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Sample records for programmable array microscope

  1. Biological applications of an LCoS-BASED PROGRAMMABLE ARRAY MICROSCOPE (PAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, G.M.; Caarls, W.; Thomas, M.; Hill, A.; Lidke, K.A.; Rieger, B.; Fritsch, C.; Van Geest, B.; Jovin, T.M.; Arndt-Jovin, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a

  2. Field programmable gate array based reconfigurable scanning probe/optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Derek B; Lawrence, A J; Dzegede, Zechariah K; Hiester, Justin C; Kim, Cliff; Sánchez, Erik J

    2011-10-01

    The increasing popularity of nanometrology and nanospectroscopy has pushed researchers to develop complex new analytical systems. This paper describes the development of a platform on which to build a microscopy tool that will allow for flexibility of customization to suit research needs. The novelty of the described system lies in its versatility of capabilities. So far, one version of this microscope has allowed for successful near-field and far-field fluorescence imaging with single molecule detection sensitivity. This system is easily adapted for reflection, polarization (Kerr magneto-optical (MO)), Raman, super-resolution techniques, and other novel scanning probe imaging and spectroscopic designs. While collecting a variety of forms of optical images, the system can simultaneously monitor topographic information of a sample with an integrated tuning fork based shear force system. The instrument has the ability to image at room temperature and atmospheric pressure or under liquid. The core of the design is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) data acquisition card and a single, low cost computer to control the microscope with analog control circuitry using off-the-shelf available components. A detailed description of electronics, mechanical requirements, and software algorithms as well as examples of some different forms of the microscope developed so far are discussed.

  3. Biological applications of an LCoS-based programmable array microscope (PAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Guy M.; Caarls, Wouter; Thomas, Martin; Hill, Andrew; Lidke, Keith A.; Rieger, Bernd; Fritsch, Cornelia; van Geest, Bert; Jovin, Thomas M.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

    2007-02-01

    We report on a new generation, commercial prototype of a programmable array optical sectioning fluorescence microscope (PAM) for rapid, light efficient 3D imaging of living specimens. The stand-alone module, including light source(s) and detector(s), features an innovative optical design and a ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator (SLM) instead of the DMD used in the original PAM design. The LCoS PAM (developed in collaboration with Cairn Research, Ltd.) can be attached to a port of a(ny) unmodified fluorescence microscope. The prototype system currently operated at the Max Planck Institute incorporates a 6-position high-intensity LED illuminator, modulated laser and lamp light sources, and an Andor iXon emCCD camera. The module is mounted on an Olympus IX71 inverted microscope with 60-150X objectives with a Prior Scientific x,y, and z high resolution scanning stages. Further enhancements recently include: (i) point- and line-wise spectral resolution and (ii) lifetime imaging (FLIM) in the frequency domain. Multiphoton operation and other nonlinear techniques should be feasible. The capabilities of the PAM are illustrated by several examples demonstrating single molecule as well as lifetime imaging in live cells, and the unique capability to perform photoconversion with arbitrary patterns and high spatial resolution. Using quantum dot coupled ligands we show real-time binding and subsequent trafficking of individual ligand-growth factor receptor complexes on and in live cells with a temporal resolution and sensitivity exceeding those of conventional CLSM systems. The combined use of a blue laser and parallel LED or visible laser sources permits photoactivation and rapid kinetic analysis of cellular processes probed by photoswitchable visible fluorescent proteins such as DRONPA.

  4. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J; Page, Michael R; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  5. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  6. All optical programmable logic array (PLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiluf, Dawit

    2018-03-01

    A programmable logic array (PLA) is an integrated circuit (IC) logic device that can be reconfigured to implement various kinds of combinational logic circuits. The device has a number of AND and OR gates which are linked together to give output or further combined with more gates or logic circuits. This work presents the realization of PLAs via the physics of a three level system interacting with light. A programmable logic array is designed such that a number of different logical functions can be combined as a sum-of-product or product-of-sum form. We present an all optical PLAs with the aid of laser light and observables of quantum systems, where encoded information can be considered as memory chip. The dynamics of the physical system is investigated using Lie algebra approach.

  7. Applications of field-programmable gate arrays in scientific research

    CERN Document Server

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut F W

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on resource awareness in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) design, Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research covers the principle of FPGAs and their functionality. It explores a host of applications, ranging from small one-chip laboratory systems to large-scale applications in ""big science."" The book first describes various FPGA resources, including logic elements, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable memory. It then presents principles and methods for controlling resources, such as process sequencing, location constraints, and in

  8. Application of Field programmable Gate Array to Digital Signal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This work shows how one parallel technology Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) can be applied to digital signal processing problem to increase computational speed. ... In this research work FPGA typically exploits parallelism because FPGA is a parallel device. With the ...

  9. Introduction to embedded system design using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Dubey, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    Offers information on the use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in the design of embedded systems. This text considers a hypothetical robot controller as an embedded application and weaves around it related concepts of FPGA-based digital design. It is suitable for both students and designers who have worked with microprocessors.

  10. Optical Doppler tomography based on a field programmable gate array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht; Nilsson, Ronnie Thorup; Thrane, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We report the design of and results obtained by using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to digitally process optical Doppler tomography signals. The processor fits into the analog signal path in an existing optical coherence tomography setup. We demonstrate both Doppler frequency and envelope...... extraction using the Hilbert transform, all in a single FPGA. An FPGA implementation has certain advantages over general purpose digital signal processor (DSP) due to the fact that the processing elements operate in parallel as opposed to the DSP. which is primarily a sequential processor....

  11. Evaluation of a miniature microscope objective designed for fluorescence array microscopy detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Brian; Olsen, Randall J; Nelles, Nicole J; Williams, Dawn L; Jackson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Graviss, Edward A; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2014-03-01

    A prototype miniature objective that was designed for a point-of-care diagnostic array microscope for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and previously fabricated and presented in a proof of concept is evaluated for its effectiveness in detecting acid-fast bacteria. To evaluate the ability of the microscope to resolve submicron features and details in the image of acid-fast microorganisms stained with a fluorescent dye, and to evaluate the accuracy of clinical diagnoses made with digital images acquired with the objective. The lens prescription data for the microscope design are presented. A test platform is built by combining parts of a standard microscope, a prototype objective, and a digital single-lens reflex camera. Counts of acid-fast bacteria made with the prototype objective are compared to counts obtained with a standard microscope over matched fields of view. Two sets of 20 smears, positive and negative, are diagnosed by 2 pathologists as sputum smear positive or sputum smear negative, using both a standard clinical microscope and the prototype objective under evaluation. The results are compared to a reference diagnosis of the same sample. More bacteria are counted in matched fields of view in digital images taken with the prototype objective than with the standard clinical microscope. All diagnostic results are found to be highly concordant. An array microscope built with this miniature lens design will be able to detect M tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  13. Passive anti-frosting surfaces using microscopic ice arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Iliff, Grady; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Despite exceptional advances in surface chemistry and micro/nanofabrication, no engineered surface has been able to passively suppress the in-plane growth of frost occurring in humid, subfreezing environments. Motivated by this, and inspired by the fact that ice itself can evaporate nearby liquid water droplets, we present a passive anti-frosting surface in which the majority of the surface remains dry indefinitely. We fabricated an aluminum surface exhibiting an array of small metallic fins, where a wicking micro-groove was laser-cut along the top of each fin to produce elevated water ``stripes'' that freeze into ice. As the saturation vapor pressure of ice is less than that of supercooled liquid water, the ice stripes serve as overlapping humidity sinks that siphon all nearby moisture from the air and prevent condensation and frost from forming anywhere else on the surface. Our experimental results show that regions between stripes remain dry even after 24 hours of operation under humid and supercooled conditions. We believe that the presented anti-frosting technology has the potential to help solve the world's multi-billion dollar frosting problem that adversely affects transportation, power generation, and HVAC systems.

  14. Laser scanning confocal microscope with programmable amplitude, phase, and polarization of the illumination beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, B R; Neil, M A A

    2009-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a laser scanning confocal microscope with programmable beam forming optics. The amplitude, phase, and polarization of the laser beam used in the microscope can be controlled in real time with the help of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, acting as a computer generated hologram, in conjunction with a polarizing beam splitter and two right angled prisms assembly. Two scan mirrors, comprising an on-axis fast moving scan mirror for line scanning and an off-axis slow moving scan mirror for frame scanning, configured in a way to minimize the movement of the scanned beam over the pupil plane of the microscope objective, form the XY scan unit. The confocal system, that incorporates the programmable beam forming unit and the scan unit, has been implemented to image in both reflected and fluorescence light from the specimen. Efficiency of the system to programmably generate custom defined vector beams has been demonstrated by generating a bottle structured focal volume, which in fact is the overlap of two cross polarized beams, that can simultaneously improve both the lateral and axial resolutions if used as the de-excitation beam in a stimulated emission depletion confocal microscope.

  15. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  16. Field Programmable Gate Array Control of Power Systems in Graduate Student Laboratories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    ...) continuously develops new design and education resources for students. One area of focus for students in the Power Electronics curriculum track is the development of a design center that explores Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA...

  17. Special Technology Area Review on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) For Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...) on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for Military Applications on August 3-4, 2004 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California to address issues relevant to the use of this technology in military systems...

  18. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  19. Neuron array with plastic synapses and programmable dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Shubha; Wunderlich, Richard; Hasler, Jennifer; George, Suma

    2013-10-01

    We describe a novel neuromorphic chip architecture that models neurons for efficient computation. Traditional architectures of neuron array chips consist of large scale systems that are interfaced with AER for implementing intra- or inter-chip connectivity. We present a chip that uses AER for inter-chip communication but uses fast, reconfigurable FPGA-style routing with local memory for intra-chip connectivity. We model neurons with biologically realistic channel models, synapses and dendrites. This chip is suitable for small-scale network simulations and can also be used for sequence detection, utilizing directional selectivity properties of dendrites, ultimately for use in word recognition.

  20. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  1. Reconstructing 3D profiles of flux distribution in array of unshunted Josephson junctions from 2D scanning SQUID microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, F.M.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    By using a specially designed algorithm (based on utilizing the so-called Hierarchical Data Format), we report on successful reconstruction of 3D profiles of local flux distribution within artificially prepared arrays of unshunted Nb-AlO x -Nb Josephson junctions from 2D surface images obtained via the scanning SQUID microscope. The analysis of the obtained results suggest that for large sweep areas, the local flux distribution significantly deviates from the conventional picture and exhibits a more complicated avalanche-type behavior with a prominent dendritic structure. -- Highlights: ► The penetration of external magnetic field into an array of Nb-AlO x -Nb Josephson junctions is studied. ► Using Scanning SQUID Microscope, 2D images of local flux distribution within array are obtained. ► Using specially designed pattern recognition algorithm, 3D flux profiles are reconstructed from 2D images.

  2. A high throughput array microscope for the mechanical characterization of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Jeremy; Osborne, Lukas D.; Hsiao, Joe Ping-Lin; Vicci, Leandra; Meshram, Alok; O'Brien, E. Tim; Spero, Richard Chasen; Taylor, Russell; Superfine, Richard

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade, the emergence of high throughput screening has enabled the development of novel drug therapies and elucidated many complex cellular processes. Concurrently, the mechanobiology community has developed tools and methods to show that the dysregulation of biophysical properties and the biochemical mechanisms controlling those properties contribute significantly to many human diseases. Despite these advances, a complete understanding of the connection between biomechanics and disease will require advances in instrumentation that enable parallelized, high throughput assays capable of probing complex signaling pathways, studying biology in physiologically relevant conditions, and capturing specimen and mechanical heterogeneity. Traditional biophysical instruments are unable to meet this need. To address the challenge of large-scale, parallelized biophysical measurements, we have developed an automated array high-throughput microscope system that utilizes passive microbead diffusion to characterize mechanical properties of biomaterials. The instrument is capable of acquiring data on twelve-channels simultaneously, where each channel in the system can independently drive two-channel fluorescence imaging at up to 50 frames per second. We employ this system to measure the concentration-dependent apparent viscosity of hyaluronan, an essential polymer found in connective tissue and whose expression has been implicated in cancer progression.

  3. Development of a fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) using a programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Shun-ichi; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Yamada, Sakue.

    1994-09-01

    A fast time-to-digital converter with a 5 ns step was designed and tested by utilizing a user-programmable gate array. The stabilities against temperature and supply voltage variation were measured. A module was built with this TDC, and was successfully used in the first-level trigger system of the ZEUS detector to reject proton-beam induced background events. (author)

  4. Implementing a Microcontroller Watchdog with a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Bartholomew

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is crucial to safety. Redundancy of important system components greatly enhances reliability and hence safety. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are useful for monitoring systems and handling the logic necessary to keep them running with minimal interruption when individual components fail. A complete microcontroller watchdog with logic for failure handling can be implemented in a hardware description language (HDL.). HDL-based designs are vendor-independent and can be used on many FPGAs with low overhead.

  5. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  6. Field Programmable Gate Array-based I and C Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Koh Eun; Kim, Young Geul; Kwon, Jong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system used in the operating nuclear power plants has the disadvantages of the Common Cause Failure (CCF), high maintenance costs and quick obsolescence, and then it is necessary to develop the other platform to replace the PLC. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based Instrument and Control (I and C) safety system is safer and more economical than Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system. Therefore, in the future, FPGA-based I and C safety system will be able to replace the PLC-based I and C safety system in the operating and the new nuclear power plants to get benefited from its safety and economic advantage. FPGA-based I and C safety system shall be implemented and verified by applying the related requirements to perform the safety function

  7. Field Programmable Gate Array-based I and C Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Koh Eun; Kim, Young Geul; Kwon, Jong Soo [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system used in the operating nuclear power plants has the disadvantages of the Common Cause Failure (CCF), high maintenance costs and quick obsolescence, and then it is necessary to develop the other platform to replace the PLC. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based Instrument and Control (I and C) safety system is safer and more economical than Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based I and C safety system. Therefore, in the future, FPGA-based I and C safety system will be able to replace the PLC-based I and C safety system in the operating and the new nuclear power plants to get benefited from its safety and economic advantage. FPGA-based I and C safety system shall be implemented and verified by applying the related requirements to perform the safety function.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of a Non-Coherent Frequency Shift Keying Transceiver Using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voskakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    ...) receiver-transmitter in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). After introducing the theory behind the Non- Coherent BFSK demodulation implemented at the receiver, the design of transmitter and receiver is illustrated...

  9. Three-channel phase meters based on the AD8302 and field programmable gate arrays for heterodyne millimeter wave interferometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varavin, A.V.; Ermak, G.P.; Vasiliev, A.S.; Fateev, A.V.; Varavin, Mykyta; Žáček, František; Zajac, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 11 (2016), s. 1009-1025 ISSN 0040-2508 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : AD8302 * Interferometer * Millimeter wave * Phase meter * Programmable gate array * Tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  10. A control system based on field programmable gate array for papermaking sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi Sheng; Xie, Chang; Xiong, Yan Qing; Liu, Zhi Qiang; Li, Qing

    2013-01-01

    A sewage treatment control system is designed to improve the efficiency of papermaking wastewater treatment system. The automation control system is based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), coded with Very-High-Speed Integrate Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), compiled and simulated with Quartus. In order to ensure the stability of the data used in FPGA, the data is collected through temperature sensors, water level sensor and online PH measurement system. The automatic control system is more sensitive, and both the treatment efficiency and processing power are increased. This work provides a new method for sewage treatment control.

  11. Note: The design of thin gap chamber simulation signal source based on field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Kun; Wang, Xu; Li, Feng; Jin, Ge; Lu, Houbing; Liang, Futian

    2015-01-01

    The Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is an important part of ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator. Targeting the feature of the output signal of TGC detector, we have designed a simulation signal source. The core of the design is based on field programmable gate array, randomly outputting 256-channel simulation signals. The signal is generated by true random number generator. The source of randomness originates from the timing jitter in ring oscillators. The experimental results show that the random number is uniform in histogram, and the whole system has high reliability

  12. A software framework for pipelined arithmetic algorithms in field programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Won, E.

    2018-03-01

    Pipelined algorithms implemented in field programmable gate arrays are extensively used for hardware triggers in the modern experimental high energy physics field and the complexity of such algorithms increases rapidly. For development of such hardware triggers, algorithms are developed in C++, ported to hardware description language for synthesizing firmware, and then ported back to C++ for simulating the firmware response down to the single bit level. We present a C++ software framework which automatically simulates and generates hardware description language code for pipelined arithmetic algorithms.

  13. Field programmable gate array-assigned complex-valued computation and its limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria, E-mail: maria.bernardschwarz@ni.com [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria); Zwick, Wolfgang; Klier, Jochen [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, 11500 N MOPac Expy, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States); Gröschl, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    We discuss how leveraging Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as part of a high performance computing platform reduces latency to meet the demanding real time constraints of a quantum optics simulation. Implementations of complex-valued operations using fixed point numeric on a Virtex-5 FPGA compare favorably to more conventional solutions on a central processing unit. Our investigation explores the performance of multiple fixed point options along with a traditional 64 bits floating point version. With this information, the lowest execution times can be estimated. Relative error is examined to ensure simulation accuracy is maintained.

  14. An automatic evaluation method for the surface profile of a microlens array using an optical interferometric microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Loh, Guo-Hao; Fu, Shu-Hsien; Chang, Hsun-Kai; Yang, Shih-Wei; Yeh, Mau-Shiun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic evaluation method for the surface profile of a microlens array using an optical interferometric microscope is presented. For inspecting the microlens array, an XY-table is used to position it. With a He–Ne laser beam and optical fiber as a probing light, the measured image is sent to the computer to analyze the surface profile. By binary image slicing and area recognition, this study located the center of each ring and determined the substrate of the microlens array image through the background of the entire microlens array interference image. The maximum and minimum values of every segment brightness curve were determined corresponding to the change in the segment phase angle from 0° to 180°. According to the ratio of the actual ring area and the ideal ring area, the area ratio method was adopted to find the phase-angle variation of the interference ring. Based on the ratio of actual ring brightness and the ideal ring brightness, the brightness ratio method was used to determine the phase-angle variation of the interference ring fringe. The area ratio method and brightness ratio method are interchangeable in precisely determining the phase angles of the innermost and outermost rings of the interference fringe and obtaining different microlens surface altitudes of respective pixels in the segment, to greatly increase the microlens array surface profile inspection accuracy and quality

  15. Enhanced depth-of-field of an integral imaging microscope using a bifocal holographic optical element-micro lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Chul; Lim, Young-Tae; Shin, Chang-Won; Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Hwang, Jae-Moon; Kim, Nam

    2017-08-15

    We propose and implement an integral imaging microscope with extended depth-of-field (DoF) using a bifocal holographic micro lens array (MLA). The properties of the two MLAs are switched via peristrophic multiplexing, where different properties of the MLA are recorded onto the single holographic optical element (HOE). The recorded MLA properties are perpendicular to each other: after the first mode is recorded, the HOE is rotated by 90° clockwise, and the second mode is recorded. The experimental results confirm that the DoF of the integral imaging microscopy system is extended successfully by using the bifocal MLA.

  16. Configuration and debug of field programmable gate arrays using MATLAB[reg)/SIMULINK[reg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grout, I; Ryan, J; O'Shea, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, the need to seamlessly link high-level behavioural descriptions of electronic hardware for modelling and simulation purposes to the final application hardware highlights the gap between the high-level behavioural descriptions of the required circuit functionality (considering here digital logic) in commonly used mathematical modelling tools, and the hardware description languages such as VHDL and Verilog-HDL. In this paper, the linking of a MATLAB[reg] model for digital algorithm for implementation on a programmable logic device for design synthesis from the MATLAB[reg] model into VHDL is discussed. This VHDL model is itself synthesised and downloaded to the target Field Programmable Gate Array, for normal operation and also for design debug purposes. To demonstrate this, a circuit architecture mapped from a SIMULINK[reg] model is presented. The rationale is for a seamless interface between the initial algorithm development and the target hardware, enabling the hardware to be debugged and compared to the simulated model from a single interface for use with by a non-expert in the programmable logic and hardware description language use

  17. Segmented Routing for Speed-Performance and Routability in Field-Programmable Gate Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses several issues involved for routing in Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs that have both horizontal and vertical routing channels, with wire segments of various lengths. Routing is studied by using CAD routing tools to map a set of benchmark circuits into FPGAs, and measuring the effects that various parameters of the CAD tools have on the implementation of the circuits. A two-stage routing strategy of global followed by detailed routing is used, and the effects of both of these CAD stages are discussed, with emphasis on detailed routing. We present a new detailed routing algorithm designed specifically for the types of routing structures found in the most recent generation of FPGAs, and show that the new algorithm achieves significantly better results than previously published FPGA routers with respect to the speed-performance of implemented circuits.

  18. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui [Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  19. Application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays in Instrumentation and Control Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are gaining increased attention worldwide for application in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, particularly for safety and safety related applications, but also for non-safety ones. NPP operators and equipment suppliers see potential advantages of FPGA based digital I&C systems as compared to microprocessor based applications. This is because FPGA based systems can be made simpler, more testable and less reliant on complex software (e.g. operating systems), and are easier to qualify for safety and safety related applications. This publication results from IAEA consultancy meetings covering the various aspects, including design, qualification, implementation, licensing, and operation, of FPGA based I&C systems in NPPs

  20. Field-Programmable Gate Array-based fluxgate magnetometer with digital integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butta, Mattia; Janosek, Michal; Ripka, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a digital magnetometer based on printed circuit board fluxgate is presented. The fluxgate is pulse excited and the signal is extracted by gate integration. We investigate the possibility to perform integration on very narrow gates (typically 500 ns) by using digital techniques. The magnetometer is based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) card: we will show all the advantages and disadvantages, given by digitalization of fluxgate output voltage by means of analog-to-digital converter on FPGA card, as well as digitalization performed by external digitizer. Due to very narrow gate, it is shown that a magnetometer entirely based on a FPGA card is preferable, because it avoids noise due to trigger instability. Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented.

  1. The impact of software and CAE tools on SEU in field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Wang, J.; McCollum, J.; Cronquist, B.

    1999-01-01

    Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, heavily used in spacecraft electronics, have grown substantially in size over the past few years, causing designers to work at a higher conceptual level, with computer aided engineering (CAE) tools synthesizing and optimizing the logic from a description. It is shown that the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) CAE tools can produce unreliable circuit designs when the device is used in a radiation environment and a flip-flop is upset. At a lower level, software can be used to improve the SEU performance of a flip-flop, exploiting the configurable nature of FPGA technology and on-chip delay, parasitic resistive, and capacitive circuit elements

  2. Field Programmable Gate Array Failure Rate Estimation Guidelines for Launch Vehicle Fault Tree Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohammad; Novack, Steven D.; Hatfield, Glen S.; Britton, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Today's launch vehicles complex electronic and avionic systems heavily utilize the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) integrated circuit (IC). FPGAs are prevalent ICs in communication protocols such as MIL-STD-1553B, and in control signal commands such as in solenoid/servo valves actuations. This paper will demonstrate guidelines to estimate FPGA failure rates for a launch vehicle, the guidelines will account for hardware, firmware, and radiation induced failures. The hardware contribution of the approach accounts for physical failures of the IC, FPGA memory and clock. The firmware portion will provide guidelines on the high level FPGA programming language and ways to account for software/code reliability growth. The radiation portion will provide guidelines on environment susceptibility as well as guidelines on tailoring other launch vehicle programs historical data to a specific launch vehicle.

  3. Field Programmable Gate Array Reliability Analysis Guidelines for Launch Vehicle Reliability Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohammad; Britton, Paul; Hatfield, Glen Spencer; Novack, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) integrated circuits (IC) are one of the key electronic components in today's sophisticated launch and space vehicle complex avionic systems, largely due to their superb reprogrammable and reconfigurable capabilities combined with relatively low non-recurring engineering costs (NRE) and short design cycle. Consequently, FPGAs are prevalent ICs in communication protocols and control signal commands. This paper will identify reliability concerns and high level guidelines to estimate FPGA total failure rates in a launch vehicle application. The paper will discuss hardware, hardware description language, and radiation induced failures. The hardware contribution of the approach accounts for physical failures of the IC. The hardware description language portion will discuss the high level FPGA programming languages and software/code reliability growth. The radiation portion will discuss FPGA susceptibility to space environment radiation.

  4. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhouxiang; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2012-09-01

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad2 and transition time of 100 μs under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  5. Nucleic acid programmable protein array a just-in-time multiplexed protein expression and purification platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Systematic study of proteins requires the availability of thousands of proteins in functional format. However, traditional recombinant protein expression and purification methods have many drawbacks for such study at the proteome level. We have developed an innovative in situ protein expression and capture system, namely NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array), where C-terminal tagged proteins are expressed using an in vitro expression system and efficiently captured/purified by antitag antibodies coprinted at each spot. The NAPPA technology presented in this chapter enable researchers to produce and display fresh proteins just in time in a multiplexed high-throughput fashion and utilize them for various downstream biochemical researches of interest. This platform could revolutionize the field of functional proteomics with it ability to produce thousands of spatially separated proteins in high density with narrow dynamic rand of protein concentrations, reproducibly and functionally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nine-channel mid-power bipolar pulse generator based on a field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haylock, Ben, E-mail: benjamin.haylock2@griffithuni.edu.au; Lenzini, Francesco; Kasture, Sachin; Fisher, Paul; Lobino, Mirko [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Streed, Erik W. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Many channel arbitrary pulse sequence generation is required for the electro-optic reconfiguration of optical waveguide networks in Lithium Niobate. Here we describe a scalable solution to the requirement for mid-power bipolar parallel outputs, based on pulse patterns generated by an externally clocked field programmable gate array. Positive and negative pulses can be generated at repetition rates up to 80 MHz with pulse width adjustable in increments of 1.6 ns across nine independent outputs. Each channel can provide 1.5 W of RF power and can be synchronised with the operation of other components in an optical network such as light sources and detectors through an external clock with adjustable delay.

  7. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bobrek, Miljko [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios where human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments due the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is the final report of the activities involving the NEET 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. We present a detailed functional block diagram of the proposed data acquisition system, the thought process leading to technical decisions, the implemented system, and the tested results from the systems. This system will be capable of monitoring at least three parameters of importance to nuclear reactor monitoring: temperature, radiation level, and pressure.

  8. Design of readout drivers for ATLAS pixel detectors using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sivasubramaniyan, Sriram

    Microstrip detectors are an integral patt of high energy physics research . Special protocols are used to transmit the data from these detectors . To readout the data from such detectors specialized instrumentation have to be designed . To achieve this task, creative and innovative high speed algorithms were designed simulated and implemented in Field Programmable gate arrays, using CAD/CAE tools. The simulation results indicated that these algorithms would be able to perform all the required tasks quickly and efficiently. This thesis describes the design of data acquisition system called the Readout Drivers (ROD) . It focuses on the ROD data path for ATLAS Pixel detectors. The data path will be an integrated part of Readout Drivers setup to decode the data from the silicon micro strip detectors and pixel detectors. This research also includes the design of Readout Driver controller. This Module is used to control the operation of the ROD. This module is responsible for the operation of the Pixel decoders bas...

  9. Design and Implementation of Video Shot Detection on Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jharna Majumdar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Video has become an interactive medium of communication in everyday life. The sheer volume of video makes it extremely difficult to browse through and find the required data. Hence extraction of key frames from the video which represents the abstract of the entire video becomes necessary. The aim of the video shot detection is to find the position of the shot boundaries, so that key frames can be selected from each shot for subsequent processing such as video summarization, indexing etc. For most of the surveillance applications like video summery, face recognition etc., the hardware (real time implementation of these algorithms becomes necessary. Here in this paper we present the architecture for simultaneous accessing of consecutive frames, which are then used for the implementation of various Video Shot Detection algorithms. We also present the real time implementation of three video shot detection algorithms using the above mentioned architecture on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

  10. Real-time field programmable gate array architecture for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for real-time generic convolution of a mask and an image. The architecture is intended for fast low-level image processing. The field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based architecture takes advantage of the availability of registers in FPGAs to implement an efficient and compact module to process the convolutions. The architecture is designed to minimize the number of accesses to the image memory and it is based on parallel modules with internal pipeline operation in order to improve its performance. The architecture is prototyped in a FPGA, but it can be implemented on dedicated very- large-scale-integrated devices to reach higher clock frequencies. Complexity issues, FPGA resources utilization, FPGA limitations, and real-time performance are discussed. Some results are presented and discussed.

  11. Field-programmable lab-on-a-chip based on microelectrode dot array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary; Teng, Daniel; Lai, Yi-Tse; Lu, Yi-Wen; Ho, Yingchieh; Lee, Chen-Yi

    2014-09-01

    The fundamentals of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics are very strong: advantageous capability in the manipulation of fluids, small test volumes, precise dynamic control and detection, and microscale systems. These advantages are very important for future biochip developments, but the development of EWOD microfluidics has been hindered by the absence of: integrated detector technology, standard commercial components, on-chip sample preparation, standard manufacturing technology and end-to-end system integration. A field-programmable lab-on-a-chip (FPLOC) system based on microelectrode dot array (MEDA) architecture is presented in this research. The MEDA architecture proposes a standard EWOD microfluidic component called 'microelectrode cell', which can be dynamically configured into microfluidic components to perform microfluidic operations of the biochip. A proof-of-concept prototype FPLOC, containing a 30 × 30 MEDA, was developed by using generic integrated circuits computer aided design tools, and it was manufactured with standard low-voltage complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which allows smooth on-chip integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. By integrating 900 droplet detection circuits into microelectrode cells, the FPLOC has achieved large-scale integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. Compared to the full-custom and bottom-up design methods, the FPLOC provides hierarchical top-down design approach, field-programmability and dynamic manipulations of droplets for advanced microfluidic operations.

  12. Design and analysis of a dual mode CMOS field programmable analog array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoyan; Yang Haigang; Yin Tao; Wu Qisong; Zhang Hongfeng; Liu Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel field-programmable analog array (FPAA) architecture featuring a dual mode including discrete-time (DT) and continuous-time (CT) operation modes, along with a highly routable connection boxes (CBs) based interconnection lattice. The dual mode circuit for the FPAA is capable of achieving targeted optimal performance in different applications. The architecture utilizes routing switches in a CB not only for the signal interconnection purpose but also for control of the electrical charge transfer required in switched-capacitor circuits. This way, the performance of the circuit in either mode shall not be hampered with adding of programmability. The proposed FPAA is designed and implemented in a 0.18 μm standard CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage. The result from post-layout simulation shows that a maximum bandwidth of 265 MHz through the interconnection network is achieved. The measured results from demonstrated examples show that the maximum signal bandwidth of up to 2 MHz in CT mode is obtained with the spurious free dynamic range of 54 dB, while the signal processing precision in DT mode reaches 96.4%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Field programmable gate array reliability analysis using the dynamic flow graph methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNelles, Phillip; Lu, Lixuan [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based systems are thought to be a practical option to replace certain obsolete instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants. An FPGA is a type of integrated circuit, which is programmed after being manufactured. FPGAs have some advantages over other electronic technologies, such as analog circuits, microprocessors, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), for nuclear instrumentation and control, and safety system applications. However, safety-related issues for FPGA-based systems remain to be verified. Owing to this, modeling FPGA-based systems for safety assessment has now become an important point of research. One potential methodology is the dynamic flowgraph methodology (DFM). It has been used for modeling software/hardware interactions in modern control systems. In this paper, FPGA logic was analyzed using DFM. Four aspects of FPGAs are investigated: the 'IEEE 1164 standard', registers (D flip-flops), configurable logic blocks, and an FPGA-based signal compensator. The ModelSim simulations confirmed that DFM was able to accurately model those four FPGA properties, proving that DFM has the potential to be used in the modeling of FPGA-based systems. Furthermore, advantages of DFM over traditional reliability analysis methods and FPGA simulators are presented, along with a discussion of potential issues with using DFM for FPGA-based system modeling.

  14. Scanning tunnelling microscope fabrication of phosphorus array in silicon for a nuclear spin quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.L.; Schofield, S.R.; Simmons, M.Y.; Clark, R.G.; Dzurak, A.S.; Prawer, S.; Adrienko, I.; Cimino, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In the vigorous worldwide effort to experimentally build a quantum computer, recent intense interest has focussed on solid state approaches for their promise of scalability. Particular attention has been given to silicon-based proposals that can readily be integrated into conventional computing technology. For example the Kane design uses the well isolated nuclear spin of phosphorous donor nuclei (I=1/2) as the qubits embedded in isotopically pure 28 Si (I=0). We demonstrate the ability to fabricate a precise array of P atoms on a clean Si surface with atomic-scale resolution compatible with the fabrication of the Kane quantum computer

  15. Mechanically modulated dewetting by atomic force microscope for micro- and nano- droplet array fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Li, Pan; Wang, Dong; Li, Longhai; Xie, Shuangxi; Liu, Lianqing; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2014-10-06

    Organizing a material into well-defined patterns during the dewetting process provides an attractive micro-/nano-fabrication method without using a conventional lithographic process, and hence, offers potential applications in organic electronics, optics systems, and memory devices. We report here how the mechanical modification of polymer surface by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) can be used to guide thin film dewetting evolution and break the intrinsic spatial correlation of spontaneous instability. An AFM is used to implement the mechanical modification of progressively narrow grids to investigate the influence of pattern size on the modulation of ultrathin polystyrene films dewetting evolution. For films with different initial thicknesses, when grid size is close to or below the characteristic wavelength of instability, the spinodal dewetting is suppressed, and film rupture is restricted to the cutting trench. We will show in this paper it is possible to generate only one droplet per gridded area on a thin film subsequent to nucleation dominated dewetting on a non-patterned substrate. Furthermore, when the grid periodicity exceeds the spinodal length, the number of droplets in predefined areas gradually approaches that associated with unconfined dewetting.

  16. Real-time object tracking system based on field-programmable gate array and convolution neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyi Lyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based object tracking has lots of applications in robotics, like surveillance, navigation, motion capturing, and so on. However, the existing object tracking systems still suffer from the challenging problem of high computation consumption in the image processing algorithms. The problem can prevent current systems from being used in many robotic applications which have limitations of payload and power, for example, micro air vehicles. In these applications, the central processing unit- or graphics processing unit-based computers are not good choices due to the high weight and power consumption. To address the problem, this article proposed a real-time object tracking system based on field-programmable gate array, convolution neural network, and visual servo technology. The time-consuming image processing algorithms, such as distortion correction, color space convertor, and Sobel edge, Harris corner features detector, and convolution neural network were redesigned using the programmable gates in field-programmable gate array. Based on the field-programmable gate array-based image processing, an image-based visual servo controller was designed to drive a two degree of freedom manipulator to track the target in real time. Finally, experiments on the proposed system were performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the real-time object tracking system.

  17. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K; Ju, X D; Lu, J Q; Men, B Y

    2014-01-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes. (paper)

  18. Design techniques for a stable operation of cryogenic field-programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, Harald; Visser, Stefan; Patra, Bishnu; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how a deep-submicron field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can be operated more stably at extremely low temperatures through special firmware design techniques. Stability at low temperatures is limited through long power supply wires and reduced performance of various printed circuit board components commonly employed at room temperature. Extensive characterization of these components shows that the majority of decoupling capacitor types and voltage regulators are not well behaved at cryogenic temperatures, asking for an ad hoc solution to stabilize the FPGA supply voltage, especially for sensitive applications. Therefore, we have designed a firmware that enforces a constant power consumption, so as to stabilize the supply voltage in the interior of the FPGA. The FPGA is powered with a supply at several meters distance, causing significant resistive voltage drop and thus fluctuations on the local supply voltage. To achieve the stabilization, the variation in digital logic speed, which directly corresponds to changes in supply voltage, is constantly measured and corrected for through a tunable oscillator farm, implemented on the FPGA. The impact of the stabilization technique is demonstrated together with a reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter (ADC), completely implemented in the FPGA fabric and operating at 15 K. The ADC performance can be improved by at most 1.5 bits (effective number of bits) thanks to the more stable supply voltage. The method is versatile and robust, enabling seamless porting to other FPGA families and configurations.

  19. Development of a protection system for research reactor based in Field Programmable Gate Array - FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Roque Hudson da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a implementation purpose of a protection system for research nuclear reactors by using a programed device FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). As well as logic protection method involved on an automatic shutdown (TRIP) of a reactor, that ensure the security on such systems. These new control and operation mechanics are developed to guarantee that the security limits of a power plant are not exceeded, these mechanics can work isolated or in groups to safe guard the security levels. For this implementation to be completed, there will be presented the main aspects and concepts referred to protection systems, mostly about research nuclear reactors, with some applications terms exposed. The system proposed at this paper was developed following the VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware describing language, and the Modelsim software from Altera Software to program the automatic turning off routines, and hypothetical simulations for such. The results show that for every software application for supporting nuclear reactors, like security devices, they have to meet the IEC 60880 criteria. This paper have great importance, seeing that nuclear reactor security systems, are a basic element for ensure the reactor security. (author)

  20. Using field programmable gate array hardware for the performance improvement of ultrasonic wave propagation imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Jaffry Syed [Hamdard University, Karachi (Pakistan); Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung Ryul [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Hoon [Advanced Materials Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Recently, wave propagation imaging based on laser scanning-generated elastic waves has been intensively used for nondestructive inspection. However, the proficiency of the conventional software based system reduces when the scan area is large since the processing time increases significantly due to unavoidable processor multitasking, where computing resources are shared with multiple processes. Hence, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) was introduced for a wave propagation imaging method in order to obtain extreme processing time reduction. An FPGA board was used for the design, implementing post-processing ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI). The results were compared with the conventional system and considerable improvement was observed, with at least 78% (scanning of 100x100mm{sup 2} with 0.5 mm interval) to 87.5% (scanning of 200x200mm{sup 2} with 0.5 mm interval) less processing time, strengthening the claim for the research. This new concept to implement FPGA technology into the UPI system will act as a break-through technology for full-scale automatic inspection.

  1. Using field programmable gate array hardware for the performance improvement of ultrasonic wave propagation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Jaffry Syed; Abbas, Syed Haider; Lee, Jung Ryul; Kang, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wave propagation imaging based on laser scanning-generated elastic waves has been intensively used for nondestructive inspection. However, the proficiency of the conventional software based system reduces when the scan area is large since the processing time increases significantly due to unavoidable processor multitasking, where computing resources are shared with multiple processes. Hence, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) was introduced for a wave propagation imaging method in order to obtain extreme processing time reduction. An FPGA board was used for the design, implementing post-processing ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI). The results were compared with the conventional system and considerable improvement was observed, with at least 78% (scanning of 100x100mm 2 with 0.5 mm interval) to 87.5% (scanning of 200x200mm 2 with 0.5 mm interval) less processing time, strengthening the claim for the research. This new concept to implement FPGA technology into the UPI system will act as a break-through technology for full-scale automatic inspection

  2. Development of field programmable gate array-based reactor trip functions using systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Cheon; Ahmed, Ibrahim [Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Design engineering process for field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reactor trip functions are developed in this work. The process discussed in this work is based on the systems engineering approach. The overall design process is effectively implemented by combining with design and implementation processes. It transforms its overall development process from traditional V-model to Y-model. This approach gives the benefit of concurrent engineering of design work with software implementation. As a result, it reduces development time and effort. The design engineering process consisted of five activities, which are performed and discussed: needs/systems analysis; requirement analysis; functional analysis; design synthesis; and design verification and validation. Those activities are used to develop FPGA-based reactor bistable trip functions that trigger reactor trip when the process input value exceeds the setpoint. To implement design synthesis effectively, a model-based design technique is implied. The finite-state machine with data path structural modeling technique together with very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language and the Aldec Active-HDL tool are used to design, model, and verify the reactor bistable trip functions for nuclear power plants.

  3. Development and simulation of soft morphological operators for a field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Harvey, Paul K.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry

    2013-04-01

    In image processing applications, soft mathematical morphology (MM) can be employed for both binary and grayscale systems and is derived from set theory. Soft MM techniques have improved behavior over standard morphological operations in noisy environments, as they can preserve small details within an image. This makes them suitable for use in image processing applications on portable field programmable gate arrays for tasks such as robotics and security. We explain how the systems were developed using Altera's DSP Builder in order to provide optimized code for the many different devices currently on the market. Also included is how the circuits can be inserted and combined with previously developed work in order to increase their functionality. The testing procedures involved loading different images into these systems and analyzing the outputs against MATLAB-generated validation images. A set of soft morphological operations are described, which can then be applied to various tasks and easily modified in size via altering the line buffer settings inside the system to accommodate a range of image attributes ranging from image sizes such as 320×240 pixels for basic webcam imagery up to high quality 4000×4000 pixel images for military applications.

  4. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2014-08-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes.

  5. Design of a Tritium-in-air-monitor using field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelles, Phillip; Lu, Lixuan

    2015-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have recently garnered significant interest for certain applications within the nuclear field. Some applications of these devices include Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems, pulse measurement systems, particle detectors and health physics purposes. In CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear power plants, the use of heavy water (D2O) as the moderator leads to the increased production of Tritium, which poses a health risk and must be monitored by Tritium-In-Air Monitors (TAMs). Traditional TAMs are mostly designed using microprocessors. More recent studies show that FPGAs could be a potential alternative to implement the electronic logic used in radiation detectors, such as the TAM, more effectively. In this paper, an FPGA-based TAM is designed and constructed in a laboratory setting using an FPGA-based cRIO system. New functionalities, such as the detection of Carbon-14 and the addition of noble gas compensation are incorporated into a new FPGA-based TAM. Additionally, all of the standard functions included in the original microprocessor-based TAM, such as tritium detection, gamma compensation, pump and air flow control, and background and thermal drift corrections were also implemented. The effectiveness of the new design is demonstrated through simulations as well as laboratory testing on the prototype system. (author)

  6. Single event upset susceptibilities of latchup immune CMOS process programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.; Lau, D. D.; Tsubota, T. K.

    Single event upsets (SEU) and latchup susceptibilities of complementary metal oxide semiconductor programmable gate arrays (CMOS PPGA's) were measured at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-in. cyclotron facility with Xe (603 MeV), Cu (290 MeV), and Ar (180 MeV) ion beams. The PPGA devices tested were those which may be used in space. Most of the SEU measurements were taken with a newly constructed tester called the Bus Access Storage and Comparison System (BASACS) operating via a Macintosh II computer. When BASACS finds that an output does not match a prerecorded pattern, the state of all outputs, position in the test cycle, and other necessary information is transmitted and stored in the Macintosh. The upset rate was kept between 1 and 3 per second. After a sufficient number of errors are stored, the test is stopped and the total fluence of particles and total errors are recorded. The device power supply current was closely monitored to check for occurrence of latchup. Results of the tests are presented, indicating that some of the PPGA's are good candidates for selected space applications.

  7. Full image-processing pipeline in field-programmable gate array for a small endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Sheikh Shanawaz; Sousa, L. Natércia; Ferreira, Nuno Fábio; Sousa, Ricardo M.; Santos, Joao; Wäny, Martin; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopy is an imaging procedure used for diagnosis as well as for some surgical purposes. The camera used for the endoscopy should be small and able to produce a good quality image or video, to reduce discomfort of the patients, and to increase the efficiency of the medical team. To achieve these fundamental goals, a small endoscopy camera with a footprint of 1 mm×1 mm×1.65 mm is used. Due to the physical properties of the sensors and human vision system limitations, different image-processing algorithms, such as noise reduction, demosaicking, and gamma correction, among others, are needed to faithfully reproduce the image or video. A full image-processing pipeline is implemented using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to accomplish a high frame rate of 60 fps with minimum processing delay. Along with this, a viewer has also been developed to display and control the image-processing pipeline. The control and data transfer are done by a USB 3.0 end point in the computer. The full developed system achieves real-time processing of the image and fits in a Xilinx Spartan-6LX150 FPGA.

  8. Use of Field Programmable Gate Array Technology in Future Space Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Tate, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's new vision for space exploration requires the development of sustainable, flexible and fault tolerant spacecraft control systems. The traditional development paradigm consists of the purchase or fabrication of hardware boards with fixed processor and/or Digital Signal Processing (DSP) components interconnected via a standardized bus system. This is followed by the purchase and/or development of software. This paradigm has several disadvantages for the development of systems to support NASA's new vision. Building a system to be fault tolerant increases the complexity and decreases the performance of included software. Standard bus design and conventional implementation produces natural bottlenecks. Configuring hardware components in systems containing common processors and DSPs is difficult initially and expensive or impossible to change later. The existence of Hardware Description Languages (HDLs), the recent increase in performance, density and radiation tolerance of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and Intellectual Property (IP) Cores provides the technology for reprogrammable Systems on a Chip (SOC). This technology supports a paradigm better suited for NASA's vision. Hardware and software production are melded for more effective development; they can both evolve together over time. Designers incorporating this technology into future avionics can benefit from its flexibility. Systems can be designed with improved fault isolation and tolerance using hardware instead of software. Also, these designs can be protected from obsolescence problems where maintenance is compromised via component and vendor availability.To investigate the flexibility of this technology, the core of the Central Processing Unit and Input/Output Processor of the Space Shuttle AP101S Computer were prototyped in Verilog HDL and synthesized into an Altera Stratix FPGA.

  9. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  10. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shelton, Jacob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios when human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments because of the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is a report of the activities involving Task 3 of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays [1]. Evaluation of the performance of the system for both pre- and post-irradiation as well as operation at elevated temperature will be performed. Detailed performance of the system will be documented to ensure the design meets requirements prior to any extended evaluation. A suite of tests will be developed which will allow evaluation before and after irradiation and during temperature. Selection of the radiation exposure facilities will be determined in the early phase of the project. Radiation exposure will consist of total integrated dose (TID) up to 200 kRad or above with several intermediate doses during test. Dose rates will be in various ranges determined by the facility that will be used with a target of 30 kRad/hr. Many samples of the pre-commercial devices to be used will have been tested in previous projects to doses of at least 300 kRad and temperatures up to 125C. The complete systems will therefore be tested for performance at intermediate doses. Extended temperature testing will be performed up to the limit of the commercial sensors. The test suite performed at each test point will consist of operational testing of the three basic

  11. Modelling of critical functions of nuclear reactors using Fild Programmable Gate Array; Modelagem de funcoes criticas de reatores nucleares utilizando Fild Programmable Gate Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Pamela Iara Nolasco

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a method using FPGA for critical security functions of a nuclear reactor. It was implemented two critical safety functions in VHDL, which is a way to describe, through a program, the behavior of a circuit or digital component. Two critical security functions, FCS Core Cooling, responsible for cooling the reactor core in the charts of the plant and also in the event of accidents involving loss of coolant and FCS Heat Transfer, responsible for cooling the reactor core in the event an accident with loss of coolant were implemented. In this Dissertation it was chosen the use of FPGA, because - due to the effects of aging, obsolescence issues, environmental degradation and mechanical failures - nuclear power plants need to replace their older systems by new ones based on digital technology. The technologies obtained using a system described in hardware language can be implemented in a programmable device, having the advantage of changing the code at any time. (author)

  12. A flexible 32-channel time-to-digital converter implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Kuang, Jie; Liu, Chong; Cao, Qiang; Li, Deng

    2017-01-01

    A high performance multi-channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) is implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 field programmable gate array (FPGA). It can be flexibly configured as either 32 TDC channels with 9.9 ps time-interval RMS precision, 16 TDC channels with 6.9 ps RMS precision, or 8 TDC channels with 5.8 ps RMS precision. All TDCs have a 380 M Samples/second measurement throughput and a 2.63 ns measurement dead time. The performance consistency and temperature dependence of TDC channels are also evaluated. Because Zynq-7000 FPGA family integrates a feature-rich dual-core ARM based processing system and 28 nm Xilinx programmable logic in a single device, the realization of high performance TDCs on it will make the platform more widely used in time-measuring related applications.

  13. A flexible 32-channel time-to-digital converter implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: wangyg@ustc.edu.cn; Kuang, Jie; Liu, Chong; Cao, Qiang; Li, Deng

    2017-03-01

    A high performance multi-channel time-to-digital converter (TDC) is implemented in a Xilinx Zynq-7000 field programmable gate array (FPGA). It can be flexibly configured as either 32 TDC channels with 9.9 ps time-interval RMS precision, 16 TDC channels with 6.9 ps RMS precision, or 8 TDC channels with 5.8 ps RMS precision. All TDCs have a 380 M Samples/second measurement throughput and a 2.63 ns measurement dead time. The performance consistency and temperature dependence of TDC channels are also evaluated. Because Zynq-7000 FPGA family integrates a feature-rich dual-core ARM based processing system and 28 nm Xilinx programmable logic in a single device, the realization of high performance TDCs on it will make the platform more widely used in time-measuring related applications.

  14. Gas Sensors Characterization and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) Hardware Implementation for Gas Identification Using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrekia, Fayçal; Attari, Mokhtar; Bouhedda, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a primitive gas recognition system for discriminating between industrial gas species. The system under investigation consists of an array of eight micro-hotplate-based SnO2 thin film gas sensors with different selectivity patterns. The output signals are processed through a signal conditioning and analyzing system. These signals feed a decision-making classifier, which is obtained via a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language. The classifier relies on a multilayer neural network based on a back propagation algorithm with one hidden layer of four neurons and eight neurons at the input and five neurons at the output. The neural network designed after implementation consists of twenty thousand gates. The achieved experimental results seem to show the effectiveness of the proposed classifier, which can discriminate between five industrial gases. PMID:23529119

  15. Compact field programmable gate array-based pulse-sequencer and radio-frequency generator for experiments with trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned, E-mail: thaned.pruttivarasin@riken.jp [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Katori, Hidetoshi [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Innovative Space-Time Project, ERATO, JST, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We present a compact field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based pulse sequencer and radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold trapped ions and atoms. The unit is capable of outputting a pulse sequence with at least 32 transistor-transistor logic (TTL) channels with a timing resolution of 40 ns and contains a built-in 100 MHz frequency counter for counting electrical pulses from a photo-multiplier tube. There are 16 independent direct-digital-synthesizers RF sources with fast (rise-time of ∼60 ns) amplitude switching and sub-mHz frequency tuning from 0 to 800 MHz.

  16. Development of measurement system for radiation effect on static random access memory based field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Luo Yinhong; Wang Yuanming; Zhang Keying

    2009-01-01

    Based on the detailed investigation in field programmable gate array(FPGA) radiation effects theory, a measurement system for radiation effects on static random access memory(SRAM)-based FPGA was developed. The testing principle of internal memory, function and power current was introduced. The hardware and software implement means of system were presented. Some important parameters for radiation effects on SRAM-based FPGA, such as configuration RAM upset section, block RAM upset section, function fault section and single event latchup section can be gained with this system. The transmission distance of the system can be over 50 m and the maximum number of tested gates can reach one million. (authors)

  17. A Fastbus module for trigger applications based on a digital signal processor and on programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaiotto, P.; Colavita, A.; Fratnik, F.; Lanceri, L.; Udine Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The new generation of DSP microprocessors based on RISC and Harvard-like architectures can conveniently take the place of specially built processors in fast trigger circuits for high-energy physics experiments. Presently available programmable gate arrays are well matched to them in speed and contribute to simplify the design of trigger circuits. Using these components, we designed and constructed a Fastbus module. We describe an application for the total-energy trigger of DELPHI, performing the readout of digitized calorimeter trigger data and some simple computations in less than 3 μs. (orig.)

  18. Firmware-only implementation of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinyuan Wu; Zonghan Shi; Irena Y Wang

    2003-01-01

    A Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) implemented in general purpose field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for the Fermilab CKM experiment will be presented. The TDC uses a delay chain and register array structure to produce lower bits in addition to higher bits from a clock counter. Lacking the direct controls custom chips, the FPGA implementation of the delay chain and register array structure had to address two major problems: (1) the logic elements used for the delay chain and register array structure must be placed and routed by the FPGA compiler in a predictable manner, to assure uniformity of the TDC binning and short-term stability. (2) The delay variation due to temperature and power supply voltage must be compensated for to assure long-term stability. They used the chain structures in the existing FPGAs that the venders designed for general purpose such as carry algorithm or logic expansion to solve the first problem. To compensate for delay variations, they studied several digital compensation strategies that can be implemented in the same FPGA device. Some bench-top test results will also be presented in this document

  19. Field-programmable gate array based controller for multi spot light-addressable potentiometric sensors with integrated signal correction mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Carl Frederik; Schusser, Sebastian; Spelthahn, Heiko [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Wagner, Torsten; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo [Tohoku University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 6-6-05 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Schoening, Michael J., E-mail: schoening@fh-aachen.de [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Flexible up-scalable design of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor set-up. > Utilisation of a field-programmable gate array to address LAPS measurement spots. > Measurements in amplitude-mode and phase-mode for different pH solutions. > Amplitude, phase and frequency behaviour of LAPS for single and multiple light stimulus. > Signal calibration method by brightness control to compensated systematic errors. - Abstract: A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) can measure the concentration of one or several analytes at the sensor surface simultaneously in a spatially resolved manner. A modulated light pointer stimulates the semiconductor structure at the area of interest and a responding photocurrent can be read out. By simultaneous stimulation of several areas with light pointers of different modulation frequencies, the read out can be performed at the same time. With the new proposed controller electronic based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), it is possible to control the modulation frequencies, phase shifts, and light brightness of multiple light pointers independently and simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to investigate the frequency response of the sensor, and to examine the analyte concentration by the determination of the surface potential with the help of current/voltage curves and phase/voltage curves. Additionally, the ability to individually change the light intensities of each light pointer is used to perform signal correction.

  20. Temperature-sensitive junction transformations for mid-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays by laser beam induced current microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Weicheng [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Hu, Weida, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Lin, Tie; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Cheng, Xiang' ai, E-mail: xiang-ai-cheng@126.com; Wang, Rui [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2014-11-10

    In this paper, we report on the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect and the unusual temperature dependence of junction transformation for mid-wavelength, n-on-p HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays. The n-type region is formed by B{sup +} ion implantation on Hg-vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe. Junction transformations under different temperatures are visually captured by a laser beam induced current microscope. A physical model of temperature dependence on junction transformation is proposed and demonstrated by using numerical simulations. It is shown that Hg-interstitial diffusion and temperature activated defects jointly lead to the p-n junction transformation dependence on temperature, and the weaker mixed conduction compared with long-wavelength HgCdTe photodiode contributes to the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect in mid-wavelength HgCdTe infrared detector arrays.

  1. Microlens array processor with programmable weight mask and direct optical input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Volker R.; Lueder, Ernst H.; Bader, Gerhard; Maier, Gert; Siegordner, Jochen

    1999-03-01

    We present an optical feature extraction system with a microlens array processor. The system is suitable for online implementation of a variety of transforms such as the Walsh transform and DCT. Operating with incoherent light, our processor accepts direct optical input. Employing a sandwich- like architecture, we obtain a very compact design of the optical system. The key elements of the microlens array processor are a square array of 15 X 15 spherical microlenses on acrylic substrate and a spatial light modulator as transmissive mask. The light distribution behind the mask is imaged onto the pixels of a customized a-Si image sensor with adjustable gain. We obtain one output sample for each microlens image and its corresponding weight mask area as summation of the transmitted intensity within one sensor pixel. The resulting architecture is very compact and robust like a conventional camera lens while incorporating a high degree of parallelism. We successfully demonstrate a Walsh transform into the spatial frequency domain as well as the implementation of a discrete cosine transform with digitized gray values. We provide results showing the transformation performance for both synthetic image patterns and images of natural texture samples. The extracted frequency features are suitable for neural classification of the input image. Other transforms and correlations can be implemented in real-time allowing adaptive optical signal processing.

  2. A field programmable gate array unit for the diagnosis and control of neoclassical tearing modes on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gorman, T.; Gibson, K. J.; Snape, J. A. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Naylor, G.; Huang, B.; McArdle, G. J.; Scannell, R.; Shibaev, S.; Thomas-Davies, N. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    A real-time system has been developed to trigger both the MAST Thomson scattering (TS) system and the plasma control system on the phase and amplitude of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), extending the capabilities of the original system. This triggering system determines the phase and amplitude of a given NTM using magnetic coils at different toroidal locations. Real-time processing of the raw magnetic data occurs on a low cost field programmable gate array (FPGA) based unit which permits triggering of the TS lasers on specific amplitudes and phases of NTM evolution. The MAST plasma control system can receive a separate trigger from the FPGA unit that initiates a vertical shift of the MAST magnetic axis. Such shifts have fully removed m/n= 2/1 NTMs instabilities on a number of MAST discharges.

  3. Field-programmable gate array implementation of an all-digital IEEE 802.15.4-compliant transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornetta, Gianluca; Touhafi, Abdellah; Santos, David J.; Vázquez, José M.

    2010-12-01

    An architecture for a low-cost, low-complexity digital transceiver is presented in this article. The proposed architecture targets the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for short-range wireless personal area networks and has been implemented as a synthesisable VHDL register transfer level description. The system has been evaluated and tested using a Xilinx 90 nm Virtex-4 field-programmable gate array as the target technology. Bit error rate (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) have been used as the figures of merit for modem performance. Simulations show that the recommended minimum BER is achieved at E b/N 0 = 8.7 dB, whereas the EVM is 19.5%. The implemented device occupies 10% of the target FPGA and has a normalised maximum power consumption of 44 mW in transmit mode and 53 mW in receiver mode.

  4. [Hardware Implementation of Numerical Simulation Function of Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neurons Action Potential Based on Field Programmable Gate Array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Mai; Hu, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Pan, Qiangqiang

    2015-12-01

    Neuron is the basic unit of the biological neural system. The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is one of the most realistic neuron models on the electrophysiological characteristic description of neuron. Hardware implementation of neuron could provide new research ideas to clinical treatment of spinal cord injury, bionics and artificial intelligence. Based on the HH model neuron and the DSP Builder technology, in the present study, a single HH model neuron hardware implementation was completed in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The neuron implemented in FPGA was stimulated by different types of current, the action potential response characteristics were analyzed, and the correlation coefficient between numerical simulation result and hardware implementation result were calculated. The results showed that neuronal action potential response of FPGA was highly consistent with numerical simulation result. This work lays the foundation for hardware implementation of neural network.

  5. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  6. A new data acquisition and imaging system for nuclear microscopy based on a Field Programmable Gate Array card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Udalagama, C.; Watt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of the new Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) cards by National Instruments has made it possible for the first time to develop reconfigurable custom data acquisition hardware easily with the LabVIEW programming environment. Data acquisition issues such as precise timing for scanning and operating system latencies can now be easily overcome using this new technology because the data acquisition software is embedded in the FPGA chip on the card. In this paper we present the first results of the new data acquisition system developed at the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), National University of Singapore using the new National Instruments cards in conjunction with rack mountable Wilkinson type ADCs.

  7. Implementation of data acquisition interface using on-board field-programmable gate array (FPGA) universal serial bus (USB) link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolida Yussup; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Lojius Lombigit; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Typically a system consists of hardware as the controller and software which is installed in the personal computer (PC). In the effective nuclear detection, the hardware involves the detection setup and the electronics used, with the software consisting of analysis tools and graphical display on PC. A data acquisition interface is necessary to enable the communication between the controller hardware and PC. Nowadays, Universal Serial Bus (USB) has become a standard connection method for computer peripherals and has replaced many varieties of serial and parallel ports. However the implementation of USB is complex. This paper describes the implementation of data acquisition interface between a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board and a PC by exploiting the USB link of the FPGA board. The USB link is based on an FTDI chip which allows direct access of input and output to the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) signals from a USB host and a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) with a 24 MHz clock input to the USB link. The implementation and results of using the USB link of FPGA board as the data interfacing are discussed. (author)

  8. Implementation of data acquisition interface using on-board field-programmable gate array (FPGA) universal serial bus (USB) link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Lombigit, L.; Rahman, N. A. A.; Zin, M. R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Typically a system consists of hardware as the controller and software which is installed in the personal computer (PC). In the effective nuclear detection, the hardware involves the detection setup and the electronics used, with the software consisting of analysis tools and graphical display on PC. A data acquisition interface is necessary to enable the communication between the controller hardware and PC. Nowadays, Universal Serial Bus (USB) has become a standard connection method for computer peripherals and has replaced many varieties of serial and parallel ports. However the implementation of USB is complex. This paper describes the implementation of data acquisition interface between a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board and a PC by exploiting the USB link of the FPGA board. The USB link is based on an FTDI chip which allows direct access of input and output to the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) signals from a USB host and a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) with a 24 MHz clock input to the USB link. The implementation and results of using the USB link of FPGA board as the data interfacing are discussed

  9. Modelling of critical functions of nuclear reactors using Fild Programmable Gate Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Pamela Iara Nolasco

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of a method using FPGA for critical security functions of a nuclear reactor. It was implemented two critical safety functions in VHDL, which is a way to describe, through a program, the behavior of a circuit or digital component. Two critical security functions, FCS Core Cooling, responsible for cooling the reactor core in the charts of the plant and also in the event of accidents involving loss of coolant and FCS Heat Transfer, responsible for cooling the reactor core in the event an accident with loss of coolant were implemented. In this Dissertation it was chosen the use of FPGA, because - due to the effects of aging, obsolescence issues, environmental degradation and mechanical failures - nuclear power plants need to replace their older systems by new ones based on digital technology. The technologies obtained using a system described in hardware language can be implemented in a programmable device, having the advantage of changing the code at any time. (author)

  10. Programmable level-1 trigger with 3D-Flow processor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetto, D.

    1994-01-01

    The 3D-Flow parallel processing system is a new concept in processor architecture, system architecture, and assembly architecture. Compared to the electronics used in present systems, this approach reduces the cost and complexity of the hardware and allows easy assembly, disassembly, incremental upgrading, and maintenance of different interconnection topologies. The 3D-Flow parallel-processing system benefits high energy physics (HEP) by allowing: (1) common less costly hardware to be used in different experiments. (2) new uses of existing installations. (3) tuning of trigger based on the first analyzed data, and (4) selection of desired events directly from raw data. The goal of this parallel-processing architecture is to acquire multiple data in parallel (up to 100 million frames per second) and to process them at high speed, accomplishing digital filtering on the input data, pattern recognition (particle identification), data moving, and data formatting. The main features of the system are its programmability, scalability, high-speed communication, and low cost. The compactness of the 3D-Flow parallel-processing system in concert with the processor architecture allows processor interconnections to be mapped into the geometry of sensors (detectors in HEP) without large interconnection signal delay, enabling real-time pattern recognition. The overall 3D-Flow project has passed a major design review at Fermilab (Reviewers included experts in computers, triggering, system assembly, and electronics)

  11. Development of a protection system for research reactor based in Field Programmable Gate Array - FPGA; Desenvolvimento de sistema de protecao para reator nuclear de pesquisa baseado em Field Programmable Gate Array - FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Roque Hudson da Silva

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a implementation purpose of a protection system for research nuclear reactors by using a programed device FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). As well as logic protection method involved on an automatic shutdown (TRIP) of a reactor, that ensure the security on such systems. These new control and operation mechanics are developed to guarantee that the security limits of a power plant are not exceeded, these mechanics can work isolated or in groups to safe guard the security levels. For this implementation to be completed, there will be presented the main aspects and concepts referred to protection systems, mostly about research nuclear reactors, with some applications terms exposed. The system proposed at this paper was developed following the VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware describing language, and the Modelsim software from Altera Software to program the automatic turning off routines, and hypothetical simulations for such. The results show that for every software application for supporting nuclear reactors, like security devices, they have to meet the IEC 60880 criteria. This paper have great importance, seeing that nuclear reactor security systems, are a basic element for ensure the reactor security. (author)

  12. Failure mode taxonomy for assessing the reliability of Field Programmable Gate Array based Instrumentation and Control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelles, Phillip; Zeng, Zhao Chang; Renganathan, Guna; Chirila, Marius; Lu, Lixuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The use FPGAs in I&C systems in Nuclear Power Plants is an important issue (IAEA). • OECD-NEA published a failure mode taxonomy for software-based digital I&C systems. • This paper extends the OECD-NEA taxonomy to model FPGA-based systems. • FPGA failure modes, failure effects, uncovering methods are categorized/described. • Provides an example of modelling an FPGA-Based RTS/ESFAS using the FPGA taxonomy. - Abstract: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are a form of programmable digital hardware configured to perform digital logic functions. This configuration (programming) is performed using Hardware Description Language (HDL), making FPGAs a form of HDL Programmed Device (HPD). In the nuclear field, FPGAs have seen use in upgrades and replacements of obsolete Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems. This paper expands upon previous work that resulted in extensive FPGA failure mode data, to allow for the application of the OECD-NEA failure modes taxonomy. The OECD-NEA taxonomy presented a method to model digital (software-based) I&C systems, based on the hardware and software failure modes, failure uncovering effects and levels of abstraction, using a Reactor Trip System/Engineering Safety Feature Actuation System (RTS/ESFAS) as an example system. To create the FPGA taxonomy, this paper presents an additional “sub-component” level of abstraction, to demonstrate the effect of the FPGA failure modes and failure categories on an FPGA-based system. The proposed FPGA taxonomy is based on the FPGA failure modes, failure categories, failure effects and uncovering situations. The FPGA taxonomy is applied to the RTS/ESFAS test system, to demonstrate the effects of the anticipated FPGA failure modes on a digital I&C system, and to provide a modelling example for this proposed taxonomy.

  13. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} micropillar arrays grafted on conductive glass supports: microscopic and spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesano, Federico, E-mail: federico.cesano@unito.it; Agostini, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.agostini@esrf.fr; Scarano, Domenica

    2015-09-01

    Vertically oriented TiO{sub 2} micropillar arrays were obtained on Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) conductive glasses by adopting a facile and cost-effective method. The process consists in the spray-coating with a polymer film containing an organo-metallic precursor (Ti isopropoxyde), followed by scratching the film surface by means of a sandpaper and an oxidative treatment. The role played by the scratching step in the formation of vertically oriented TiO{sub 2} micropillars, as well as the nanostructured scaffold nature consequent upon the oxidation, will be highlighted. The morphology, structure and optical properties of samples, were investigated by combining electron and atomic force microscopies with X-ray diffraction and UV–vis spectroscopy. Due to the robust texture of highly crystalline and cemented anatase and rutile nanoparticles and to the porous nature of TiO{sub 2} pillars covering FTO glasses, this system may find application in energy, photochemistry and photodegradation fields. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-based polymer films are deposited on a conductive glass by spray coating. • The polymer film is scratched by a sandpaper. • Quasi-regular arrays of TiO{sub 2} micropillars are obtained via thermal oxidation. • Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} pillars are robust, porous and well adhering to the conductive glass.

  14. A Soft Computing Approach to Crack Detection and Impact Source Identification with Field-Programmable Gate Array Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati M. Dixit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time nondestructive testing (NDT for crack detection and impact source identification (CDISI has attracted the researchers from diverse areas. This is apparent from the current work in the literature. CDISI has usually been performed by visual assessment of waveforms generated by a standard data acquisition system. In this paper we suggest an automation of CDISI for metal armor plates using a soft computing approach by developing a fuzzy inference system to effectively deal with this problem. It is also advantageous to develop a chip that can contribute towards real time CDISI. The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to develop an automated CDISI procedure and to formulate a technique such that the proposed method can be easily implemented on a chip. The CDISI fuzzy inference system is developed using MATLAB’s fuzzy logic toolbox. A VLSI circuit for CDISI is developed on basis of fuzzy logic model using Verilog, a hardware description language (HDL. The Xilinx ISE WebPACK9.1i is used for design, synthesis, implementation, and verification. The CDISI field-programmable gate array (FPGA implementation is done using Xilinx’s Spartan 3 FPGA. SynaptiCAD’s Verilog Simulators—VeriLogger PRO and ModelSim—are used as the software simulation and debug environment.

  15. A counting-weighted calibration method for a field-programmable-gate-array-based time-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a counting-weighted calibration method for field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) to provide non-linearity calibration for use in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To deal with the non-linearity in FPGA, we developed a counting-weighted delay line (CWD) to count the delay time of the delay cells in the TDC in order to reduce the differential non-linearity (DNL) values based on code density counts. The performance of the proposed CWD-TDC with regard to linearity far exceeds that of TDC with a traditional tapped delay line (TDL) architecture, without the need for nonlinearity calibration. When implemented in a Xilinx Vertix-5 FPGA device, the proposed CWD-TDC achieved time resolution of 60 ps with integral non-linearity (INL) and DNL of [−0.54, 0.24] and [−0.66, 0.65] least-significant-bit (LSB), respectively. This is a clear indication of the suitability of the proposed FPGA-based CWD-TDC for use in PET scanners.

  16. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarbayejani, M; Jalalpour, M; Reda Taha, M M; El-Osery, A I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide

  17. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbayejani, M.; Jalalpour, M.; El-Osery, A. I.; Reda Taha, M. M.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide.

  18. Case for a field-programmable gate array multicore hybrid machine for an image-processing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.; Lira, Javier; Molina, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    General purpose computer designers have recently begun adding cores to their processors in order to increase performance. For example, Intel has adopted a homogeneous quad-core processor as a base for general purpose computing. PlayStation3 (PS3) game consoles contain a multicore heterogeneous processor known as the Cell, which is designed to perform complex image processing algorithms at a high level. Can modern image-processing algorithms utilize these additional cores? On the other hand, modern advancements in configurable hardware, most notably field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have created an interesting question for general purpose computer designers. Is there a reason to combine FPGAs with multicore processors to create an FPGA multicore hybrid general purpose computer? Iris matching, a repeatedly executed portion of a modern iris-recognition algorithm, is parallelized on an Intel-based homogeneous multicore Xeon system, a heterogeneous multicore Cell system, and an FPGA multicore hybrid system. Surprisingly, the cheaper PS3 slightly outperforms the Intel-based multicore on a core-for-core basis. However, both multicore systems are beaten by the FPGA multicore hybrid system by >50%.

  19. Design and implementation of a reconfigurable mixed-signal SoC based on field programmable analog arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lintao; Gao, Yuhan; Deng, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a reconfigurable mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC), which integrates switched-capacitor-based field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter, digital down converter , digital up converter, 32-bit reduced instruction-set computer central processing unit (CPU) and other digital IPs on a single chip with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The FPAA intellectual property could be reconfigured as different function circuits, such as gain amplifier, divider, sine generator, and so on. This single-chip integrated mixed-signal system is a complete modern signal processing system, occupying a die area of 7 × 8 mm 2 and consuming 719 mW with a clock frequency of 150 MHz for CPU and 200 MHz for ADC/DAC. This SoC chip can help customers to shorten design cycles, save board area, reduce the system power consumption and depress the system integration risk, which would afford a big prospect of application for wireless communication. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2012AA012303).

  20. A counting-weighted calibration method for a field-programmable-gate-array-based time-to-digital converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho, E-mail: chenyh@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Center for Reliability Sciences and Technologies, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-11

    In this work, we propose a counting-weighted calibration method for field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) to provide non-linearity calibration for use in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To deal with the non-linearity in FPGA, we developed a counting-weighted delay line (CWD) to count the delay time of the delay cells in the TDC in order to reduce the differential non-linearity (DNL) values based on code density counts. The performance of the proposed CWD-TDC with regard to linearity far exceeds that of TDC with a traditional tapped delay line (TDL) architecture, without the need for nonlinearity calibration. When implemented in a Xilinx Vertix-5 FPGA device, the proposed CWD-TDC achieved time resolution of 60 ps with integral non-linearity (INL) and DNL of [−0.54, 0.24] and [−0.66, 0.65] least-significant-bit (LSB), respectively. This is a clear indication of the suitability of the proposed FPGA-based CWD-TDC for use in PET scanners.

  1. A programmable systolic array correlator as a trigger processor for electron pairs in rich (ring image Cherenkov) counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männer, R.

    1989-12-01

    This paper describes a systolic array processor for a ring image Cherenkov counter which is capable of identifying pairs of electron circles with a known radius and a certain minimum distance within 15 μs. The processor is a very flexible and fast device. It consists of 128 x 128 processing elements (PEs), where one PE is assigned to each pixel of the image. All PEs run synchronously at 40 MHz. The identification of electron circles is done by correlating the detector image with the proper circle circumference. Circle centers are found by peak detection in the correlation result. A second correlation with a circle disc allows circles of closed electron pairs to be rejected. The trigger decision is generated if a pseudo adder detects at least two remaining circles. The device is controlled by a freely programmable sequencer. A VLSI chip containing 8 x 8 PEs is being developed using a VENUS design system and will be produced in 2μ CMOS technology.

  2. A programmable systolic array correlator as a trigger processor for electron pairs in RICH (ring image Cherenkov) counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenner, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a systolic array processor for a ring image Cherenkov counter which is capable of identifying pairs of electron circles with a known radius and a certain minimum distance within 15 μs. The processor is a very flexible and fast device. It consists of 128x128 processing elements (PEs), where one PE is assigned to each pixel of the image. All PEs run synchronously at 40 MHz. The identification of electron circles is done by correlating the detector image with the proper circle circumference. Circle centers are found by peak detection in the correlation result. A second correlation with a circle disc allows circles of closed electron pairs to be rejected. The trigger decision is generated if a pseudo adder detects at least two remaining circles. The device is controlled by a freely programmable sequencer. A VLSI chip containing 8x8 PEs is being developed using a VENUS design system and will be produced in 2μ CMOS technology. (orig.)

  3. Fringe pattern demodulation using the one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform: field-programmable gate array implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Abdulbasit

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a thorough discussion of the proposed field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation for fringe pattern demodulation using the one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (1D-CWT) algorithm. This algorithm is also known as wavelet transform profilometry. Initially, the 1D-CWT is programmed using the C programming language and compiled into VHDL using the ImpulseC tool. This VHDL code is implemented on the Altera Cyclone IV GX EP4CGX150DF31C7 FPGA. A fringe pattern image with a size of 512×512 pixels is presented to the FPGA, which processes the image using the 1D-CWT algorithm. The FPGA requires approximately 100 ms to process the image and produce a wrapped phase map. For performance comparison purposes, the 1D-CWT algorithm is programmed using the C language. The C code is then compiled using the Intel compiler version 13.0. The compiled code is run on a Dell Precision state-of-the-art workstation. The time required to process the fringe pattern image is approximately 1 s. In order to further reduce the execution time, the 1D-CWT is reprogramed using Intel Integrated Primitive Performance (IPP) Library Version 7.1. The execution time was reduced to approximately 650 ms. This confirms that at least sixfold speedup was gained using FPGA implementation over a state-of-the-art workstation that executes heavily optimized implementation of the 1D-CWT algorithm.

  4. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: wangyg@ustc.edu.cn; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  5. Field programmable gate array based hardware implementation of a gradient filter for edge detection in colour images with subpixel precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhorn, M; Rosenberger, M; Correns, M; Blau, M; Goepfert, A; Rueckwardt, M; Linss, G

    2010-01-01

    Within the field of industrial image processing the use of colour cameras becomes ever more common. Increasingly the established black and white cameras are replaced by economical single-chip colour cameras with Bayer pattern. The use of the additional colour information is particularly important for recognition or inspection. Become interesting however also for the geometric metrology, if measuring tasks can be solved more robust or more exactly. However only few suitable algorithms are available, in order to detect edges with the necessary precision. All attempts require however additional computation expenditure. On the basis of a new filter for edge detection in colour images with subpixel precision, the implementation on a pre-processing hardware platform is presented. Hardware implemented filters offer the advantage that they can be used easily with existing measuring software, since after the filtering a single channel image is present, which unites the information of all colour channels. Advanced field programmable gate arrays represent an ideal platform for the parallel processing of multiple channels. The effective implementation presupposes however a high programming expenditure. On the example of the colour filter implementation, arising problems are analyzed and the chosen solution method is presented.

  6. Accelerating object detection via a visual-feature-directed search cascade: algorithm and field programmable gate array implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkou, Christos; Theocharides, Theocharis

    2016-07-01

    Object detection is a major step in several computer vision applications and a requirement for most smart camera systems. Recent advances in hardware acceleration for real-time object detection feature extensive use of reconfigurable hardware [field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)], and relevant research has produced quite fascinating results, in both the accuracy of the detection algorithms as well as the performance in terms of frames per second (fps) for use in embedded smart camera systems. Detecting objects in images, however, is a daunting task and often involves hardware-inefficient steps, both in terms of the datapath design and in terms of input/output and memory access patterns. We present how a visual-feature-directed search cascade composed of motion detection, depth computation, and edge detection, can have a significant impact in reducing the data that needs to be examined by the classification engine for the presence of an object of interest. Experimental results on a Spartan 6 FPGA platform for face detection indicate data search reduction of up to 95%, which results in the system being able to process up to 50 1024×768 pixels images per second with a significantly reduced number of false positives.

  7. Programmable Array Logic Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demon Handoyo; Djen Djen Djainal

    2007-01-01

    Good digital circuit design that part of a complex system, often becoming a separate problem. To produce finishing design according to wanted performance is often given on to considerations which each other confuse, hence thereby analyse optimization become important in this case. To realization is made design logic program, the first are determined global diagram block, then are decided contents of these block diagram, and then determined its interconnection in the form of logic expression, continued with election of component. These steps are done to be obtained the design with low price, easy in its interconnection, minimal volume, low power and certainty god work. (author)

  8. Nanoscale coupling of photons to vibrational excitation of Ag nanoparticle 2D array studied by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Satoshi; Toma, Koji; Toma, Mana; Tamada, Kaoru; Uehara, Yoichi

    2010-11-28

    Scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) spectroscopy has been utilized to elucidate the luminescence phenomena of Ag nanoparticles capped with myristate (myristate-capped AgNP) and 2-methyl-1-propanethiolate (C(4)S-capped AgNP) on the dodecanethiol-precovered Au substrate. The STM imaging revealed that myristate-capped AgNPs form an ordered hexagonal array whereas C(4)S-capped AgNPs show imperfect ordering, indicating that a shorter alkyl chain of C(4)S-capped AgNP is not sufficient to form rigid interdigitation. It should be noted that such a nanoparticle ordering affects the luminescence properties of the Ag nanoparticle. We found that the STM-LE is only detected from the Ag nanoparticles forming the two-dimensional superlattice. This indicates that the STM-LE of the Ag nanoparticle is radiated via the collective excitation of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spread over the Ag nanoparticles. Note that the STM-LE spectra of the Ag nanoparticles exhibit spike-like peaks superimposed on the broad light emission peak. Using Raman spectroscopy, we concluded that the spike-like structure appearing in the STM-LE spectra is associated with the vibrational excitation of the molecule embedded between Ag nanoparticles.

  9. Field programmable gate array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system for in vivo imaging of cardiac dynamics in the chick embryo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht; Norozi, Kambiz

    2009-01-01

    efficient and compact implementation by combining the conversion to an analytic signal with a pulse shaping function without the need for extra resources as compared to the Hilbert transform method. The conversion of the analytic signal to amplitude and phase is done by use of the coordinate rotation......We demonstrate a field programmable gate-array-based real-time optical Doppler tomography system. A complex-valued bandpass filter is used for the first time in optical coherence tomography signal processing to create the analytic signal. This method simplifies the filter design, and allows...

  10. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  11. A 45 ps time digitizer with a two-phase clock and dual-edge two-stage interpolation in a field programmable gate array device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szplet, R.; Kalisz, J.; Jachna, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We present a time digitizer having 45 ps resolution, integrated in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. The time interval measurement is based on the two-stage interpolation method. A dual-edge two-phase interpolator is driven by the on-chip synthesized 250 MHz clock with precise phase adjustment. An improved dual-edge double synchronizer was developed to control the main counter. The nonlinearity of the digitizer's transfer characteristic is identified and utilized by the dedicated hardware code processor for the on-the-fly correction of the output data. Application of presented ideas has resulted in the measurement uncertainty of the digitizer below 70 ps RMS over the time interval ranging from 0 to 1 s. The use of the two-stage interpolation and a fast FIFO memory has allowed us to obtain the maximum measurement rate of five million measurements per second.

  12. A 45 ps time digitizer with a two-phase clock and dual-edge two-stage interpolation in a field programmable gate array device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szplet, R; Kalisz, J; Jachna, Z

    2009-01-01

    We present a time digitizer having 45 ps resolution, integrated in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. The time interval measurement is based on the two-stage interpolation method. A dual-edge two-phase interpolator is driven by the on-chip synthesized 250 MHz clock with precise phase adjustment. An improved dual-edge double synchronizer was developed to control the main counter. The nonlinearity of the digitizer's transfer characteristic is identified and utilized by the dedicated hardware code processor for the on-the-fly correction of the output data. Application of presented ideas has resulted in the measurement uncertainty of the digitizer below 70 ps RMS over the time interval ranging from 0 to 1 s. The use of the two-stage interpolation and a fast FIFO memory has allowed us to obtain the maximum measurement rate of five million measurements per second

  13. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stiharu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerically controlled (CNC machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based sensor node.

  14. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  15. Microscopy refocusing and dark-field imaging by using a simple LED array

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guoan; Kolner, Christopher; Yang, Changhuei

    2011-01-01

    The condenser is one of the main components in most transmitted light compound microscopes. In this Letter, we show that such a condenser can be replaced by a programmable LED array to achieve greater imaging flexibility and functionality. Without mechanically scanning the sample or changing the microscope setup, the proposed approach can be used for dark-field imaging, bright-field imaging, microscopy sectioning, and digital refocusing. Images of a starfish embryo were acquired by using such...

  16. Increasing feasibility of the field-programmable gate array implementation of an iterative image registration using a kernel-warping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Hung; Guillemette, Thomas; Lambert, Andrew J.; Pickering, Mark R.; Garratt, Matthew A.

    2017-09-01

    Image registration is a fundamental image processing technique. It is used to spatially align two or more images that have been captured at different times, from different sensors, or from different viewpoints. There have been many algorithms proposed for this task. The most common of these being the well-known Lucas-Kanade (LK) and Horn-Schunck approaches. However, the main limitation of these approaches is the computational complexity required to implement the large number of iterations necessary for successful alignment of the images. Previously, a multi-pass image interpolation algorithm (MP-I2A) was developed to considerably reduce the number of iterations required for successful registration compared with the LK algorithm. This paper develops a kernel-warping algorithm (KWA), a modified version of the MP-I2A, which requires fewer iterations to successfully register two images and less memory space for the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation than the MP-I2A. These reductions increase feasibility of the implementation of the proposed algorithm on FPGAs with very limited memory space and other hardware resources. A two-FPGA system rather than single FPGA system is successfully developed to implement the KWA in order to compensate insufficiency of hardware resources supported by one FPGA, and increase parallel processing ability and scalability of the system.

  17. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Murari, A.; Mazon, D.; De Maack, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.

  18. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  19. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  20. Apertureless near-field/far-field CW two-photon microscope for biological and material imaging and spectroscopic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Derek B; Lawrence, A J; Sánchez, Erik J

    2010-12-10

    We present the development of a versatile spectroscopic imaging tool to allow for imaging with single-molecule sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The microscope allows for near-field and subdiffraction-limited far-field imaging by integrating a shear-force microscope on top of a custom inverted microscope design. The instrument has the ability to image in ambient conditions with optical resolutions on the order of tens of nanometers in the near field. A single low-cost computer controls the microscope with a field programmable gate array data acquisition card. High spatial resolution imaging is achieved with an inexpensive CW multiphoton excitation source, using an apertureless probe and simplified optical pathways. The high-resolution, combined with high collection efficiency and single-molecule sensitive optical capabilities of the microscope, are demonstrated with a low-cost CW laser source as well as a mode-locked laser source.

  1. Design verification enhancement of field programmable gate array-based safety-critical I&C system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jaecheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 658-91 Haemaji-ro, Seosang-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 45014 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced, systematic and integrated design verification approach is proposed for V&V of FPGA-based I&C system of NPP. • RPS bistable fixed setpoint trip algorithm is designed, analyzed, verified and discussed using the proposed approaches. • The application of integrated verification approach simultaneously verified the entire design modules. • The applicability of the proposed V&V facilitated the design verification processes. - Abstract: Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I&C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. However, safety analysis for FPGA-based I&C systems, and verification and validation (V&V) assessments still remain important issues to be resolved, which are now become a global research point of interests. In this work, we proposed a systematic design and verification strategies from start to ready-to-use in form of model-based approaches for FPGA-based reactor protection system (RPS) that can lead to the enhancement of the design verification and validation processes. The proposed methodology stages are requirement analysis, enhanced functional flow block diagram (EFFBD) models, finite state machine with data path (FSMD) models, hardware description language (HDL) code development, and design verifications. The design verification stage includes unit test – Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) test and modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC) test, module test – MATLAB/Simulink Co-simulation test, and integration test – FPGA hardware test beds. To prove the adequacy of the proposed

  2. Design verification enhancement of field programmable gate array-based safety-critical I&C system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim; Jung, Jaecheon; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced, systematic and integrated design verification approach is proposed for V&V of FPGA-based I&C system of NPP. • RPS bistable fixed setpoint trip algorithm is designed, analyzed, verified and discussed using the proposed approaches. • The application of integrated verification approach simultaneously verified the entire design modules. • The applicability of the proposed V&V facilitated the design verification processes. - Abstract: Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I&C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. However, safety analysis for FPGA-based I&C systems, and verification and validation (V&V) assessments still remain important issues to be resolved, which are now become a global research point of interests. In this work, we proposed a systematic design and verification strategies from start to ready-to-use in form of model-based approaches for FPGA-based reactor protection system (RPS) that can lead to the enhancement of the design verification and validation processes. The proposed methodology stages are requirement analysis, enhanced functional flow block diagram (EFFBD) models, finite state machine with data path (FSMD) models, hardware description language (HDL) code development, and design verifications. The design verification stage includes unit test – Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) test and modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC) test, module test – MATLAB/Simulink Co-simulation test, and integration test – FPGA hardware test beds. To prove the adequacy of the proposed

  3. A Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Partial Fixed-Point Imaging System Using a Field- Programmable Gate Array-Application-Specific Integrated Circuit Hybrid Heterogeneous Parallel Acceleration Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Li, Bingyi; Chen, Liang; Wei, Chunpeng; Xie, Yizhuang; Chen, He; Yu, Wenyue

    2017-06-24

    With the development of satellite load technology and very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit technology, onboard real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have become a solution for allowing rapid response to disasters. A key goal of the onboard SAR imaging system design is to achieve high real-time processing performance with severe size, weight, and power consumption constraints. In this paper, we analyse the computational burden of the commonly used chirp scaling (CS) SAR imaging algorithm. To reduce the system hardware cost, we propose a partial fixed-point processing scheme. The fast Fourier transform (FFT), which is the most computation-sensitive operation in the CS algorithm, is processed with fixed-point, while other operations are processed with single precision floating-point. With the proposed fixed-point processing error propagation model, the fixed-point processing word length is determined. The fidelity and accuracy relative to conventional ground-based software processors is verified by evaluating both the point target imaging quality and the actual scene imaging quality. As a proof of concept, a field- programmable gate array-application-specific integrated circuit (FPGA-ASIC) hybrid heterogeneous parallel accelerating architecture is designed and realized. The customized fixed-point FFT is implemented using the 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a co-processor of the Xilinx xc6vlx760t FPGA. A single processing board requires 12 s and consumes 21 W to focus a 50-km swath width, 5-m resolution stripmap SAR raw data with a granularity of 16,384 × 16,384.

  4. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, specifically the feet, lower legs and, in bed-ridden patients, the buttocks. The skin findings of cutaneous ... that are in contact with the lungs’ microscopic air sacs – the condition may quickly pose a threat ...

  5. Martian Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  6. Active Micro structured Optical Arrays of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, R.; Feldman, Ch.; Michette, A.; Hart, D.; McFaul, Ch; Morrison, G.R.; Pfauntsch, S.; Powell, A.K.; Sahraei, Sh.; Shand, M.T.; Button, T.; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D.; Zhang, D.; Dunare, C.; Parkes, W.; Stevenson, T.; Folkard, M.; Vojnovic, B.; Vojnovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    The UK Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) programme is developing active/adaptive optics for terrestrial applications. One of the technologies proposed is micro structured optical arrays (MOAs), which focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Although such arrays are similar in concept to poly capillary and microchannel plate optics, they can be bent and adjusted using piezoelectric actuators providing control over the focusing and inherent aberrations. Custom configurations can be designed, using ray tracing and finite element analysis, for applications from sub-keV to several-keV X-rays, and the channels of appropriate aspect ratios can be made using deep silicon etching. An exemplar application will be in the micro probing of biological cells and tissue samples using Ti Ka radiation (4.5?keV) in studies related to radiation-induced cancers. This paper discusses the optical design, modelling, and manufacture of such optics

  7. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  8. Optical programmable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Dai, Zijie; Liu, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    We suggest and demonstrate the concept of optical programmable metamaterials which can configure the device's electromagnetic parameters by the programmable optical stimuli. In such metamaterials, the optical stimuli produced by a FPGA controlled light emitting diode array can switch or combine the resonance modes which are coupled in. As an example, an optical programmable metamaterial terahertz absorber is proposed. Each cell of the absorber integrates four meta-rings (asymmetric 1/4 rings) with photo-resistors connecting the critical gaps. The principle and design of the metamaterials are illustrated and the simulation results demonstrate the functionalities for programming the metamaterial absorber to change its bandwidth and resonance frequency.

  9. Fiber laser-microscope system for femtosecond photodisruption of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavaş, Seydi; Erdogan, Mutlu; Gürel, Kutan; Ilday, F Ömer; Eldeniz, Y Burak; Tazebay, Uygar H

    2012-03-01

    We report on the development of a ultrafast fiber laser-microscope system for femtosecond photodisruption of biological targets. A mode-locked Yb-fiber laser oscillator generates few-nJ pulses at 32.7 MHz repetition rate, amplified up to ∼125 nJ at 1030 nm. Following dechirping in a grating compressor, ∼240 fs-long pulses are delivered to the sample through a diffraction-limited microscope, which allows real-time imaging and control. The laser can generate arbitrary pulse patterns, formed by two acousto-optic modulators (AOM) controlled by a custom-developed field-programmable gate array (FPGA) controller. This capability opens the route to fine optimization of the ablation processes and management of thermal effects. Sample position, exposure time and imaging are all computerized. The capability of the system to perform femtosecond photodisruption is demonstrated through experiments on tissue and individual cells.

  10. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and

  11. A high precision time-to-digital converter based on multi-phase clock implemented within Field-Programmable-Gate-Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kai; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a coarse-fine interpolation Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) is implemented in an ALTERA's Cyclone FPGA. The carry-select chain performs as the tapped delay line. The Logic Array Block (LAB) having a propagation delay of 165 ps in the chain is synthesized as delay cell. Coarse counters triggered by the global clock count the more significant bits of the time data. This clock is also fed through the delay line, and LABs create the copies. The replicas are latched by the tested event signal, and the less significant bits are encoded from the latched binary bits. Single-shot resolution of the TDC can be 60 ps. The worst Differential Nonlinearity (DNL) is about 0.2 Least Significant Bit (LSB, 165 ps in this TDC module), and the Integral Nonlinearity (INL) is 0.6 LSB. In comparison with other architectures using the synchronous global clock to sample the taps, this architecture consumed less electric power and logic cells, and is more stable. (authors)

  12. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  13. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  14. Design Methodology of an Equalizer for Unipolar Non Return to Zero Binary Signals in the Presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise Using a Time Delay Neural Network on a Field Programmable Gate Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Suárez, Santiago T.; Travieso González, Carlos M.; Alonso Hernández, Jesús B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a design methodology for designing an artificial neural network as an equalizer for a binary signal. Firstly, the system is modelled in floating point format using Matlab. Afterward, the design is described for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using fixed point format. The FPGA design is based on the System Generator from Xilinx, which is a design tool over Simulink of Matlab. System Generator allows one to design in a fast and flexible way. It uses low level details of the circuits and the functionality of the system can be fully tested. System Generator can be used to check the architecture and to analyse the effect of the number of bits on the system performance. Finally the System Generator design is compiled for the Xilinx Integrated System Environment (ISE) and the system is described using a hardware description language. In ISE the circuits are managed with high level details and physical performances are obtained. In the Conclusions section, some modifications are proposed to improve the methodology and to ensure portability across FPGA manufacturers.

  15. Design Methodology of an Equalizer for Unipolar Non Return to Zero Binary Signals in the Presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise Using a Time Delay Neural Network on a Field Programmable Gate Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago T. Pérez Suárez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a design methodology for designing an artificial neural network as an equalizer for a binary signal. Firstly, the system is modelled in floating point format using Matlab. Afterward, the design is described for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA using fixed point format. The FPGA design is based on the System Generator from Xilinx, which is a design tool over Simulink of Matlab. System Generator allows one to design in a fast and flexible way. It uses low level details of the circuits and the functionality of the system can be fully tested. System Generator can be used to check the architecture and to analyse the effect of the number of bits on the system performance. Finally the System Generator design is compiled for the Xilinx Integrated System Environment (ISE and the system is described using a hardware description language. In ISE the circuits are managed with high level details and physical performances are obtained. In the Conclusions section, some modifications are proposed to improve the methodology and to ensure portability across FPGA manufacturers.

  16. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  17. A programmable artificial retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, T.M.; Zavidovique, B.Y.; Devos, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial retina is a device that intimately associates an imager with processing facilities on a monolithic circuit. Yet, except for simple environments and applications, analog hardware will not suffice to process and compact the raw image flow from the photosensitive array. To solve this output problem, an on-chip array of bare Boolean processors with halftoning facilities might be used, providing versatility from programmability. By setting the pixel memory size to 3 b, the authors have demonstrated both the technological practicality and the computational efficiency of this programmable Boolean retina concept. Using semi-static shifting structures together with some interaction circuitry, a minimal retina Boolean processor can be built with less than 30 transistors and controlled by as few as 6 global clock signals. The successful design, integration, and test of such a 65x76 Boolean retina on a 50-mm 2 CMOS 2-μm circuit are presented

  18. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  19. Optically Programmable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mumbru, Jose

    2004-01-01

    ... holograms for these modules. The first chapter makes the case that a direct interface between an optical memory and a chip integrating detectors and logic circuitry can better utilize the high parallelism inherent in holographic modules...

  20. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  1. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  2. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  3. The Homemade Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Roger C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Directions for the building of a pocket microscope that will make visible the details of insect structure and living bacteria are described. Background information on the history of microscopes and lenses is provided. The procedures for producing various types of lenses are included. (KR)

  4. Mailing microscope slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  5. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  6. Crispv programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovicj, N.

    CRISPV (Criticality and Spectrum code) is a multigroup neutron spectrum code for homogeneous reactor cores and is actually a somewhat modified version of the original CRISP programme. It is a combination of DATAPREP-II and BIGG-II programmes. It is assumed that the reactor cell is a cylindrical fuel rod in the light or heavy water moderator. DATEPREP-II CODE forms the multigroup data for homogeneous reactor and prepares the input parameters for the BIGG-II code. It has its own nuclear data library on a separate tape in binary mode. BIGG-II code is a multigroup neutron spectrum and criticality code for a homogenized medium. It has as well its own separate data library. In the CRISPV programme the overlay structure enables automatic handling of data calculated in the DATAPREP-II programme and needed in the BIGG-II core. Both programmes are written in FORTRAN for CDC 3600. Using the programme is very efficient and simple

  7. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  8. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...... for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived...

  9. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented

  10. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  11. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  12. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  13. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  14. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  15. Electron microscope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations

  16. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  17. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  18. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  19. The scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A newly conceived microscope, based on a pure quantum phenomenon, is an ideal tool to study atom by atom the topography and properties of surfaces. Applications are presented: surface ''reconstruction'' of silicon, lamellar compound study, etc... Spectroscopy by tunnel effect will bring important information on electronic properties; it is presented with an application on silicon [fr

  20. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  1. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  2. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  3. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  4. Variable temperature superconducting microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Yeh, W. J.

    2000-03-01

    We have developed and tested a promising type of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope, which can be used to detect vortex motion and can operate in magnetic fields over a large temperature range. The system utilizes a single-loop coupling transformer, consisting of a patterned high Tc superconducting thin film. At one end of the transformer, a 20 μm diam detecting loop is placed close to the sample. At the other end, a large loop is coupled to a NbTi coil, which is connected to a low Tc SQUID sensor. Transformers in a variety of sizes have been tested and calibrated. The results show that the system is capable of detecting the motion of a single vortex. We have used the microscope to study the behavior of moving vortices at various positions in a YBa2Cu3O7 thin film bridge.

  5. Neuromorphic Data Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegle, John H.; Suppona, Roger A.; Aimone, James Bradley; James, Conrad D.; Follett, David R.; Townsend, Duncan C.M.; Follett, Pamela L.; Karpman, Gabe D.

    2017-08-01

    In 2016, Lewis Rhodes Labs, (LRL), shipped the first commercially viable Neuromorphic Processing Unit, (NPU), branded as a Neuromorphic Data Microscope (NDM). This product leverages architectural mechanisms derived from the sensory cortex of the human brain to efficiently implement pattern matching. LRL and Sandia National Labs have optimized this product for streaming analytics, and demonstrated a 1,000x power per operation reduction in an FPGA format. When reduced to an ASIC, the efficiency will improve to 1,000,000x. Additionally, the neuromorphic nature of the device gives it powerful computational attributes that are counterintuitive to those schooled in traditional von Neumann architectures. The Neuromorphic Data Microscope is the first of a broad class of brain-inspired, time domain processors that will profoundly alter the functionality and economics of data processing.

  6. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  7. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  8. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  9. Thimble microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Rubinstein, Jaden; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Kong, Gary; Lee, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    Wearable computing devices, e.g. Google Glass, Smart watch, embodies the new human design frontier, where technology interfaces seamlessly with human gestures. During examination of any subject in the field (clinic, surgery, agriculture, field survey, water collection), our sensory peripherals (touch and vision) often go hand-in-hand. The sensitivity and maneuverability of the human fingers are guided with tight distribution of biological nerve cells, which perform fine motor manipulation over a range of complex surfaces that is often out of sight. Our sight (or naked vision), on the other hand, is generally restricted to line of sight that is ill-suited to view around corner. Hence, conventional imaging methods are often resort to complex light guide designs (periscope, endoscopes etc) to navigate over obstructed surfaces. Using modular design strategies, we constructed a prototype miniature microscope system that is incorporated onto a wearable fixture (thimble). This unique platform allows users to maneuver around a sample and take high resolution microscopic images. In this paper, we provide an exposition of methods to achieve a thimble microscopy; microscope lens fabrication, thimble design, integration of miniature camera and liquid crystal display.

  10. Innovative Columnar Type of Grid Array SJ BIST HALT Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop will develop a superior method for testing and qualifying columnar type of grid arrays such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) packaged in column...

  11. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  12. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  13. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Wiederhold, J C; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Blank, B A; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Lozeva, R; Zacarias, S M; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Velten, P; Araujo escalona, V I; Boudreau, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Javaji, A; Engel, R Y; Wiehr, S; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Colosimo, S J; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Bracco, A; Guttormsen, M S; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Ujeniuc, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Donets, E D; Golovkov, M; Schweitzer, D K; Vranicar, A; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Nannini, A; Strisovska, J; Wolf, E; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Rainovski, G I; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Maier, F M; Bonanni, A; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Lenzi, S M; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; Acosta sanchez, L A; Chavez lomeli, E R; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Lopes leal, T J; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Laurent, B G; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Araujo mendes, C M; Agramunt ros, J; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Dapo, H; Papka, P; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Heylen, H; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Wolf, N R; Ways, M; Steinsberger, T P; Riisager, K; Ruotsalainen, P A; Bastin, B; Duval, F T; Penessot, G; Flechard, X D; Desrues, P; Giovinazzo, J; Kurtukian nieto, T; Ascher, P E L; Roccia, S; Matea, I; Croizet, H A G; Bonnin, C M; Morfouace, P; Smith, A J; Guin, R; Banerjee, D; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Ohtsubo, T; Zhukov, M V; Tengborn, E A; Welker, A; Giannopoulos, E; Dessagne, P; Juscamaita vivanco, Y; Da costa pereira, L M; Hustings, J; Yu, H; Kruecken, R; Nowak, A K; Jankowski, M; Cano ott, D; Galve lahoz, P; Murphy, A S J; Shand, C M; Jones, G D; Herzberg, R; Ikin, P; Revill, J P; Everett, C; Napoli, D R; Scarel, G; Larsen, A; Tornyi, T G; Pascu, S G; Stroe, L; Toma, S; Jansson, K; Dronjak fahlander, M; Krupko, S; Hurst, A M; Veskovic, M; Nikolov, J; Masenda, H; Sibanda, W N; Rocchini, M; Klimo, J; Deicher, M; Wichert, T; Kronenberg, J; Helmke, A; Meliani, Z; Ivanov, V S; Green, B L; Keatings, J M; Kuti, I; Halasz, Z; Henry, M O; Bras de sequeira amaral, V; Espirito santo, F; Da silva, D J; Rosendahl, S; Vianden, R J; Speidel, K; Agarwal, I; Faul, T; Kownacki, J M; Martins correia, J G; Lorenz, K; Costa miranda, S M; Granadeiro costa, A R; Zyabkin, D; Kotthaus, T; Pfeiffer, M; Gironi, L; Jensen, A; Romstedt, F; Constantino silva furtado, I; Heredia cardona, J A; Jordan martin, M D; Montaner piza, A; Zacate, M O; Plewinski, F; Mesli, A; Akakpo, E H; Pichard, A; Hergemoller, F; Neu, W; Fallis starhunter, J P; Voulot, D; Mrazek, J; Ugryumov, V; Savreux, R P; Kojouharov, I M; Kern, R O; Papst, O; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Kirsebom, O S; Jensen, K L; Jokinen, A; Rahkila, P J; Hager, U D K; Konki, J P; Dubois, M; Orr, N A; Fabian, X; Huikari, J E; Goigoux, T; Magron, C; Zakari, A A; Maietta, M; Bachelet, C E M; Roussiere, B; Li, R; Canavan, R L; Lorfing, C; Foster, R M; Gislason, H P; Shayestehaminzadeh, S; Qi, B; Mukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Willmann, L; Kurcewicz, W; Wimmer, K; Meisel, Z P; Dorvaux, O; Nowacki, F; Koudriavtsev, I; Lievens, P; Delaure, B J P; Neyens, G; Ceruti, S; Bunka, M; Vermeulen, C; Umbricht, C A; De boer, J; Podadera aliseda, I; Alcorta moreno, M; Pesudo fortes, V; Zielinska, M; Korten, W; Wang, C H; Lotay, G J; Mason, P; Rice, S J; Regan, P H; Willenegger, L M; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Hass, M; Kumar, V; Valiente dobon, J J; Crespo campo, L; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Clisu, C; Jeppesen, H B; Wu, C; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Wuosmaa, A H; Szilner, S; Colovic, P; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Newton, M E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Figuera, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Bengtsson, L; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; Algora, A; Kozlov, V; Mavela, D L; Mokhles gerami, A; Keeley, N; Bernardo da silva, E; Unzueta solozabal, I; Schell, J; Szybowicz, M; Yang, X; Plavec, J; Lassen, J; Johnston, K; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Bonig, E S; Stegmann, R; Ignatov, A; Paschalis, S; Fernandez martinez, G; Schilling, M; Habermann, T; Von hahn, R; Minaya ramirez, E E; Moore, I D; Wang, Y; Saastamoinen, A J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Stolze, S M; Clement, E; Dijon, A; Shornikov, A; Lienard, E; Gibelin, J D; Pain, C; Canchel, G; Simpson, G S; Latrasse, L P; Huang, W; Forest, D H; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Strashnov, I; Binnersley, C L; Sanchez poncela, M; Simpson, J; Morrall, P S; Grant, A F; Charisopoulos, S; Lagogiannis, A; Bhattacharya, C; Olafsson, S; Stepaniuk, M; Tornqvist, H T; Heinz, A M; White iv, E R; Courtin, S; Marechal, F; Da silva fenta, A E; De lemos lima, T A; Stryjczyk, M; Dockx, K; Haller, S; Rizzi, M; Reichert, S B; Bonn, J; Thirolf, P G; Garcia rios, A R; Gugliermina, V M; Cubero campos, M A; Sanchez tembleque, V; Benito garcia, J; Senoville, M; Mountford, D J; Gelletly, W; Alharbi, T S T; Wilson, E; Rigby, S V; Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; Harkness, L J; Judson, D S; Wraith, C; Van esbroeck, K; Wadsworth, R; Cubiss, J G; Harding, R D; Vaintraub, S; Mandal, S K; Scarpa, D; Hoff, P; Syed naeemul, H; Borcea, R; Balabanski, D L; Marginean, R; Rotaru, F; Rudolph, D; Fahlander, C H; Chudoba, V; Kay, B P; Soic, N; Naidoo, D; Veselsky, M; Kliman, J; Raisanen, J A; Dietrich, M; Maung maung than, M M T; Reed, M W; Danchev, M T; Ray, J; Roy, M; Hammen, M; Capponi, L; Veghne csatlos, M M; Fryar, J; Mirzadeh vaghefi, S P; Trindade pereira, A M; De pinho oliveira, G N; Bakenecker, A; Tramm, C; Germic, V; Morel, P A; Kowalczyk, M; Matejska-minda, M; Wolinska-cichocka, M; Ringvall moberg, A; Mantovan, R; Fransen, C H; Radeck, F; Schneiders, D W; Steinbach, T; Vibenholt, J E; Magnussen, M J; Stevnhoved, H M; Comas lijachev, V; Dasenbrock-gammon, N M; Perkowski, J; O'neill, G G; Matveev, Y; Wegner, M; Liu, Z; Perez alvarez, T; Cerato, L; Radchenko, V; Molholt, T E; Tabares giraldo, J A; Srnka, D; Dlouhy, Z; Beck, D; Werner, V R; Homm, I; Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Probst, M B; Kaiser, C J; Martin, J A; Refsgaard, J; Peura, P J; Greenlees, P T; Auranen, K; Delahaye, P; Traykov, E K; Perez loureiro, D; Mery, A A; Couratin, C; Tsekhanovich, I; Lunney, D; Gaulard, C V; Mottram, A D; Cullen, D M; Das, S K; Van de walle, J; Mazzocchi, C; Jonson, B N G; Woehr, A; Lesher, S R; Zuber, K T; Filippin, L; De witte, H J; Van den bergh, P A M; Raabe, R; Dirkx, D; Parnefjord gustafsson, F O A; Dunlop, R A; Tarasava, K; Gernhaeuser, R A; Weinzierl, W; Berger, C; Wendt, K; Achtzehn, T; Gottwald, T; Schug, M; Rossel, R E; Dominguez reyes, R R; Fraile prieto, L M; Briz monago, J A; Koester, U H; Bunce, M R; Bowry, M D; Nakhostin, M; Shearman, R; Cresswell, J R; Joss, D T; Gredley, A; Groombridge, D; Laird, A M; Aslanoglou, X; Siem, S; Weterings, J A; Renstrom, T; Szpak, B T; Luczkowski, M J; Ghita, D; Bezbakh, A; Soltz, R A; Bollmann, J; Bhattacharya, P; Roy, S; Rahaman, M A; Wlodarski, T; Carvalho soares, J; Barzakh, A; Schertz, F; Froemmgen, N E; Liberati, V; Foy, B E; Baptista barbosa, M; Weinheimer, C P; Zboril, M; Simon, R E; Popescu, L A; Czosnyka, T; Miranda jana, P A; Leimbach, D; Naskrecki, R; Plociennik, W A; Ruchowska, E E; Chiara, C J; Walters, W; Eberth, J H; Thomas, T; Thole, P; Queiser, M T; Lo bianco, G; D'amico, F; Muller, S; Sanchez alarcon, R M; Tain enriquez, J L; Orrigo, S E A; Orlandi, R; Masango, S; Plazaola muguruza, F C; Lepareur, N G; Fiebig, J M; Ceylan, N; Wildner, E; Kowalska, M; Malbrunot, S; Garcia ruiz, R F; Pallada, S; Slezak, M; Roeckl, E; Schrieder, G H; Ilieva, S K; Koenig, K L; Amoretti, M A; Lommen, J M; Fynbo, H O U; Weyer, G O P; Koldste, G T; Madsboll, K; Jensen, J H; Nieminen, A M; Reponen, M; Villari, A; Thomas, J; Saint-laurent, M; Sorlin, O H; Carniol, B; Pereira lopez, J; Grevy, S; Plaisir, C; Marie-jeanne, M J; Georgiev, G P; Etile, A M; Le blanc, F M; Verney, D; Stefan, G I; Assie, M; Suzuki, D; Guillot, J; Vazquez rodriguez, L; Campbell, P; Deacon, A N; Ware, T; Flueras, A; Xie, L; Banerjee, K; Piersa, M; Galaviz redondo, D; Johansson, H T; Schwarz, S; Toysa, A S; Aumont, J; Van duppen, P L E; Atanasov, D; Zadvornaya, A; Renaud, M A; Xu, Z; Garrett, P E; Rapisarda, E; Reber, J A; Mattolat, C F; Raeder, S; Habs, D; Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Modamio hoybjor, V; Klintefjord, M L; Ingeberg, V W; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Kusoglu, A; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Hoffman, C R; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Gladnishki, K A; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Cakirli mutlu, R B; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Nogwanya, T; Neidherr, D M; Morales lopez, A I; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Abrahams, K J; Martin montes, E J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Chalil, A; Xing, R; Dos santos augusto, R M; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Trujillo hernandez, J S; Kalaninova, Z; Andel, B; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Karthein, J; Julin, R J; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Grinyer, G F; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Lynch, K M; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Godefroid, M; Mallion, S N; Gins, W A M; Stegemann, S T; Koszorus, A; Mcnulty, J F; Lin, P; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Tengblad, O; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Corradi, L; Galtarossa, F; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Malatji, K L; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Coombes, B J; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Molkanov, P; Adhikari, R; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Carvalho teixeira, R C; Redondo cubero, A; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Wiedeking, M; Herlert, A J; Mehl, C V; Judge, S M; Gaertner, D; Divinskyi, S; Karabasov, M O; Zagoraios, G; Boztosun, I; Van zyl, J J; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Wenander, F J C; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Boukhari, A; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Severijns, N; Huyse, M L; Ferrer garcia, R; Verlinde, M N S; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Naubereit, P; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Hadynska-klek, K; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Patronis, N; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Mengoni, D; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Kelly, N A; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Vetter, U; Wolak, J M; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Majola, S N; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O; Hu, B; Ntshangase, S S; Sanchez-segovia, J

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  14. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  15. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  16. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  17. Examining the Real Merits of the Virtual Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ronan; Meere, Pat; Ho, Timsie; Menuge, Julian; Tyrrell, Shane; Kamber, Balz; Higgs, Bettie; Kelley, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Geoscience e-Laboratory (GeoLAB) project is a cooperative digital petrological microscopy technology enhanced learning (TEL) resource development project involving the four main university geoscience teaching centres in Ireland. Collaborating with the Open University (UK), a new digital library of petrographic thin sections has been added to the Virtual Microscope for Earth Sciences (VMfES) online repository. The collection was compiled with a view to introducing high-quality samples to teaching programmes in a manner that hitherto was limited by sample and microscope availability and cost and the temporal limits of laboratory access. The project has proceeded to explore the pedagogical implications of using the Virtual Microscope in teaching programmes. Online assessments and self-guided exercises developed using applications such as Google Forms have been introduced into programmes at each centre, and complimented by tutorial and interactive videos designed to support self-guided learning. The GeoLab project is reporting on the pedagogical implications of providing students with unimpeded access to high-quality petrographic learning resources during the term of semester and in advance of student assessments. Additionally, the project is collating data on the perceptions of both teachers and learners to using online learning media in mineralogy and petrology programmes, and if there are benefits therein to the more traditional styles of petrology and microscopy teaching and learning.

  18. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  19. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  20. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  1. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  2. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  3. Microscopic Theory of Transconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Jauho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of momentum transfer between two closely spaced mesoscopic electronic systems, which couple via Coulomb interaction but where tunneling is inhibited, have proven to be a fruitful method of extracting information about interactions in mesoscopic systems. We report a fully microscopic theory for transconductivity σ12, or, equivalently, momentum transfer rate between the system constituents. Our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which are topologically related, but not equivalent to, the Azlamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson diagrams known for superconductivity. In the present paper the magnetic field dependence of σ12 is discussed, and we find that σ12(B is strongly enhanced over its zero field value, and it displays strong features, which can be understood in terms of a competition between density-of-states and screening effects.

  4. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  5. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-01-01

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect

  6. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  8. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  9. The new Isidore microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouille, O.; Viard, J.; Menard, M.; Allegre, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the refurbishment of LECI hot laboratory in Saclay, it was decided to renew one of the two metallography lines of the building. This line is located at one end of the Isidore line of lead-shielded hot cells. The work started by the cleaning of 5 aout of 9 cells in Isidore line. Two were 2 m x 1.5 m cells, whereas the 3 others were smaller. Decontamination was difficult in both larger cells, because a lot of metallographic preparation had been performed there and because the cleaning of the lower parts of the cell, below the working area, was uneasy by remote manipulators. The refurbishment of the cells included: - Changing the windows, because old windows were made of glass panels sperated by oil, which is now prohibited by safety requirements. - Putting of a new pair of manipulators on one large cell, and adding bootings on manipulators on one large cell, and adding bootings on manipulators on both large cells. - Changing all the ventilation systems in these cells (new types of filters, new air-ducts), - Modifying and changing metallic pieces constituting the working are inside the cell - Increasing the hight of the small cells in order to add a manipulator for charging the sample on microscope or on hardness machine. - Simplifying the electrical wiring in order to decrease the fire risk in the hot cell line. - Add a better fire protection between the working area and the transfer area, i. e. between the front and the rear part of the cells. The scientific equipments fot these cells are: An Olympus microscope, modified by Optique Peter (company based in Lyons), equipped with a motorised sample holder (100 x 200 mm), maximum size of sample: O. D.=100 mm, 6 magnifications: x 12.5, x50, x100, x200, x500 and x1000, two microhardness positions: Vickers and Knoop. Polaroid image and digital camera with SIS image analysis system. A new periscope manufactured by Optique Peter. magnification x2 and x9, digital image and SIS system, and old periscope

  10. Rapid geodesic mapping of brain functional connectivity: implementation of a dedicated co-processor in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and application to resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Cercignani, Mara; Chan, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    Graph theory-based analyses of brain network topology can be used to model the spatiotemporal correlations in neural activity detected through fMRI, and such approaches have wide-ranging potential, from detection of alterations in preclinical Alzheimer's disease through to command identification in brain-machine interfaces. However, due to prohibitive computational costs, graph-based analyses to date have principally focused on measuring connection density rather than mapping the topological architecture in full by exhaustive shortest-path determination. This paper outlines a solution to this problem through parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm in programmable logic. The processor design is optimized for large, sparse graphs and provided in full as synthesizable VHDL code. An acceleration factor between 15 and 18 is obtained on a representative resting-state fMRI dataset, and maps of Euclidean path length reveal the anticipated heterogeneous cortical involvement in long-range integrative processing. These results enable high-resolution geodesic connectivity mapping for resting-state fMRI in patient populations and real-time geodesic mapping to support identification of imagined actions for fMRI-based brain-machine interfaces. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photon scanning tunneling microscope in combination with a force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous operation of a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an atomic force microscope is presented. The use of standard atomic force silicon nitride cantilevers as near-field optical probes offers the possibility to combine the two methods. Vertical forces and torsion are detected

  12. A new computerized moving stage for optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatiboglu, Can Ulas; Akin, Serhat

    2004-06-01

    Measurements of microscope stage movements in the x and y directions are of importance for some stereological methods. Traditionally, the length of stage movements is measured with differing precision and accuracy using a suitable motorized stage, a microscope and software. Such equipment is generally expensive and not readily available in many laboratories. One other challenging problem is the adaptability to available microscope systems which weakens the possibility of the equipment to be used with any kind of light microscope. This paper describes a simple and cheap programmable moving stage that can be used with the available microscopes in the market. The movements of the stage are controlled by two servo-motors and a controller chip via a Java-based image processing software. With the developed motorized stage and a microscope equipped with a CCD camera, the software allows complete coverage of the specimens with minimum overlap, eliminating the optical strain associated with counting hundreds of images through an eyepiece, in a quick and precise fashion. The uses and the accuracy of the developed stage are demonstrated using thin sections obtained from a limestone core plug.

  13. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  14. National programme: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, J.

    1986-01-01

    Finland's programmes in the field of reactor pressure components are presented in this paper. The following information on each of these programmes is given: the brief description of the programme; the programme's schedule and duration; the name of the project manager

  15. Enhancing Learning Effectiveness in Digital Design Courses through the Use of Programmable Logic Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi; Weng, T.; Cheng, Chung-Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating programmable logic devices (PLD) in digital design courses has become increasingly popular. The advantages of using PLDs, such as complex programmable logic devices (CPLDs) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), have been discussed before. However, previous studies have focused on the experiences from the point of view of the…

  16. Optical diffraction tomography microscopy with transport of intensity equation using a light-emitting diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaji; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Jialin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yan; Zuo, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is an effective label-free technique for quantitatively refractive index imaging, which enables long-term monitoring of the internal three-dimensional (3D) structures and molecular composition of biological cells with minimal perturbation. However, existing optical tomographic methods generally rely on interferometric configuration for phase measurement and sophisticated mechanical systems for sample rotation or beam scanning. Thereby, the measurement is suspect to phase error coming from the coherent speckle, environmental vibrations, and mechanical error during data acquisition process. To overcome these limitations, we present a new ODT technique based on non-interferometric phase retrieval and programmable illumination emitting from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. The experimental system is built based on a traditional bright field microscope, with the light source replaced by a programmable LED array, which provides angle-variable quasi-monochromatic illumination with an angular coverage of ±37 degrees in both x and y directions (corresponding to an illumination numerical aperture of ∼0.6). Transport of intensity equation (TIE) is utilized to recover the phase at different illumination angles, and the refractive index distribution is reconstructed based on the ODT framework under first Rytov approximation. The missing-cone problem in ODT is addressed by using the iterative non-negative constraint algorithm, and the misalignment of the LED array is further numerically corrected to improve the accuracy of refractive index quantification. Experiments on polystyrene beads and thick biological specimens show that the proposed approach allows accurate refractive index reconstruction while greatly reduced the system complexity and environmental sensitivity compared to conventional interferometric ODT approaches.

  17. Computational diffraction tomographic microscopy with transport of intensity equation using a light-emitting diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaji; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Jialin; Zuo, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is an effective label-free technique for quantitatively refractive index imaging, which enables long-term monitoring of the internal three-dimensional (3D) structures and molecular composition of biological cells with minimal perturbation. However, existing optical tomographic methods generally rely on interferometric configuration for phase measurement and sophisticated mechanical systems for sample rotation or beam scanning. Thereby, the measurement is suspect to phase error coming from the coherent speckle, environmental vibrations, and mechanical error during data acquisition process. To overcome these limitations, we present a new ODT technique based on non-interferometric phase retrieval and programmable illumination emitting from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. The experimental system is built based on a traditional bright field microscope, with the light source replaced by a programmable LED array, which provides angle-variable quasi-monochromatic illumination with an angular coverage of +/-37 degrees in both x and y directions (corresponding to an illumination numerical aperture of ˜ 0.6). Transport of intensity equation (TIE) is utilized to recover the phase at different illumination angles, and the refractive index distribution is reconstructed based on the ODT framework under first Rytov approximation. The missing-cone problem in ODT is addressed by using the iterative non-negative constraint algorithm, and the misalignment of the LED array is further numerically corrected to improve the accuracy of refractive index quantification. Experiments on polystyrene beads and thick biological specimens show that the proposed approach allows accurate refractive index reconstruction while greatly reduced the system complexity and environmental sensitivity compared to conventional interferometric ODT approaches.

  18. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  20. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  1. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  3. Mobile microscope complex GIB-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, A.V.; Gorbachev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    To study microstructure in operating pipelines of power units a mobile microscope system is developed and successfully used. The system includes a portable microscope, a monitor, power supply and a portable computer. The monitor is used for surveying images from a video camera mounted on the microscope. The magnification on visual examination constitutes x 100 and x 500. Diameters of pipelines examined should not be less than 130 mm. Surface preparation for microstructural studies includes routine mechanical rough grinding and polishing with subsequent etching [ru

  4. The deuteron microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Congshan; Zhang Jingshang; Shen Qingbiao

    1991-01-01

    The two particle Green's function is introduced. When the direct interaction between two nucleons is neglected, the first and second order mass operators of two particles are the sum of those for each particle. The nucleon microscopic optical potential is calculated by applying nuclear matter approximation and effective Skyrme interaction. Then the deuteron microscopic optical potential (DMOP) is calculated by using fold formula. For improvement of the theory, the two particle polarization diagram contribution to the imaginary part of the deuteron microscopic optical potential is studied

  5. A programmable associative memory for track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Donati, S.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Morsani, F.; Passuello, D.; Spinella, F.; Cerri, A.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Meschi, E.; Leger, A.; Speer, T.; Wu, X.

    1998-01-01

    We present a device, based on the concept of associative memory for pattern recognition, dedicated to on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. A large pattern bank, describing all possible tracks, can be organized into field programmable gate arrays where all patterns are compared in parallel to data coming from the detector during readout. Patterns, recognized among 2 66 possible combinations, are output in a few 30 MHz clock cycles. Programmability results in a flexible, simple architecture and it allows to keep up smoothly with technology improvements. (orig.)

  6. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  7. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  8. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  9. Microscopic modelling of doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Colossal magneto-resistance manganites are characterized by a complex interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. Formulating microscopic models for these compounds aims at meeting two conflicting objectives: sufficient simplification without excessive restrictions on the phase space. We give a detailed introduction to the electronic structure of manganites and derive a microscopic model for their low-energy physics. Focusing on short-range electron-lattice and spin-orbital correlations we supplement the modelling with numerical simulations

  10. Microscopic approach to nuclear anharmonicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    1985-01-01

    Present status of microscopic study of nuclear anharmonicity phenomena is reviewed from the viewpoint of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov approach. Both classical- and quantum-mechanical aspects of this approach are discussed. The Bohr-Mottelson-type collective Hamiltonian for anharmonic gamma vibrations is microscopically derived by means of the self-consistent-collective-coordinate method, and applied to the problem of two-phonon states of 168 Er. (orig.)

  11. Deuteron microscopic optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hairui; Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Xu Yongli

    2010-01-01

    A deuteron microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear-matter approximation and local-density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The microscopic optical model potential is used to calculate the deuteron reaction cross sections and the elastic scattering angular distributions for some target nuclei in the mass range 6≤A≤208 with incident deuteron energies up to 200 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  12. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  13. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high T C SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio

  14. Ghana's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahafia, Albert K.

    1988-01-01

    The Paper gives the purpose of Ghana's Nuclear Programme and describes some specific research activities and peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, medicine and industry. A discussion of some of the problem facing the programme concludes the Paper. (author)

  15. The Winfrith DSN programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescon, S.

    1963-05-01

    The programme, which is written in the Fortran language, solves the Carlson discrete S n approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation in cylindrical geometry. This report describes the input and output facilities of the WINFRITH DSN programme and the associated editing programme WED. (author)

  16. The Winfrith DSN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francescon, S [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-05-15

    The programme, which is written in the Fortran language, solves the Carlson discrete S{sub n} approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation in cylindrical geometry. This report describes the input and output facilities of the WINFRITH DSN programme and the associated editing programme WED. (author)

  17. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching

  18. Radiation-hardened optically reconfigurable gate array exploiting holographic memory characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Daisaku; Watanabe, Minoru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a proposal for a radiation-hardened optically reconfigurable gate array (ORGA). The ORGA is a type of field programmable gate array (FPGA). The ORGA configuration can be executed by the exploitation of holographic memory characteristics even if 20% of the configuration data are damaged. Moreover, the optoelectronic technology enables the high-speed reconfiguration of the programmable gate array. Such a high-speed reconfiguration can increase the radiation tolerance of its programmable gate array to 9.3 × 104 times higher than that of current FPGAs. Through experimentation, this study clarified the configuration dependability using the impulse-noise emulation and high-speed configuration capabilities of the ORGA with corrupt configuration contexts. Moreover, the radiation tolerance of the programmable gate array was confirmed theoretically through probabilistic calculation.

  19. Axiomatic electrodynamics and microscopic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1981-04-01

    A new approach to theoretical physics, along with the basic formulation of a new MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS for the motion of small charged particles is described in this set of lecture notes. Starting with the classical (Newtonian) mechanics and classical fields, the important but well known properties of Classical Electromagnetic field are discussed up to section 4. The next nection describes the usual radiation damping theory and its difficulties. It is argued that the usual treatment of radiation damping is not valid for small space and time intervals and the true description of motion requires a new type of mechanics - the MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS: Section 6 and 7 are devoted to showing that not only the new microscopic mechanics goes over to Newtonian mechanics in the proper limit, but also it is closely connected with Quantum Mechanics. All the known results of the Schroedinger theory can be reproduced by microscopic mechanics which also gives a clear physical picture. It removes Einstein's famous objections against Quantum Theory and provides a clear distinction between classical and Quantum behavior. Seven Axioms (three on Classical Mechanics, two for Maxwell's theory, one for Relativity and a new Axiom on Radiation damping) are shown to combine Classical Mechanics, Maxwellian Electrodynamics, Relativity and Schroedinger's Quantum Theory within a single theoretical framework under Microscopic Mechanics which awaits further development at the present time. (orig.)

  20. Astroparticle physics: the new ASPERA-2 programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 July the ASPERA-2 programme funded by the European Commission was officially launched in Hamburg with the goal of creating a sustainable structure for the coordination of astroparticle physics in Europe. CERN, which is a participant in the programme, could play an important role in this respect. Artist’s impression of the CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array). The CTA is one of the "Magnificent Seven", the seven large astroparticle physics infrastructures planned for the coming years. It is the next-generation facility destined to succeed the H.E.S.S. telescope in Namibia and the MAGIC telescope in the Canary Islands. (Credit ASPERA/G.Toma/A.Saftoiu). Following the success of ASPERA-1, the European network for astroparticle physics (see box), funding agency representatives gathered in Hamburg on 7 July 2009 for the official launch of ASPERA-2, a new three-year programme funded by the European Commission. Today the strategic roles of ...

  1. Microscopic collective models of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Rezsoe

    1985-01-01

    Microscopic Rosensteel-Rowe theory of the nuclear collective motion is described. The theoretical insufficiency of the usual microscopic establishment of the collective model is pointed. The new model treating exactly the degrees of freedom separates the coordinates describing the collective motion and the internal coordinates by a consistent way. Group theoretical methods analyzing the symmetry properties of the total Hamiltonian are used defining the collective subspaces transforming as irreducible representations of the group formed by the collective operators. Recent calculations show that although the results of the usual collective model are approximately correct and similar to those of the new microscopic collective model, the underlying philosophy of the old model is essentially erroneous. (D.Gy.)

  2. Microscope and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  3. LC-lens array with light field algorithm for 3D biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Pai; Hsieh, Po-Yuan; Hassanfiroozi, Amir; Martinez, Manuel; Javidi, Bahram; Chu, Chao-Yu; Hsuan, Yun; Chu, Wen-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, liquid crystal lens (LC-lens) array was utilized in 3D bio-medical applications including 3D endoscope and light field microscope. Comparing with conventional plastic lens array, which was usually placed in 3D endoscope or light field microscope system to record image disparity, our LC-lens array has higher flexibility of electrically changing its focal length. By using LC-lens array, the working distance and image quality of 3D endoscope and microscope could be enhanced. Furthermore, the 2D/3D switching ability could be achieved if we turn off/on the electrical power on LClens array. In 3D endoscope case, a hexagonal micro LC-lens array with 350um diameter was placed at the front end of a 1mm diameter endoscope. With applying electric field on LC-lens array, the 3D specimen would be recorded as from seven micro-cameras with different disparity. We could calculate 3D construction of specimen with those micro images. In the other hand, if we turn off the electric field on LC-lens array, the conventional high resolution 2D endoscope image would be recorded. In light field microscope case, the LC-lens array was placed in front of the CMOS sensor. The main purpose of LC-lens array is to extend the refocusing distance of light field microscope, which is usually very narrow in focused light field microscope system, by montaging many light field images sequentially focusing on different depth. With adjusting focal length of LC-lens array from 2.4mm to 2.9mm, the refocusing distance was extended from 1mm to 11.3mm. Moreover, we could use a LC wedge to electrically shift the optics axis and increase the resolution of light field.

  4. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  5. A prototype of programmable associative memory for track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Dell'Orso, M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a device, based on the concept of associative memory for pattern recognition, dedicated to on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. A large pattern bank, describing all possible tracks, can be organized into Field Programmable Gate Arrays where all patterns are compared in parallel to data coming from the detector during readout. Patterns, recognized among 2 66 possible combinations, are output in a few 30 MHz clock cycles. Programmability results in a flexible, simple architecture and it allows them to keep up smoothly with technology improvements. A 64 PAM array has been assembled on a prototype VME board and fully tested up to 30 MHz

  6. Balanced into array : genome-wide array analysis in 54 patients with an apparently balanced de novo chromosome rearrangement and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Ilse; Hanemaaijer, Nicolien; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Yntema, Helger; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Verheij, Joke; Green, Andrew; Hordijk, Roel; Reardon, William; de Vries, Bert; Brunner, Han; Bongers, Ernie; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genome-wide array analysis enables detailed screening for cryptic and submicroscopic imbalances of microscopically balanced de novo rearrangements in patients with developmental delay and/or congenital abnormalities. In this report, we added the results of genome-wide array analysis

  7. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  8. DBPM signal processing with field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Longwei; Yi Xing; Zhang Ning; Yang Guisen; Wang Baopeng; Xiong Yun; Leng Yongbin; Yan Yingbing

    2011-01-01

    DBPM system performance is determined by the design and implementation of beam position signal processing algorithm. In order to develop the system, a beam position signal processing algorithm is implemented on FPGA. The hardware is a PMC board ICS-1554A-002 (GE Corp.) with FPGA chip XC5VSX95T. This paper adopts quadrature frequency mixing to down convert high frequency signal to base. Different from conventional method, the mixing is implemented by CORDIC algorithm. The algorithm theory and implementation details are discussed in this paper. As the board contains no front end gain controller, this paper introduces a published patent-pending technique that has been adopted to realize the function in digital logic. The whole design is implemented with VHDL language. An on-line evaluation has been carried on SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility)storage ring. Results indicate that the system turn-by-turn data can measure the real beam movement accurately,and system resolution is 1.1μm. (authors)

  9. Virtual Field Programmable Gate Array Triple Modular Redundant Cell Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marty, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    .... A hardened microcontroller manages the configurations of each of the three FPGAs and monitors upset statistics. Advanced packaging is used to form a component that seems similar in form to the single FPGAs that the concept intends to replace.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  11. Microscopic description of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The genealogical series method has been extended to the continuous spectrum of the many-body systems. New nonlinear integral equations have been formulated to perform the microscopical description of the nuclear reactions with arbitrary number of particles. The way to solve them numerically is demonstrated

  12. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  13. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Gigapixel imaging with microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Antony; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2016-03-01

    A crucial part of the drug discovery process involves imaging the response of thousands of cell cultures to candidate drugs. Quantitative parameters from these "high content screens", such as protein expression and cell morphology, are extracted from fluorescence and brightfield micrographs. Due to the sheer number of cells that need to imaged for adequate statistics, the imaging time itself is a major bottleneck. Automated microscopes image small fields-of-view (FOVs) serially, which are then stitched together to form gigapixel-scale mosaics. We have developed a microscopy architecture that reduces mechanical overhead of traditional large field-of-view by parallelizing the image capture process. Instead of a single objective lens imaging FOVs one by one, we employ a microlens array for continuous photon capture, resulting in a 3-fold throughput increase. In this contribution, we present the design and imaging results of this microscopy architecture in three different contrast modes: multichannel fluorescence, hyperspectral fluorescence and brightfield.

  15. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  16. Microscopic characterisation of TIG-deposition and -welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.

    1992-11-01

    In the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme austenitic RVS AISI 316LN is considered as candidate material for the First Wall. In this report, among others, tungsten-arc (TIG) welding connections are investigated as a part of the ECN project 1.653. It concerns respectively; the deposition of TIG-electrode-material and the welding connection. The connections are fabricated by the Danish Welding Institute Svejsecentrals in Broendby. This study is supposed to give a welding qualification by microscopic characterisation of a TIG-deposition and a TIG-weld. 3 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  18. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  19. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  20. Programmable delay unit incorporating a semi-custom integrated circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The synchronization of SLC accelerator control and monitoring functions is realized by a CAMAC module, the PDU II (Programmable Delay Unit II, SLAC 253-002), which includes a semi-custom gate array integrated circuit. The PDU II distributes 16 channels of independently programmable delayed pulses to other modules within the same CAMAC crate. The delays are programmable in increments of 8.4 ns. Functional descriptions of both the module and the semi-custom integrated circuit used to generate the output pulses are given

  1. Soft x-ray spectro microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, J.C.; Jennings, G.; Beaulaigue, L.; Rodricks, B.G.; Brizard, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an x-ray photoelectron microscope that provides spatial as well as chemical information on the nature of the sample. Photons from the Aladdin Synchrotron at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, WI are monochromatized by an extended-range Grasshopper monochromator covering the range 40 to 1500 eV with energy resolution varying between 10 and 200 MeV. The monochromatized radiation generates photoelectrons in the sample, which are energy-analyzed with a resolving power E|ΔE > 5 x 10 4 and imaged by a multichannel plate array. The visible image is transferred to a computer by a virtual-phase charge-coupled device camera with a dynamic range of 4096:1. Preliminary coarse measurements indicate a spatial resolution of the instrument of better than 1μm, although a limit of 600 Angstrom is possible. The instrument provides chemical shift-resolved images of low-lying core levels in a variety of samples

  2. AECL research programmes in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Eastwood, T.A.; Mitchell, I.V.; Dutton, R.

    1980-10-01

    The high capacity factors achieved by CANDU nuclear power reactors can be attributed in part to the careful attention which has been paid in the concept and design phases to the selection of materials. Improved tolerance of these materials to the hostile conditions of a reactor core depends upon our understanding of such phenomena as radiation damage, corrosion and cracking. This report is an introduction to some of the fundamental and underlying research programmes that have evolved at the AECL laboratories in response to this need. The interactions of energetic atomic particles with solids on a microscopic scale are considered, first under the general heading of radiation effects, followed by sections on energy loss processes, ion channeling, and crystal lattice defects. The latter section leads into the important programmes on deformation processes (creep and growth) in zirconium. The final section discusses the extensive work on the oxidation and environmental cracking of zirconium alloys. (auth)

  3. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  5. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  6. Literature survey on microscopic friction modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand contact and friction conditions, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed in order to take microscopic dependencies into account. Friction is developed on microscopic level by adhesion between contacting asperities, the ploughing effect between asperities and the

  7. Oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Wu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhihe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Using anodic aluminum oxide membranes as the nanoreactors and controller, oriented nanowire arrays of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Mn-doped CuO have been successfully fabricated using Mn(NO_3)_2 · 4H_2O and Cu(NO_3)_2 · 3H_2O as the starting materials. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the as-prepared oriented nanowire arrays are of high purity. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the nanowires are oriented, continuous and uniform with a diameter and length of about 170 nm and several tens of micrometers, respectively, and thus of a high aspect ratio. Low-temperature magnetic measurements showed the ferromagnetic property of the oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays with the critical temperature at around 80 K, which will endow them with great potential applications in spintronics in the future. (paper)

  8. Layered growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongrui; Liang Erjun; Ding Pei; Chao Mingju

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of reaction temperature and duration of the growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays, layered aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) films grown directly around a reaction quartz tube in an Ar/H 2 atmosphere by pyrolysis of ferrocene in xylene in a suitable reaction furnace with the help of cobalt powder. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images indicated that the obtained arrays were composed of many separated layers with MWNTs. The reaction temperature significantly influenced the alignment of the MWNTs, and an appropriate reaction temperature range for growth was 800-900 deg. C. The diameter of the carbon nanotube increased from 46 to 75 nm with the growth temperature. Besides temperature, the reaction duration influenced the length of the well-aligned carbon nanotubes. There was no significant relation between the growth time and the diameter of the carbon nanotubes in the array

  9. Symmetric and Programmable Multi-Chip Module for Low-Power Prototyping System

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Mao-Hsu; Chen, Sao-Jie; Lan, Sanko H.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of a Multi-Chip Module (MCM) product are its low-power and small-size. But the design of an MCM system usually requires weeks of engineering effort, thus we need a generic MCM substrate with programmable interconnections to accelerate system prototyping. In this paper, we propose a Symmetric and Programmable MCM (SPMCM) substrate for this purpose. This SPMCM substrate consists of a symmetrical array of slots for bare-chip attachment and Field Programmable Interco...

  10. Methodology for Assessing the Degree of Internationalization of Business Academic Study Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Dan-Cristian Dabija; Cătălin Postelnicu; Nicolae Al. Pop

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the degree of internationalization of undergraduate, Master’s and doctoral business programmes with the aid of complex indicators designed to capture the vast array of characteristics displayed by these programmes and contribute to their promotion in the international academic competition. The methodology should include both general indicators applicable to any study programme and some indicators that are specifically develop...

  11. The FPGA Pixel Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2013-01-01

    A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested. -- Highlights: ► We describe the novelty and need for the FPGA Pixel Array Detector. ► We describe the specifications and design of the Diode, ASIC and FPGA layers. ► We highlight the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) for speckle as an example application. ► Simulated FPGA output calculates the ACF for different input bitstreams to 100 ns. ► Reduced data transfer rate by 640× and sped up real-time ACF by 100× other methods.

  12. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  13. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  14. Programmable logic controller performance enhancement by field programmable gate array based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhruv; Bhatt, Jignesh; Trivedi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    PLC, the core element of modern automation systems, due to serial execution, exhibits limitations like slow speed and poor scan time. Improved PLC design using FPGA has been proposed based on parallel execution mechanism for enhancement of performance and flexibility. Modelsim as simulation platform and VHDL used to translate, integrate and implement the logic circuit in FPGA. Xilinx's Spartan kit for implementation-testing and VB has been used for GUI development. Salient merits of the design include cost-effectiveness, miniaturization, user-friendliness, simplicity, along with lower power consumption, smaller scan time and higher speed. Various functionalities and applications like typical PLC and industrial alarm annunciator have been developed and successfully tested. Results of simulation, design and implementation have been reported. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. NNP Life Management Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia Ruperez, F.

    1996-01-01

    Around the world, power station owners are increasingly concerned to optimise Plant Life Management. In response, they are setting up Life Management programmes, of more or less ambitious scope and depth. Strategic, economic and security concerns and the close link between life extension work and the improved maintenance practices that are so important today, will increase and global these programmes for monitoring and conservation or mitigation of ageing. These programmes are all based on knowledge of the precise condition of all components and population with the greatest effect on the economics and safety of the plant, and trends in changes in their condition. (Author)

  16. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Microscopic nuclear dissipation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannouleas, C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have formulated a microscopic, nonperturbative, time reversible model which exhibits a dissipative decay of collective motion for times short compared to the system's Poincare time. The model assumes an RPA approximate description of the initial collective state within a restricted subspace, then traces its time evolution when an additional subspace is coupled to the restricted subspace by certain simplified matrix elements. It invokes no statistical assumptions. The damping of the collective motion occurs via real transitions from the collective state to other more complicated nuclear states of the same energy. It corresponds therefore to the so called 'one-body' long mean free path limit of nuclear dissipation when the collective state describes a surface vibration. When the simplest RPA approximation is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission to the continuum. When the more detailed second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states as well. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy, unlike the dissipation of a classical damped oscillator, where it is proportional to the kinetic energy only. However, for coherent, multi-phonon wave packets, which explicitly describe the time-dependent oscillations of the mean field, dissipation proportional only to the kinetic energy is obtained. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced and a nonlinear frictional hamiltonian to describe such systems is specified by the requirement that it yield the same time dependence for the collective motion as the microscopic model. Thus, for the first time a descriptive nonlinear hamiltonian is derived explicitly from the underlying microscopic model of a nuclear system. (orig.)

  18. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  19. Microscopically Based Nuclear Energy Functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of the SciDAC project 'Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional' is to develop next-generation nuclear energy density functionals that give controlled extrapolations away from stability with improved performance across the mass table. One strategy is to identify missing physics in phenomenological Skyrme functionals based on our understanding of the underlying internucleon interactions and microscopic many-body theory. In this contribution, I describe ongoing efforts to use the density matrix expansion of Negele and Vautherin to incorporate missing finite-range effects from the underlying two- and three-nucleon interactions into phenomenological Skyrme functionals.

  20. Microscopic structure for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The microscopic structure for light nuclei e.g. 4 He, 7 Li and 8 Be is considered in the frame work of the generator coordinate method (GCM). The physical interpretation of our GCM is also discussed. The GC amplitudes are used to calculate the various properties like charge and magnetic RMS radii, form factors, electromagnetic moments, astrophysical S-factor, Bremsstrahlung weighted cross sections, relative wavefunctions and vertex functions etc. All the calculated quantities agree well with the values determined experimentally. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  2. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  3. Dynamic Adaptive Neural Network Arrays: A Neuromorphic Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disney, Adam [University of Tennessee (UT); Reynolds, John [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Adaptive Neural Network Array (DANNA) is a neuromorphic hardware implementation. It differs from most other neuromorphic projects in that it allows for programmability of structure, and it is trained or designed using evolutionary optimization. This paper describes the DANNA structure, how DANNA is trained using evolutionary optimization, and an application of DANNA to a very simple classification task.

  4. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  5. (ARV) treatment training programme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    Keywords:ARV, training, evaluation, HIV, health care provider. RÉSUMÉ .... workers, adequate laboratory facilities for measuring viral load and .... questionnaire guide, the head of unit of the ART ...... begins its scale-up programme. Some of ...

  6. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  7. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  8. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  9. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-06-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1 to 4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  11. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1-4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  12. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  13. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  14. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  15. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  16. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  17. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  18. Microscopical advances in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers carried out by this laboratory it was demonstrated that the quality of sterile males sperm, assessed submicroscopically and mathematically, is closely correlated with the success of the various procedures of assisted reproduction. If we attempt to select hypothetically optimal spermatozoa destined to the ICSI by light inverted microscopy, a considerable amount of ultrastructural information is lost and our selection is merely based on the motility. In this study we apply polarization microscopy to the ICSI technique, introducing polarizing and analyzing lenses in an inverted microscope model, operating in a transparent container. The retardation of the birefringence in the various organelles is evaluated by compensators, and the images are transmitted to a video system, and stored in a computer. Spermatozoa are maintained alive and perfectly motile in this polarizing inverted microscope, and the character of the birefringence is the same as in fixed and sectioned biological material examined by polarization microscopy. The birefringence of the sperm structures allows a sperm analysis closer to TEM than to phase contrast light microscopy analysis.

  19. Visualizing 3-D microscopic specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Per-Ola; Majlof, Lars L.

    1992-06-01

    The confocal microscope can be used in a vast number of fields and applications to gather more information than is possible with a regular light microscope, in particular about depth. Compared to other three-dimensional imaging devices such as CAT, NMR, and PET, the variations of the objects studied are larger and not known from macroscopic dissections. It is therefore important to have several complementary ways of displaying the gathered information. We present a system where the user can choose display techniques such as extended focus, depth coding, solid surface modeling, maximum intensity and other techniques, some of which may be combined. A graphical user interface provides easy and direct control of all input parameters. Motion and stereo are available options. Many three- dimensional imaging devices give recordings where one dimension has different resolution and sampling than the other two which requires interpolation to obtain correct geometry. We have evaluated algorithms with interpolation in object space and in projection space. There are many ways to simplify the geometrical transformations to gain performance. We present results of some ways to simplify the calculations.

  20. Design of Circularly-Polarised, Crossed Drooping Dipole, Phased Array Antenna Using Genetic Algorithm Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal

    2007-01-01

    A printed drooping dipole array is designed and constructed. The design is based on a genetic algorithm optimisation procedure used in conjunction with the software programme AWAS. By optimising the array G/T for specific combinations of scan angles and frequencies an optimum design is obtained...

  1. Many - body simulations using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of microscopic models of water and polypeptides using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques have been carried out with the aid of an FPS array processor. The computational techniques are discussed, with emphasis on the development and optimization of the software to take account of the special features of the processor. The computing requirements of these simulations exceed what could be reasonably carried out on a normal 'scientific' computer. While the FPS processor is highly suited to the kinds of models described, several other computationally intensive problems in statistical mechanics are outlined for which alternative processor architectures are more appropriate

  2. Robotic autopositioning of the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenlander, Mark E; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Merkl, Brandon; Hattendorf, Guido M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    Use of the operating microscope has become pervasive since its introduction to the neurosurgical world. Neuronavigation fused with the operating microscope has allowed accurate correlation of the focal point of the microscope and its location on the downloaded imaging study. However, the robotic ability of the Pentero microscope has not been utilized to orient the angle of the microscope or to change its focal length to hone in on a predefined target. To report a novel technology that allows automatic positioning of the operating microscope onto a set target and utilization of a planned trajectory, either determined with the StealthStation S7 by using preoperative imaging or intraoperatively with the microscope. By utilizing the current motorized capabilities of the Zeiss OPMI Pentero microscope, a robotic autopositioning feature was developed in collaboration with Surgical Technologies, Medtronic, Inc. (StealthStation S7). The system is currently being tested at the Barrow Neurological Institute. Three options were developed for automatically positioning the microscope: AutoLock Current Point, Align Parallel to Plan, and Point to Plan Target. These options allow the microscope to pivot around the lesion, hover in a set plane parallel to the determined trajectory, or rotate and point to a set target point, respectively. Integration of automatic microscope positioning into the operative workflow has potential to increase operative efficacy and safety. This technology is best suited for precise trajectories and entry points into deep-seated lesions.

  3. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  4. Supersonic Localized Excitations Mediate Microscopic Dynamic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Pec, M.

    2017-12-01

    A moving rupture front activates a fault patch by increasing stress above a threshold strength level. Subsequent failure yields fast slip which releases stored energy in the rock. A fraction of the released energy is radiated as seismic waves carrying information about the earthquake source. While this simplified model is widely accepted, the detailed evolution from the onset of dynamic failure to eventual re-equilibration is still poorly understood. To study dynamic failure of brittle solids we indented thin sheets of single mineral crystals and recorded the emitted ultrasound signals (high frequency analogues to seismic waves) using an array of 8 to 16 ultrasound probes. The simple geometry of the experiments allows us to unravel details of dynamic stress history of the laboratory earthquake sources. A universal pattern of failure is observed. First, stress increases over a short time period (1 - 2 µs), followed by rapid weakening (≈ 15 µs). Rapid weakening is followed by two distinct relaxation phases: a temporary quasi-steady state phase (10 µs) followed by a long-term relaxation phase (> 50 µs). We demonstrate that the dynamic stress history during failure is governed by formation and interaction of local non-dispersive excitations, or solitons. The formation and annihilation of solitons mediates the microscopic fast weakening phase, during which extreme acceleration and collision of solitons lead to non-Newtonian behavior and Lorentz contraction, i.e. shortening of solitons' characteristic length. Interestingly, a soliton can propagate as fast as 37 km/s, much faster than the p-wave velocity, implying that a fraction of the energy transmits through soliton excitations. The quasi-steady state phase delays the long-term ageing of the damaged crystal, implying a potentially weaker material. Our results open new horizons for understanding the complexity of earthquake sources, and, more generally, non-equilibrium relaxation of many body systems.

  5. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  6. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  7. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  8. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  9. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...... of the observing programme....

  10. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  11. Development and applications of a computer-aided phased array assembly for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.; Montag, H.J.; Wuestenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of modern electronic equipment for programmable signal delay increasingly allows transit-time controlled phased arrays to be applied in non-destructive, ultrasonic materials testing. A phased-array assembly is described permitting fast variation of incident angle of acoustic wave and of sonic beam focus, together with numerical evaluation of measured data. Phased arrays can be optimized by adding programmable electronic equipment so that the quality of conventional designs can be achieved. Applications of the new technical improvement are explained, referring to stress corrosion cracking, turbine testing, echo tomography of welded joints. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  13. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa

    2010-04-29

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  14. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa; Lee, Seokwoo; Lee, Seung S

    2010-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  16. Design of a transmission electron positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Kurihara, T.; Tsuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the plans and design of positron-electron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan. A used electron microscope is altered. The kinetic energies of positrons produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays are not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam is guided to a transmission electron microscope (JEM100SX). Positrons are moderated by a tungsten foil, are accelerated and are focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam is injected into an electron microscope. The focusing and aberration of positrons are the same as electrons in a magnetic system which are used in commercial electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (author)

  17. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, M.

    1990-01-01

    EDF has long been interested in the use of nuclear energy for thermal power generation. After a period of apprenticeship and experiments, EDF launched a major PWR plant programme so as to reduce France's energy dependence and master generation costs. This programme, based on standardization, has achieved the desired results. It must now be adapted to suit the needs of the 21st century. For this programme, all those involved (Governmental authorities, EDF, manufacturers) were mobilized to an unprecedented extent and rigorous working methods were imposed. Experience feedback has been used to make improvements both to the installations themselves and to procedures. Results have proved satisfactory as regards nuclear safety but vigilance must be maintained. Public opinion on nuclear power is reserved we are sentenced to achieving a 'fault-free' track record, all the while mastering costs, so as to ensure the continuing use of nuclear energy. (author)

  18. The French nuclear programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, M [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrotechnique de Grenoble, Institute National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette, Electricite de France (France)

    1990-06-01

    EDF has long been interested in the use of nuclear energy for thermal power generation. After a period of apprenticeship and experiments, EDF launched a major PWR plant programme so as to reduce France's energy dependence and master generation costs. This programme, based on standardization, has achieved the desired results. It must now be adapted to suit the needs of the 21st century. For this programme, all those involved (Governmental authorities, EDF, manufacturers) were mobilized to an unprecedented extent and rigorous working methods were imposed. Experience feedback has been used to make improvements both to the installations themselves and to procedures. Results have proved satisfactory as regards nuclear safety but vigilance must be maintained. Public opinion on nuclear power is reserved we are sentenced to achieving a 'fault-free' track record, all the while mastering costs, so as to ensure the continuing use of nuclear energy. (author)

  19. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  20. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  1. Probabilistic programmable quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, V.; Ziman, M.; Hillery, M.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze how to improve performance of probabilistic programmable quantum processors. We show how the probability of success of the probabilistic processor can be enhanced by using the processor in loops. In addition, we show that an arbitrary SU(2) transformations of qubits can be encoded in program state of a universal programmable probabilistic quantum processor. The probability of success of this processor can be enhanced by a systematic correction of errors via conditional loops. Finally, we show that all our results can be generalized also for qudits. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. A programme in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is beginning its transition from a scientific research programme to that of an engineering development programme aimed at practical applications. This transition is likely to last a decade or more because many scientific questions remain and because of the magnitude and cost of the engineering issues. This article reviews briefly the encouraging results produced at the Joint European Torus (JET) where 1.7 MW of fusion power was generated for 2 seconds in experiments in November 1991, the remaining scientific issues, the role of near-term experimental reactors like the International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) and other approaches to a demonstration power plant. (author)

  3. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  4. Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Cybulski

    Full Text Available Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.

  5. Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)

  6. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  7. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  8. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  9. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  10. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  11. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  12. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  13. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  15. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  16. Nuclear safety. Improvement programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the improvement programme of nuclear safety of the Mochovce NPP is presented in detail. In 1996, a 'Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvement Programme' was developed in the frame of unit 1 and 2 completion project. The programme has been compiled as a continuous one, with the aim to reach the highest possible safety level at the time of commissioning and to establish good preconditions for permanent safety improvement in future. Such an approach is in compliance with the world's trends of safety improvement, life-time extension, modernisation and nuclear station power increase. The basic document for development of the 'Programme' is the one titled 'Safety Issues and their Ranking for WWER 440/213 NPP' developed by a group of IAEA experts. The following organisations were selected for solution of the safety measures: EUCOM (Consortium of FRAMATOME, France, and SIEMENS, Germany); SKODA Prague, a.s.; ENERGOPROJEKT Prague, a.s. (EGP); Russian organisations associated in ATOMENERGOEXPORT; VUJE Trnava, a.s

  17. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  18. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-10-01

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  19. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  20. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  1. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  3. Conceptualizing Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salochana

    2013-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper deals with the conceptualization of theory-driven evaluation pertaining to a tutor training programme. Conceptualization of evaluation, in this case, is an integration between a conceptualization model as well as a theoretical framework in the form of activity theory. Existing examples of frameworks of programme…

  4. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  5. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  6. A transmission positron microscope and a scanning positron microscope being built at KEK, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Yagishita, A.; Shidara, T.; Nakahara, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the plans of positron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan improving used electron microscopes. The kinetic energies of positron produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays have not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam will be guided near electron microscopes, a transmission electron microscope (JEM100S) and a scanning electron microscope (JSM25S). Positrons are slowed down by a tungsten foil, accelerated and focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam will be injected into an electron microscope. The focusing of positrons and electrons is achieved by magnetic system of the electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (orig.)

  7. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  8. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  9. Full-frame, programmable hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Steven P.; Graff, David L.

    2017-07-25

    A programmable, many-band spectral imager based on addressable spatial light modulators (ASLMs), such as micro-mirror-, micro-shutter- or liquid-crystal arrays, is described. Capable of collecting at once, without scanning, a complete two-dimensional spatial image with ASLM spectral processing applied simultaneously to the entire image, the invention employs optical assemblies wherein light from all image points is forced to impinge at the same angle onto the dispersing element, eliminating interplay between spatial position and wavelength. This is achieved, as examples, using telecentric optics to image light at the required constant angle, or with micro-optical array structures, such as micro-lens- or capillary arrays, that aim the light on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Light of a given wavelength then emerges from the disperser at the same angle for all image points, is collected at a unique location for simultaneous manipulation by the ASLM, then recombined with other wavelengths to form a final spectrally-processed image.

  10. A microscopic model of triangular arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi

    2006-11-01

    We introduce a microscopic model which describes the dynamics of each dealer in multiple foreign exchange markets, taking account of the triangular arbitrage transaction. The model reproduces the interaction among the markets well. We explore the relation between the parameters of the present microscopic model and the spring constant of a macroscopic model that we proposed previously.

  11. Quantum theory and microscopic mechanics. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1984-08-01

    The need for theoretical descriptions and experimental observations on 'small' individual systems is emphasized. It is shown that the mathematical basis for microscopic mechanics is very simple in one dimension. The square well problem is discussed to clarify general points about stationary states and the continuity of (p'/p) across potential boundaries in the applications of microscopic mechanics. (author)

  12. Electron Microscope Center Opens at Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1981-01-01

    A 1.5-MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope has been installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which will help materials scientists and biologists study samples in more true-to-life situations. A 1-MeV Atomic Resolution Microscope will be installed at the same location in two years which will allow scientists to distinguish atoms. (DS)

  13. A multi-modal stereo microscope based on a spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M P; Gibson, G M; Bowman, R; Bernet, S; Ritsch-Marte, M; Phillips, D B; Padgett, M J

    2013-07-15

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) can emulate the classic microscopy techniques, including differential interference (DIC) contrast and (spiral) phase contrast. Their programmability entails the benefit of flexibility or the option to multiplex images, for single-shot quantitative imaging or for simultaneous multi-plane imaging (depth-of-field multiplexing). We report the development of a microscope sharing many of the previously demonstrated capabilities, within a holographic implementation of a stereo microscope. Furthermore, we use the SLM to combine stereo microscopy with a refocusing filter and with a darkfield filter. The instrument is built around a custom inverted microscope and equipped with an SLM which gives various imaging modes laterally displaced on the same camera chip. In addition, there is a wide angle camera for visualisation of a larger region of the sample.

  14. Real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hesong; Wilder, Joseph

    1999-08-01

    A real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope is presented in this paper. The system has achieved real-time color image display for 640 X 480 pixel images. Multi-resolution image representation can be provided for efficient transmission through the network. Through the control interface the computer can communicate with the programmable microscope via the RS232 serial ports. By choosing one of three scanning patterns, a sequence of images can be saved as BMP or PGM files to record information on an entire microscope slide. The system will be used by medical and graduate students at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for distance learning. It can be used in many network-based telepathology applications.

  15. Spatiotemporal polarization modulation microscopy with a microretarder array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changqin; Ulcickas, James R. W.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2018-02-01

    A patterned microretarder array positioned in the rear conjugate plane of a microscope enables rapid polarizationdependent nonlinear optical microscopy. The pattern introduced to the array results in periodic modulation of the polarization-state of the incident light as a function of position within the field of view with no moving parts or active control. Introduction of a single stationary optical element and a fixed polarizer into the beam of a nonlinear optical microscope enabled nonlinear optical tensor recovery, which informs on local structure and orientation. Excellent agreement was observed between the measured and predicted second harmonic generation (SHG) of z-cut quartz, selected as a test system with well-established nonlinear optical properties. Subsequent studies of spatially varying samples further support the general applicability of this relatively simple strategy for detailed polarization analysis in both conventional and nonlinear optical imaging of structurally diverse samples.

  16. Study of the diffraction in the microscope: Annular condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, L; Echarri, R M; Simon, J M

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the diffraction in the microscope when an annular condenser is used to illuminate the object. We calculate the point spread function (PSF) for a pinhole in an opaque screen illuminated with an annular condenser, consisting in an 1D array of incoherent point sources. We compare it with the PSF for a self-luminous point object, finding that the central disk of the diffraction pattern is narrower and the first intensity minimum is deeper for illuminated objects. We also analyze the resolution of the system by means of the intensity profile produced by two points objects, finding that two self luminous point objects are better resolved than two illuminated objects at the same distance. This suggests that the correlation introduced in the object diminishes the resolution in the former case.

  17. Pancam and microscopic imager observations of dust on the Spirit Rovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaughan....[], Alicia F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Goetz

    2010-01-01

    This work describes dust deposits on the Spirit Rover over 2000 sols through examination of Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of specific locations on the rover body, including portions of the solar array, Pancam and Mini-TES calibration targets, and the magnets. This data set reveals...... the three "cleaning events" experienced by Spirit to date, the spectral properties of dust, and the tendency of dust particles to form aggregates 100 um and larger...

  18. First test model of the optical microscope which images the whole vertical particle tracks without any depth scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The first test model of the optical microscope which produces the in focus image of the whole vertical particle track without depth scanning is described. The in focus image of the object consisting of the linear array of the point-like elements was obtained. A comparison with primary out of focus image of such an object has been made

  19. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  20. Arraycount, an algorithm for automatic cell counting in microwell arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Kachouie, Nezamoddin N.; Kang, Lifeng; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Microscale technologies have emerged as a powerful tool for studying and manipulating biological systems and miniaturizing experiments. However, the lack of software complementing these techniques has made it difficult to apply them for many high-throughput experiments. This work establishes Arraycount, an approach to automatically count cells in microwell arrays. The procedure consists of fluorescent microscope imaging of cells that are seeded in microwells of a microarray system and then an...

  1. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  2. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...

  3. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  4. Cooled CCDs for recording data from electron microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Faruqi, A R

    2000-01-01

    A cooled-CCD camera based on a low-noise scientific grade device is described in this paper used for recording images in a 120 kV electron microscope. The primary use of the camera is for recording electron diffraction patterns from two-dimensionally ordered arrays of proteins at liquid-nitrogen temperatures leading to structure determination at atomic or near-atomic resolution. The traditional method for recording data in the microscope is with electron sensitive film but electronic detection methods offer the following advantages over film methods: the data is immediately available in a digital format which can be displayed on a monitor screen for visual inspection whereas a film record needs to be developed and digitised, a lengthy process taking at least several hours, prior to inspection; the dynamic range of CCD detectors is about two orders of magnitude greater with better linearity. The accuracy of measurements is also higher for CCDs, particularly for weak signals due to inherent fog levels in film. ...

  5. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  6. Soft x-ray microscope using Fourier transform holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Kirz, J.; Jacobsen, C.; Anderson, E.; Howells, M.R.; Rarback, H.

    1989-01-01

    A Fourier transform holographic microscope with an anticipated resolution of better than 100 nm has been built. Extensive testing of the apparatus has begun. Preliminary results include the recording of interference fringes using 3.6 nm x-rays. The microscope employs a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array of 576 x 384 elements. The system is illuminated by soft x-rays from a high brightness undulator. The reference point source is formed by a Fresnel zone plate with a finest outer zone width of 50 nm. Sufficient temporal coherence for hologram formation is obtained by a spherical grating monochromator. The x-ray hologram intensities at the recording plane are to be collected, digitized and reconstructed by computer. Data acquisition is under CAMAC control, while image display and off-line processing takes place on a VAX graphics workstation. Computational models of Fourier transform hologram synthesis, and reconstruction in the presence of noise, have demonstrated the feasibility of numerical methods in two dimensions, and that three-dimensional information is potentially recoverable. 13 refs., 3 figs

  7. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  8. Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Gabriel; Greenbaum, Alon; Isikman, Serhan O; Lee, Kelvin; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-08-21

    We demonstrate a field-portable upright and inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes. This compact and cost-effective dual-mode microscope weighs only ∼135 grams (image of the specimen onto an opto-electronic sensor-array that is positioned above the beam-splitter cube. In addition to this, the illumination beam is also partially transmitted through the same specimen, which then casts lensfree in-line holograms of the same objects onto a second opto-electronic sensor-array that is positioned underneath the beam-splitter cube. By rapid digital reconstruction of the acquired lensfree holograms, transmission images (both phase and amplitude) of the same specimen are also created. We tested the performance of this field-portable microscope by imaging various micro-particles, blood smears as well as a histopathology slide corresponding to skin tissue. Being compact, light-weight and cost-effective, this combined reflection and transmission microscope might especially be useful for telemedicine applications in resource limited settings. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Architectural design and analysis of a programmable image processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyal, M.Y.; Chowdhry, B.S.; Rajput, A.Q.K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an architectural design and analysis of a programmable image processor, nicknamed Snake. The processor was designed with a high degree of parallelism to speed up a range of image processing operations. Data parallelism found in array processors has been included into the architecture of the proposed processor. The implementation of commonly used image processing algorithms and their performance evaluation are also discussed. The performance of Snake is also compared with other types of processor architectures. (author)

  10. The TELEMAN programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordwall, H.J. de

    1990-01-01

    The TELEMAN programme is a five year cost-shared research programme covering remote handling in hazardous and disordered nuclear environments. TELEMAN's objective is to strengthen the scientific and engineering bases upon which the design of teleoperators for use throughout the nuclear industry rests. This will be done by providing new solutions to problems of manipulation, material transport and mobile surveillance in nuclear environments and by demonstrating their feasibility. The Commission's motivations lie in the potential teleoperators have to improve the separation of workers from radioactive equipment. The same technology will also enable plant operators and public authorities to deal more effectively with nuclear accidents. Finally, gains in productivity, particularly in the repair and maintenance area can be expected. Community support is justified by the cost of the reliability and autonomy required for the nuclear teleoperator, the need to rationalise R and D investment in an area of increasing industrial potential and a common interest in coherent responses to emergencies. (author)

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-10-01

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  12. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D

    1998-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Brazilian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Developing an energy policy for a country the size of Brazil is a formidable task. Large differences between the regions in geography and economic development do not allow for a uniform plan. In the mid 1970s, Brazil started a nuclear energy programme to provide it with another option in its energy planning. The objective of the programme was gradually to build a technical and industrial base for nuclear power in the country, so that it would be available when it was needed. It was recognized that it would not be easy for a developing country to acquire the necessary high technology. The organization of the industry is outlined, demand projections are presented and domestic supplies of uranium assessed. (author)

  15. The VIDA programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Iannone, Rosa Lisa

    and Innovation’ within the project ‘Curriculum Quality Analysis and Impact Review of European Education and Care’ (CARE). The programme at the centre of this case builds on theory drawn from research on child development, social disadvantage related to issues of social inequality, and research on organisational...... of innovation as “the development of new concepts, strategies and tools that support groups in achieving the objective of improved well-being”. Three research questions are explored: 1) How is the innovative approach to ECEC professional development conceptualised and translated into practice in the VIDA...... (mechanisms/aspects) affect the implementation of the innovative programme for practice change within ECEC? Methods used include a combination of qualitative data collected through interviews with ECEC educators, managers, consultants, a university college teachers, municipal directors and existing...

  16. Bioergia Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Formation of array microstructures on silicon by multibeam interfered femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Quanzhong; Qiu Jianrong; Zhao Chongjun; Jiang Xiongwei; Zhu Congshan

    2005-01-01

    We report on an optical interference method to fabricate array microstructures on the surface of silicon wafers by means of five-beam interference of femtosecond laser pulses. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope observations revealed microstructures with micrometer-order were fabricated. The diffraction characteristics of the fabricated structures were evaluated. The present technique allows one-step realization of functional optoelectronic devices on silicon surface

  18. The ACIGA data analysis programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Cusack, Benedict J; McClelland, David E

    2004-01-01

    The data analysis programme of the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) was set up in 1998 by Scott to complement the then existing ACIGA programmes working on suspension systems, lasers and optics and detector configurations. The ACIGA data analysis programme continues to contribute significantly in the field; we present an overview of our activities

  19. High-speed multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2016-02-23

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses each being of a programmable pulse duration, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has a plurality of plates. A control system having a digital sequencer controls the laser and a plurality of switching components, synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to enable programmable pulse durations and programmable inter-pulse spacings.

  20. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  1. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.) [de

  2. Programmable waveform controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable waveform controller (PWC) was developed for voltage waveform generation in the laboratory. It is based on the Intel 8080 family of chips. The hardware uses the modular board approach, sharing a common 44-pin bus. The software contains two separate programs: the first generates a single connected linear ramp waveform and is capable of bipolar operation, linear interpolation between input data points, extended time range, and cycling; the second generates four independent square waveforms with variable duration and amplitude

  3. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  4. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffaele Vellone

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO 2 , The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  5. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  6. Comparative study of image contrast in scanning electron microscope and helium ion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R; Chen, Y; Zhang, H; Zhou, Y; Fox, D; Maguire, P; Wang, J J; Rodenburg, C

    2017-12-01

    Images of Ga + -implanted amorphous silicon layers in a 110 n-type silicon substrate have been collected by a range of detectors in a scanning electron microscope and a helium ion microscope. The effects of the implantation dose and imaging parameters (beam energy, dwell time, etc.) on the image contrast were investigated. We demonstrate a similar relationship for both the helium ion microscope Everhart-Thornley and scanning electron microscope Inlens detectors between the contrast of the images and the Ga + density and imaging parameters. These results also show that dynamic charging effects have a significant impact on the quantification of the helium ion microscope and scanning electron microscope contrast. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  8. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  9. The transport safety programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    The transport safety programme is one of the smaller technical sub-programmes in the Radiation Safety Section of the Division of Nuclear Safety, in terms of both regular budget and professional staff allocations. The overall aim of the programme is to promote the safe movement of radioactive material worldwide. The specific objectives are the development, review and maintenance of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No 6, and its supporting documents Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80 and the assistance to Member States and International Organizations in the proper implementation of the Regulations. One of the important issues that emerged during an ongoing Review/Revision process is the transport of Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). Many of the radioactive waste materials fall in one of these categories. The subject has gained substance because it is expected that in the next decade radioactive waste could become available in so far unprecedented quantities and volumes due to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  10. Environmental monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    During 1989 there were about 1000 premises in England and Wales authorised to discharge radioactive wastes. The majority of these premises consisted of hospitals, universities and industrial, research or manufacturing centres. Discharges from these premises when made in accordance with the strict conditions specified in their authorisations will have been of little radiological significance. In the case of nuclear sites authorisations or approvals are issued jointly by the DoE and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) known collectively as the Authorising Departments. In Wales these functions are undertaken by the Welsh Office with the support of HMIP and MAFF. The Authorising Departments specify numerical limits on the amounts of radioactivity which operators may discharge to the environment. In addition operators are required to demonstrate that the best practicable means (BPM) to minimise discharges is undertaken. Operators are also required to carry out appropriate environmental monitoring to demonstrate the effectiveness of BPM. As part of their regulatory functions the Authorising Departments undertake their own environmental monitoring programmes to act as both a check on site operator's returns and to provide independent data on the exposure of the public. HM Inspectorate of Pollution has monitored levels of radioactivity in drinking water sources for many years and published results annually. MAFF undertakes two programmes to monitor radioactivity in the aquatic environment and in terrestrial foodstuffs and publishes annual reports. Environmental monitoring programmes undertaken by both nuclear site operators and government departments are summarised. (author)

  11. Development and applications of the positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Progress on the positron microscope during the past year has been steady, and we currently project that initial microscope images can be collected during mid to late summer of 1992. Work during the year has mainly been divided among four areas of effort: hardware construction; power supply and control system development; radioactive source fabrication; and planning of initial experimental projects. Details of progress in these areas will be given below. An initial optical design of the microscope was completed during 1990, but during the past year, significant improvements have been made to this design, and several limiting cases of microscope performance have been evaluated. The results of these evaluations have been extremely encouraging, giving us strong indications that the optical performance of the microscope will be better than originally anticipated. In particular, we should be able to explore ultimate performance capabilities of positron microscopy using our currently planned optical system, with improvements only in the image detector system, and the positron-source/moderator configuration. We should be able to study imaging reemission microscopy with resolutions approaching 10 Angstrom and be able to produce beam spots for rastered microscope work with diameters below the 1000 Angstrom diffusion limit. Because of these exciting new possibilities, we have decided to upgrade several microscope subsystems to levels consistent with ultimate performance earlier in our construction schedule than we had previously intended. In particular, alignment facilities in the optical system, vibration isolation, and power supply and control system flexibility have all been upgraded in their design over the past year

  12. Programmable imprint lithography template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F [Oakland, CA; Talin, Albert A [Livermore, CA

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  13. Towards vortex imaging with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dan T.

    1994-02-01

    A low temperature, Besocke beetle type scanning tunneling microscope, with a scan range of 10 by 10 microns was built. The scanning tunneling microscope was calibrates for various temperatures and tested on several samples. Gold monolayers evaporated at 400 deg C were resolved and their dynamic behavior observed. Atomic resolution images of graphite were obtained. The scanning tunneling microscope was designed for future applications of vortex imaging in superconductors. The special design considerations for this application are discussed and the physics underlying it reviewed. (author)

  14. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  15. Javascript Library for Developing Interactive Micro-Level Animations for Teaching and Learning Algorithms on One-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The first data structure that first-year undergraduate students learn during the programming and algorithms courses is the one-dimensional array. For novice programmers, it might be hard to understand different algorithms on arrays (e.g. searching, mirroring, sorting algorithms), because the algorithms dynamically change the values of elements. In…

  16. Scanning probe lithography for fabrication of Ti metal nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B.; Jo, W.; Gwon, M.J.; Lee, E.; Kim, D.-W.

    2010-01-01

    We report fabrication of Ti metal nanodot arrays by scanning probe microscopic indentation. A thin poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) layer was spin-coated on Si substrates with thickness of 70 nm. Nanometer-size pore arrays were formed by indenting the PMMA layer using a cantilever of a scanning probe microscope. Protuberances with irregular boundaries appeared during the indentation process. Control of approach and pulling-out speed during indentation was able to dispose of the protrusions. Ti metal films were deposited on the patterned PMMA layers by a radio-frequency sputtering method and subsequently lifted off to obtain metal nanodot arrays. The fabricated metal nanodot arrays have 200 nm of diameter and 500 nm of interdistance, which corresponds to a density of 4x10 8 /cm 2 . Scanning probe-based measurement of current-voltage (I-V) behaviors for a single Ti metal nanodot showed asymmetric characteristics. Applying external bias is likely to induce oxidation of Ti metal, since the conductance decreased and volume change of the dots was observed. I-V behaviors of Ti metal nanodots by conventional e-beam lithography were also characterized for comparison.

  17. A programmable CCD driver circuit for multiphase CCD operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewin, A.J.; Reed, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable CCD driver circuit was designed to drive CCD's in multiphased modes. The purpose of the drive electronics was to operate developmental CCD imaging arrays for NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tiltable (MODIS-T). Five prototype arrays were designed. Valid's Graphics Editor (GED) was used to design the driver. With this driver design, any of the five arrays can be readout. Designing the driver with GED allowed functional simulation, timing verification, and certain packaging analyses to be done on the design before fabrication. The driver verified its function with the master clock running up to 10 MHz. This suggests a maximum rate of 400 Kpixels/sec. Timing and packaging parameters were verified. the design uses 54 TTL component chips

  18. Programmable trigger for electron pairs in ring image Cherenkov counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glab, J.; Baur, R.; Manner, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a programmable trigger processor for the recognition of Cherenkov rings in a RICH counter. It identifies open electron pairs and suppresses close conversion and Dalitz pairs within 20 μs. More generally, the system can be used for correlating pixel images with pattern masks in order to locate all relatively well defined patterns of a certain type. The trigger processor consists of a systolic processor array of 160 x 176, i.e., 28,160 identical processing elements (PEs) that filter out open electron pairs, and a pseudo adder array that determines whether there was at least one such pair. The processor array is assembled of 20 x 22 VLSI chips containing 8 x 8 PEs each. The semi-custom chip has been developed in 2 μ CMOS standard cell technology

  19. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  20. phytochemical and microscopical evaluation of desmodium velutinum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... and observed under the compound microscope for the presence of cell inclusions such as cellulose, starch, oil ... opportunity of providing useful medicinal compounds. (Gill, 1992). ..... Medical Properties of African. Plants of.

  1. Understanding and caring for an operating microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An operating or surgical microscope is an optical instrument that provides the surgeon with a stereoscopic, high quality magnified and illuminated image of the small structures in the surgical area.

  2. A pragmatic guide to multiphoton microscope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael D.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Bartels, Randy A.; Squier, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a ubiquitous tool for studying microscopic structure and function across a broad range of disciplines. As such, the intent of this paper is to present a comprehensive resource for the construction and performance evaluation of a multiphoton microscope that will be understandable to the broad range of scientific fields that presently exploit, or wish to begin exploiting, this powerful technology. With this in mind, we have developed a guide to aid in the design of a multiphoton microscope. We discuss source selection, optical management of dispersion, image-relay systems with scan optics, objective-lens selection, single-element light-collection theory, photon-counting detection, image rendering, and finally, an illustrated guide for building an example microscope. PMID:27182429

  3. Virtual vitreoretinal surgery: validation of a training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-02-01

    To test the validity of the eyesi surgical simulator as an assessment tool in a virtual reality vitreoretinal training programme. In collaboration with an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon, a virtual vitreoretinal training programme was composed on the eyesi surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: 20 medical students, ten residents of ophthalmology and five trained vitreoretinal surgeons. The programme contained six training modules: navigation level 2 (Nav2), forceps training level 5 (ForT5), bimanual training level 3 (BimT3), laser coagulation level 3 (LasC3), posterior hyaloid level 3 (PostH3) and internal limiting membrane peeling level 3 (ILMP3). The scores in each module were assessed from two to five different factors (tissue treatment, efficiency, target achievement, instrument handling and microscope handling), and it was possible to achieve 100 points in each module. At the final training session, the highest overall median score was found for the vitreoretinal surgeons (vitreoretinal surgeons: 434 points, residents: 394.5 points, medical students: 272.5 points, p training programme with validity for the eyesi surgical simulator as an assessment tool for overall score and for four of six vitreoretinal modules. These findings could potentially make the programme a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microsco...

  5. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  6. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  7. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  8. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  9. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  10. A Complementary Resistive Switch-based Crossbar Array Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Siemon, A.; Menzel, S.; Waser, R.; Linn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Redox-based resistive switching devices (ReRAM) are an emerging class of non-volatile storage elements suited for nanoscale memory applications. In terms of logic operations, ReRAM devices were suggested to be used as programmable interconnects, large-scale look-up tables or for sequential logic operations. However, without additional selector devices these approaches are not suited for use in large scale nanocrossbar memory arrays, which is the preferred architecture for ReRAM devices due to...

  11. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, William N; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J

    2007-05-15

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations.

  12. Nitrogen Research Programme STOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Van der Eerden, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution is one of the main threats to the environment now in the Netherlands as well as other parts of Europe. In order to address the main gaps on the issues of nitrogen pollution related to the local scale, the Ministries of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) and of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) have initiated a research programme, the Dutch Nitrogen Research Programme (STOP), which aims to provide a scientific basis to develop and implement policy on a local scale for the realisation and conservation of the EHS ('Dutch Mainframe of Natural Landscapes'). The results of the programme show that the description of emissions from manure in the field is difficult to describe and show large uncertainties. On the contrary, emissions from housings could be modelled well, if local actual data were available. The OPS model to describe the dispersion and deposition was evaluated with the measurements and the limitations were quantified. It appears that the model works well on the long term, whereas on the short term (hours) and short distance (tenths of meters) there is large uncertainty, especially in complex terrain. Critical loads for nitrogen for ecosystems were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of management options was quantified. A method to determine critical loads as a function of soil conditions, such as acidification and water availability was derived. This resulted in a combination of the soil model SMART and the so-called 'nature planner' (Natuurplanner). It was concluded that the combination of SMART, the nature planner and OPS provide a good tool to develop and support policy on the local scale. 4 refs

  13. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  14. IMIS: An intelligence microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michael; Hunter, Norwood; Taylor, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Until recently microscope users in space relied on traditional microscopy techniques that required manual operation of the microscope and recording of observations in the form of written notes, drawings, or photographs. This method was time consuming and required the return of film and drawings from space for analysis. No real-time data analysis was possible. Advances in digital and video technologies along with recent developments in article intelligence will allow future space microscopists to have a choice of three additional modes of microscopy: remote coaching, remote control, and automation. Remote coaching requires manual operations of the microscope with instructions given by two-way audio/video transmission during critical phases of the experiment. When using the remote mode of microscopy, the Principal Investigator controls the microscope from the ground. The automated mode employs artificial intelligence to control microscope functions and is the only mode that can be operated in the other three modes as well. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four modes of of microscopy and how the IMIS, a proposed intelligent microscope imaging system, can be used as a model for developing and testing concepts, operating procedures, and equipment design of specifications required to provide a comprehensive microscopy/imaging capability onboard Space Station Freedom.

  15. The 'Kristallin' programme: investigations, results, future procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautschi, A.

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of the geological investigations carried out to date as part of the 'Kristallin' programme has indicated that potentially suitable crystalline rock at an appropriate depth can be found in two regions of Northern Switzerland. The most promising siting options are in Canton Aargau, in a strip of land a few kilometers wide to the south of the Rhine river (Area West: Kaisten-Leuggern-Boettstein). A second-priority option is in Canton Schaffhausen (Area East: Siblingen). For the next phase of investigations into the possibility of locating a repository for high-level and long-lived intermediate-level waste in a crystalline formation, it is planned to carry out a 3D seismic survey in the Boettstein-Leuggern region and to drill an array of inclined boreholes at the former deep borehole site at Leuggern (or Boettstein). These two boreholes have already revealed the presence of large sections of low-permeability crystalline basement. (author) 12 figs

  16. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  17. IUR : organization and programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.

    1992-01-01

    I.U.R. is an international Association which aims to promote radioecology by exchange of scientific information, cooperation and the support of young scientists. The organizational chart involves a Board of Council which coordinates the various regional branches headed by a Bureau. Besides this vertical structure, it exists an horizontal one constituted by a series of Working Groups headed by a leader. The I.U.R. also cooperates to international programmes such as, i.e., VAMP (IAEA) and SCOPE-RADPATH. (author)

  18. Research and training programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research rather be left to experts? I can’t do the course; I have no research background!”

  19. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  20. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  1. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  2. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  3. Flexible programmable logic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  4. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  5. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  6. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Raedt, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  7. Canadian programme overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a severe accident, hydrogen is released into containment. When it is well mixed, the hydrogen mixture is nonflammable because there is sufficient dilution by the large containment volume. This is the desired end point. However, the release may occur into smaller compartments of containment, stratification may occur, and local pockets of flammable mixtures may arise if hydrogen is released faster than processes that mix and disperse it. Long term hydrogen generation from water radiolysis must also be considered. Hydrogen mitigation and control strategies adopted or considered in Canada include fanforced mixing, glow plug igniters, recombiners, venting through filters, or combinations of these. The Canadian hydrogen programme is focussed on understanding hydrogen combustion behaviour and providing the data needed to demonstrate the adequacy of hydrogen mitigation and control strategies. The programme includes both experimental and modelling components of hydrogen combustion and distribution. Experiments include mixing tests, deflagration tests, diffusion flames, transition from deflagration to detonation, and testing the performance of igniters and recombiners. Modelling is focussing on the GOTHIC code as an industry standard. Detailed three dimensional modelling of gas mixing and combustion are underway, and a code validation matrix is being assembled for validation exercises. Significant progress has been made, highlights from which are being presented at this workshop. (author)

  8. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  9. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  10. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahimsa, Djali

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  11. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  12. Programmable electronic safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement fail-safe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL

  13. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL

  14. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  15. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  16. A Compute Environment of ABC95 Array Computer Based on Multi-FPGA Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ABC95 array computer is a multi-function network's computer based on FPGA technology, The multi-function network supports processors conflict-free access data from memory and supports processors access data from processors based on enhanced MESH network.ABC95 instruction's system includes control instructions, scalar instructions, vectors instructions.Mostly net-work instructions are introduced.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer assemble language is designed.A programming environment of ABC95 array computer for VC++ is advanced.It includes load function of ABC95 array computer program and data, store function, run function and so on.Specially, The data type of ABC95 array computer conflict-free access is defined.The results show that these technologies can develop programmer of ABC95 array computer effectively.

  17. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Concurrent array-based queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  19. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  20. Postgraduate programme in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongyudh Vajaradul

    1999-01-01

    In 1992 in the Project Formulation Meeting of IAEA, the masters degree programme was proposed by Dr. Youngyudh Vajaradul, Thailand to upgrade the personnel of tissue bank and the person who had been working and involving in tissue banking. After The Bangkok Biomaterial Center proposed the degree programme and presented to Mahidol University, this programme was accepted by Ministry of University Affairs in 1998 and the masters degree programme under the name of 'Masters of Science in Biomaterial for Implantation' will be started in April 1999. IAEA will support the fellowship candidates from the region to study in masters degree programme. The programme includes 6 months of course work in Bangkok that is 12 credits and 24 is for the dissertation work which would be done in any country. The time of validity is 5 years

  1. Radiation research: the European programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of an oral presentation on the European Community's Radiation Protection Programme. Aspects of the programme discussed included its development which began 25 years ago, the administrative structure, the financial success and the funding for 1985/89. Finally, the six subject sectors of the programme were discussed, giving a broad description of where the emphases had been laid and how each sector had fared. (U.K.)

  2. The European fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    With the 1982-86 pluriannual programme, reactor technology became a separate chapter in the fusion research programme of the European Commission. It comprises work on materials, the breeder blanket, tritium management, magnet coils, maintenance and the safety and environmental aspects. After an overview of the programme each of these areas is discussed briefly and some remarks are made on the role played by the European fission energy and magnet laboratories. (author)

  3. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  4. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  5. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  6. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  7. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  8. Cigotica programme: pediatric experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešović Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The alarming spread of obesity epidemic in children and adolsecents, as well as the absence of tested and efficient measures and programmes on obesity preven­tion indicate the necessity for the establishment of the Centre for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of obesity in children and adolescents and the 'Cigotica Programme' at the Special Hospital 'Zlatibor'. The advantage of the 'Cigotica' Programme is the multidisciplinary approach to treating obese children, which implies specific education, dietetic interventions with the reduction in the total daily calorie intake, physical activity, medical, educational and psychological support, change of behavior and lifestyle. Objective To define obesity complications, metabolic risk factors and treatment effects on body composition and metabolic parameters in adolescents participating in the 'Cigotica' Programme. Method 1,030 adolescents were examined (498 girls and 532 boys, aged 12 to 18, average age 15.45, diagnosed with primary obesity, hospitalized at the Centre for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of obesity in children and adolescents at the Special Hospital 'Zlatibor', in the period from 27/07/2008 to 03/10/2010. Hospitalization lasted 21 days. Obesity criterion was body mass index (BMI > +2 SD . Body The Special Hospital for the Thyroid Gland and Metabolism Zlatibor mass, BMI, % of fat were obtained by means of Tanita scales for determining body composition using the impendence method. Apart from medical examination, blood pressure was also taken. The levels of triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterols, uric acids and glycemia were determined on the second and twenty-first day of hospitalization after a 12-day fasting period. Results After the multidisciplinary treatment, the average reduction in body mass (p< 0.05 in all adolescents was 5.92 ± 2.71 kg, in boys - 6.24 ±3.24 kg, and in girls -5.86±2.4. During the 21-day hospitalization, the average

  9. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  10. A 4 probe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, C E [CEGB, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Marchwood, Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    A NDT system is described which moves away from the present manual method using a single send/receive transducer combination and uses instead an array of four transducers. Four transducers are shown sufficient to define a point reflector with a resolution of m{lambda}z/R where m{lambda} is the minimum detectable path difference in the system (corresponding to a m cycle time resolution), z the range and R the radius of the array. Signal averaging with an input ADC rate of 100 MHz is used with voice output for the range data. Typical resolution measurements in a water tank are presented. We expect a resolution of the order of mm in steel at a range of 80 mm. The system is expected to have applications in automated, high resolution, sizing of defects and in the inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds. (author)

  11. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  12. Iran's nuclear power programme revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-01-01

    Iran's new government has not yet made a final decision about the fate of that country's once ambitious nuclear power programme. If the programme is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway when the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear power programme between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrastructural, and political criticisms of the programme as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. (author)

  13. A programmable delay unit incorporating a semi-custom integrated circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-01-01

    The synchronization of SLC accelerator control and monitoring functions is realized by a CAMAC module, the PDU II (Programmable Delay Unit II, SLAC 253-002), which includes a semi-custom gate array integrated circuit. The PDU II distributes 16 channels of independently programmable delayed pulses to other modules within the same CAMAC crate. The delays are programmable in increments of 8.4 ns. Functional descriptions of both the module and the semi-custom integrated circuit used to generate the output pulses are given

  14. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  15. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  16. Phased array antenna control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  17. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  18. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friets, E.M.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Hatch, J.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given

  19. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  20. The optics of microscope image formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    Although geometric optics gives a good understanding of how the microscope works, it fails in one critical area, which is explaining the origin of microscope resolution. To accomplish this, one must consider the microscope from the viewpoint of physical optics. This chapter describes the theory of the microscope-relating resolution to the highest spatial frequency that a microscope can collect. The chapter illustrates how Huygens' principle or construction can be used to explain the propagation of a plane wave. It is shown that this limit increases with increasing numerical aperture (NA). As a corollary to this, resolution increases with decreasing wavelength because of how NA depends on wavelength. The resolution is higher for blue light than red light. Resolution is dependent on contrast, and the higher the contrast, the higher the resolution. This last point relates to issues of signal-to-noise and dynamic range. The use of video and new digital cameras has necessitated redefining classical limits such as those of Rayleigh's criterion. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friets, E M; Strohbehn, J W; Hatch, J F; Roberts, D W

    1989-06-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given.

  2. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  4. ATLAS Upgrade Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, S J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the already outstanding LHC luminosity performance, and planned LHC upgrades in the upcoming shutdowns, it is expected that within a short time-scale, the general purpose LHC experiments will have to cope with luminosities beyond their original design. In order to maintain detector performance and sensitivity to expected and new physics processes, ATLAS has defined a continuous upgrade programme which foresees staged enhancements during the next 10 years of operation, and then more widespread changes before the transition to the highest luminosities after 2022. This talk will describe several components of the ATLAS upgrade, focusing in particular on the Inner Detector and Trigger. The Inner Detector faces two challenges in the higher luminosity environment: high particle multiplicities and increased radiation dose. These will be addressed in the short term by a new layer of Pixel detectors, and in the long term by a complete replacement. The Trigger faces an increasingly difficult task of distinguishing...

  5. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  6. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  7. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  8. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  9. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  10. FGI - Programme 2: RADIOECOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Biesold, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany); Chabanyuk, V. [Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, Department Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Chernobylsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    The main purpose of the RADIOECOLOGY Program focuses on studying the radioecological consequences of the accident mainly in the Kyiv, Zhytomyr regions of Ukraine, Gomel, Mogilev regions of Belarus and Bryansk, Kaluga regions of Russia. The results of solutions of tasks presented below are integrated into the geographic and technical Radio Ecological Database After Chernobyl, REDAC. This database we be used for the subsequent study of the impacts, for modeling, and for the development of strategies for the waste control and counter measures. The following task of the programme are highlighted: ecological portrait; contamination; wastes dumps and operational database; radionuclide transfers from soil to plants, by surfaces run off, in aquatic environment and from plants to animals; urban environment, implying modeling transfers and countermeasures; countermeasures in natural and agricultural areas.

  11. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  12. Determination of the parameters of a microscopic object from a complex response of a differential microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D V; Egorov, Alexander A; Zolotov, Evgenii M; Svidzinsky, K K

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the amplitude and phase of a complex response of a heterodyne differential microscope was used to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of determination of the parameters of a composite microscopic object representing a combination of a step with a groove. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Integrated strain array for cellular mechanobiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C S; Sim, J Y; Baechtold, P; Chung, C; Borghi, N; Pruitt, B L; Gonzalez, A

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated strain array for cell culture enabling high-throughput mechano-transduction studies. Biocompatible cell culture chambers were integrated with an acrylic pneumatic compartment and microprocessor-based control system. Each element of the array consists of a deformable membrane supported by a cylindrical pillar within a well. For user-prescribed waveforms, the annular region of the deformable membrane is pulled into the well around the pillar under vacuum, causing the pillar-supported region with cultured cells to be stretched biaxially. The optically clear device and pillar-based mechanism of operation enables imaging on standard laboratory microscopes. Straightforward fabrication utilizes off-the-shelf components, soft lithography techniques in polydimethylsiloxane and laser ablation of acrylic sheets. Proof of compatibility with basic biological assays and standard imaging equipment were accomplished by straining C2C12 skeletal myoblasts on the device for 6 h. At higher strains, cells and actin stress fibers realign with a circumferential preference

  14. On the microscopic foundation of scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to give a contribution to the microscopic foundation of scattering theory, i. e. to show, how the asymptotic formalism of scattering theory with objects like the S-matrix as well the initial and final asymptotics ψ in and ψ out can be derived from a microscopic description of the basic system. First the final statistics from a N-particle system through farly distant surfaces is derived. Thereafter we confine us to the 1-particle scattering and apply the final statistics in order to derive the scattering cross section from a microscopical description of the scattering situation. The basing dynamics are Bohm's mechanics, a theory on the motion of point particles, which reproduces all results of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

  15. Microscopic hydrodynamics study with nuclear track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilun Guo; Yuhua Zhao; Yulan Wang; Hiuhong Hao; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.

    1988-01-01

    Microscopic hydrodynamics has been studied using different liquids and nuclear track membranes with pores perpendicularly piercing through them. The flow rate of water and alcohol has been studied with polycarbonate track membranes with pore diameters 1.48 micrometres and 1.08 micrometres. It has been shown that the flow rate both for water and alcohol on a microscopic scale can be determined by the Poiseuille law which characterizes macroscopic laminar flow. The Reynolds number used in macroscopic fluid flow has been calculated from the flow rate and parameters of the liquids and the geometry of the pores. It has been shown that this Reynolds number can also be used to characterize microscopic flow. Based on the above results, the filtration capacity (or limit) of polycarbonate track microfilters for water had been calculated. Some possible limits on the application of the calculation are pointed out and discussed. (author)

  16. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  17. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  18. Handy Microscopic Close-Range Videogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, F.; Ebadi, H.

    2017-09-01

    The modeling of small-scale objects is used in different applications such as medicine, industry, and cultural heritage. The capability of modeling small-scale objects using imaging with the help of hand USB digital microscopes and use of videogrammetry techniques has been implemented and evaluated in this paper. Use of this equipment and convergent imaging of the environment for modeling, provides an appropriate set of images for generation of three-dimensional models. The results of the measurements made with the help of a microscope micrometer calibration ruler have demonstrated that self-calibration of a hand camera-microscope set can help obtain a three-dimensional detail extraction precision of about 0.1 millimeters on small-scale environments.

  19. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  20. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    ‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental...... the microscope column. The effects of gas on the electron wave in the objective lens are not well understood and needs further attention. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast, provides a means for understanding...... results from imaging in various elemental as well as di‐molecular gases and their effect on imaging and spectroscopy in the environmental transmission electron microscope....

  1. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-01-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques

  2. Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested

  3. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. A BLUEPRINT FOR IMPLEMENTING GRAND CHALLENGE SCHOLARS’ PROGRAMME: A CASE STUDY OF TAYLOR’S UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Academy for Engineering announced 14 Grand Challenges for the 21st Century engineers to address in order to ensure a sustainable future for the generations to come. These grand challenges are in four broad areas, namely, energy and environment, health, security and learning and computation. This paper reports on a Grand Challenges Scholars’ Programme that is developed to prepare the engineering students to be able to address the grand challenges using the CDIO framework and focusing on five components; research experience, interdisciplinary curriculum, entrepreneurship, global dimension and service learning. The programme is voluntary and the candidates are expected to commit additional learning time. The programme was launched with 16 participants who are expected to graduate in 2016. A preliminary assessment of the programs shows that the participants found the programme useful in developing an array of CDIO skills. The School intends to continue offering this programme with the intention of integrating it with a holistic education approach.

  5. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  6. Expectations for neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, M.

    1993-01-01

    Neutrons have been used as microscopic probes to study structural and dynamical properties of various materials. In this paper I shall give a comparative study of the neutron research in the condensed matter physics with other typical microscopic methods such as X-rays, laser optics, magnetic resonances, Moessbauer effect and μSR. It is emphasized that the neutron study will extensively be important in future beyond the condensed matter physics. Chemistry, biology, earth sciences, material engineerings and medical sciences will become new frontiers for neutron study. (author)

  7. An innovative approach in microscopic endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the dental operating microscope was a turning point in the history of dentistry. It triggered a rapid transition from the conventional world of macro-dentistry to the precise, detailed world of micro-dentistry. However, working at these higher-power magnifications brings the clinician into the realm where even slight hand movements are disruptive. Physiologic hand tremor is a problem resulting in difficulty in mouth mirror placement. Hence, in this paper, a new instrument was designed to overcome the drawback of hand tremors during microscopic endodontics. PMID:24944459

  8. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  9. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...... the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible...

  10. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  11. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  12. Small-size low-temperature scanning tunnel microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tfeder, I.B.; Khajkin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A small-size scanning tunnel microscope, designed for operation in transport helium-filled Dewar flasks is described. The microscope design contains a device moving the pin to the tested sample surface and a piezoelectric fine positioning device. High vibration protection of the microscope is provided by its suspension using silk threads. The small-size scanning tunnel microscope provides for atomic resolution

  13. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  14. Microscopic nuclear structure with sub-nucleonic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews microscopic theories of nuclear structure. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons only; microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, isobars and mesons; and microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, mesons and dibaryons. (U.K.)

  15. STREAMS - Technology Programme. Yearbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The STREAMS Technology Programme addresses municipal waste. Municipal waste is composed of waste from households and small businesses. The programme focuses on five areas Waste prevention, Collection, transportation, and management of waste streams, Waste treatment technologies, Waste recycling into raw materials and new products, Landfill technologies. The development projects of the STREAMS Programme utilize a number of different technologies, such as biotechnology, information technology, materials technology, measurement and analysis, and automation technology. Finnish expertise in materials recycling technologies and related electronics and information technology is extremely high on a worldwide scale even though the companies represent SMEs. Started in 2001, the STREAMS programme has a total volume of 27 million euros, half of which is funded by Tekes. The programme runs through the end of 2004. (author)

  16. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  17. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  18. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  19. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  20. Microscopic polyangeitis, report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon, Patricia; Suarez, Martha Lucia

    1998-01-01

    Polyarteritis or microscopic polyangeitis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis associated with the lung-kidney syndrome. It presents with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with multisystem involvement. A case is presented of a 50 years old male with its clinical and imaging findings

  1. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  2. Microscopic Cluster Theory for Exotic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, M; Kuehl, T; Ursescu, D; Fritzsche, S

    2006-01-01

    For a better understanding of the dynamics of complex exotic nuclei it is of crucial importance to develop a practical microscopic theory easy to be applied to a wide range of masses. In this paper we propose to calculate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei within a dynamic model based on the EoM theory

  3. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  4. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  5. Remote Controlling and Monitoring of Microscopic Slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, G.; Qadri, M.T.; Daraz, U.

    2016-01-01

    Remotely controlled microscopic slide was designed using especial Graphical User Interface (GUI) which interfaces the user at remote location with the real microscope using site and the user can easily view and control the slide present on the microscope's stage. Precise motors have been used to allow the movement in all the three dimensions required by a pathologist. The pathologist can easily access these slides from any remote location and so the physical presence of the pathologist is now made easy. This invention would increase the health care efficiency by reducing the time and cost of diagnosis, making it very easy to get the expert's opinion and supporting the pathologist to relocate himself for his work. The microscope is controlled with computer with an attractive Graphical User Interface (GUI), through which a pathologist can easily monitor, control and record the image of the slide. The pathologist can now do his work regardless of his location, time, cost and physically presence of lab equipment. The technology will help the specialist in viewing the patients slide from any location in the world. He would be able to monitor and control the stage. This will also help the pathological laboratories in getting opinion from senior pathologist who are present at any far location in the world. This system also reduces the life risks of the patients. (author)

  6. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...

  7. Mesooptical microscope as a tomographical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four regions which are common for the mesooptical microscopes, on the one hand, and for the reconstructed tomography, on the other hand. The following characteristics of the mesooptical microscope show the tomographical properties: the structure of the output data concerning the orientation and the position in space of the straight-line objects going at small angles with the perpendicular to the given tomographic plane, the behaviour of the two-dimensional fourier-transform of the straight-line object in the course of the rotation of this object with respect to the specified axis in space, the scanning algorithm of the nuclear emulsion volume by the fence-like illuminated region in the mesooptical microscope for searching for particle tracks going parallel to the optical axis of the microscope, and, finally, the fact that the mesooptical images of the straight-line particle tracks with a common vertex in the nuclear emulsion lie on the sinogram. 12 refs.; 16 figs

  8. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based techniques and phenomena. In addition, application of adjacent setups using sophisticated transfer methods...

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-10-09

    Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.

  10. Microscopic approaches to quantum nonequilibriumthermodynamics and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-09

    perspective on quantum thermalization for Science [8]. Wrote a joint experiment- theory paper on studying connections between quantum and classical chaos in...on the random matrix theory (eigenstate thermalization) and macroscopic phenomena (both equilibrium and non-equilibrium). Understanding thermodynamics...information. Specific questions to be addressed: connections of microscopic description of quantum chaotic systems based on the random matrix theory

  11. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges...

  12. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  13. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  14. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  15. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  16. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  17. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  18. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  19. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  20. The Swedish energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setterwall, M.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses factors affecting the present and future supply of energy in Sweden. Before 1973 Sweden had the highest per capita oil importation in the world; it has no indigenous oil, gas or coal but is well off for water power, about three quarters of which is at present exploited, the remaining quarter being nearly all sterilised for the time being on conservationist grounds. By 1985 twelve nuclear generators should be in action, but further nuclear development has been stopped by political decisions. Official policy is to reduce dependence upon imported oil by the present use of nuclear energy and without increased importation of coal, but by AD2010 completely to replace nuclear energy by energy saving, using indigenous wood and peat, and developing the alternative sources of sun and wind. Heavy subsidy of the last however has produced little result so far. The author views this programme with great scepticism and opines that the present political blocking of increased generation by oil, coal, water power and nuclear energy will have to be broken, and that nuclear energy will play a major role for a long time to come. (C.J.O.G.)