promising application of DNA self-assembly is the fabrication of chromophore-based excitonic devices. DNA brick assembly is a compelling method for creating programmable nanobreadboards on which chromophores may be rapidly and easily repositioned to prototype new excitonic devices, optimize device operation, and induce reversible switching. Using DNA nanobreadboards, we have demonstrated each of these functions through the construction and operation of two different excitonic AND logic gates. The modularity and high chromophore density achievable via this brick-based approach provide a viable path toward developing information processing and storage systems. PMID:25839049
Programmable autonomous synthesis of single-stranded DNA
Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Schaus, Thomas E.; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; Xuan, Feng; Yin, Peng
2018-02-01
DNA performs diverse functional roles in biology, nanotechnology and biotechnology, but current methods for autonomously synthesizing arbitrary single-stranded DNA are limited. Here, we introduce the concept of primer exchange reaction (PER) cascades, which grow nascent single-stranded DNA with user-specified sequences following prescribed reaction pathways. PER synthesis happens in a programmable, autonomous, in situ and environmentally responsive fashion, providing a platform for engineering molecular circuits and devices with a wide range of sensing, monitoring, recording, signal-processing and actuation capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate a nanodevice that transduces the detection of a trigger RNA into the production of a DNAzyme that degrades an independent RNA substrate, a signal amplifier that conditionally synthesizes long fluorescent strands only in the presence of a particular RNA signal, molecular computing circuits that evaluate logic (AND, OR, NOT) combinations of RNA inputs, and a temporal molecular event recorder that records in the PER transcript the order in which distinct RNA inputs are sequentially detected.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Newton C. A. da Costa
2002-12-01
Full Text Available In view of the present state of development of non classical logic, especially of paraconsistent logic, a new stand regarding the relations between logic and ontology is defended In a parody of a dictum of Quine, my stand May be summarized as follows. To be is to be the value of a variable a specific language with a given underlying logic Yet my stand differs from Quine’s, because, among other reasons, I accept some first order heterodox logics as genuine alternatives to classical logic I also discuss some questions of non classical logic to substantiate my argument, and suggest that may position complements and extends some ideas advanced by L Apostel.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics......, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic...
Multi-purpose logical device with integrated circuit for the automation of mine water disposal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pop, E.; Pasculescu, M.
1980-06-01
After an analysis of the waste water disposal as an object of automation, the author presents a BASIC-language programme established to simulate the automated control system on a digital computer. Then a multi-purpose logical device with integrated circuits for the automation of the mine water disposal is presented. (In Romanian)
Functional completeness of the mixed λ-calculus and combinatory logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
1990-01-01
Functional completeness of the combinatory logic means that every lambda-expression may be translated into an equivalent combinator expression and this is the theoretical basis for the implementation of functional languages on combinator-based abstract machines. To obtain efficient implementations...... it is important to distinguish between early and late binding times, i.e. to distinguish between compile-time and run-time computations. The authors therefore introduce a two-level version of the lambda-calculus where this distinction is made in an explicit way. Turning to the combinatory logic they generate...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aumar Al-Nakeeb
2018-02-01
Full Text Available One of the important units in Sharq Dijla Water Treatment Plant (WTP first and second extensions are the alum solution preparation and dosing unit. The existing operation of this unit accomplished manually starting from unloading the powder alum in the preparation basin and ending by controlling the alum dosage addition through the dosing pumps to the flash mix chambers. Because of the modern trend of monitoring and control the automatic operation of WTPs due to the great benefits that could be gain from optimum equipment operation, reducing the operating costs and human errors. This study deals with how to transform the conventional operation to an automatic monitoring and controlling system depending on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and online sensors for alum preparation and dosing unit in Sharq Dijla WTP. PLC system will receive, analyze transmitting data, compare them with preset points then automatically orders the operational equipment (such as pumps, valves, and mixers in a way that guarantees the safe and appropriate operation of the unit. As a result of Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (PID that were prepared in this study, these units can be fully operating and manage by using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system.
Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyo, Tsunemasa; Okano, Masato.
1990-01-01
An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)
Meyer, J.J.Ch.; Broersen, J.M.; Herzig, A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents an overview of so-called BDI logics, logics where the notion of Beliefs, Desires and Intentions play a central role. Starting out from the basic ideas about BDI by Bratman, we consider various formalizations in logic, such as the approach of Cohen and Levesque, slightly
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Practical programmable circuits a guide to PLDs, state machines, and microcontrollers
Broesch, James D
1991-01-01
This is a practical guide to programmable logic devices. It covers all devices related to PLD: PALs, PGAs, state machines, and microcontrollers. Usefulness is evaluated; support needed in order to effectively use the devices is discussed. All examples are based on real-world circuits.
Conventions and Institutional Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...
Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic
Baltag, A.; Smets, S.
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear “no”.
Quantum logic as a dynamic logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horčík, Rostislav; Cintula, Petr
2004-01-01
Roč. 43, - (2004), s. 477-503 ISSN 1432-0665 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004; GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Grant - others:GA CTU(CZ) project 0208613; net CEEPUS(SK) SK-042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * many-valued logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Lpi logic * Takeuti-Titani logic * MV-algebras * product MV-algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2004
Energy-Efficient Wide Datapath Integer Arithmetic Logic Units Using Superconductor Logic
Ayala, Christopher Lawrence
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is currently the most widely used integrated circuit technology today. As CMOS approaches the physical limitations of scaling, it is unclear whether or not it can provide long-term support for niche areas such as high-performance computing and telecommunication infrastructure, particularly with the emergence of cloud computing. Alternatively, superconductor technologies based on Josephson junction (JJ) switching elements such as Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic and especially its new variant, Energy-Efficient Rapid Single Flux Quantum (ERSFQ) logic have the capability to provide an ultra-high-speed, low power platform for digital systems. The objective of this research is to design and evaluate energy-efficient, high-speed 32-bit integer Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) implemented using RSFQ and ERSFQ logic as the first steps towards achieving practical Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) complexity in digital superconductor electronics. First, a tunable VHDL superconductor cell library is created to provide a mechanism to conduct design exploration and evaluation of superconductor digital circuits from the perspectives of functionality, complexity, performance, and energy-efficiency. Second, hybrid wave-pipelining techniques developed earlier for wide datapath RSFQ designs have been used for efficient arithmetic and logic circuit implementations. To develop the core foundation of the ALU, the ripple-carry adder and the Kogge-Stone parallel prefix carry look-ahead adder are studied as representative candidates on opposite ends of the design spectrum. By combining the high-performance features of the Kogge-Stone structure and the low complexity of the ripple-carry adder, a 32-bit asynchronous wave-pipelined hybrid sparse-tree ALU has been designed and evaluated using the VHDL cell library tuned to HYPRES' gate-level characteristics. The designs and techniques from this research have been implemented using
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P N Johnson-Laird
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indra Ranu Kusuma
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Characteristics of catamaran ship which has deficiency to ship stability during maneuvering. to that end, this paper concerns about ballast system design in support of the safety and comfort of passengers on the catamaran boat. the discussion is done by creating a mathematical model of each component in the block diagram of the ballast system. then determine the pid value of the system and add the compensator for the system to run stable. further analyzed with the help of matlab software to get transient system response. with the automation system on the ballast system, it is expected that the motion of the ship can work automatically and provide a better response in the stability of the catamaran type ship. the ballast system begins to work against the tilt of the ship at 6.7 seconds at a certain angle, and will continue to work during the vessel maneuvering. judging from the 6.7 second system response time, the convenience of the passengers is not disturbed (the system response is not too fast. one way to reduce the rolling that occurs on the ship is to optimize the performance of the ballast system. performance optimization is done by using programmable logic controller (plc. plc used is omron cpm1a-30cdr-a-v1. the process is done by making the installation plant model of the ballast system as a control medium. followed by creating a control circuit consisting of wiring i / o, limit switch circuits, power supplies and programming languages associated with plcs. the result of the control is expected to regulate fluid flow in the ballast system automatically resulting in a rapid response to the stability of the ship.
On the Mechanization of the Proof of Hessenberg's Theorem in Coherent Logic
Bezem, M.; Hendriks, R.D.A.
2008-01-01
We propose to combine interactive proof construction with proof automation for a fragment of first-order logic called Coherent Logic (CL). CL allows enough existential quantification to make Skolemization unnecessary. Moreover, CL has a constructive proof system based on forward reasoning, which is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronov, A.A.; Kurin, V.V.; Levichev, M.Yu.; Ryndyk, D.A.; Vostokov, V.I.
1993-01-01
In recent years there has been much interest in superconductor logical devices. Our paper is devoted to the analysis of some new possibilities in this field. The main problems here are: minimization of time of logical operations and reducing of device scale. Josephson systems are quite appropriate for this purpose because of small size, short characteristic time and also small energy losses. Two different types of Josephson logic have been investigated during last years. The first type is based on hysteretic V-A characteristic of a single Josephson junction. Superconducting and resistive (with nonzero voltage) states are considered as logical zero and logical unit. The second one - rapid single flux quantum logic, has been developed recently and is based on SQUID-like bistability. Different logical states are the states with different number of magnetic flux quanta inside closed superconducting contour. Information is represented by voltage pulses with fixed ''area'' (∫ V(t)/dt). This pulses are generated when logical state of SQUID-like elementary cell changes. The fundamental role of magnetic flux quantization in this type of logic leads to the necessity of large enough self-inductance of superconductor contour and thus to limitations on minimal device dimensions. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Kleene, Stephen Cole
1967-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Indeterministic Temporal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trzęsicki Kazimierz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.
Conjunction analysis and propositional logic in fMRI data analysis using Bayesian statistics.
Rudert, Thomas; Lohmann, Gabriele
2008-12-01
To evaluate logical expressions over different effects in data analyses using the general linear model (GLM) and to evaluate logical expressions over different posterior probability maps (PPMs). In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, the GLM was applied to estimate unknown regression parameters. Based on the GLM, Bayesian statistics can be used to determine the probability of conjunction, disjunction, implication, or any other arbitrary logical expression over different effects or contrast. For second-level inferences, PPMs from individual sessions or subjects are utilized. These PPMs can be combined to a logical expression and its probability can be computed. The methods proposed in this article are applied to data from a STROOP experiment and the methods are compared to conjunction analysis approaches for test-statistics. The combination of Bayesian statistics with propositional logic provides a new approach for data analyses in fMRI. Two different methods are introduced for propositional logic: the first for analyses using the GLM and the second for common inferences about different probability maps. The methods introduced extend the idea of conjunction analysis to a full propositional logic and adapt it from test-statistics to Bayesian statistics. The new approaches allow inferences that are not possible with known standard methods in fMRI. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Classical Logic and Quantum Logic with Multiple and Common Lattice Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladen Pavičić
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a proper propositional quantum logic and show that it has multiple disjoint lattice models, only one of which is an orthomodular lattice (algebra underlying Hilbert (quantum space. We give an equivalent proof for the classical logic which turns out to have disjoint distributive and nondistributive ortholattices. In particular, we prove that both classical logic and quantum logic are sound and complete with respect to each of these lattices. We also show that there is one common nonorthomodular lattice that is a model of both quantum and classical logic. In technical terms, that enables us to run the same classical logic on both a digital (standard, two-subset, 0-1-bit computer and a nondigital (say, a six-subset computer (with appropriate chips and circuits. With quantum logic, the same six-element common lattice can serve us as a benchmark for an efficient evaluation of equations of bigger lattice models or theorems of the logic.
Logic-type Schmitt circuit using multi-valued gates
Wakui, M.; Tanaka, M.
Logic-type Schmitt circuits (LTSCs) proposed in this paper by author's proposal are a new detector for a multi-valued multi-threshold logic circuit, and it realizes the high resolution with a little hysteresis or the high noise margin. The detector consists of the combinations of the multi-valued gates (MVGs) and a positive reaction device (PRD), and each circuit can be realized by the conventional elements. This paper shows their practical circuits, and describes the regions and the conditions for their operation.
Toward Automating Web Protocol Configuration for a Programmable Logic Controller Emulator
2014-06-19
Security Risks for Industrial Control Systems ,” VDE 2004 Congress, Berlin, Germany, October 2004, pp. 1-7. [Cis12] Cisco, NetFlow Configuration Guide...Date 29 May 2014 Date AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-4 Abstract Industrial Control Systems (ICS) remain vulnerable through attack vectors that exist within programmable...5 2.2 Industrial Control Systems
Propositional Logics of Dependence
Yang, F.; Väänänen, J.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study logics of dependence on the propositional level. We prove that several interesting propositional logics of dependence, including propositional dependence logic, propositional intuitionistic dependence logic as well as propositional inquisitive logic, are expressively complete
Co-existing institutional logics and agency among top-level public servants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerregaard, Toke
2011-01-01
to address parts of this void. This study examines the agency exerted by top-level public servants through their everyday strategy and policy work in face of co-existing logics of public administration. The findings illustrate how their action strategies span from more passive strategies of coping...... with coexisting logics of administration to more skilled agency of combining logics aimed at enhancing their opportunity and action space. The study suggests that the interplay between co-existing institutional logics, action strategies and the practical skills of top-level public servants provides the basis...... for both coping and more proactive strategies in pluralistic public administrations. Findings illustrate the role of public servants' practical sense of realizable opportunities that inform such strategies of handling co-existing institutional logics. Implications for institutional studies of organizations...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Vérification des propriétés temporisées des automates programmables industriels
Bel Mokadem , Houda
2006-01-01
Vérification of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs is important when these programs are to control critical applications for reactive systems. This context has already been study for untimed programs. In this thesis, We are interested to timed properties and programs. More precisely, we give a formal semantics to (partial) Ladder diagrams and TON blocks, with timed automata. We also propose a timed logic in order to abstract transient events, where transient properties is parameteri...
Complex logic functions implemented with quantum dot bionanophotonic circuits.
Claussen, Jonathan C; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L
2014-03-26
We combine quantum dots (QDs) with long-lifetime terbium complexes (Tb), a near-IR Alexa Fluor dye (A647), and self-assembling peptides to demonstrate combinatorial and sequential bionanophotonic logic devices that function by time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon excitation, the Tb-QD-A647 FRET-complex produces time-dependent photoluminescent signatures from multi-FRET pathways enabled by the capacitor-like behavior of the Tb. The unique photoluminescent signatures are manipulated by ratiometrically varying dye/Tb inputs and collection time. Fluorescent output is converted into Boolean logic states to create complex arithmetic circuits including the half-adder/half-subtractor, 2:1 multiplexer/1:2 demultiplexer, and a 3-digit, 16-combination keypad lock.
Application of programmable controllers to vacuum system interlocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, G.; Moore, D.
1979-11-01
This paper describes the Doublet III Vacuum Control System in which all input signals and output loads are connected to a programmable controller (PC) for logical interfacing. Input signals derived from CAMAC, control panels, limit switches, etc., are implemented as output signals to CAMAC, vacuum valves, pump motors, etc., according to a logic program stored in the PC memory. The memory can be easily programmed by anyone familar with either Boolean algebra or relay-ladder network diagrams. The program data is entered with the aid of a calculator like, keyboard instrument with LED readout displays. The PC system contains a 1024 word RAM memory with a battery backup system to provide 72 hours protection of contents in case of power failure
Implementation of trinary logic in a polarization encoded optical shadow-casting scheme.
Rizvi, R A; Zaheer, K; Zubairy, M S
1991-03-10
The design of various multioutput trinary combinational logic units by a polarization encoded optical shadow-casting (POSC) technique is presented. The POSC modified algorithm is employed to design and implement these logic elements in a trinary number system with separate and simultaneous generation of outputs. A detailed solution of the POSC logic equations for a fixed source plane and a fixed decoding mask is given to obtain input pixel coding for a trinary half-adder, full adder, and subtractor.
Fuzzy logic: A "simple" solution for complexities in neurosciences?
Godil, Saniya Siraj; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Enam, Syed Ather; Qidwai, Uvais
2011-02-26
Fuzzy logic is a multi-valued logic which is similar to human thinking and interpretation. It has the potential of combining human heuristics into computer-assisted decision making, which is applicable to individual patients as it takes into account all the factors and complexities of individuals. Fuzzy logic has been applied in all disciplines of medicine in some form and recently its applicability in neurosciences has also gained momentum. This review focuses on the use of this concept in various branches of neurosciences including basic neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology. The applicability of fuzzy logic is not limited to research related to neuroanatomy, imaging nerve fibers and understanding neurophysiology, but it is also a sensitive and specific tool for interpretation of EEGs, EMGs and MRIs and an effective controller device in intensive care units. It has been used for risk stratification of stroke, diagnosis of different psychiatric illnesses and even planning neurosurgical procedures. In the future, fuzzy logic has the potential of becoming the basis of all clinical decision making and our understanding of neurosciences.
The combination of gold nanorods and nanoparticles with DNA nanodevices for logic gates construction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Dongbao; Song, Tingjie; Xiao, Shiyan; Huang, Fujian; Liang, Haojun; Zheng, Bin
2015-01-01
In this work, two DNA nanodevices were constructed utilizing a DNA strand displacement reaction. With the assistance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs), the autonomous reactions can be reflected from the aggregation states of nanoparticles. By sequence design and the two non-overlapping double hump-like UV–vis spectral peaks of AuNPs and AuNRs, two logic gates with multiple inputs and outputs were successfully run with expected outcomes. This method not only shows how to achieve computing with multiple logic calculations but also has great potential for multiple targets detection. (paper)
Control Logic for the Interlock system of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer
Riegel, Christian
Part of the first upgrade program of the ATLAS detector is the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) as a fourth and innermost detector layer of the ATLAS pixel detector to prepare the tracking system for the expected increase of pile-up events. As with every sub-detector, the IBL and its components have to be monitored and controlled via a Detector Control System (DCS). A hardware-based interlock system is installed on-site to prevent detector and people working at the detector from serious harm and damage. For the IBL, the logical processing of interlock signals is realised in Interlock Matrix Crates (IMCs) using Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD). One part of this master thesis is the automatic implementation of the logical assignments from database information. A script was developed to generate the needed file to program the CPLD. The second part of this thesis is the design of a test setup to verify the functionality of the electrical components of each IMC and to confirm the correct proce...
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...
Programmable controllers replace relays in MFTF-B personnel-safety interlocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branum, J.D.
1981-01-01
This paper describes a new approach for implementing personnel safety interlocks logic using industrial-type programmable controllers. The logic for all personnel safety interlocks except those totally internal to a subsystem is implemented in two non-redundant controllers. A high degree of fail-safe reliability is achieved by augmenting the protective features intrinsic to each controller with those provided by a small amount of external support hardware. The controllers are interfaced to the host computer system via fiber optic data links to enable display of interlock and overall system status on the control room graphic displays. When fully implemented, the controllers will perform the equivalent of over 2000 discreet relay functions
Designed cell consortia as fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converters.
Müller, Marius; Ausländer, Simon; Spinnler, Andrea; Ausländer, David; Sikorski, Julian; Folcher, Marc; Fussenegger, Martin
2017-03-01
Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia. The ADC consists of multiple sampling-and-quantization modules sensing analog gaseous fragrance inputs; a gas-to-liquid transducer converting fragrance intensity into diffusible cell-to-cell signaling compounds; a digitization unit with a genetic amplifier circuit to improve the signal-to-noise ratio; and recombinase-based digital expression switches enabling 2-bit processing of logic gates. Synthetic ADCs that can remotely control cellular activities with digital precision may enable the development of novel biosensors and may provide bioelectronic interfaces synchronizing analog metabolic pathways with digital electronics.
Field programmable gate array reliability analysis using the dynamic flow graph methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McNelles, Phillip; Lu, Lixuan [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario (Canada)
2016-10-15
Field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based systems are thought to be a practical option to replace certain obsolete instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. An FPGA is a type of integrated circuit, which is programmed after being manufactured. FPGAs have some advantages over other electronic technologies, such as analog circuits, microprocessors, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), for nuclear instrumentation and control, and safety system applications. However, safety-related issues for FPGA-based systems remain to be verified. Owing to this, modeling FPGA-based systems for safety assessment has now become an important point of research. One potential methodology is the dynamic flowgraph methodology (DFM). It has been used for modeling software/hardware interactions in modern control systems. In this paper, FPGA logic was analyzed using DFM. Four aspects of FPGAs are investigated: the 'IEEE 1164 standard', registers (D flip-flops), configurable logic blocks, and an FPGA-based signal compensator. The ModelSim simulations confirmed that DFM was able to accurately model those four FPGA properties, proving that DFM has the potential to be used in the modeling of FPGA-based systems. Furthermore, advantages of DFM over traditional reliability analysis methods and FPGA simulators are presented, along with a discussion of potential issues with using DFM for FPGA-based system modeling.
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
In this paper, a theory of quantum logics is proposed which is general enough to enable us to reexamine a previous work on quantum logics in the context of this theory. It is then easy to assess the differences between the different systems studied. The quantum logical systems which are incorporated are divided into two groups which we call ''quantum propositional logics'' and ''quantum event logics''. The work of Kochen and Specker (partial Boolean algebras) is included and so is that of Greechie and Gudder (orthomodular partially ordered sets), Domotar (quantum mechanical systems), and Foulis and Randall (operational logics) in quantum propositional logics; and Abbott (semi-Boolean algebras) and Foulis and Randall (manuals) in quantum event logics, In this part of the paper, an axiom system for quantum propositional logics is developed and the above structures in the context of this system examined. (author)
Microdroplet-based universal logic gates by electrorheological fluid
Zhang, Mengying
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a uniquely designed microfluid logic gate with universal functionality, which is capable of conducting all 16 logic operations in one chip, with different input voltage combinations. A kind of smart colloid, giant electrorheological (GER) fluid, functions as the translation media among fluidic, electronic and mechanic information, providing us with the capability of performing large integrations either on-chip or off-chip, while the on-chip hybrid circuit is formed by the interconnection of the electric components and fluidic channels, where the individual microdroplets travelling in a channel represents a bit. The universal logic gate reveals the possibilities of achieving a large-scale microfluidic processor with more complexity for on-chip processing for biological, chemical as well as computational experiments. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinkovicj, N.
CRISPV (Criticality and Spectrum code) is a multigroup neutron spectrum code for homogeneous reactor cores and is actually a somewhat modified version of the original CRISP programme. It is a combination of DATAPREP-II and BIGG-II programmes. It is assumed that the reactor cell is a cylindrical fuel rod in the light or heavy water moderator. DATEPREP-II CODE forms the multigroup data for homogeneous reactor and prepares the input parameters for the BIGG-II code. It has its own nuclear data library on a separate tape in binary mode. BIGG-II code is a multigroup neutron spectrum and criticality code for a homogenized medium. It has as well its own separate data library. In the CRISPV programme the overlay structure enables automatic handling of data calculated in the DATAPREP-II programme and needed in the BIGG-II core. Both programmes are written in FORTRAN for CDC 3600. Using the programme is very efficient and simple
Designing Experiments to Discriminate Families of Logic Models.
Videla, Santiago; Konokotina, Irina; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Schaub, Torsten; Siegel, Anne; Guziolowski, Carito
2015-01-01
Logic models of signaling pathways are a promising way of building effective in silico functional models of a cell, in particular of signaling pathways. The automated learning of Boolean logic models describing signaling pathways can be achieved by training to phosphoproteomics data, which is particularly useful if it is measured upon different combinations of perturbations in a high-throughput fashion. However, in practice, the number and type of allowed perturbations are not exhaustive. Moreover, experimental data are unavoidably subjected to noise. As a result, the learning process results in a family of feasible logical networks rather than in a single model. This family is composed of logic models implementing different internal wirings for the system and therefore the predictions of experiments from this family may present a significant level of variability, and hence uncertainty. In this paper, we introduce a method based on Answer Set Programming to propose an optimal experimental design that aims to narrow down the variability (in terms of input-output behaviors) within families of logical models learned from experimental data. We study how the fitness with respect to the data can be improved after an optimal selection of signaling perturbations and how we learn optimal logic models with minimal number of experiments. The methods are applied on signaling pathways in human liver cells and phosphoproteomics experimental data. Using 25% of the experiments, we obtained logical models with fitness scores (mean square error) 15% close to the ones obtained using all experiments, illustrating the impact that our approach can have on the design of experiments for efficient model calibration.
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Enzyme-Based Logic Gates and Networks with Output Signals Analyzed by Various Methods.
Katz, Evgeny
2017-07-05
The paper overviews various methods that are used for the analysis of output signals generated by enzyme-based logic systems. The considered methods include optical techniques (optical absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance), electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, potentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, conductivity measurements, use of field effect transistor devices, pH measurements), and various mechanoelectronic methods (using atomic force microscope, quartz crystal microbalance). Although each of the methods is well known for various bioanalytical applications, their use in combination with the biomolecular logic systems is rather new and sometimes not trivial. Many of the discussed methods have been combined with the use of signal-responsive materials to transduce and amplify biomolecular signals generated by the logic operations. Interfacing of biocomputing logic systems with electronics and "smart" signal-responsive materials allows logic operations be extended to actuation functions; for example, stimulating molecular release and switchable features of bioelectronic devices, such as biofuel cells. The purpose of this review article is to emphasize the broad variability of the bioanalytical systems applied for signal transduction in biocomputing processes. All bioanalytical systems discussed in the article are exemplified with specific logic gates and multi-gate networks realized with enzyme-based biocatalytic cascades. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Using a logical information model-driven design process in healthcare.
Cheong, Yu Chye; Bird, Linda; Tun, Nwe Ni; Brooks, Colleen
2011-01-01
A hybrid standards-based approach has been adopted in Singapore to develop a Logical Information Model (LIM) for healthcare information exchange. The Singapore LIM uses a combination of international standards, including ISO13606-1 (a reference model for electronic health record communication), ISO21090 (healthcare datatypes), SNOMED CT (healthcare terminology) and HL7 v2 (healthcare messaging). This logic-based design approach also incorporates mechanisms for achieving bi-directional semantic interoperability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, YounHu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa
2015-01-01
This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. This device converts to the different module from the input signals for both digital and analogue of the equipment in the field and outputs their data. In addition, it should perform the logical controls such as backplane communication control and data communication. We suggest acquiring method of the data signal with efficient logic using the socket in this article. Proposed test socket is made by simpler process than former one, and the process is done in batches by which cost can be reduces, and the test socket can be quickly produced in response to any request. Also, it is possible to reduce the wear by reducing the contact force of the ball phenomenon. The structure on the basis of silicon can be reduced the modification, and it has excellent linearity. At the logic verification, the operation that state data block is designed in the FPGA could be easily confirmed by using a socket
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ravi S. P. Nair
2015-09-01
Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.
Plausible inference: A multi-valued logic for problem solving
Friedman, L.
1979-01-01
A new logic is developed which permits continuously variable strength of belief in the truth of assertions. Four inference rules result, with formal logic as a limiting case. Quantification of belief is defined. Propagation of belief to linked assertions results from dependency-based techniques of truth maintenance so that local consistency is achieved or contradiction discovered in problem solving. Rules for combining, confirming, or disconfirming beliefs are given, and several heuristics are suggested that apply to revising already formed beliefs in the light of new evidence. The strength of belief that results in such revisions based on conflicting evidence are a highly subjective phenomenon. Certain quantification rules appear to reflect an orderliness in the subjectivity. Several examples of reasoning by plausible inference are given, including a legal example and one from robot learning. Propagation of belief takes place in directions forbidden in formal logic and this results in conclusions becoming possible for a given set of assertions that are not reachable by formal logic.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic
Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine
Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.
Rough set classification based on quantum logic
Hassan, Yasser F.
2017-11-01
By combining the advantages of quantum computing and soft computing, the paper shows that rough sets can be used with quantum logic for classification and recognition systems. We suggest the new definition of rough set theory as quantum logic theory. Rough approximations are essential elements in rough set theory, the quantum rough set model for set-valued data directly construct set approximation based on a kind of quantum similarity relation which is presented here. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the new model for quantum rough sets has new type of decision rule with less redundancy which can be used to give accurate classification using principles of quantum superposition and non-linear quantum relations. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt aiming to define rough sets in representation of a quantum rather than logic or sets. The experiments on data-sets have demonstrated that the proposed model is more accuracy than the traditional rough sets in terms of finding optimal classifications.
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe
1990-01-01
Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
Institutional Logics in Action
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
Logic synthesis for FPGA-based finite state machines
Barkalov, Alexander; Kolopienczyk, Malgorzata; Mielcarek, Kamil; Bazydlo, Grzegorz
2016-01-01
This book discusses control units represented by the model of a finite state machine (FSM). It contains various original methods and takes into account the peculiarities of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) chips and a FSM model. It shows that one of the peculiarities of FPGA chips is the existence of embedded memory blocks (EMB). The book is devoted to the solution of problems of logic synthesis and reduction of hardware amount in control units. The book will be interesting and useful for researchers and PhD students in the area of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, as well as for designers of modern digital systems.
The Third Life of Quantum Logic: Quantum Logic Inspired by Quantum Computing
Dunn, J. Michael; Moss, Lawrence S.; Wang, Zhenghan
2013-01-01
We begin by discussing the history of quantum logic, dividing it into three eras or lives. The first life has to do with Birkhoff and von Neumann's algebraic approach in the 1930's. The second life has to do with attempt to understand quantum logic as logic that began in the late 1950's and blossomed in the 1970's. And the third life has to do with recent developments in quantum logic coming from its connections to quantum computation. We discuss our own work connecting quantum logic to quant...
Bergstra, J.A.
2011-01-01
Four options for assigning a meaning to Islamic Logic are surveyed including a new proposal for an option named "Real Islamic Logic" (RIL). That approach to Islamic Logic should serve modern Islamic objectives in a way comparable to the functionality of Islamic Finance. The prospective role of RIL
Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne
2015-01-01
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...
The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, B J
2006-01-01
The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R and D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA)
Programme for test generation for combinatorial and sequential systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Huy Hoan
1973-01-01
This research thesis reports the computer-assisted search for tests aimed at failure detection in combinatorial and sequential logic circuits. As he wants to deal with complex circuits with many modules such as those met in large scale integrated circuits (LSI), the author used propagation paths. He reports the development of a method which is valid for combinatorial systems and for several sequential circuits comprising elementary logic modules and JK and RS flip-flops. This method is developed on an IBM 360/91 computer in PL/1 language. The used memory space is limited and adjustable with respect to circuit dimension. Computing time is short when compared to that needed by other programmes. The solution is practical and efficient for failure test and localisation
Some relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rine, D.C.
1986-01-01
There have been suggestions in the artificial intelligence literature that investigations into relationships between logic programming and multiple-valued logic may be helpful. This paper presents some of these relationships through equivalent algebraic evaluations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schoonwelle, H.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E
1996-07-01
In order to improve reliability in detecting anomalies in nuclear power plant performance, a method is presented which is based on acquiring various characteristics of signal data using autoregressive, wavelet and fractal-analysis techniques. These characteristics are combined using a decision making approach based on fuzzy logic. This approach is able to detect and distinguish several system states.
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction : solutions manual
Conradie, Willem; Robinson, Claudette
2015-01-01
Solutions manual to accompany Logic and Discrete Mathematics: A Concise Introduction This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. Written in a clear and reader-friendly style, each section ends with an extensive set of exercises, most of them provided with complete solutions which are available in this accompanying solutions manual.
Bonacini, Sandro; Kloukinas, Kostas
2007-01-01
The electronics associated to the particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN, will operate in a very harsh radiation environment. Most of the microelectronics components developed for the first generation of LHC experiments have been designed with very precise experiment-specific goals and are hardly adaptable to other applications. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components cannot be used in the vicinity of particle collision due to their poor radiation tolerance. This thesis is a contribution to the effort to cover the need for radiation-tolerant SEU-robust programmable components for application in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two components are under development: a Programmable Logic Device (PLD) and a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The PLD is a fuse-based, 10-input, 8-I/O general architecture device in 0.25 micron CMOS technology. The FPGA under development is instead a 32x32 logic block array, equivalent to ~25k gates, in 0.13 micron CMOS. This wor...
Corporate traveler centered development of a loyalty programme
Keskiväli, Mika
2015-01-01
This thesis is a qualitative case study that examined how the airline corporate sales client company employee (known as business traveler) engagement could be developed by the customer co-creation methods in the loyalty programme perspective. The thesis is using the service marketing theory and the service- and customer-dominant logics as the base in understanding the service development and the customer-centric approach. The business-to-business and the relationship marketing theories are in...
A logical approach to semantic interoperability in healthcare.
Bird, Linda; Brooks, Colleen; Cheong, Yu Chye; Tun, Nwe Ni
2011-01-01
Singapore is in the process of rolling out a number of national e-health initiatives, including the National Electronic Health Record (NEHR). A critical enabler in the journey towards semantic interoperability is a Logical Information Model (LIM) that harmonises the semantics of the information structure with the terminology. The Singapore LIM uses a combination of international standards, including ISO 13606-1 (a reference model for electronic health record communication), ISO 21090 (healthcare datatypes), and SNOMED CT (healthcare terminology). The LIM is accompanied by a logical design approach, used to generate interoperability artifacts, and incorporates mechanisms for achieving unidirectional and bidirectional semantic interoperability.
Fuzzy logic: A “simple” solution for complexities in neurosciences?
Godil, Saniya Siraj; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Enam, Syed Ather; Qidwai, Uvais
2011-01-01
Background: Fuzzy logic is a multi-valued logic which is similar to human thinking and interpretation. It has the potential of combining human heuristics into computer-assisted decision making, which is applicable to individual patients as it takes into account all the factors and complexities of individuals. Fuzzy logic has been applied in all disciplines of medicine in some form and recently its applicability in neurosciences has also gained momentum. Methods: This review focuses on the use of this concept in various branches of neurosciences including basic neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology. Results: The applicability of fuzzy logic is not limited to research related to neuroanatomy, imaging nerve fibers and understanding neurophysiology, but it is also a sensitive and specific tool for interpretation of EEGs, EMGs and MRIs and an effective controller device in intensive care units. It has been used for risk stratification of stroke, diagnosis of different psychiatric illnesses and even planning neurosurgical procedures. Conclusions: In the future, fuzzy logic has the potential of becoming the basis of all clinical decision making and our understanding of neurosciences. PMID:21541006
People Like Logical Truth: Testing the Intuitive Detection of Logical Value in Basic Propositions.
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Hiroko Nakamura
Full Text Available Recent studies on logical reasoning have suggested that people are intuitively aware of the logical validity of syllogisms or that they intuitively detect conflict between heuristic responses and logical norms via slight changes in their feelings. According to logical intuition studies, logically valid or heuristic logic no-conflict reasoning is fluently processed and induces positive feelings without conscious awareness. One criticism states that such effects of logicality disappear when confounding factors such as the content of syllogisms are controlled. The present study used abstract propositions and tested whether people intuitively detect logical value. Experiment 1 presented four logical propositions (conjunctive, biconditional, conditional, and material implications regarding a target case and asked the participants to rate the extent to which they liked the statement. Experiment 2 tested the effects of matching bias, as well as intuitive logic, on the reasoners' feelings by manipulating whether the antecedent or consequent (or both of the conditional was affirmed or negated. The results showed that both logicality and matching bias affected the reasoners' feelings, and people preferred logically true targets over logically false ones for all forms of propositions. These results suggest that people intuitively detect what is true from what is false during abstract reasoning. Additionally, a Bayesian mixed model meta-analysis of conditionals indicated that people's intuitive interpretation of the conditional "if p then q" fits better with the conditional probability, q given p.
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Mahdieh Saadat Foomani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control for PMSM Drives with a Modified Reference Frame
Chaoui, Hicham; Khayamy, Mehdy; Aljarboua, Abdullah Abdulaziz
2017-01-01
In this paper, an adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy logic control scheme is proposed for high-performance permanent magnet synchronous machine drives. This strategy combines the power of type-2 fuzzy logic systems with the adaptive control theory
Multi-valued LSI/VLSI logic design
Santrakul, K.
A procedure for synthesizing any large complex logic system, such as LSI and VLSI integrated circuits is described. This scheme uses Multi-Valued Multi-plexers (MVMUX) as the basic building blocks and the tree as the structure of the circuit realization. Simple built-in test circuits included in the network (the main current), provide a thorough functional checking of the network at any time. In brief, four major contributions are made: (1) multi-valued Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) chart for describing an LSI/VLSI behavior; (2) a tree-structured multi-valued multiplexer network which can be obtained directly from an ASM chart; (3) a heuristic tree-structured synthesis method for realizing any combinational logic with minimal or nearly-minimal MVMUX; and (4) a hierarchical design of LSI/VLSI with built-in parallel testing capability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...
Heunen, Chris
2008-01-01
We consider categorical logic on the category of Hilbert spaces. More generally, in fact, any pre-Hilbert category suffices. We characterise closed subobjects, and prove that they form orthomodular lattices. This shows that quantum logic is just an incarnation of categorical logic, enabling us to establish an existential quantifier for quantum logic, and conclude that there cannot be a universal quantifier.
The road to universal logic festschrift for 50th birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau
Buchsbaum, Arthur
2015-01-01
This is the first volume of a collection of papers in honor of the fiftieth birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau. These 25 papers have been written by internationally distinguished logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists and philosophers, including Arnon Avron, John Corcoran, Wilfrid Hodges, Laurence Horn, Lloyd Humbertsone, Dale Jacquette, David Makinson, Stephen Read, and Jan Woleński. It is a state-of-the-art source of cutting-edge studies in the new interdisciplinary field of universal logic. The papers touch upon a wide range of topics including combination of logic, non-classical logic, square and other geometrical figures of opposition, categorical logic, set theory, foundation of logic, philosophy and history of logic (Aristotle, Avicenna, Buridan, Schröder, MacColl). This book offers new perspectives and challenges in the study of logic and will be of interest to all students and researchers interested the nature and future of logic.
Designable DNA-binding domains enable construction of logic circuits in mammalian cells.
Gaber, Rok; Lebar, Tina; Majerle, Andreja; Šter, Branko; Dobnikar, Andrej; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman
2014-03-01
Electronic computer circuits consisting of a large number of connected logic gates of the same type, such as NOR, can be easily fabricated and can implement any logic function. In contrast, designed genetic circuits must employ orthogonal information mediators owing to free diffusion within the cell. Combinatorial diversity and orthogonality can be provided by designable DNA- binding domains. Here, we employed the transcription activator-like repressors to optimize the construction of orthogonal functionally complete NOR gates to construct logic circuits. We used transient transfection to implement all 16 two-input logic functions from combinations of the same type of NOR gates within mammalian cells. Additionally, we present a genetic logic circuit where one input is used to select between an AND and OR function to process the data input using the same circuit. This demonstrates the potential of designable modular transcription factors for the construction of complex biological information-processing devices.
Explicit logic circuits predict local properties of the neocortex's physiology and anatomy.
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Lane Yoder
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two previous articles proposed an explicit model of how the brain processes information by its organization of synaptic connections. The family of logic circuits was shown to generate neural correlates of complex psychophysical phenomena in different sensory systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that the most cost-effective architectures for these networks produce correlates of electrophysiological brain phenomena and predict major aspects of the anatomical structure and physiological organization of the neocortex. The logic circuits are markedly efficient in several respects and provide the foundation for all of the brain's combinational processing of information. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At the local level, these networks account for much of the physical structure of the neocortex as well its organization of synaptic connections. Electronic implementations of the logic circuits may be more efficient than current electronic logic arrays in generating both Boolean and fuzzy logic.
Logic delays of 5-μm resistor coupled Josephson logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sone, J.; Yoshida, T.; Tahara, S.; Abe, H.
1982-01-01
Logic delays of resistor coupled Josephson logic (RCJL) have been investigated. An experimental circuit with a cascade chain of ten RCJL OR gates was fabricated using Pb-alloy Josephson IC technology with 5-μm minimum linewidth. Logic delay was measured to be as low as 10.8 ps with power dissipation of 11.7 μW. This demonstrates a switching operation faster than those reported for other Josephson gate designs. Comparison with computer-simulation results is also presented
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peliš, Michal
2017-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2017), s. 357-381 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : epistemic logic * erotetic implication * erotetic logic * logic of questions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology http://apcz.umk.pl/czasopisma/index.php/LLP/article/view/LLP.2017.007
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Schang Fabien
2017-03-01
Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...
Naqvi, Syed Rameez; Akram, Tallha; Iqbal, Saba; Haider, Sajjad Ali; Kamran, Muhammad; Muhammad, Nazeer
2018-02-01
Considering the lack of optimization support for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, we propose a dynamically reconfigurable logic cell capable of implementing various logic operations by means of artificial neural networks. The cell can be reconfigured to any 2-input combinational logic gate by altering the strength of connections, called weights and biases. We demonstrate how these cells may appositely be organized to perform multi-bit arithmetic and logic operations. The proposed work is important in that it gives a standard implementation of an 8-bit arithmetic and logic unit for quantum-dot cellular automata with minimal area and latency overhead. We also compare the proposed design with a few existing arithmetic and logic units, and show that it is more area efficient than any equivalent available in literature. Furthermore, the design is adaptable to 16, 32, and 64 bit architectures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawashima, Hideo.
1977-01-01
A fast-slow logic system has been made for use in multi-detector experiments in nuclear physics such as particle-gamma and particle-particle coincidence experiments. The system consists of a fast logic system and a slow logic system. The fast logic system has a function of fast coincidences and provides timing signals for the slow logic system. The slow logic system has a function of slow coincidences and a routing control of input analog signals to the ADCs. (auth.)
Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Based on Improved Logic Threshold Approach
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Zhumu Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We design an improved logic threshold approach of energy management for a power-split HEV assisted by an integrated starter generator (ISG. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of internal combustion engine (ICE with the state of charge (SOC of batteries, the improved logic threshold controller manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region at first. Then the electrical power demand is established based on the ICE energy output. On that premise, a variable logic threshold value K is defined to achieve the power distribution between the ISG and the electric motor/generator (EMG. Finally, simulation models for the power-split HEV with improved logic threshold controller are established in ADVISOR. Compared to the equally power-split HEV with the logic threshold controller, when using the improved logic threshold controller, the battery power consumption, the ICE efficiency, the fuel consumption, and the motor driving system efficiency are improved.
Logical NAND and NOR Operations Using Algorithmic Self-assembly of DNA Molecules
Wang, Yanfeng; Cui, Guangzhao; Zhang, Xuncai; Zheng, Yan
DNA self-assembly is the most advanced and versatile system that has been experimentally demonstrated for programmable construction of patterned systems on the molecular scale. It has been demonstrated that the simple binary arithmetic and logical operations can be computed by the process of self assembly of DNA tiles. Here we report a one-dimensional algorithmic self-assembly of DNA triple-crossover molecules that can be used to execute five steps of a logical NAND and NOR operations on a string of binary bits. To achieve this, abstract tiles were translated into DNA tiles based on triple-crossover motifs. Serving as input for the computation, long single stranded DNA molecules were used to nucleate growth of tiles into algorithmic crystals. Our method shows that engineered DNA self-assembly can be treated as a bottom-up design techniques, and can be capable of designing DNA computer organization and architecture.
Pereyra, Nicolas A.
2018-06-01
This book gives a rigorous yet 'physics-focused' introduction to mathematical logic that is geared towards natural science majors. We present the science major with a robust introduction to logic, focusing on the specific knowledge and skills that will unavoidably be needed in calculus topics and natural science topics in general (rather than taking a philosophical-math-fundamental oriented approach that is commonly found in mathematical logic textbooks).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, M.J.W.
1992-01-01
The notion of open-quotes probabilityclose quotes is generalized to that of open-quotes likelihood,close quotes and a natural logical structure is shown to exist for any physical theory which predicts likelihoods. Two physically based axioms are given for this logical structure to form an orthomodular poset, with an order-determining set of states. The results strengthen the basis of the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum theory. 25 refs
The European fusion research and development programme and the ITER Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, B.J.
2004-01-01
The EURATOM fusion R and D programme is a well integrated and co-ordinated programme a good example of a European Research Area. Its goal is 'the joint creation of prototype reactors for power stations to meet the needs of society: operational safety, environmental compatibility, economic viability'. The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach to fusion energy and supports 21 associated laboratories and a range of experimental and fusion technology facilities. The paper will briefly describe this programme and how it is organised and implemented. Its success and that of other national programmes has defined the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in fusion R and D. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, as well as the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET) and long-term fusion reactor technology R and D are carried out under the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). Finally, the potential advantages of fusion as an energy source will be presented. (author)
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance
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Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
Three challenges to the complementarity of the logic and the pragmatics of science.
Uebel, Thomas
2015-10-01
The bipartite metatheory thesis attributes to Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank and Otto Neurath a conception of the nature of post-metaphysical philosophy of science that sees the purely formal-logical analyses of the logic of science as complemented by empirical inquiries into the psychology, sociology and history of science. Three challenges to this thesis are considered in this paper: that Carnap did not share this conception of the nature of philosophy of science even on a programmatic level, that Carnap's detailed analysis of the language of science is incompatible with one developed by Neurath for the pursuit of empirical studies of science, and, finally, that Neurath himself was confused about the programme of which the bipartite metatheory thesis makes him a representative. I argue that all three challenges can be met and refuted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic
Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe
2008-01-01
It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kish, Laszlo B. [Texas A and M University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States)], E-mail: laszlo.kish@ece.tamu.edu
2009-03-02
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-01-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-03-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Kang, Li-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Mei; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin; Tan, Weihong
2014-07-01
DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'', the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of Boolean logic gate operations, including three basic logic gates, one three-input AND gate, and two complex logic operations, in a digital non-leaky way. In addition, the layered nanoflare can serve as a programmable strategy to sequentially tune the size of nanoparticles, as well as a new fingerprint spectrum technique for intelligent multiplex biosensing. More importantly, the nanoflare developed here can also act as a single entity for intracellular DNA logic gate delivery, without the need of commercial transfection agents or other auxiliary carriers. By incorporating DNA circuits on nanoparticles, the presented layered nanoflare will broaden the applications of DNA circuits in biological systems, and facilitate the development of DNA nanotechnology.DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'', the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of
Microsphere-based immunoassay integrated with a microfluidic network to perform logic operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabhachandani, Pooja; Cohen, Noa; Sarkar, Saheli; Konry, Tania
2015-01-01
Lab on a chip (LOC) intelligent diagnostics can be described by molecular logic-based circuits. We report on the development of an LOC approach with logic capability for screening combinations of antigen and antibody in the same sample. A microsphere-based immunoassay was integrated with a microfluidic network device to perform the logic operations AND and INHIBIT. Using the clinically relevant biomarkers TNF-α cytokine and anti-TNF-α antibody, we obtained a fluorescent output in the presence of both inputs. This results in an AND operation, while the presence of only one specific input results in a different fluorescent signal, thereby indicating the INHIBIT operation. This approach demonstrates the effective use of molecular logic computation for developing portable, point-of-care technologies for diagnostic purposes due to fast detection times, minimal reagent consumption and low costs. This model system may be further expanded to screening of multiple disease markers, combinatorial logic applications, and developing “smart” sensors and therapeutic technologies. (author)
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Melissa Belford
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability
Understanding Social Media Logic
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José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
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Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S., E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2013-12-21
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.
2013-01-01
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices
Hybrid fuzzy logic control of laser surface heat treatments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Jose Antonio; Ocana, Jose Luis; Molpeceres, Carlos
2007-01-01
This paper presents an advanced hybrid fuzzy logic control system for laser surface heat treatments, which allows to increase significantly the uniformity and final quality of the obtained product, reducing the rejection rate and increasing the productivity and efficiency of the treatment. Basically, the proposed hybrid control structure combines a fuzzy logic controller, with a pure integral action, both fully decoupled, improving the performances of the process with a reasonable design cost, since the system nonlinearities are fully compensated by the fuzzy component of the controller, while the integral action contributes to eliminate the steady-state error
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
Prospects of luminescence based molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speiser, Shammai
2016-01-01
In recent years molecular electronics has emerged as a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this review is to introduce this subject as a whole with special emphasis on molecular scale potential devices and applications. As a particular example we will discuss all optical molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits based on molecular fluorescence and electronic excitation transfer processes. Charge and electronic energy transfers (ET and EET) are well-studied examples whereby different molecules can signal their state from one (the donor, D) to the other (the acceptor, A). We show how a half-adder logic circuit can be implemented on one molecule that can communicate its logic output as input to another half-adder molecule. This is achieved as an electronic energy transfer from a donor to an acceptor, thus implementing a molecular full adder. We discuss a specific pair, the rhodamine–azulene, for which there is considerable spectroscopic data, but the scheme is general enough to allow a wide choice of D and A pairs. We present results based on this pair, in which, for the first time, an all optical half-adder and full-adder logic circuits are implemented. - Highlights: • Molecular scale logic • Photoquenching • Full adder
Prospects of luminescence based molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speiser, Shammai, E-mail: speiser@technion.ac.il
2016-01-15
In recent years molecular electronics has emerged as a rapidly growing research field. The aim of this review is to introduce this subject as a whole with special emphasis on molecular scale potential devices and applications. As a particular example we will discuss all optical molecular scale logic gates and logic circuits based on molecular fluorescence and electronic excitation transfer processes. Charge and electronic energy transfers (ET and EET) are well-studied examples whereby different molecules can signal their state from one (the donor, D) to the other (the acceptor, A). We show how a half-adder logic circuit can be implemented on one molecule that can communicate its logic output as input to another half-adder molecule. This is achieved as an electronic energy transfer from a donor to an acceptor, thus implementing a molecular full adder. We discuss a specific pair, the rhodamine–azulene, for which there is considerable spectroscopic data, but the scheme is general enough to allow a wide choice of D and A pairs. We present results based on this pair, in which, for the first time, an all optical half-adder and full-adder logic circuits are implemented. - Highlights: • Molecular scale logic • Photoquenching • Full adder.
Application of linear logic to simulation
Clarke, Thomas L.
1998-08-01
Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.
Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2001-01-01
In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walter, K.E.
1995-01-01
This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started
Quantum logics with existence property
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, C.
1991-01-01
A quantum logic (σ-orthocomplete orthomodular poset L with a convex, unital, and separating set Δ of states) is said to have the existence property if the expectation functionals on lin(Δ) associated with the bounded observables of L form a vector space. Classical quantum logics as well as the Hilbert space logics of traditional quantum mechanics have this property. The author shows that, if a quantum logic satisfies certain conditions in addition to having property E, then the number of its blocks (maximal classical subsystems) must either be one (classical logics) or uncountable (as in Hilbert space logics)
Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel
2011-04-01
This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Hybrid Parallel Execution Model for Logic Based Requirement Specifications (Invited Paper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey J. P. Tsai
1999-05-01
Full Text Available It is well known that undiscovered errors in a requirements specification is extremely expensive to be fixed when discovered in the software maintenance phase. Errors in the requirement phase can be reduced through the validation and verification of the requirements specification. Many logic-based requirements specification languages have been developed to achieve these goals. However, the execution and reasoning of a logic-based requirements specification can be very slow. An effective way to improve their performance is to execute and reason the logic-based requirements specification in parallel. In this paper, we present a hybrid model to facilitate the parallel execution of a logic-based requirements specification language. A logic-based specification is first applied by a data dependency analysis technique which can find all the mode combinations that exist within a specification clause. This mode information is used to support a novel hybrid parallel execution model, which combines both top-down and bottom-up evaluation strategies. This new execution model can find the failure in the deepest node of the search tree at the early stage of the evaluation, thus this new execution model can reduce the total number of nodes searched in the tree, the total processes needed to be generated, and the total communication channels needed in the search process. A simulator has been implemented to analyze the execution behavior of the new model. Experiments show significant improvement based on several criteria.
Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics
Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde
Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.
Explicit logic circuits discriminate neural states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lane Yoder
Full Text Available The magnitude and apparent complexity of the brain's connectivity have left explicit networks largely unexplored. As a result, the relationship between the organization of synaptic connections and how the brain processes information is poorly understood. A recently proposed retinal network that produces neural correlates of color vision is refined and extended here to a family of general logic circuits. For any combination of high and low activity in any set of neurons, one of the logic circuits can receive input from the neurons and activate a single output neuron whenever the input neurons have the given activity state. The strength of the output neuron's response is a measure of the difference between the smallest of the high inputs and the largest of the low inputs. The networks generate correlates of known psychophysical phenomena. These results follow directly from the most cost-effective architectures for specific logic circuits and the minimal cellular capabilities of excitation and inhibition. The networks function dynamically, making their operation consistent with the speed of most brain functions. The networks show that well-known psychophysical phenomena do not require extraordinarily complex brain structures, and that a single network architecture can produce apparently disparate phenomena in different sensory systems.
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
The Quantum Logical Challenge: Peter Mittelstaedt's Contributions to Logic and Philosophy of Science
Beltrametti, E.; Dalla Chiara, M. L.; Giuntini, R.
2017-12-01
Peter Mittelstaedt's contributions to quantum logic and to the foundational problems of quantum theory have significantly realized the most authentic spirit of the International Quantum Structures Association: an original research about hard technical problems, which are often "entangled" with the emergence of important changes in our general world-conceptions. During a time where both the logical and the physical community often showed a skeptical attitude towards Birkhoff and von Neumann's quantum logic, Mittelstaedt brought into light the deeply innovating features of a quantum logical thinking that allows us to overcome some strong and unrealistic assumptions of classical logical arguments. Later on his intense research on the unsharp approach to quantum theory and to the measurement problem stimulated the increasing interest for unsharp forms of quantum logic, creating a fruitful interaction between the work of quantum logicians and of many-valued logicians. Mittelstaedt's general views about quantum logic and quantum theory seem to be inspired by a conjecture that is today more and more confirmed: there is something universal in the quantum theoretic formalism that goes beyond the limits of microphysics, giving rise to interesting applications to a number of different fields.
Eight-logic memory cell based on multiferroic junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Feng; Zhou, Y C; Tang, M H; Liu Fen; Ma Ying; Zheng, X J; Zhao, W F; Xu, H Y; Sun, Z H
2009-01-01
A model is proposed for a device combining a multiferroic tunnel junction with a magnetoelectric (ME) film in which the magnetic configuration is controlled by the electric field. Calculations embodying the Green's function approach show that the magnetic polarization can be switched on and off by an electric field in the ME film due to the effect of elastic coupling interaction. Using a model including the spin-filter effect and screening of polarization charges, we have produced eight logic states of tunnelling resistance in the tunnel junction and have obtained corresponding laws that control them. The results provide some insights into the realization of an eight-logic memory cell. (fast track communication)
Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker
2017-01-01
This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....
Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic
Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2017-01-01
In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and
Superconducting digital logic amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
Fuzzy logic type 1 and type 2 based on LabVIEW FPGA
Ponce-Cruz, Pedro; MacCleery, Brian
2016-01-01
This book is a comprehensive introduction to LabVIEW FPGA™, a package allowing the programming of intelligent digital controllers in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) using graphical code. It shows how both potential difficulties with understanding and programming in VHDL and the consequent difficulty and slowness of implementation can be sidestepped. The text includes a clear theoretical explanation of fuzzy logic (type 1 and type 2) with case studies that implement the theory and systematically demonstrate the implementation process. It goes on to describe basic and advanced levels of programming LabVIEW FPGA and show how implementation of fuzzy-logic control in FPGAs improves system responses. A complete toolkit for implementing fuzzy controllers in LabVIEW FPGA has been developed with the book so that readers can generate new fuzzy controllers and deploy them immediately. Problems and their solutions allow readers to practice the techniques and to absorb the theoretical ideas as they arise. Fuzzy L...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennig, Christine; Kneupner, Klaus; Kinna, David
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We describe 2 ways connecting PLCs to fusion control and data acquisition software. ► At W7-X standardization of the PLC type eases the maintenance of the software. ► At JET PLCs are interfaced with a daemon that hides the PLC specific part. ► There is potential to unify the approaches towards a common fusion PLC interface. - Abstract: The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for automation of electromechanical processes is an industrial control system technology. It is more and more in use within the fusion community. Traditionally PLC based systems are operated and maintained using proprietary SCADA systems (supervisory control and data acquisition). They are hardly ever integrated with the fusion control and data acquisition systems. An overview of the state of the art in fusion is given in the article. At JET an inhouse “black box protocol” approach has been developed to communicate with any external system via a dedicated http based protocol. However, a PLC usually cannot be modified to implement this special protocol. Hence, a software layer has been developed that interfaces a PLC by implementing the PLC specific communication part on one side and the black box protocol part on the other side. The software is completely data driven i.e. editing the data structure changes the logic accordingly. It can be tested using the web capability of the black box protocol. Multiple PLC types from different vendors are supported, thus multiple protocols to interface the PLC are in use. Depending on the PLC type and available tools it can be necessary to program the PLC accordingly. Wendelstein 7-X uses another approach. For every single PLC a dedicated communication from and to CoDaC is implemented. This communication is projected (programmed) in the PLC and configurable (data driven) on the CoDaC side. The protocol is UDP based and observed via timeout mechanisms. The use of PLCs for Wendelstein 7-X is standardized. Therefore a single
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hennig, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Hennig@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kneupner, Klaus; Kinna, David [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe 2 ways connecting PLCs to fusion control and data acquisition software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At W7-X standardization of the PLC type eases the maintenance of the software. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At JET PLCs are interfaced with a daemon that hides the PLC specific part. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is potential to unify the approaches towards a common fusion PLC interface. - Abstract: The use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) for automation of electromechanical processes is an industrial control system technology. It is more and more in use within the fusion community. Traditionally PLC based systems are operated and maintained using proprietary SCADA systems (supervisory control and data acquisition). They are hardly ever integrated with the fusion control and data acquisition systems. An overview of the state of the art in fusion is given in the article. At JET an inhouse 'black box protocol' approach has been developed to communicate with any external system via a dedicated http based protocol. However, a PLC usually cannot be modified to implement this special protocol. Hence, a software layer has been developed that interfaces a PLC by implementing the PLC specific communication part on one side and the black box protocol part on the other side. The software is completely data driven i.e. editing the data structure changes the logic accordingly. It can be tested using the web capability of the black box protocol. Multiple PLC types from different vendors are supported, thus multiple protocols to interface the PLC are in use. Depending on the PLC type and available tools it can be necessary to program the PLC accordingly. Wendelstein 7-X uses another approach. For every single PLC a dedicated communication from and to CoDaC is implemented. This communication is projected (programmed) in the PLC and configurable (data driven) on the CoDaC side. The protocol is UDP based and
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
Improvements to Earthquake Location with a Fuzzy Logic Approach
Gökalp, Hüseyin
2018-01-01
In this study, improvements to the earthquake location method were investigated using a fuzzy logic approach proposed by Lin and Sanford (Bull Seismol Soc Am 91:82-93, 2001). The method has certain advantages compared to the inverse methods in terms of eliminating the uncertainties of arrival times and reading errors. In this study, adopting this approach, epicentral locations were determined based on the results of a fuzzy logic space concerning the uncertainties in the velocity models. To map the uncertainties in arrival times into the fuzzy logic space, a trapezoidal membership function was constructed by directly using the travel time difference between the two stations for the P- and S-arrival times instead of the P- and S-wave models to eliminate the need for obtaining information concerning the velocity structure of the study area. The results showed that this method worked most effectively when earthquakes occurred away from a network or when the arrival time data contained phase reading errors. In this study, to resolve the problems related to determining the epicentral locations of the events, a forward modeling method like the grid search technique was used by applying different logical operations (i.e., intersection, union, and their combination) with a fuzzy logic approach. The locations of the events were depended on results of fuzzy logic outputs in fuzzy logic space by searching in a gridded region. The process of location determination with the defuzzification of only the grid points with the membership value of 1 obtained by normalizing all the maximum fuzzy output values of the highest values resulted in more reliable epicentral locations for the earthquakes than the other approaches. In addition, throughout the process, the center-of-gravity method was used as a defuzzification operation.
2017-03-01
Programmable SoC™ is made possible through the use of ARM® Cortex ™-A9 MPCore™ Asymmetric Multiprocessing; processor configurations utilizing the...core ARM Cortex -A9 MPCore based Processing System (PS) and Programmable Logic (PL) portions. These features allow for two processors to run...SoC™ precludes a tightly-coupled lockstep approach between the two processors . Therefore, a loosely-coupled lockstep approach implemented by a
Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2001-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Modern logic and quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garden, R.W.
1984-01-01
The book applies the methods of modern logic and probabilities to ''interpreting'' quantum mechanics. The subject is described and discussed under the chapter headings: classical and quantum mechanics, modern logic, the propositional logic of mechanics, states and measurement in mechanics, the traditional analysis of probabilities, the probabilities of mechanics and the model logic of predictions. (U.K.)
Semantic theory for logic programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, F M
1981-01-01
The author axiomatizes a number of meta theoretic concepts which have been used in logic programming, including: meaning, logical truth, nonentailment, assertion and erasure, thus showing that these concepts are logical in nature and need not be defined as they have previously been defined in terms of the operations of any particular interpreter for logic programs. 10 references.
Optical programmable metamaterials
Gong, Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Dai, Zijie; Liu, Weiwei
2018-02-01
We suggest and demonstrate the concept of optical programmable metamaterials which can configure the device's electromagnetic parameters by the programmable optical stimuli. In such metamaterials, the optical stimuli produced by a FPGA controlled light emitting diode array can switch or combine the resonance modes which are coupled in. As an example, an optical programmable metamaterial terahertz absorber is proposed. Each cell of the absorber integrates four meta-rings (asymmetric 1/4 rings) with photo-resistors connecting the critical gaps. The principle and design of the metamaterials are illustrated and the simulation results demonstrate the functionalities for programming the metamaterial absorber to change its bandwidth and resonance frequency.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L
2010-01-01
We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
Chaplin, J C; Russell, N A; Krasnogor, N
2012-07-01
In this paper we detail experimental methods to implement registers, logic gates and logic circuits using populations of photochromic molecules exposed to sequences of light pulses. Photochromic molecules are molecules with two or more stable states that can be switched reversibly between states by illuminating with appropriate wavelengths of radiation. Registers are implemented by using the concentration of molecules in each state in a given sample to represent an integer value. The register's value can then be read using the intensity of a fluorescence signal from the sample. Logic gates have been implemented using a register with inputs in the form of light pulses to implement 1-input/1-output and 2-input/1-output logic gates. A proof of concept logic circuit is also demonstrated; coupled with the software workflow describe the transition from a circuit design to the corresponding sequence of light pulses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nissen, Helle Aarøe; Clarke, Ann Højbjerg; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard
The article aims to explore, through a micro level focus, how individual private firm actors maneuver between institutional logics embedded in different individual public actors operating at various levels in the public sector, when making efforts towards commercializing innovative welfare...... in commercializing interact with public actors operating at various levels in the public sector using a top-down, bottom-up or mixed approach. The top-down approach shows that private firms handle institutional logics embedded in political and managerial actors by creating legitimacy and accept from above concerning...... approach demonstrates that private firms handle institutional logics by combining interaction with actors across levels in the public sector, thereby mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches. As such, the three approaches point out that private firms, when handling institutional logics, can do...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Heterogeneous logics of competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zizzi, P A
2007-01-01
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing
Practical assessment of the SWMM programme
Hlustik, P.
2017-10-01
The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of the SWMM programme user environment when working with it. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a programme developed by the U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). The SWMM programme is used worldwide to plan, analyse and design rainfall-runoff, combined and separate sanitary sewage systems and other drainage systems in urban areas [1]. The programme is freely available to download from the U.S. EPA website [2].
Levin-Rozalis, Miri
2010-01-01
Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…
Connections among quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)
Programmable architecture for quantum computing
Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.
2013-01-01
A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and
Bacon, John B; McCarty, David Charles; Bacon, John B
1999-01-01
First published in the most ambitious international philosophy project for a generation; the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Logic from A to Z is a unique glossary of terms used in formal logic and the philosophy of mathematics. Over 500 entries include key terms found in the study of: * Logic: Argument, Turing Machine, Variable * Set and model theory: Isomorphism, Function * Computability theory: Algorithm, Turing Machine * Plus a table of logical symbols. Extensively cross-referenced to help comprehension and add detail, Logic from A to Z provides an indispensable reference source for students of all branches of logic.
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Breaking the fault tree circular logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankin, M.
2000-01-01
Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)
Active matter logic for autonomous microfluidics
Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn
2017-04-01
Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic. Highlighting conceptual differences with classical and quantum computation, we demonstrate how the inherent non-locality of incompressible active flow networks can be utilized to construct universal logical operations, Fredkin gates and memory storage in set-reset latches through the synchronized self-organization of many individual network components. Our work lays the conceptual foundation for developing autonomous microfluidic transport devices driven by bacterial fluids, active liquid crystals or chemically engineered motile colloids.
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schumann, Andrew
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
From Logical to Distributional Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Preller
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper relates two variants of semantic models for natural language, logical functional models and compositional distributional vector space models, by transferring the logic and reasoning from the logical to the distributional models. The geometrical operations of quantum logic are reformulated as algebraic operations on vectors. A map from functional models to vector space models makes it possible to compare the meaning of sentences word by word.
Orbach, Ron; Remacle, Françoise; Levine, R D; Willner, Itamar
2012-12-26
The Toffoli and Fredkin gates were suggested as a means to exhibit logic reversibility and thereby reduce energy dissipation associated with logic operations in dense computing circuits. We present a construction of the logically reversible Toffoli and Fredkin gates by implementing a library of predesigned Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzymes and their respective substrates. Although the logical reversibility, for which each set of inputs uniquely correlates to a set of outputs, is demonstrated, the systems manifest thermodynamic irreversibility originating from two quite distinct and nonrelated phenomena. (i) The physical readout of the gates is by fluorescence that depletes the population of the final state of the machine. This irreversible, heat-releasing process is needed for the generation of the output. (ii) The DNAzyme-powered logic gates are made to operate at a finite rate by invoking downhill energy-releasing processes. Even though the three bits of Toffoli's and Fredkin's logically reversible gates manifest thermodynamic irreversibility, we suggest that these gates could have important practical implication in future nanomedicine.
Functions and generality of logic reflections on Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms
Benis-Sinaceur, Hourya; Sandu, Gabriel
2015-01-01
This book examines three connected aspects of Frege's logicism: the differences between Dedekind's and Frege's interpretation of the term 'logic' and related terms and reflects on Frege's notion of function, comparing its understanding and the role it played in Frege's and Lagrange's foundational programs. It concludes with an examination of the notion of arbitrary function, taking into account Frege's, Ramsey's and Russell's view on the subject. Composed of three chapters, this book sheds light on important aspects of Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms. The first chapter explains how, although he shares Frege's aim at substituting logical standards of rigor to intuitive imports from spatio-temporal experience into the deductive presentation of arithmetic, Dedekind had a different goal and used or invented different tools. The chapter highlights basic dissimilarities between Dedekind's and Frege's actual ways of doing and thinking. The second chapter reflects on Frege's notion of a function, in comparison with ...
An Algebraic View of Super-Belnap Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Albuquerque, H.; Přenosil, Adam; Rivieccio, U.
2017-01-01
Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1051-1086 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Grant - others:EU(XE) PIRSES- GA-2012-31898 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logics * Four-valued logic * Paraconsistent logic * Belnap–Dunn logic * FDE * Logic of Paradox * Kleene logic * Exactly True logic * De Morgan algebras * Abstract Algebraic Logic * Leibniz filters * Strong versions of logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016
Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.
1989-01-01
Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)
Basic logic and quantum entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)
2007-05-15
As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer science s, information science , bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles
2018-01-01
Roč. 57, 3-4 (2018), s. 391-420 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-01-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi Wai Yu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.
Synthetic Computation: Chaos Computing, Logical Stochastic Resonance, and Adaptive Computing
Kia, Behnam; Murali, K.; Jahed Motlagh, Mohammad-Reza; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.
Nonlinearity and chaos can illustrate numerous behaviors and patterns, and one can select different patterns from this rich library of patterns. In this paper we focus on synthetic computing, a field that engineers and synthesizes nonlinear systems to obtain computation. We explain the importance of nonlinearity, and describe how nonlinear systems can be engineered to perform computation. More specifically, we provide an overview of chaos computing, a field that manually programs chaotic systems to build different types of digital functions. Also we briefly describe logical stochastic resonance (LSR), and then extend the approach of LSR to realize combinational digital logic systems via suitable concatenation of existing logical stochastic resonance blocks. Finally we demonstrate how a chaotic system can be engineered and mated with different machine learning techniques, such as artificial neural networks, random searching, and genetic algorithm, to design different autonomous systems that can adapt and respond to environmental conditions.
Advanced Concepts in Fuzzy Logic and Systems with Membership Uncertainty
Starczewski, Janusz T
2013-01-01
This book generalizes fuzzy logic systems for different types of uncertainty, including - semantic ambiguity resulting from limited perception or lack of knowledge about exact membership functions - lack of attributes or granularity arising from discretization of real data - imprecise description of membership functions - vagueness perceived as fuzzification of conditional attributes. Consequently, the membership uncertainty can be modeled by combining methods of conventional and type-2 fuzzy logic, rough set theory and possibility theory. In particular, this book provides a number of formulae for implementing the operation extended on fuzzy-valued fuzzy sets and presents some basic structures of generalized uncertain fuzzy logic systems, as well as introduces several of methods to generate fuzzy membership uncertainty. It is desirable as a reference book for under-graduates in higher education, master and doctor graduates in the courses of computer science, computational intelligence, or...
The design of nuclear magnetic resonance programmable pulsed source based SOPC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Qingshun; Zhang Yakun; Wang Wenli
2012-01-01
The design of pulse source in the equipment of pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is studied based on SOPC. The strong processing power of Nios Ⅱ embedded processor and the design flexibility of FPGA are fully used. The SOPC system is built. The overall design plan for the pulse source is described. The design of programmable multi-pulse generation logic user-defined components in the FPGA is introduced mainly. Part of the implementation program and the task logic simulation waveforms are presented. The pulse source has better application value because a clear, stable and good quality multi-pulse output waveform can be shown on the oscilloscope finally. The system software and hardware are easy to be modified and upgraded, meeting different application of pulsed NMR pulse sequence in variety of requirements. (authors)
Unlimited multistability and Boolean logic in microbial signalling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda; Cardelli, Luca
2015-01-01
The ability to map environmental signals onto distinct internal physiological states or programmes is critical for single-celled microbes. A crucial systems dynamics feature underpinning such ability is multistability. While unlimited multistability is known to arise from multi-site phosphorylation...... seen in the signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, a similarly universal mechanism has not been identified in microbial signalling systems. These systems are generally known as two-component systems comprising histidine kinase (HK) receptors and response regulator proteins engaging in phosphotransfer...... further prove that sharing of downstream components allows a system with n multi-domain hybrid HKs to attain 3n steady states. We find that such systems, when sensing distinct signals, can readily implement Boolean logic functions on these signals. Using two experimentally studied examples of two...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
Nucleic acids and smart materials: advanced building blocks for logic systems.
Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
2014-09-03
Logic gates can convert input signals into a defined output signal, which is the fundamental basis of computing. Inspired by molecular switching from one state to another under an external stimulus, molecular logic gates are explored extensively and recognized as an alternative to traditional silicon-based computing. Among various building blocks of molecular logic gates, nucleic acid attracts special attention owing to its specific recognition abilities and structural features. Functional materials with unique physical and chemical properties offer significant advantages and are used in many fields. The integration of nucleic acids and functional materials is expected to bring about several new phenomena. In this Progress Report, recent progress in the construction of logic gates by combining the properties of a range of smart materials with nucleic acids is introduced. According to the structural characteristics and composition, functional materials are categorized into three classes: polymers, noble-metal nanomaterials, and inorganic nanomaterials. Furthermore, the unsolved problems and future challenges in the construction of logic gates are discussed. It is hoped that broader interests in introducing new smart materials into the field are inspired and tangible applications for these constructs are found. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Usó-Doménech
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.
Modern logic 1850-1950, East and West
Fuller, Mark
2016-01-01
This book presents diverse topics in mathematical logic such as proof theory, meta-mathematics, and applications of logic to mathematical structures. The collection spans the first 100 years of modern logic and is dedicated to the memory of Irving Anellis, founder of the journal 'Modern Logic', whose academic work was essential in promoting the algebraic tradition of logic, as represented by Charles Sanders Peirce. Anellis’s association with the Russian logic community introduced their school of logic to a wider audience in the USA, Canada and Western Europe. In addition, the collection takes a historical perspective on proof theory and the development of logic and mathematics in Eastern Logic, the Soviet Union and Russia. The book will be of interest to historians and philosophers in logic and mathematics, and the more specialized papers will also appeal to mathematicians and logicians.
Error-Transparent Quantum Gates for Small Logical Qubit Architectures
Kapit, Eliot
2018-02-01
One of the largest obstacles to building a quantum computer is gate error, where the physical evolution of the state of a qubit or group of qubits during a gate operation does not match the intended unitary transformation. Gate error stems from a combination of control errors and random single qubit errors from interaction with the environment. While great strides have been made in mitigating control errors, intrinsic qubit error remains a serious problem that limits gate fidelity in modern qubit architectures. Simultaneously, recent developments of small error-corrected logical qubit devices promise significant increases in logical state lifetime, but translating those improvements into increases in gate fidelity is a complex challenge. In this Letter, we construct protocols for gates on and between small logical qubit devices which inherit the parent device's tolerance to single qubit errors which occur at any time before or during the gate. We consider two such devices, a passive implementation of the three-qubit bit flip code, and the author's own [E. Kapit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150501] very small logical qubit (VSLQ) design, and propose error-tolerant gate sets for both. The effective logical gate error rate in these models displays superlinear error reduction with linear increases in single qubit lifetime, proving that passive error correction is capable of increasing gate fidelity. Using a standard phenomenological noise model for superconducting qubits, we demonstrate a realistic, universal one- and two-qubit gate set for the VSLQ, with error rates an order of magnitude lower than those for same-duration operations on single qubits or pairs of qubits. These developments further suggest that incorporating small logical qubits into a measurement based code could substantially improve code performance.
Colchero, M Arantxa; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Cortés-Ortiz, María A; Romero-Martinez, Martín; Salas, Jessica; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Uribe, Patricia
2016-01-01
Despite the high-profile support for combination prevention programmes (CPPs) since 2008, there is little rigorous evidence on their impact and cost-effectiveness. In 2010, Mexico received funds from the Global Fund to implement a series of behavioural, biomedical, and structural interventions over 3 years targeted to men who have sex with men. The aims of the study were to estimate the impact of the programme across a range of outcomes and cost-effectiveness. A quasi-experiment was designed before the implementation of the CPP, in which 24 cities were randomly selected for impact evaluation and 12 pairs of cities were matched. In practice, though, implementation of the programme was staggered over 1 year. Therefore, we used two different approaches to estimate impact: a difference-in-difference estimation comparing both groups and a dose-response approach using time exposure to the programme at the city level. Results from the difference-in-difference estimation showed modest impact on condom use. However, the dose-response findings revealed a 7.5% increase in HIV testing per additional year exposed to the programme, relative to baseline coverage; an increase in awareness of HIV status among HIV-positive individuals of 6.6%; a 6.4% increase in HIV-positive individuals on treatment; and an 8% reduction in the perception of stigma/discrimination from healthcare personnel. The cost per person not exposed to an untreated HIV-positive individual was gauged to be US$400. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness and cost of a CPP along the HIV treatment cascade: access to HIV tests, awareness of HIV status, and antiretroviral therapy initiation.
Bernardes, Juliana S; Carbone, Alessandra; Zaverucha, Gerson
2011-03-23
Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the "twilight zone" we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our method provides a comprehensible set of logical rules that can help to understand what determines a protein function. The strategy of selecting only the most frequent patterns is effective for the remote homology detection. This is possible through a suitable first-order logical representation of homologous properties, and through a set of frequent patterns, found by an ILP system, that summarizes essential features of protein functions.
Lectures on Logic and Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers fo...
Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2013-01-01
In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a log...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
The logic of crime fiction genre in modern person’s consciousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. O. Krapivnyk
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The author provides philosophical anthropological analysis of the logic of the crime fiction genre in the modern person’s consciousness. It was shown that detective texts convey hyper-orderliness, which compensates for the lack of systematization in real life, directly influences the recipient, setting the limits of personal freedom, and indirectly structures social order. The research assumes that classical crime fiction is related to the positivist philosophy, rationalism and scientific thinking, whereas the formula of the late Modern crime fiction stories is gradually getting more sophisticated, which reflects the evolution of the philosophical thinking on the whole. The special feature of the crime fiction genre logic is in the fact that available in crime fiction texts typical formal logical elements of a hypothesis, versions, evidence and contradiction are combined by the addressers with creative inspiration, intuition, true life, which are not the characteristics of pure science. The logic in the texts of the crime fiction genre helps a modern person to virtually build a system of universal philosophical and cultural values, applied by the society as its basis for social norms, rules and laws of any modern state. In addition, the specific logic of investigation encourages person’s everyday activities, since cultural reading enables a person not only to perceive but also to transfer and use the laws of logic, inherent in the crime fiction genre, in their professional activities, including research work.
The logic of actual obligation. An alternative approach to deontic logic
Voorbraak, F.
In this paper we develop a system of deontic logic (LAO, the logic of actual obligation) with a rather limited scope: we are, only interested in obligations as far as they: are relevant for deciding what actions actually ought to be done in a particular situation, given some normative system N.
Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.
Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J
2016-09-20
We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.
From the history of logic. Semantics of homonymy in Porphyry’s logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garin Sergey Vyacheslavovich
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the logical and semantic aspects of the theory of homonyms in Aristotle’s “Categories” within the context of Porphyry’s commentaries. We consider the logical formation of the doctrine of homonymy of nouns, verbs, and conjunctions in Ancient Greek. We reveal the difficulty in interpreting the terms “κατηγορίαι”, “ὄνομα” and “ῥῆμα”. The paper has shed some light on different aspects of Porphyry’s logic.
Prediction by promoter logic in bacterial quorum sensing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Navneet Rai
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Quorum-sensing systems mediate chemical communication between bacterial cells, coordinating cell-density-dependent processes like biofilm formation and virulence-factor expression. In the proteobacterial LuxI/LuxR quorum sensing paradigm, a signaling molecule generated by an enzyme (LuxI diffuses between cells and allosterically stimulates a transcriptional regulator (LuxR to activate its cognate promoter (pR. By expressing either LuxI or LuxR in positive feedback from pR, these versatile systems can generate smooth (monostable or abrupt (bistable density-dependent responses to suit the ecological context. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that the promoter logic of pR - its measured activity as a function of LuxI and LuxR levels - contains all the biochemical information required to quantitatively predict the responses of such feedback loops. The interplay of promoter logic with feedback topology underlies the versatility of the LuxI/LuxR paradigm: LuxR and LuxI positive-feedback systems show dramatically different responses, while a dual positive/negative-feedback system displays synchronized oscillations. These results highlight the dual utility of promoter logic: to probe microscopic parameters and predict macroscopic phenotype.
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....
Logical independence and quantum randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P
2010-01-01
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Verification and Planning Based on Coinductive Logic Programming
Bansal, Ajay; Min, Richard; Simon, Luke; Mallya, Ajay; Gupta, Gopal
2008-01-01
Coinduction is a powerful technique for reasoning about unfounded sets, unbounded structures, infinite automata, and interactive computations [6]. Where induction corresponds to least fixed point's semantics, coinduction corresponds to greatest fixed point semantics. Recently coinduction has been incorporated into logic programming and an elegant operational semantics developed for it [11, 12]. This operational semantics is the greatest fix point counterpart of SLD resolution (SLD resolution imparts operational semantics to least fix point based computations) and is termed co- SLD resolution. In co-SLD resolution, a predicate goal p( t) succeeds if it unifies with one of its ancestor calls. In addition, rational infinite terms are allowed as arguments of predicates. Infinite terms are represented as solutions to unification equations and the occurs check is omitted during the unification process. Coinductive Logic Programming (Co-LP) and Co-SLD resolution can be used to elegantly perform model checking and planning. A combined SLD and Co-SLD resolution based LP system forms the common basis for planning, scheduling, verification, model checking, and constraint solving [9, 4]. This is achieved by amalgamating SLD resolution, co-SLD resolution, and constraint logic programming [13] in a single logic programming system. Given that parallelism in logic programs can be implicitly exploited [8], complex, compute-intensive applications (planning, scheduling, model checking, etc.) can be executed in parallel on multi-core machines. Parallel execution can result in speed-ups as well as in larger instances of the problems being solved. In the remainder we elaborate on (i) how planning can be elegantly and efficiently performed under real-time constraints, (ii) how real-time systems can be elegantly and efficiently model- checked, as well as (iii) how hybrid systems can be verified in a combined system with both co-SLD and SLD resolution. Implementations of co-SLD resolution
Automated Translation of Safety Critical Application Software Specifications into PLC Ladder Logic
Leucht, Kurt W.; Semmel, Glenn S.
2008-01-01
The numerous benefits of automatic application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. A few of these benefits include raising the abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing their new ground checkout and launch processing system. They developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of safety critical application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. This process and tool are expected to increase the reliability of the PLC code over that which is written manually, and may even lower life-cycle costs and shorten the development schedule of the new control system at KSC. This paper examines the problem domain and discusses the process and software tool that were prototyped by the KSC software engineers.
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Nalon, Cláudia; Zhang, Lan; Dixon, Clare; Hustadt, Ullrich
2014-01-01
We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and prese...
On Witnessed Models in Fuzzy Logic III - Witnessed Gödel Logics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2010), s. 171-174 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * Gödel logic * witnessed models * arithmetical complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2010
Design and experimentation of BSFQ logic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoki, T.; Kodaka, H.; Kitagawa, M.; Okabe, Y.
1999-01-01
Rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic needs synchronous pulses for each gate, so the clock-wiring problem is more serious when designing larger scale circuits with this logic. So we have proposed a new SFQ logic which follows Boolean algebra perfectly by using set and reset pulses. With this logic, the level information of current input is transmitted with these pulses generated by level-to-pulse converters, and each gate calculates logic using its phase level made by these pulses. Therefore, our logic needs no clock in each gate. We called this logic 'Boolean SFQ (BSFQ) logic'. In this paper, we report design and experimentation for an AND gate with inverting input based on BSFQ logic. The experimental results for OR and XOR gates are also reported. (author)
Lussiana, Cristina
2016-09-01
The idea of a private sector subsidy programme of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) was first proposed in 2004. Since then, several countries around the world have hosted pilot projects or programmes on subsidized ACTs and/or the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria programme (AMFm). Overall the private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs have been effective in increasing availability of ACTs in the private sector and driving down average prices but struggled to crowd out antimalarial monotherapies. The results obtained from this ambitious strategy should inform policy makers in the designing of future interventions aimed to control malaria morbidity and mortality. Among the interventions recently proposed, a subsidy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the private sector has been recommended by governments and international donors to cope with over-treatment with ACTs and to delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-paid RDTs, we should build on the lessons we learned from almost 10 years of private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs in malaria-endemic countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...
Anticoincidence logic using PALs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolanos, L.; Arista Romeu, E.
1997-01-01
This paper describes the functioning principle of an anticoincidence logic and a design of this based on programing logic. The circuit was included in a discriminator of an equipment for single-photon absorptiometry
Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang
2014-06-25
Molecular logic gates in response to chemical, biological, or optical input signals at a molecular level have received much interest over the past decade. Herein, we construct "plug and play" logic systems based on the fluorescence switching of guest molecules confined in coordination polymer nanoparticles generated from nucleotide and lanthanide ions. In the system, the addition of new modules directly enables new logic functions. PASS 0, YES, PASS 1, NOT, IMP, OR, and AND gates are successfully constructed in sequence. Moreover, different logic gates (AND, INH, and IMP) can be constructed using different guest molecules and the same input combinations. The work will be beneficial to the future logic design and expand the applications of coordination polymers.
Contextual logic for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction
Tensor product of quantum logics
Pulmannová, Sylvia
1985-01-01
A quantum logic is the couple (L,M) where L is an orthomodular σ-lattice and M is a strong set of states on L. The Jauch-Piron property in the σ-form is also supposed for any state of M. A ``tensor product'' of quantum logics is defined. This definition is compared with the definition of a free orthodistributive product of orthomodular σ-lattices. The existence and uniqueness of the tensor product in special cases of Hilbert space quantum logics and one quantum and one classical logic are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Tazik
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Landslides are among the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. Therefore, studying of this phenomenon is so important in many areas. Because of the climate conditions, geologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of the region, the purpose of this study was landslide hazard assessment using Fuzzy Logic, frequency ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method in Dozein basin, Iran. At first, landslides occurred in Dozein basin were identified using aerial photos and field studies. The influenced landslide parameters that were used in this study including slope, aspect, elevation, lithology, precipitation, land cover, distance from fault, distance from road and distance from river were obtained from different sources and maps. Using these factors and the identified landslide, the fuzzy membership values were calculated by frequency ratio. Then to account for the importance of each of the factors in the landslide susceptibility, weights of each factor were determined based on questionnaire and AHP method. Finally, fuzzy map of each factor was multiplied to its weight that obtained using AHP method. At the end, for computing prediction accuracy, the produced map was verified by comparing to existing landslide locations. These results indicate that the combining the three methods Fuzzy Logic, Frequency Ratio and Analytical Hierarchy Process method are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. According to landslide susceptibility map about 51% of the occurred landslide fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones of the landslide susceptibility map, but approximately 26 % of them indeed located in the low and very low susceptibility zones.
Students’ logical-mathematical intelligence profile
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-04-01
One of students’ characteristics which play an important role in learning mathematics is logical-mathematical intelligence. This present study aims to identify profile of students’ logical-mathematical intelligence in general and specifically in each indicator. It is also analyzed and described based on students’ sex. This research used qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects involve 29 students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ logical-mathematical intelligence result and interview. The results show that students’ logical-mathematical intelligence was identified in the moderate level with the average score is 11.17 and 51.7% students in the range of the level. In addition, the level of both male and female students are also mostly in the moderate level. On the other hand, both male and female students’ logical-mathematical intelligence is strongly influenced by the indicator of ability to classify and understand patterns and relationships. Furthermore, the ability of comparison is the weakest indicator. It seems that students’ logical-mathematical intelligence is still not optimal because more than 50% students are identified in moderate and low level. Therefore, teachers need to design a lesson that can improve students’ logical-mathematical intelligence level, both in general and on each indicator.
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
A Subjective Logic Formalisation of the Principle of Polyrepresentation for Information Needs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich
2010-01-01
of the principle of Polyrepresentation, a theoretical framework for reasoning about different representations arising from interactive information retrieval in a given context. Although the principle of Polyrepresentation has received attention from many researchers, not much empirical work has been done based...... on it. One reason may be that it has not yet been formalised mathematically. In this paper we propose an up-to-date and flexible mathematical formalisation of the principle of Polyrepresentation for information needs. Specifically, we apply Subjective Logic to model different representations...... of information needs as beliefs marked by degrees of uncertainty. We combine such beliefs using different logical operators, and we discuss these combinations with respect to different retrieval scenarios and situations. A formal model is introduced and discussed, with illustrative applications to the modelling...
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics......The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...
Towards rational closure for fuzzy logic: The case of propositional Godel logic
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In the field of non-monotonic logics, the notion of rational closure is acknowledged as a landmark and we are going to see whether such a construction can be adopted in the context of mathematical fuzzy logic, a so far (apparently) unexplored...
A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cláudia Nalon
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and present the results for a comparison with an existing tableau-based solver.
Logical design for computers and control
Dodd, Kenneth N
1972-01-01
Logical Design for Computers and Control Logical Design for Computers and Control gives an introduction to the concepts and principles, applications, and advancements in the field of control logic. The text covers topics such as logic elements; high and low logic; kinds of flip-flops; binary counting and arithmetic; and Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, and De Morgan's theorem. Also covered are topics such as electrostatics and atomic theory; the integrated circuit and simple control systems; the conversion of analog to digital systems; and computer applications and control. The book is recommend
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, John C.
2002-01-01
In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...... with the inductive definition of predicates on abstract data structures, this extension permits the concise and flexible description of structures with controlled sharing. In this paper, we will survey the current development of this program logic, including extensions that permit unrestricted address arithmetic...
How Objects Shape Logics in Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse
2011-01-01
The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study of the constr......The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about h...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...
Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fathahillah Fathahillah
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction......, and finally, we extend it to a relational analysis. A Flow Logic is a program logic---in the same sense that a Hoare’s logic is. We conclude with an executive summary presenting the highlights of the approach from this perspective including a discussion of theoretical properties as well as implementation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.
1981-01-01
The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)
Logical inference and evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perey, F.G.
1981-01-01
Most methodologies of evaluation currently used are based upon the theory of statistical inference. It is generally perceived that this theory is not capable of dealing satisfactorily with what are called systematic errors. Theories of logical inference should be capable of treating all of the information available, including that not involving frequency data. A theory of logical inference is presented as an extension of deductive logic via the concept of plausibility and the application of group theory. Some conclusions, based upon the application of this theory to evaluation of data, are also given
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donker, H.C.; Katsnelson, M.I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2016-01-01
The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space–time data collected by probing the particle is obtained from the most robust experiment and that on average, the classical relativistic equation of motion of a particle holds. - Highlights: • Logical inference applied to relativistic, massive, charged, and spinless particle experiments leads to the Klein–Gordon equation. • The relativistic Hamilton–Jacobi is scrutinized by employing a field description for the four-velocity. • Logical inference allows analysis of experiments with uncertainty in detection events and experimental conditions.
Hybrid Logic and its Proof-Theory
Brauner, Torben
2011-01-01
This is the first book-length treatment of hybrid logic and its proof-theory. Hybrid logic is an extension of ordinary modal logic which allows explicit reference to individual points in a model (where the points represent times, possible worlds, states in a computer, or something else). This is useful for many applications, for example when reasoning about time one often wants to formulate a series of statements about what happens at specific times. There is little consensus about proof-theory for ordinary modal logic. Many modal-logical proof systems lack important properties and the relatio
Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ostermann, Klaus
2008-01-01
Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....
Morsanyi, Kinga; Handley, Simon J
2012-05-01
When people evaluate syllogisms, their judgments of validity are often biased by the believability of the conclusions of the problems. Thus, it has been suggested that syllogistic reasoning performance is based on an interplay between a conscious and effortful evaluation of logicality and an intuitive appreciation of the believability of the conclusions (e.g., Evans, Newstead, Allen, & Pollard, 1994). However, logic effects in syllogistic reasoning emerge even when participants are unlikely to carry out a full logical analysis of the problems (e.g., Shynkaruk & Thompson, 2006). There is also evidence that people can implicitly detect the conflict between their beliefs and the validity of the problems, even if they are unable to consciously produce a logical response (e.g., De Neys, Moyens, & Vansteenwegen, 2010). In 4 experiments we demonstrate that people intuitively detect the logicality of syllogisms, and this effect emerges independently of participants' conscious mindset and their cognitive capacity. This logic effect is also unrelated to the superficial structure of the problems. Additionally, we provide evidence that the logicality of the syllogisms is detected through slight changes in participants' affective states. In fact, subliminal affective priming had an effect on participants' subjective evaluations of the problems. Finally, when participants misattributed their emotional reactions to background music, this significantly reduced the logic effect. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Unimolecular Logic Gate with Classical Input by Single Gold Atoms.
Skidin, Dmitry; Faizy, Omid; Krüger, Justus; Eisenhut, Frank; Jancarik, Andrej; Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Gourdon, Andre; Moresco, Francesca; Joachim, Christian
2018-02-27
By a combination of solution and on-surface chemistry, we synthesized an asymmetric starphene molecule with two long anthracenyl input branches and a short naphthyl output branch on the Au(111) surface. Starting from this molecule, we could demonstrate the working principle of a single molecule NAND logic gate by selectively contacting single gold atoms by atomic manipulation to the longer branches of the molecule. The logical input "1" ("0") is defined by the interaction (noninteraction) of a gold atom with one of the input branches. The output is measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy following the shift in energy of the electronic tunneling resonances at the end of the short branch of the molecule.
Co-constructive Logics for Proofs and Refutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trafford James
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers logics which are formally dual to intuitionistic logic in order to investigate a co-constructive logic for proofs and refutations. This is philosophically motivated by a set of problems regarding the nature of constructive truth, and its relation to falsity. It is well known both that intuitionism can not deal constructively with negative information, and that defining falsity by means of intuitionistic negation leads, under widely-held assumptions, to a justification of bivalence. For example, we do not want to equate falsity with the non-existence of a proof since this would render a statement such as “pi is transcendental” false prior to 1882. In addition, the intuitionist account of negation as shorthand for the derivation of absurdity is inadequate, particularly outside of purely mathematical contexts. To deal with these issues, I investigate the dual of intuitionistic logic, co-intuitionistic logic, as a logic of refutation, alongside intuitionistic logic of proofs. Direct proof and refutation are dual to each other, and are constructive, whilst there also exist syntactic, weak, negations within both logics. In this respect, the logic of refutation is weakly paraconsistent in the sense that it allows for statements for which, neither they, nor their negation, are refuted. I provide a proof theory for the co-constructive logic, a formal dualizing map between the logics, and a Kripke-style semantics. This is given an intuitive philosophical rendering in a re-interpretation of Kolmogorov's logic of problems.
Specifying real-time systems with interval logic
Rushby, John
1988-01-01
Pure temporal logic makes no reference to time. An interval temporal logic and an extension to that logic which includes real time constraints are described. The application of this logic by giving a specification for the well-known lift (elevator) example is demonstrated. It is shown how interval logic can be extended to include a notion of process. How the specification language and verification environment of EHDM could be enhanced to support this logic is described. A specification of the alternating bit protocol in this extended version of the specification language of EHDM is given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...
THRESHOLD LOGIC IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
COMPUTER LOGIC, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , BIONICS, GEOMETRY, INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES, LINEAR PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, NETWORKS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, PROBABILITY, SWITCHING CIRCUITS, SYNTHESIS
Huang, Dong; Dong, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Fa-Bin; Wei, Zhi; Zhao, Wen-Bin; Li, Shuai; Liu, Ming-Ya; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Meng; Li, Jing-Bo
2015-07-01
To investigate interference, and how to avoid it, by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone with communication between cardiac rhythm management devices (CRMs) and programmers, a combined in vivo and in vitro testing was conducted. During in vivo testing, GSM mobile phones interfered with CRM-programmer communication in 33 of 65 subjects tested (50.8%). Losing ventricle sensing was representative in this study. In terms of clinical symptoms, only 4 subjects (0.6%) felt dizzy during testing. CRM-programmer communication recovered upon termination of mobile phone communication. During in vitro testing, electromagnetic interference by high-frequency (700-950 MHz) EMFs reproducibly occurred in duplicate testing in 18 of 20 CRMs (90%). During each interference, the pacing pulse signal on the programmer would suddenly disappear while the synchronous signal was normal on the amplifier-oscilloscope. Simulation analysis showed that interference by radiofrequency emitting devices with CRM-programmer communication may be attributed to factors including materials, excitation source distance, and implant depth. Results suggested that patients implanted with CRMs should not be restricted from using GSM mobile phones; however, CRMs should be kept away from high-frequency EMFs of GSM mobile phone during programming. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, Robert L.
2001-01-01
Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we 'look' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors
A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg
A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result...... shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our...... semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming....
Brain Computation Is Organized via Power-of-Two-Based Permutation Logic
Xie, Kun; Fox, Grace E.; Liu, Jun; Lyu, Cheng; Lee, Jason C.; Kuang, Hui; Jacobs, Stephanie; Li, Meng; Liu, Tianming; Song, Sen; Tsien, Joe Z.
2016-01-01
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies—the long-presumed computational motif—are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2i–1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information. However, modulatory neurons, such as dopaminergic (DA) neurons, use a simpler logic despite their distinct subtypes. Interestingly, this specific-to-general permutation logic remained largely intact although NMDA receptors—the synaptic switch for learning and memory—were deleted throughout adulthood, suggesting that the logic is developmentally pre-configured. Moreover, this computational logic is implemented in the cortex via combining a random-connectivity strategy in superficial layers 2/3 with nonrandom organizations in deep layers 5/6. This randomness of layers 2/3 cliques—which preferentially encode specific and low-combinatorial features and project inter-cortically—is ideal for maximizing cross-modality novel pattern-extraction, pattern-discrimination and pattern-categorization using sparse code, consequently explaining why it requires hippocampal offline-consolidation. In contrast, the nonrandomness in layers 5/6—which consists of few specific cliques but a higher portion of more general cliques projecting mostly to subcortical systems—is ideal for feedback-control of motivation, emotion, consciousness and behaviors. These observations suggest that the brain’s basic computational
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spimpolo, G.F.
1984-01-01
Two computer programmes have been written for use on a fully automated Siemens SRS200 sequential X-ray-fluorescence spectrometer. The first of these is used to control the spectrometer via an LC200 logic controller using a Data General Nova IV minicomputer; the second is used for the on-line evaluation of the intensity results and the printout of the analytical results. This system is an alternative to the systems offered by Siemens Ltd, which consist of a Process PR310 or Digital DEC PDP1103 computer and the Siemens Spectra 310 software package. The multibatch capabilities of the programmes, with the option of measuring one sample or a tray of samples before the results are calculated, give the new programmes a major advantage over the dedicated software and, together with the elimination of human error in calculation, have resulted in increased efficiency and quality in routine analyses. A description is given of the two programmes, as well as instruction and guidelines to the user
On Structural Completeness of Tabular Superintuitionistic Logics
Citkin, Alexander
2015-01-01
As usual, the superintuitionistic (propositional) logics (that is, logics extending intuitionistic logic) are being studied “modulo derivability”, meaning such logics are viewed extensionally — they are identified with the set of formulae that are valid (derivable in the corresponding calculus) in
A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.
2007-01-01
-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....
Cirstea, C.; Kurz, A.; Pattinson, D.; Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.
2011-01-01
Applications of modal logics are abundant in computer science, and a large number of structurally different modal logics have been successfully employed in a diverse spectrum of application contexts. Coalgebraic semantics, on the other hand, provides a uniform and encompassing view on the large
Criteria for logical formalization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peregrin, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Vladimír
2013-01-01
Roč. 190, č. 14 (2013), s. 2897-2924 ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logic * logical form * formalization * reflective equilibrium Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2013
W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse
1995-01-01
textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the
A partnership model of early intervention in psychosis programme--a Canadian experience.
Oyewumi, Lamidi Kola; Savage, Troy
2009-08-01
To describe how a new partnership model of early intervention in psychosis, early intervention in psychosis (EIP) programme delivery in Canada attracted the interest of the community and acquired government funding. The process by which a few individuals used a conceptual framework of integrated, collaborative, flexible and recovery focused principles to engage community partners and attract government funding is described. The establishment of a small EIP programme and its expansion to a regional programme serving an area of 20,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 500,000 people were achieved. A programme specific logic prototype was developed. A synergy of public, private and academic services emerged with an infrastructure for ongoing cohesiveness and productivity. Annual clinic visits increased from 641 in 2002 to 1904 in 2007 and annual new patients enrollments grew from 46 to 128 within the same period. Staffing grew from an interdisciplinary staff of 1.5 full-time equivalent (FTE) to the current 10.0 FTE. A carefully orchestrated programme organization that is inclusive rather than exclusive can produce a balance of evidence-based best practices in client focused service, community mental health integration and academic productivity. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Eight-logic memory cell based on multiferroic junctions
Yang, Feng; Zhou, Y. C.; Tang, M. H.; Liu, Fen; Ma, Ying; Zheng, X. J.; Zhao, W. F.; Xu, H. Y.; Sun, Z. H.
2009-04-01
A model is proposed for a device combining a multiferroic tunnel junction with a magnetoelectric (ME) film in which the magnetic configuration is controlled by the electric field. Calculations embodying the Green's function approach show that the magnetic polarization can be switched on and off by an electric field in the ME film due to the effect of elastic coupling interaction. Using a model including the spin-filter effect and screening of polarization charges, we have produced eight logic states of tunnelling resistance in the tunnel junction and have obtained corresponding laws that control them. The results provide some insights into the realization of an eight-logic memory cell.
Parodi, Stefano; Dosi, Corrado; Zambon, Antonella; Ferrari, Enrico; Muselli, Marco
2017-12-01
Identifying potential risk factors for problem gambling (PG) is of primary importance for planning preventive and therapeutic interventions. We illustrate a new approach based on the combination of standard logistic regression and an innovative method of supervised data mining (Logic Learning Machine or LLM). Data were taken from a pilot cross-sectional study to identify subjects with PG behaviour, assessed by two internationally validated scales (SOGS and Lie/Bet). Information was obtained from 251 gamblers recruited in six betting establishments. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and cognitive-related factors, and type, place and frequency of preferred gambling were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The following variables associated with PG were identified: instant gratification games, alcohol abuse, cognitive distortion, illegal behaviours and having started gambling with a relative or a friend. Furthermore, the combination of LLM and LR indicated the presence of two different types of PG, namely: (a) daily gamblers, more prone to illegal behaviour, with poor money management skills and who started gambling at an early age, and (b) non-daily gamblers, characterised by superstitious beliefs and a higher preference for immediate reward games. Finally, instant gratification games were strongly associated with the number of games usually played. Studies on gamblers habitually frequently betting shops are rare. The finding of different types of PG by habitual gamblers deserves further analysis in larger studies. Advanced data mining algorithms, like LLM, are powerful tools and potentially useful in identifying risk factors for PG.
PDL as a multi-agent strategy logic
D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); B.C. Schipper
2013-01-01
textabstractPropositional Dynamic Logic or PDL was invented as a logic for reasoning about regular programming constructs. We propose a new perspective on PDL as a multi-agent strategic logic (MASL). This logic for strategic reasoning has group strategies as first class citizens, and
Temporal logics and real time expert systems
Blom, J.A.
1996-01-01
This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
Weakly Intuitionistic Quantum Logic
Hermens, Ronnie
2013-01-01
In this article von Neumann's proposal that in quantum mechanics projections can be seen as propositions is followed. However, the quantum logic derived by Birkhoff and von Neumann is rejected due to the failure of the law of distributivity. The options for constructing a distributive logic while
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Petrasiunas, Matthew Joseph; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, André R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David
2016-07-25
Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb+ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
Non-commutative multiple-valued logic algebras
Ciungu, Lavinia Corina
2014-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to non-commutative multiple-valued logic algebras; a subject which has attracted much interest in the past few years because of its impact on information science, artificial intelligence and other subjects. A study of the newest results in the field, the monograph includes treatment of pseudo-BCK algebras, pseudo-hoops, residuated lattices, bounded divisible residuated lattices, pseudo-MTL algebras, pseudo-BL algebras and pseudo-MV algebras. It provides a fresh perspective on new trends in logic and algebras in that algebraic structures can be developed into fuzzy logics which connect quantum mechanics, mathematical logic, probability theory, algebra and soft computing. Written in a clear, concise and direct manner, Non-Commutative Multiple-Valued Logic Algebras will be of interest to masters and PhD students, as well as researchers in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
2016-08-27
bovine serum albumin (BSA) diluted to the amount corresponding to that in the media of the stimulated cells. Phospho-JNK comprises two isoforms whose...information accompanies this paper on the CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology website (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/psp4) Systematic Analysis of Quantitative Logic Model Morris et al. 553 www.wileyonlinelibrary/psp4
Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.; Voudrias, Evangelos; Petalas, Christos; Stravodimos, George
2007-01-01
This study presents a methodology for siting municipal solid waste landfills, coupling geographic information systems (GIS), fuzzy logic, and multicriteria evaluation techniques. Both exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria are used. Factors, i.e., non-exclusionary criteria, are divided in two distinct groups which do not have the same level of trade off. The first group comprises factors related to the physical environment, which cannot be expressed in terms of monetary cost and, therefore, they do not easily trade off. The second group includes those factors related to human activities, i.e., socioeconomic factors, which can be expressed as financial cost, thus showing a high level of trade off. GIS are used for geographic data acquisition and processing. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is the multicriteria evaluation technique used, enhanced with fuzzy factor standardization. Besides assigning weights to factors through the AHP, control over the level of risk and trade off in the siting process is achieved through a second set of weights, i.e., order weights, applied to factors in each factor group, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, thus taking into account the local site characteristics. The method has been applied to Evros prefecture (NE Greece), an area of approximately 4,000 km2. The siting methodology results in two intermediate suitability maps, one related to environmental and the other to socioeconomic criteria. Combination of the two intermediate maps results in the final composite suitability map for landfill siting.
Quantum supports and modal logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svetlichny, G.
1986-01-01
Recently Foulis, Piron, and Randall introduced a new interpretation of empirical and quantum logics which substitute for the notion of a probabilistic weight a combinatorial notion called a support. The informal use of the notion of ''possible outcomes of experiments'' suggests that this interpretation can be related to corresponding formal notions as treated by modal logic. The purpose of this paper is to prove that in fact supports are in one-to-one correspondence with the sets of possibly true elementary propositions in Kripke models of a set of modal formulas associated to the empirical or quantum logic. This hopefully provides a sufficiently detailed link between the two rather distinct logical systems to shed useful light on both
Processing device with self-scrubbing logic
Wojahn, Christopher K.
2016-03-01
An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Soler Toscano
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Resumen: La pregunta por la logicidad busca los criterios que hacen que cierto objeto se pueda considerar un objeto lógico. Los diferentes criterios de logicidad posibles marcarán no solo las distintas formas de concebir la lógica como disciplina académica, sino también distintos modos de entender, en el lenguaje ordinario o en otras disciplinas, qué quiere decir que algo es o no lógico. Mostramos que las aportaciones de las lógicas no clásicas y la pragmática, así como del estudio de otras formas de inferencia distintas de la deducción, enriquecen la caracterización intuitiva de la lógica, lo cual resulta de un interés especial cuando se trata de aplicar la lógica al entrenamiento y evaluación del razonamiento humano.Abstract: The question of logicality searches for criteria that make that a given object can be considered a logical object. Different criteria of logicality establish not only the different possible ways of conceiving logic as an academic discipline, but also the different ways of understanding, in natural language or in other disciplines, what means that something is logical or not. We show that the contribution of non-classical logics and pragmatics, and the study of other kinds of inference different to deduction, enrich the intuitive characterization of logic, which is of particular interest when trying to apply the logic for training and evaluating human reasoning.
NEVEN, Frank
2002-01-01
We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.
Temporalized Epistemic Default Logic
van der Hoek, W.; Meyer, J.J.; Treur, J.; Gabbay, D.
2001-01-01
The nonmonotonic logic Epistemic Default Logic (EDL) [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] is based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. It has already been established [Meyer and van der Hoek, 1993] how upward reflection can be formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment based on epistemic states,
A vindication of logical necessity against scepticism
Philie, Patrice
2002-01-01
Some philosophers dispute the claim that there is a notion of logical necessity involved in the concept of logical consequence. They are sceptical about logical necessity. They argue that a proper characterisation of logical consequence - of what follows from what - need not and should not appeal to the notion of necessity at all. Quine is the most prominent philosopher holding such a view. In this doctoral dissertation, I argue that scepticism about logical necessity is not successful. Quine...