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Sample records for program underlying rhythmic

  1. Attentional loads associated with interlimb interactions underlying rhythmic bimanual coordination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderikhoff, A.; Peper, C.E.; Beek, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of rhythmic bimanual coordination under dual-task conditions revealed (1) a dependence of secondary task performance on the stability of coordinative tasks, in that secondary task performance was better during in-phase than antiphase coordination, and (2) a shift in the mean relative phasing

  2. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Friesen, W. O.; Iwasaki, T.

    2011-01-01

    Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail. PMID:21270304

  3. Anthropometric and physical differences of the gymnasts from the talent identification program of the artistic and rhythmic specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyton Román, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to describe the physical and anthropometric characteristics of 25 gymnasts from the talent identification program of the Extremeña Gymnastics Federation. Subjects were classified according to their specialty: women‘s artistic gymnastic (WAG and rhythmic gymnastics (RG. The dependent variables include body fat percentage through an electronic scale column with stadiometer (SECA 220cm; body circumferences through a plicometer (Holtain; body diameters and specific tests of flexibility through a tape (CM 3m; a heart rate through Ruffier test and a heart rate monitor (Polar F6; isometric strength of lower extremities through a load cell (SSMAJ 5000N; and jumping ability through a contact mat (Lafayette CVP A73. The results concluded that the WAG group got the best results in flexibility tests (p<.05. Also, the RG group had lower body fat percentage and greater SJ jump ability (r=-.774; p<.01 and CMJ (r=-.600; p<.05. However, the WAG group showed a negative relation between body mass index and flexibility (p<.01. We conclude that there are differences in body composition and physical tests between the specialties/styles of women’s artistic gymnastics and female rhythmic gymnastics; we also found relationships between the performance of such tests and anthropometric variables.

  4. Temporal redistribution of inhibition over neuronal subcellular domains underlies state-dependent rhythmic change of excitability in the hippocampus

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    Somogyi, Peter; Katona, Linda; Klausberger, Thomas; Lasztóczi, Bálint; Viney, Tim J.

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour-contingent rhythmic synchronization of neuronal activity is reported by local field potential oscillations in the theta, gamma and sharp wave-related ripple (SWR) frequency ranges. In the hippocampus, pyramidal cell assemblies representing temporal sequences are coordinated by GABAergic interneurons selectively innervating specific postsynaptic domains, and discharging phase locked to network oscillations. We compare the cellular network dynamics in the CA1 and CA3 areas recorded with or without anaesthesia. All parts of pyramidal cells, except the axon initial segment, receive GABA from multiple interneuron types, each with distinct firing dynamics. The axon initial segment is exclusively innervated by axo-axonic cells, preferentially firing after the peak of the pyramidal layer theta cycle, when pyramidal cells are least active. Axo-axonic cells are inhibited during SWRs, when many pyramidal cells fire synchronously. This dual inverse correlation demonstrates the key inhibitory role of axo-axonic cells. Parvalbumin-expressing basket cells fire phase locked to field gamma activity in both CA1 and CA3, and also strongly increase firing during SWRs, together with dendrite-innervating bistratified cells, phasing pyramidal cell discharge. Subcellular domain-specific GABAergic innervation probably developed for the coordination of multiple glutamatergic inputs on different parts of pyramidal cells through the temporally distinct activity of GABAergic interneurons, which differentially change their firing during different network states. PMID:24366131

  5. Rhythmic interaction in VR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    Cinematic virtual reality is a new and relatively unexplored area in academia. While research in guiding the spectator's attention in this new medium has been conducted for some time, a focus on editing in conjunction with spectator orientation is only currently emerging. In this paper, we consid...... in rhythm perception, and complement it with applications in traditional editing. Through the notion of multimodal listening we provide guidelines that can be used in rhythmic and sonic interaction design in VR....

  6. Proteomic identification of rhythmic proteins in rice seedlings.

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    Hwang, Heeyoun; Cho, Man-Ho; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Lim, Hyemin; Kwon, Yong-Kook; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee

    2011-04-01

    Many aspects of plant metabolism that are involved in plant growth and development are influenced by light-regulated diurnal rhythms as well as endogenous clock-regulated circadian rhythms. To identify the rhythmic proteins in rice, periodically grown (12h light/12h dark cycle) seedlings were harvested for three days at six-hour intervals. Continuous dark-adapted plants were also harvested for two days. Among approximately 3000 reproducible protein spots on each gel, proteomic analysis ascertained 354 spots (~12%) as light-regulated rhythmic proteins, in which 53 spots showed prolonged rhythm under continuous dark conditions. Of these 354 ascertained rhythmic protein spots, 74 diurnal spots and 10 prolonged rhythmic spots under continuous dark were identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The rhythmic proteins were functionally classified into photosynthesis, central metabolism, protein synthesis, nitrogen metabolism, stress resistance, signal transduction and unknown. Comparative analysis of our proteomic data with the public microarray database (the Plant DIURNAL Project) and RT-PCR analysis of rhythmic proteins showed differences in rhythmic expression phases between mRNA and protein, suggesting that the clock-regulated proteins in rice are modulated by not only transcriptional but also post-transcriptional, translational, and/or post-translational processes. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Witek, Maria A G

    2014-01-01

    Musical rhythm, consisting of apparently abstract intervals of accented temporal events,has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. How does the cognitive systemenable our experiences of rhythmically complex music? In this paper, we describe somecommon forms of rhythmic complexity...

  8. Situational influences on rhythmicity in speech, music, and their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Sarah

    2014-12-19

    Brain processes underlying the production and perception of rhythm indicate considerable flexibility in how physical signals are interpreted. This paper explores how that flexibility might play out in rhythmicity in speech and music. There is much in common across the two domains, but there are also significant differences. Interpretations are explored that reconcile some of the differences, particularly with respect to how functional properties modify the rhythmicity of speech, within limits imposed by its structural constraints. Functional and structural differences mean that music is typically more rhythmic than speech, and that speech will be more rhythmic when the emotions are more strongly engaged, or intended to be engaged. The influence of rhythmicity on attention is acknowledged, and it is suggested that local increases in rhythmicity occur at times when attention is required to coordinate joint action, whether in talking or music-making. Evidence is presented which suggests that while these short phases of heightened rhythmical behaviour are crucial to the success of transitions in communicative interaction, their modality is immaterial: they all function to enhance precise temporal prediction and hence tightly coordinated joint action. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Situational influences on rhythmicity in speech, music, and their interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Brain processes underlying the production and perception of rhythm indicate considerable flexibility in how physical signals are interpreted. This paper explores how that flexibility might play out in rhythmicity in speech and music. There is much in common across the two domains, but there are also significant differences. Interpretations are explored that reconcile some of the differences, particularly with respect to how functional properties modify the rhythmicity of speech, within limits imposed by its structural constraints. Functional and structural differences mean that music is typically more rhythmic than speech, and that speech will be more rhythmic when the emotions are more strongly engaged, or intended to be engaged. The influence of rhythmicity on attention is acknowledged, and it is suggested that local increases in rhythmicity occur at times when attention is required to coordinate joint action, whether in talking or music-making. Evidence is presented which suggests that while these short phases of heightened rhythmical behaviour are crucial to the success of transitions in communicative interaction, their modality is immaterial: they all function to enhance precise temporal prediction and hence tightly coordinated joint action. PMID:25385776

  10. Individualization of music-based rhythmic auditory cueing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Dotov, Dobromir; Bardy, Benoît; de Cock, Valérie Cochen

    2018-06-04

    Gait dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease can be partly relieved by rhythmic auditory cueing. This consists in asking patients to walk with a rhythmic auditory stimulus such as a metronome or music. The effect on gait is visible immediately in terms of increased speed and stride length. Moreover, training programs based on rhythmic cueing can have long-term benefits. The effect of rhythmic cueing, however, varies from one patient to the other. Patients' response to the stimulation may depend on rhythmic abilities, often deteriorating with the disease. Relatively spared abilities to track the beat favor a positive response to rhythmic cueing. On the other hand, most patients with poor rhythmic abilities either do not respond to the cues or experience gait worsening when walking with cues. An individualized approach to rhythmic auditory cueing with music is proposed to cope with this variability in patients' response. This approach calls for using assistive mobile technologies capable of delivering cues that adapt in real time to patients' gait kinematics, thus affording step synchronization to the beat. Individualized rhythmic cueing can provide a safe and cost-effective alternative to standard cueing that patients may want to use in their everyday lives. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. The Effect of Haptic Guidance on Learning a Hybrid Rhythmic-Discrete Motor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Bannwart, Mathias; Riener, Robert; Vallery, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Bouncing a ball with a racket is a hybrid rhythmic-discrete motor task, combining continuous rhythmic racket movements with discrete impact events. Rhythmicity is exceptionally important in motor learning, because it underlies fundamental movements such as walking. Studies suggested that rhythmic and discrete movements are governed by different control mechanisms at different levels of the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of fixed/fading haptic guidance on learning to bounce a ball to a desired apex in virtual reality with varying gravity. Changing gravity changes dominance of rhythmic versus discrete control: The higher the value of gravity, the more rhythmic the task; lower values reduce the bouncing frequency and increase dwell times, eventually leading to a repetitive discrete task that requires initiation and termination, resembling target-oriented reaching. Although motor learning in the ball-bouncing task with varying gravity has been studied, the effect of haptic guidance on learning such a hybrid rhythmic-discrete motor task has not been addressed. We performed an experiment with thirty healthy subjects and found that the most effective training condition depended on the degree of rhythmicity: Haptic guidance seems to hamper learning of continuous rhythmic tasks, but it seems to promote learning for repetitive tasks that resemble discrete movements.

  12. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tierney

    Full Text Available Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions.

  13. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  14. Neural correlates of rhythmic expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P. Zanto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal expectancy is thought to play a fundamental role in the perception of rhythm. This review summarizes recent studies that investigated rhythmic expectancy by recording neuroelectric activity with high temporal resolution during the presentation of rhythmic patterns. Prior event-related brain potential (ERP studies have uncovered auditory evoked responses that reflect detection of onsets, offsets, sustains,and abrupt changes in acoustic properties such as frequency, intensity, and spectrum, in addition to indexing higher-order processes such as auditory sensory memory and the violation of expectancy. In our studies of rhythmic expectancy, we measured emitted responses - a type of ERP that occurs when an expected event is omitted from a regular series of stimulus events - in simple rhythms with temporal structures typical of music. Our observations suggest that middle-latency gamma band (20-60 Hz activity (GBA plays an essential role in auditory rhythm processing. Evoked (phase-locked GBA occurs in the presence of physically presented auditory events and reflects the degree of accent. Induced (non-phase-locked GBA reflects temporally precise expectancies for strongly and weakly accented events in sound patterns. Thus far, these findings support theories of rhythm perception that posit temporal expectancies generated by active neural processes.

  15. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  16. Relationships between early literacy and nonlinguistic rhythmic processes in kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Wolf, Maryanne; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2018-03-01

    A growing number of studies report links between nonlinguistic rhythmic abilities and certain linguistic abilities, particularly phonological skills. The current study investigated the relationship between nonlinguistic rhythmic processing, phonological abilities, and early literacy abilities in kindergarteners. A distinctive aspect of the current work was the exploration of whether processing of different types of rhythmic patterns is differentially related to kindergarteners' phonological and reading-related abilities. Specifically, we examined the processing of metrical versus nonmetrical rhythmic patterns, that is, patterns capable of being subdivided into equal temporal intervals or not (Povel & Essens, 1985). This is an important comparison because most music involves metrical sequences, in which rhythm often has an underlying temporal grid of isochronous units. In contrast, nonmetrical sequences are arguably more typical to speech rhythm, which is temporally structured but does not involve an underlying grid of equal temporal units. A rhythm discrimination app with metrical and nonmetrical patterns was administered to 74 kindergarteners in conjunction with cognitive and preliteracy measures. Findings support a relationship among rhythm perception, phonological awareness, and letter-sound knowledge (an essential precursor of reading). A mediation analysis revealed that the association between rhythm perception and letter-sound knowledge is mediated through phonological awareness. Furthermore, metrical perception accounted for unique variance in letter-sound knowledge above all other language and cognitive measures. These results point to a unique role for temporal regularity processing in the association between musical rhythm and literacy in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhythmic expression of DEC2 protein in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fuyuki; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Kato, Yukio; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-06-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC2 (bHLHE41/Sharp1) is one of the clock genes that show a circadian rhythm in various tissues. DEC2 regulates differentiation, sleep length, tumor cell invasion and apoptosis. Although studies have been conducted on the rhythmic expression of DEC2 mRNA in various tissues, the precise molecular mechanism of DEC2 expression is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined whether DEC2 protein had a rhythmic expression. Western blot analysis for DEC2 protein revealed a rhythmic expression in mouse liver, lung and muscle and in MCF-7 and U2OS cells. In addition, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity (phosphorylation of AMPK) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited a rhythmic expression under the condition of medium change or glucose-depleted medium. However, the rhythmic expression of DEC2 in MEF gradually decreased in time under these conditions. The medium change affected the levels of DEC2 protein and phosphorylation of AMPK. In addition, the levels of DEC2 protein showed a rhythmic expression in vivo and in MCF-7 and U2OS cells. The results showed that the phosphorylation of AMPK immunoreactivity was strongly detected in the liver and lung of DEC2 knockout mice compared with that of wild-type mice. These results may provide new insights into rhythmic expression and the regulation between DEC2 protein and AMPK activity.

  18. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  19. Computational exploration of cis-regulatory modules in rhythmic expression data using the "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC) and "CRM Network Generator" (CNG) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Pavlos Stephanos; Tekath, Tobias; Staiger, Dorothee; Danisman, Selahattin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the effect of cis-regulatory elements (CRE) and clusters of CREs, which are called cis-regulatory modules (CRM), in eukaryotic gene expression is a challenge of computational biology. We developed two programs that allow simple, fast and reliable analysis of candidate CREs and CRMs that may affect specific gene expression and that determine positional features between individual CREs within a CRM. The first program, "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC), correlates candidate CREs and CRMs with specific gene expression patterns. For pairs of CREs, EDCC also determines positional preferences of the single CREs in relation to each other and to the transcriptional start site. The second program, "CRM Network Generator" (CNG), prioritizes these positional preferences using a neural network and thus allows unbiased rating of the positional preferences that were determined by EDCC. We tested these programs with data from a microarray study of circadian gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyzing more than 1.5 million pairwise CRE combinations, we found 22 candidate combinations, of which several contained known clock promoter elements together with elements that had not been identified as relevant to circadian gene expression before. CNG analysis further identified positional preferences of these CRE pairs, hinting at positional information that may be relevant for circadian gene expression. Future wet lab experiments will have to determine which of these combinations confer daytime specific circadian gene expression.

  20. Influence of simulated microgravity on clock genes expression rhythmicity and underlying blood circulating miRNAs-mRNA co-expression regulatory mechanism in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ke; Qu, Lina

    Purpose: It is vital for astronauts to maintain the optimal alertness and neurobehavioral function. Among various factors that exist in the space flight and long-duration mission environment, gravity changes may probably an essential environmental factor to interfere with internal circadian rhythms homeostasis and sleep quality, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Mammals' biological clock is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and peripheral organs adjust their own rhythmicity with the central signals. Nevertheless the mechanism underlying this synchronizition process is still unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are about 19˜22nt long regulatory RNAs that serve as critical modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, circulating miRNAs were found to have the regulatory role between cells and peripheral tissues, besides its function inside the cells. This study aims to investigate the regulatory signal transduction role of miRNAs between SCN and peripheral biological clock effecter tissues and to further decipher the mechanism of circadian disturbance under microgravity. Method: Firstly, based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in circadian rhythms may affect the expression of other genes, the labeled cDNA from liver and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of clock-knockout mice and control mice in different time points were cohybridized to microarrays. The fold change exceeding 2 (FC>2) was used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout mice compared with control mice. Secondly, male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age were individually caged and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle) before being used for continuous core body temperature and activity monitoring. The mice were individually caged and tail suspended using a strip of adhesive surgical tape attached to a chain hanging from a pulley. Peripheral blood and liver tissues collection

  1. Body Temperature Cycles Control Rhythmic Alternative Splicing in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußner, Marco; Goldammer, Gesine; Neumann, Alexander; Haltenhof, Tom; Rautenstrauch, Pia; Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Heyd, Florian

    2017-08-03

    The core body temperature of all mammals oscillates with the time of the day. However, direct molecular consequences of small, physiological changes in body temperature remain largely elusive. Here we show that body temperature cycles drive rhythmic SR protein phosphorylation to control an alternative splicing (AS) program. A temperature change of 1°C is sufficient to induce a concerted splicing switch in a large group of functionally related genes, rendering this splicing-based thermometer much more sensitive than previously described temperature-sensing mechanisms. AS of two exons in the 5' UTR of the TATA-box binding protein (Tbp) highlights the general impact of this mechanism, as it results in rhythmic TBP protein levels with implications for global gene expression in vivo. Together our data establish body temperature-driven AS as a core clock-independent oscillator in mammalian peripheral clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhythmic entrainment source separation: Optimizing analyses of neural responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.S.; Gulbinaite, R.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differen...

  3. 20 CFR 701.401 - Coverage under state compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage under state compensation programs...; DEFINITIONS AND USE OF TERMS Coverage Under State Compensation Programs § 701.401 Coverage under state compensation programs. (a) Exclusions from the definition of “employee” under § 701.301(a)(12), and the...

  4. Circadian remodeling of neuronal circuits involved in rhythmic behavior.

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    María Paz Fernández

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clock output pathways are central to convey timing information from the circadian clock to a diversity of physiological systems, ranging from cell-autonomous processes to behavior. While the molecular mechanisms that generate and sustain rhythmicity at the cellular level are well understood, it is unclear how this information is further structured to control specific behavioral outputs. Rhythmic release of pigment dispersing factor (PDF has been proposed to propagate the time of day information from core pacemaker cells to downstream targets underlying rhythmic locomotor activity. Indeed, such circadian changes in PDF intensity represent the only known mechanism through which the PDF circuit could communicate with its output. Here we describe a novel circadian phenomenon involving extensive remodeling in the axonal terminals of the PDF circuit, which display higher complexity during the day and significantly lower complexity at nighttime, both under daily cycles and constant conditions. In support to its circadian nature, cycling is lost in bona fide clockless mutants. We propose this clock-controlled structural plasticity as a candidate mechanism contributing to the transmission of the information downstream of pacemaker cells.

  5. Rhythmic speech and stuttering reduction in a syllable-timed language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2018-06-06

    Speaking rhythmically, also known as syllable-timed speech (STS), has been known for centuries to be a fluency-inducing condition for people who stutter. Cantonese is a tonal syllable-timed language and it has been shown that, of all languages, Cantonese is the most rhythmic (Mok, 2009). However, it is not known if STS reduces stuttering in Cantonese as it does in English. This is the first study to investigate the effects of STS on stuttering in a syllable-timed language. Nineteen native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter were engaged in conversational tasks in Cantonese under two conditions: one in their usual speaking style and one using STS. The speakers' percentage syllables stuttered (%SS) and speech rhythmicity were rated. The rhythmicity ratings were used to estimate the extent to which speakers were using STS in the syllable-timed condition. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction in %SS in the STS condition; however, this reduction was not as large as in previous studies in other languages and the amount of stuttering reduction varied across speakers. The rhythmicity ratings showed that some speakers were perceived to be speaking more rhythmically than others and that the perceived rhythmicity correlated positively with reductions in stuttering. The findings were unexpected, as it was anticipated that speakers of a highly rhythmic language such as Cantonese would find STS easy to use and that the consequent reductions in stuttering would be great, even greater perhaps than in a stress-timed language such as English. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. The Edit Distance as a Measure of Perceived Rhythmic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Post

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ‘edit distance’ (or ‘Levenshtein distance’ measure of distance between two data sets is defined as the minimum number of editing operations – insertions, deletions, and substitutions – that are required to transform one data set to the other (Orpen and Huron, 1992. This measure of distance has been applied frequently and successfully in music information retrieval, but rarely in predicting human perception of distance. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of the edit distance as a predictor of perceived rhythmic dissimilarity under simple rhythmic alterations. Approaching rhythms as a set of pulses that are either onsets or silences, we study two types of alterations. The first experiment is designed to test the model’s accuracy for rhythms that are relatively similar; whether rhythmic variations with the same edit distance to a source rhythm are also perceived as relatively similar by human subjects. In addition, we observe whether the salience of an edit operation is affected by its metric placement in the rhythm. Instead of using a rhythm that regularly subdivides a 4/4 meter, our source rhythm is a syncopated 16-pulse rhythm, the son. Results show a high correlation between the predictions by the edit distance model and human similarity judgments (r = 0.87; a higher correlation than for the well-known generative theory of tonal music (r = 0.64. In the second experiment, we seek to assess the accuracy of the edit distance model in predicting relatively dissimilar rhythms. The stimuli used are random permutations of the son’s inter-onset intervals: 3-3-4-2-4. The results again indicate that the edit distance correlates well with the perceived rhythmic dissimilarity judgments of the subjects (r = 0.76. To gain insight in the relationships between the individual rhythms, the results are also presented by means of graphic phylogenetic trees.

  7. Rhythmic entrainment source separation: Optimizing analyses of neural responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.S.; Gulbinaite, R.

    2017-01-01

    Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency

  8. Effects of Rhythmic and Melodic Alterations and Selected Musical Experiences on Rhythmic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sink, Patricia E.

    1984-01-01

    Study showed that music listening habits and preferences and instrument training may affect ways an individual processes the multiple dimensions of rhythm. Apparent alterations in tempo, duration and pitch characteristics, rhythmic and melodic phrase patterning, and monotony may serve as organizers of rhythmic processing. (Author/RM)

  9. Rhythmic patterning in Malaysian and Singapore English.

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    Tan, Rachel Siew Kuang; Low, Ee-Ling

    2014-06-01

    Previous work on the rhythm of Malaysian English has been based on impressionistic observations. This paper utilizes acoustic analysis to measure the rhythmic patterns of Malaysian English. Recordings of the read speech and spontaneous speech of 10 Malaysian English speakers were analyzed and compared with recordings of an equivalent sample of Singaporean English speakers. Analysis was done using two rhythmic indexes, the PVI and VarcoV. It was found that although the rhythm of read speech of the Singaporean speakers was syllable-based as described by previous studies, the rhythm of the Malaysian speakers was even more syllable-based. Analysis of the syllables in specific utterances showed that Malaysian speakers did not reduce vowels as much as Singaporean speakers in cases of syllables in utterances. Results of the spontaneous speech confirmed the findings for the read speech; that is, the same rhythmic patterning was found which normally triggers vowel reductions.

  10. [Role of rhythmicity in infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, A

    2015-09-01

    This article deals with rhythm in the experiences of infants, focusing in particular on the function of rhythmicity in the baby's sense of being and its continuity. Infants are inevitably subjected to experiences of discontinuity. These experiences are necessary to development, but they expose the child to chaotic experiences when a basic rhythmicity is not ensured. The rhythmicity of childcare experiences gives the illusion of permanence and enables anticipation. This nourishes the basic feeling of security and supports the development of thought. Interactive and intersubjective exchanges must be rhythmic and must be in keeping with the rhythm of the baby, who needs to withdraw regularly from the interaction to internalize the experience of the exchange. Without this retreat, the interaction is over-stimulating and prevents internalization. Object presence/ absence must also be rhythmic, to enable the infant to keep the object alive inside him/ herself. Observation of babies has demonstrated their ability to manage experiences of discontinuity: they are able to sustain a continuous link via their gaze, look for clues indicating the presence of a lost object, search for support in sensations, and fabricate rhythmicity to remain open to the self and the world. The author gives some examples of infant observations that provide evidence of these capacities. One observation shows how a baby defends itself against a discontinuity by actively maintaining a link via his/her gaze. Another example shows an infant holding on to "hard sensations" in order to stay away from "soft" ones, which represent the fragility of the separation experience. This example pertains to a seven-month-old's prelanguage and "prosodic tonicity". The author takes this opportunity to propose the notion of "psychic bisensuality" to describe these two sensation poles, which must be harmoniously articulated to guarantee an inner sense of security. Such repairs of discontinuity are only possible if the

  11. Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: network analysis reveals rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, Samuel S C; Yoo, Boyoung; Alam, Camille; Green, Taryn; Stephens, Melissa T; Zeng, Erliang; George, Gary F; Sheppard, Aaron D; Duffield, Giles E; Milenković, Tijana; Pfrender, Michael E

    2016-08-18

    Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation. However, there is little information at the transcriptional level linking the expression patterns of genes to the rhythmic physiology/behavior of Daphnia. Here we analyzed genome-wide temporal transcriptional patterns from Daphnia pulex collected over a 44 h time period under a 12:12 LD cycle (diel) conditions using a cosine-fitting algorithm. We used a comprehensive network modeling and analysis approach to identify novel co-regulated rhythmic genes that have similar network topological properties and functional annotations as rhythmic genes identified by the cosine-fitting analyses. Furthermore, we used the network approach to predict with high accuracy novel gene-function associations, thus enhancing current functional annotations available for genes in this ecologically relevant model species. Our results reveal that genes in many functional groupings exhibit 24 h rhythms in their expression patterns under diel conditions. We highlight the rhythmic expression of immunity, oxidative detoxification, and sensory process genes. We discuss differences in the chronobiology of D. pulex from other well-characterized terrestrial arthropods. This research adds to a growing body of literature suggesting the genetic mechanisms governing rhythmicity in crustaceans may be divergent from other arthropod lineages including insects. Lastly, these results highlight the power of using a network analysis approach to identify differential gene expression and provide novel

  12. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  13. Judging the judges' performance in rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessas, Konstantinos; Mylonas, Dimitris; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Tsopani, Despina; Korda, Alexandrea; Siettos, Constantinos; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is an aesthetic event balancing between art and sport that also has a performance rating system (Code of Points) given by the International Gymnastics Federation. It is one of the sports in which competition results greatly depend on the judges' evaluation. In the current study, we explored the judges' performance in a five-gymnast ensemble routine. An expert-novice paradigm (10 international-level, 10 national-level, and 10 novice-level judges) was implemented under a fully simulated procedure of judgment in a five-gymnast ensemble routine of RG using two videos of routines performed by the Greek national team of RG. Simultaneous recordings of two-dimensional eye movements were taken during the judgment procedure to assess the percentage of time spent by each judge viewing the videos and fixation performance of each judge when an error in gymnast performance had occurred. All judge level groups had very modest performance of error recognition on gymnasts' routines, and the best international judges reported approximately 40% of true errors. Novice judges spent significantly more time viewing the videos compared with national and international judges and spent significantly more time fixating detected errors than the other two groups. National judges were the only group that made efficient use of fixation to detect errors. The fact that international-level judges outperformed both other groups, while not relying on visual fixation to detect errors, suggests that these experienced judges probably make use of other cognitive strategies, increasing their overall error detection efficiency, which was, however, still far below optimum.

  14. Rhythmic changes in synapse numbers in Drosophila melanogaster motor terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ruiz

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the morphology of the neuromuscular junction of the flight motor neuron MN5 in Drosophila melanogaster undergoes daily rhythmical changes, with smaller synaptic boutons during the night, when the fly is resting, than during the day, when the fly is active. With electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy, we searched for a rhythmic change in synapse numbers in this neuron, both under light:darkness (LD cycles and constant darkness (DD. We expected the number of synapses to increase during the morning, when the fly has an intense phase of locomotion activity under LD and DD. Surprisingly, only our DD data were consistent with this hypothesis. In LD, we found more synapses at midnight than at midday. We propose that under LD conditions, there is a daily rhythm of formation of new synapses in the dark phase, when the fly is resting, and disassembly over the light phase, when the fly is active. Several parameters appeared to be light dependent, since they were affected differently under LD or DD. The great majority of boutons containing synapses had only one and very few had either two or more, with a 70∶25∶5 ratio (one, two and three or more synapses in LD and 75∶20∶5 in DD. Given the maintenance of this proportion even when both bouton and synapse numbers changed with time, we suggest that there is a homeostatic mechanism regulating synapse distribution among MN5 boutons.

  15. A multiresolution model of rhythmic expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, L.M.; Honing, H.; Miyazaki, K.; Hiraga, Y.; Adachi, M.; Nakajima, Y.; Tsuzaki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a computational model of rhythmic cognition that predicts expected onset times. A dynamic representation of musical rhythm, the multiresolution analysis using the continuous wavelet transform is used. This representation decomposes the temporal structure of a musical rhythm into time

  16. Rhythmic Patterns in Ragtime and Jazz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odekerken, Daphne; Volk, A.; Koops, Hendrik Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on rhythmic patterns in ragtime and jazz. Ragtime and jazz are related genres, but there are open questions on what specifies the two genres. Earlier studies revealed that variations of a particular syncopation pattern, referred to as 121, are among the most

  17. Rhythmic walking interaction with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    We present an interactive auditory display for walking with sinusoidal tones or ecological, physically-based synthetic walking sounds. The feedback is either step-based or rhythmic, with constant or adaptive tempo. In a tempo-following experiment, we investigate different interaction modes...

  18. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal...... EEG activity using a distributed source model....

  19. Rhythmic Characteristics of Colloquial and Formal Tamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Elinor

    2006-01-01

    Application of recently developed rhythmic measures to passages of read speech in colloquial and formal Tamil revealed some significant differences between the two varieties, which are in diglossic distribution. Both were also distinguished from a set of control data from British English speakers reading an equivalent passage. The findings have…

  20. The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Blob, Richard W; Carrier, David R; Daley, Monica A; Deban, Stephen M; Demes, Brigitte; Gripper, Janaya L; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Landberg, Tobias; Polk, John D; Schilling, Nadja; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

    2013-04-01

    Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) among mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intraindividual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in locomotor cycle periods is significantly lower in tachymetabolic than in bradymetabolic animals for datasets that include treadmill locomotion, non-treadmill locomotion, or both. When phylogenetic relationships are taken into account the pooled analyses remain significant, whereas the non-treadmill and the treadmill analyses become nonsignificant. The co-occurrence of relatively high rhythmicity in both feeding and locomotor systems of tachymetabolic tetrapods suggests that the anatomical substrate of rhythmicity is in the motor control system, not in the musculoskeletal components. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Rate control and quality assurance during rhythmic force tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Su, Jyong-Huei; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2014-02-01

    Movement characteristics can be coded in the single neurons or in the summed activity of neural populations. However, whether neural oscillations are conditional to the frequency demand and task quality of rhythmic force regulation is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate EEG dynamics and behavior correlates during force-tracking at different target rates. Fourteen healthy volunteers conducted load-varying isometric abduction of the index finger by coupling the force output to sinusoidal targets at 0.5 Hz, 1.0 Hz, and 2.0 Hz. Our results showed that frequency demand significantly affected EEG delta oscillation (1-4 Hz) in the C3, CP3, CPz, and CP4 electrodes, with the greatest delta power and lowest delta peak around 1.5 Hz for slower tracking at 0.5 Hz. Those who had superior tracking congruency also manifested enhanced alpha oscillation (8-12 Hz). Alpha rhythms of the skilled performers during slow tracking spread through the whole target cycle, except for the phase of direction changes. However, the alpha rhythms centered at the mid phase of a target cycle with increasing target rate. In conclusion, our findings clearly suggest two advanced roles of cortical oscillation in rhythmic force regulation. Rate-dependent delta oscillation involves a paradigm shift in force control under different time scales. Phasic organization of alpha rhythms during rhythmic force tracking is related to behavioral success underlying the selective use of bimodal controls (feedback and feedforward processes) and the timing of attentional focus on the target's peak velocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Underlying chemistry research for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Sagert, N.H.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Taylor, P.

    1984-04-01

    This document reviews the underlying chemistry research part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, carried out in the Research Chemistry Branch. This research is concerned with developing the basic chemical knowledge and under-standing required in other parts of the Program. There are four areas of underlying research: Waste Form Chemistry, Solute and Solution Chemistry, Rock-Water-Waste Interactions, and Abatement and Monitoring of Gas-Phase Radionuclides

  3. Primate beta oscillations and rhythmic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Bartolo, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping. Thus, this review emphasizes the need of parametric neurophysiological observations in non-human primates that display a well-controlled behavior during high-level cognitive processes.

  4. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A

    2015-05-15

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; Caplan et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2011) avoids these problems by using the signal's own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18-25 years) and older (60-74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1-4Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic; topographies were more similar in the 8-12Hz alpha band. There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method's criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In summary, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decoding magnetoencephalographic rhythmic activity using spectrospatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new data-driven decoding method called Spectral Linear Discriminant Analysis (Spectral LDA) for the analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG). The method allows investigation of changes in rhythmic neural activity as a result of different stimuli and tasks. The introduced classification model only assumes that each "brain state" can be characterized as a combination of neural sources, each of which shows rhythmic activity at one or several frequency bands. Furthermore, the model allows the oscillation frequencies to be different for each such state. We present decoding results from 9 subjects in a four-category classification problem defined by an experiment involving randomly alternating epochs of auditory, visual and tactile stimuli interspersed with rest periods. The performance of Spectral LDA was very competitive compared with four alternative classifiers based on different assumptions concerning the organization of rhythmic brain activity. In addition, the spectral and spatial patterns extracted automatically on the basis of trained classifiers showed that Spectral LDA offers a novel and interesting way of analyzing spectrospatial oscillatory neural activity across the brain. All the presented classification methods and visualization tools are freely available as a Matlab toolbox. © 2013.

  6. Group Rhythmic Synchrony and Attention in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K Khalil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child’s attentional behavior.

  7. Intensive gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yuri; Kim, Young; Hwang, Sujin; Chung, Yijung

    2014-01-01

    Motor relearning protocols should involve task-oriented movement, focused attention, and repetition of desired movements. To investigate the effect of intensive gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation on postural control and gait performance in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Twenty patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke participated in this study. Subjects in the Rhythmic auditory stimulation training group (10 subjects) underwent intensive gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation for a period of 6 weeks (30 min/day, five days/week), while those in the control group (10 subjects) underwent intensive gait training for the same duration. Two clinical measures, Berg balance scale and stroke specific quality of life scale, and a 2-demensional gait analysis system, were used as outcome measure. To provide rhythmic auditory stimulation during gait training, the MIDI Cuebase musical instrument digital interface program and a KM Player version 3.3 was utilized for this study. Intensive gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation resulted in significant improvement in scores on the Berg balance scale, gait velocity, cadence, stride length and double support period in affected side, and stroke specific quality of life scale compared with the control group after training. Findings of this study suggest that intensive gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation improves balance and gait performance as well as quality of life, in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

  8. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS...

  9. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  10. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Bégel; Valentin Bégel; Ines Di Loreto; Antoine Seilles; Simone Dalla Bella; Simone Dalla Bella; Simone Dalla Bella; Simone Dalla Bella

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor pe...

  11. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions.

  12. Circadian clock-dependent and -independent rhythmic proteomes implement distinct diurnal functions in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauvoisin, Daniel; Wang, Jingkui; Jouffe, Céline; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Waridel, Patrice; Quadroni, Manfredo; Gachon, Frédéric; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-07

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression controlled by the circadian clock underlie rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Although such rhythms have been extensively studied at the level of transcription and mRNA accumulation, little is known about the accumulation patterns of proteins. Here, we quantified temporal profiles in the murine hepatic proteome under physiological light-dark conditions using stable isotope labeling by amino acids quantitative MS. Our analysis identified over 5,000 proteins, of which several hundred showed robust diurnal oscillations with peak phases enriched in the morning and during the night and related to core hepatic physiological functions. Combined mathematical modeling of temporal protein and mRNA profiles indicated that proteins accumulate with reduced amplitudes and significant delays, consistent with protein half-life data. Moreover, a group comprising about one-half of the rhythmic proteins showed no corresponding rhythmic mRNAs, indicating significant translational or posttranslational diurnal control. Such rhythms were highly enriched in secreted proteins accumulating tightly during the night. Also, these rhythms persisted in clock-deficient animals subjected to rhythmic feeding, suggesting that food-related entrainment signals influence rhythms in circulating plasma factors.

  13. Alpha-Band Rhythms in Visual Task Performance: Phase-Locking by Rhythmic Sensory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A.; Gross, Joachim; Paterson, Gavin; Rusch, Tessa; Sack, Alexander T.; Thut, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations are an important aspect of neuronal activity. Interestingly, oscillatory patterns are also observed in behaviour, such as in visual performance measures after the presentation of a brief sensory event in the visual or another modality. These oscillations in visual performance cycle at the typical frequencies of brain rhythms, suggesting that perception may be closely linked to brain oscillations. We here investigated this link for a prominent rhythm of the visual system (the alpha-rhythm, 8–12 Hz) by applying rhythmic visual stimulation at alpha-frequency (10.6 Hz), known to lead to a resonance response in visual areas, and testing its effects on subsequent visual target discrimination. Our data show that rhythmic visual stimulation at 10.6 Hz: 1) has specific behavioral consequences, relative to stimulation at control frequencies (3.9 Hz, 7.1 Hz, 14.2 Hz), and 2) leads to alpha-band oscillations in visual performance measures, that 3) correlate in precise frequency across individuals with resting alpha-rhythms recorded over parieto-occipital areas. The most parsimonious explanation for these three findings is entrainment (phase-locking) of ongoing perceptually relevant alpha-band brain oscillations by rhythmic sensory events. These findings are in line with occipital alpha-oscillations underlying periodicity in visual performance, and suggest that rhythmic stimulation at frequencies of intrinsic brain-rhythms can be used to reveal influences of these rhythms on task performance to study their functional roles. PMID:23555873

  14. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The development of rhythmic preferences by Dutch-learning infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, B.M.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter the early acquisition of word stress is discussed. This study is aimed at examining rhythmic preferences for either strong-weak or weak-strong stress patterns of Dutch-learning infants between 4 and 8 months of age. It is complementary to previous rhythmic preference studies

  16. The development of rhythmic preferences by Dutch-learning infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374786097; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    In this chapter the early acquisition of word stress is discussed. This study is aimed at examining rhythmic preferences for either strong-weak or weak-strong stress patterns of Dutch-learning infants between 4 and 8 months of age. It is complementary to previous rhythmic preference studies

  17. Association of Periodic and Rhythmic Electroencephalographic Patterns With Seizures in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ruiz, Andres; Vlachy, Jan; Lee, Jong Woo; Gilmore, Emily J; Ayer, Turgay; Haider, Hiba Arif; Gaspard, Nicolas; Ehrenberg, J Andrew; Tolchin, Benjamin; Fantaneanu, Tadeu A; Fernandez, Andres; Hirsch, Lawrence J; LaRoche, Suzette

    2017-02-01

    Periodic and rhythmic electroencephalographic patterns have been associated with risk of seizures in critically ill patients. However, specific features that confer higher seizure risk remain unclear. To analyze the association of distinct characteristics of periodic and rhythmic patterns with seizures. We reviewed electroencephalographic recordings from 4772 critically ill adults in 3 academic medical centers from February 2013 to September 2015 and performed a multivariate analysis to determine features associated with seizures. Continuous electroencephalography. Association of periodic and rhythmic patterns and specific characteristics, such as pattern frequency (hertz), Plus modifier, prevalence, and stimulation-induced patterns, and the risk for seizures. Of the 4772 patients included in our study, 2868 were men and 1904 were women. Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) had the highest association with seizures regardless of frequency and the association was greater when the Plus modifier was present (58%; odds ratio [OR], 2.00, P rhythmic delta activity (LRDA) were associated with seizures in a frequency-dependent manner (1.5-2 Hz: GPDs, 24%,OR, 2.31, P = .02; LRDA, 24%, OR, 1.79, P = .05; ≥ 2 Hz: GPDs, 32%, OR, 3.30, P rhythmic delta activity compared with no periodic or rhythmic pattern (13%, OR, 1.18, P = .26). Higher prevalence of LPDs and GPDs also conferred increased seizure risk (37% frequent vs 45% abundant/continuous, OR, 1.64, P = .03 for difference; 8% rare/occasional vs 15% frequent, OR, 2.71, P = .03, vs 23% abundant/continuous, OR, 1.95, P = .04). Patterns associated with stimulation did not show an additional risk for seizures from the underlying pattern risk (P > .10). In this study, LPDs, LRDA, and GPDs were associated with seizures while generalized rhythmic delta activity was not. Lateralized periodic discharges were associated with seizures at all frequencies with and without Plus modifier, but LRDA and GPDs were associated with

  18. Quality Assurance Plans under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Assurance Plan or (QAP) is a voluntary program where independent third-parties may audit and verify that RINs have been properly generated and are valid for compliance purposes. RINs verified under a QAP may be purchased by regulated parties.

  19. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program (1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The summary reports of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1992 are included. In this report, 104 summaries of researches using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and 9 summaries of the researches using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) are collected. (J.P.N.)

  20. Alternative Renewable Biomass Tracking Program Document under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The approval letters that EPA approves a company's biomass tracking program meeting all the requirements outlined in 40 CFR part 80.1454, including elements determined necessary to achieve the level of quality assurance required under the regulation list.

  1. Decoding emotional valence from electroencephalographic rhythmic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikkanat, Hande; Moriya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Hyvarinen, Aapo

    2017-07-01

    We attempt to decode emotional valence from electroencephalographic rhythmic activity in a naturalistic setting. We employ a data-driven method developed in a previous study, Spectral Linear Discriminant Analysis, to discover the relationships between the classification task and independent neuronal sources, optimally utilizing multiple frequency bands. A detailed investigation of the classifier provides insight into the neuronal sources related with emotional valence, and the individual differences of the subjects in processing emotions. Our findings show: (1) sources whose locations are similar across subjects are consistently involved in emotional responses, with the involvement of parietal sources being especially significant, and (2) even though the locations of the involved neuronal sources are consistent, subjects can display highly varying degrees of valence-related EEG activity in the sources.

  2. Rhythmic walking interactions with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    of interactions based on varying the temporal characteristics of the output, using the sound of human walking as the input. The system either provides a direct synthesis of a walking sound based on the detected amplitude envelope of the user's footstep sounds, or provides a continuous synthetic walking sound...... as a stimulus for the walking human, either with a fixed tempo or a tempo adapting to the human gait. In a pilot experiment, the different interaction modes are studied with respect to their effect on the walking tempo and the experience of the subjects. The results tentatively outline different user profiles......Walking is a natural rhythmic activity that has become of interest as a means of interacting with software systems such as computer games. Therefore, designing multimodal walking interactions calls for further examination. This exploratory study presents a system capable of different kinds...

  3. Rhythmic entrainment source separation: Optimizing analyses of neural responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Gulbinaite, Rasa

    2017-02-15

    Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differential projection of neural activity to multiple electrodes or sensors. Our approach is a combination and extension of existing multivariate source separation methods. We demonstrate that RESS performs well on both simulated and empirical data, and outperforms conventional SSEP analysis methods based on selecting electrodes with the strongest SSEP response, as well as several other linear spatial filters. We also discuss the potential confound of overfitting, whereby the filter captures noise in absence of a signal. Matlab scripts are available to replicate and extend our simulations and methods. We conclude with some practical advice for optimizing SSEP data analyses and interpreting the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sufficiency and Duality for Multiobjective Programming under New Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of multiobjective programming problems including inequality constraints is considered. To this aim, some new concepts of generalized F,P-type I and F,P-type II functions are introduced in the differentiable assumption by using the sublinear function F. These new functions are used to establish and prove the sufficient optimality conditions for weak efficiency or efficiency of the multiobjective programming problems. Moreover, two kinds of dual models are formulated. The weak dual, strong dual, and strict converse dual results are obtained under the aforesaid functions.

  5. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Di Loreto, Ines; Seilles, Antoine; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g., gait) as well as cognitive and language skills. Here, we review the games readily available in the market and assess whether they are well-suited for rhythmic training. Games that train rhythm skills may serve as useful tools for retraining motor and cognitive functions in patients with motor or neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, or ADHD). Our criteria were the peripheral used to capture and record the response, the type of response and the output measure. None of the existing games provides sufficient temporal precision in stimulus presentation and/or data acquisition. In addition, games do not train selectively rhythmic skills. Hence, the available music games, in their present form, are not satisfying for training rhythmic skills. Yet, some features such as the device used, the interface or the game scenario provide good indications for devising efficient training protocols. Guidelines are provided for devising serious music games targeting rhythmic training in the future.

  6. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bégel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g., gait as well as cognitive and language skills. Here, we review the games readily available in the market and assess whether they are well-suited for rhythmic training. Games that train rhythm skills may serve as useful tools for retraining motor and cognitive functions in patients with motor or neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, dyslexia, or ADHD. Our criteria were the peripheral used to capture and record the response, the type of response and the output measure. None of the existing games provides sufficient temporal precision in stimulus presentation and/or data acquisition. In addition, games do not train selectively rhythmic skills. Hence, the available music games, in their present form, are not satisfying for training rhythmic skills. Yet, some features such as the device used, the interface or the game scenario provide good indications for devising efficient training protocols. Guidelines are provided for devising serious music games targeting rhythmic training in the future.

  7. Interactions of Circadian Rhythmicity, Stress and Orexigenic Neuropeptide Systems: Implications for Food Intake Control

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Anna; Gundlach, Andrew L.; Hess, Grzegorz; Lewandowski, Marian H.

    2017-01-01

    Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the “control” of the “master biological clock” reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psych...

  8. Danish music education and the 'rhythmic music' concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    2014-01-01

    ' was avoided and the Danish phrase 'rytmisk musik' (rhythmic music) was created to emphasize the educational and pedagogical content. The aim was also to prevent the prejudicious idea associated with jazz, especially by opponents. The article intends to evaluate the situation of 'rhythmic music' in the context......The article reflects on Danish music education and the concept of 'rhythmic music'. It highligths the so-called "jazz-oratorio", a unique genre, created by the composer Bernhard Christensen (1906-2004) and the librettist Sven Møller Kristensen (1909-91). The article shows that the term 'jazz...... of Danish music education....

  9. Daily rhythmicity of body temperature in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, R; Piccione, G

    2003-08-01

    Research over the past 50 years has demonstrated the existence of circadian or daily rhythmicity in the body core temperature of a large number of mammalian species. However, previous studies have failed to identify daily rhythmicity of body temperature in dogs. We report here the successful recording of daily rhythms of rectal temperature in female Beagle dogs. The low robustness of the rhythms (41% of maximal robustness) and the small range of excursion (0.5 degrees C) are probably responsible for previous failures in detecting rhythmicity in dogs.

  10. Effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ghorban Zadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fundamental motor skills are the foundation of special skills. The purpose of this study was to study the effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-excremental study, 30 children aged 7 to 10 years old were selected through random cluster sampling method from elementary schools in Tabriz city. They were homogenized in two experimental groups (perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement and one control group based on their age and IQ. Programs were held in 9 weeks, two sessions per week, and each session was 45 minutes. Before beginning the training and at the end of the last session, pre-test and post-test were conducted. In order to assess motor development TGMD-2 test was used, and to analyze data covariance and bonferroni postdoc test were used. Results: The results showed that both perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement groups performed better in locomotors and object control skills than the control group (P&le 0.05 and there was no significant difference between these two groups  (P&ge0.05Perceptual-motor skills training group had a greater impact on the development of control object skills than rhythmic movement group. Program rhythmic movement group had a greater impact on the development of object control skills than the control group. Conclusion: According to the results, educational programs which are used can be as an appropriate experiencing motion for children. These programs can be used at schools to to provide suitable program and the opportunity for training and developing motor skills.

  11. Rhythmic synchronization tapping to an audio–visual metronome in budgerigars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ai; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2011-01-01

    In all ages and countries, music and dance have constituted a central part in human culture and communication. Recently, vocal-learning animals such as parrots and elephants have been found to share rhythmic ability with humans. Thus, we investigated the rhythmic synchronization of budgerigars, a vocal-mimicking parrot species, under controlled conditions and a systematically designed experimental paradigm as a first step in understanding the evolution of musical entrainment. We trained eight budgerigars to perform isochronous tapping tasks in which they pecked a key to the rhythm of audio–visual metronome-like stimuli. The budgerigars showed evidence of entrainment to external stimuli over a wide range of tempos. They seemed to be inherently inclined to tap at fast tempos, which have a similar time scale to the rhythm of budgerigars' natural vocalizations. We suggest that vocal learning might have contributed to their performance, which resembled that of humans. PMID:22355637

  12. Rhythmic synchronization tapping to an audio-visual metronome in budgerigars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ai; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Seki, Yoshimasa

    2011-01-01

    In all ages and countries, music and dance have constituted a central part in human culture and communication. Recently, vocal-learning animals such as parrots and elephants have been found to share rhythmic ability with humans. Thus, we investigated the rhythmic synchronization of budgerigars, a vocal-mimicking parrot species, under controlled conditions and a systematically designed experimental paradigm as a first step in understanding the evolution of musical entrainment. We trained eight budgerigars to perform isochronous tapping tasks in which they pecked a key to the rhythm of audio-visual metronome-like stimuli. The budgerigars showed evidence of entrainment to external stimuli over a wide range of tempos. They seemed to be inherently inclined to tap at fast tempos, which have a similar time scale to the rhythm of budgerigars' natural vocalizations. We suggest that vocal learning might have contributed to their performance, which resembled that of humans.

  13. Rhythmicity and plasticity of digestive physiology in a euryhaline teleost fish, permit (Trachinotus falcatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Nguyen, Huy Quang

    2017-01-01

    Digestive physiology is considered to be under circadian control, but there is little evidence in teleost fish. The present study explored the rhythmicity and plasticity to feeding schedules of enzymatic digestion in a candidate aquaculture fish, the permit (Trachinotus falcatus). The first...... experiment identified the rhythms of digestive factors throughout the light-dark (LD) cycle. Gastric luminal pH and pepsin activity showed significant daily variation albeit not rhythmic. These dynamic changes were likewise observed in several digestive enzymes, in which the activities of intestinal protease......, chymotrypsin and lipase exhibited significant daily rhythms. In the second experiment, the existence of feed anticipatory activity in the digestive factors was investigated by subjecting the fish to either periodic or random feeding. Anticipatory gastric acidification prior to feeding was identified...

  14. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovative Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovative Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  15. Differences between the sexes in technical mastery of rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozanic, Ana; Miletic, Durdica

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine possible differences between the sexes in specific rhythmic gymnastics techniques, and to examine the influence of various aspects of technique on rhythmic composition performance. Seventy-five students aged 21 ± 2 years (45 males, 30 female) undertook four test sessions to determine: coefficients of asymmetry, stability, versatility, and the two rhythmic compositions (without apparatus and with rope). An independent-sample t-test revealed sex-based differences in technique acquisition: stability for ball (P rhythmic composition without apparatus (P analysis revealed that the variables for assessing stability (beta = 0.44; P rhythmic composition performance of females, and the variables for assessing asymmetry (beta = -0.38; P rhythmic composition performance of males. The results suggest that female students dominate in body skill technique, while male students have the advantage with apparatus. There was a lack of an expressive aesthetic component in performance for males. The need for ambidexterity should be considered in the planning of training programmes.

  16. 'Rhythmic Music' in Danish Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    In Danish state schools from elementary to upper secondary school music is part of curricula at all levels. It is widely accepted that both individuals and culture benefit from art subjects, creative activities etc. This type of motivation was sufficient support for maintaining music as a subject...... and to avoid what was associated with jazz, especially by its opponents. This paper aims at taking stock of the situation in Danish music education during the last decade and at specifying the situation of ‘rhythmic music’ within this context....... at all levels of the educational system from around 1960 to around 2000. This tradition dates back to the 1920s, when the first Social Democratic government in Danish history (1924-26), with Nina Bang as minister of education (probably the first female minister worldwide), in the field of music made...... genre of music, and in Denmark this interest manifested itself in attempts to integrate jazz in the musical education of the youth. A unique genre, the so-called ‘jazz oratorios’, was created by the composer Bernhard Christensen (1906-2004) and the librettist Sven Møller Kristensen (1909- 91...

  17. A tapping device for recording and quantitative characterization of rhythmic/auditory sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Caterina; Cesareo, Ambra; Caccia, Martina; Reni, Gianluigi; Lorusso, Maria L

    2017-07-01

    The processing of auditory stimuli is essential for the correct perception of language and deficits in this ability are often related to the presence or development of language disorders. The motor imitation (e.g. tapping or beating) of rhythmic sequences can be a very sensitive correlate of deficits in auditory processing. Thus, the study of the tapping performance, with the investigation of both temporal and intensity information, might be very useful. The present work is aimed at the development and preliminary testing of a tapping device to be used for the imitation and/or the production of rhythmic sequences, allowing the recording of both tapping duration and intensity. The device is essentially made up of a Force Sensing Resistor and an Arduino UNO board. It was validated using different sampling frequencies (f s ) in a group of 10 young healthy adults investigating its efficacy in terms of touch and intensity detection by means of two testing procedures. Results demonstrated a good performance of the device when programmed with fs equal to 50 and 100Hz. Moreover, both temporal and intensity parameters were extracted, thus supporting the potential use of the device for the analysis of the imitation or production of rhythmic sequences. This work represents a first step for the development of a useful, low cost tool to support the diagnosis, training and rehabilitation of language disorders.

  18. PKA controls calcium influx into motor neurons during a rhythmic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels.

  19. PKA Controls Calcium Influx into Motor Neurons during a Rhythmic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Sieburth, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine) rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels. PMID:24086161

  20. Classification of rhythmic locomotor patterns in electromyographic signals using fuzzy sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrasher Timothy A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Locomotor control is accomplished by a complex integration of neural mechanisms including a central pattern generator, spinal reflexes and supraspinal control centres. Patterns of muscle activation during walking exhibit an underlying structure in which groups of muscles seem to activate in united bursts. Presented here is a statistical approach for analyzing Surface Electromyography (SEMG data with the goal of classifying rhythmic "burst" patterns that are consistent with a central pattern generator model of locomotor control. Methods A fuzzy model of rhythmic locomotor patterns was optimized and evaluated using SEMG data from a convenience sample of four able-bodied individuals. As well, two subjects with pathological gait participated: one with Parkinson's Disease, and one with incomplete spinal cord injury. Subjects walked overground and on a treadmill while SEMG was recorded from major muscles of the lower extremities. The model was fit to half of the recorded data using non-linear optimization and validated against the other half of the data. The coefficient of determination, R2, was used to interpret the model's goodness of fit. Results Using four fuzzy burst patterns, the model was able to explain approximately 70-83% of the variance in muscle activation during treadmill gait and 74% during overground gait. When five burst functions were used, one function was found to be redundant. The model explained 81-83% of the variance in the Parkinsonian gait, and only 46-59% of the variance in spinal cord injured gait. Conclusions The analytical approach proposed in this article is a novel way to interpret multichannel SEMG signals by reducing the data into basic rhythmic patterns. This can help us better understand the role of rhythmic patterns in locomotor control.

  1. Utilization program of HANARO under IMF situation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Oong; Kuk, Il Hiun; Chae, Sung Ki; Sohn, Jae Min

    1999-01-01

    Some of utilization facilities in HANARO are still being installed and among them CNS and FTL are yet in the design stage. This kind of situation in HANARO was mainly caused by the shortage of total budget of the reactor project during the period of reactor construction (1985 ∼ 1994). Installation of remaining utilization facilities to be equipped after HANARO construction had to rely on the resources of the long-term nuclear R and D program. The program commenced in 1992 with the 10-year implementation plan. It stipulates to be revised every 5 years in order to reflect changing national and international nuclear circumstances. The original nuclear R and D program (1992 ∼ 2001) set up in 1992 was amended in 1997 to establish nuclear policy infrastructure and to strengthen technological self-reliance in nuclear power. In this amended long-term nuclear R and D program (1997 ∼ 2006), full scope of utilization facility in HANARO was accommodated. However, economical difficulty befell to Korea from the end of 1997 and every social structure in Korea had to be reshaped with top priority of productivity base. Every industrial sector was desperately striving to cope with the financial difficulty by utilizing maximum production efficiency and by minimizing other functions or activities, which are not directly related to production activity. Even though nationwide endeavor strenuously to get over the economical difficulty, the government had to be supported from IMF (International Monetary Fund). Under the IMF situation in Korea, the nuclear R and D program must be adjusted due to cut-down of research fund from the government. Consequently utilization facility of HANARO is to be evaluated based on the users' program and their requirements. According to the evaluation results from the users' conditions, among the HANARO utilization facilities the first priority is pointed to be RI production facility, the second is to be neutron scattering facility, the third to be fuel

  2. Rhythmic crowd bobbing on a grandstand simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, A. J.; Blakeborough, A.; Williams, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that concerted human activity such as bouncing or bobbing can excite cantilever grandstands. Crowd coordination can be unwitting and may be exacerbated by structural motion caused by resonant structural response. This is an area of uncertainty in the design and analysis of modern grandstands. This paper presents experimental measurement and analysis of rhythmic crowd bobbing loads obtained from tests on a grandstand simulator with two distinct support conditions; (a) rigid, and; (b) flexible. It was found that significant structural vibration at the bobbing frequency did not increase the effective bobbing load. Structural motion at the bobbing frequency caused a reduction in the dynamic load factor (DLF) at the frequency of the second harmonic while those at the first and third harmonics were unaffected. Two plausible reasons for this are: (a) the bobbing group were unable to supply significant energy to the system at the frequency of the second harmonic; (b) the bobbing group altered their bobbing style to reduce the response of the grandstand simulator. It was deduced that the bobbing group did not absorb energy from the dynamic system. Furthermore, dynamic load factors for groups of test subjects bobbing on a rigid structure were typically greater than those of synthesised groups derived from individuals bobbing alone, possibly due to group effects such as audio and visual stimuli from neighbouring test subjects. Last, the vibration levels experienced by the test subjects appear to be below levels likely to cause discomfort. This is to be expected as the test subjects were themselves controlling the magnitude and duration of vibration for the bobbing tests considered.

  3. 26 CFR 1.127-1 - Amounts received under a qualified educational assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee under a qualified educational assistance program described in § 1.127-2, or (2) The value of... Income § 1.127-1 Amounts received under a qualified educational assistance program. (a) Exclusion from.... (c) Amounts received under a nonqualified program. Any amount received under an educational...

  4. Feedback Signal from Motoneurons Influences a Rhythmic Pattern Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Horacio G; Schneider, Elisa; Szczupak, Lidia

    2017-09-20

    Motoneurons are not mere output units of neuronal circuits that control motor behavior but participate in pattern generation. Research on the circuit that controls the crawling motor behavior in leeches indicated that motoneurons participate as modulators of this rhythmic motor pattern. Crawling results from successive bouts of elongation and contraction of the whole leech body. In the isolated segmental ganglia, dopamine can induce a rhythmic antiphasic activity of the motoneurons that control contraction (DE-3 motoneurons) and elongation (CV motoneurons). The study was performed in isolated ganglia where manipulation of the activity of specific motoneurons was performed in the course of fictive crawling ( crawling ). In this study, the membrane potential of CV was manipulated while crawling was monitored through the rhythmic activity of DE-3. Matching behavioral observations that show that elongation dominates the rhythmic pattern, the electrophysiological activity of CV motoneurons dominates the cycle. Brief excitation of CV motoneurons during crawling episodes resets the rhythmic activity of DE-3, indicating that CV feeds back to the rhythmic pattern generator. CV hyperpolarization accelerated the rhythm to an extent that depended on the magnitude of the cycle period, suggesting that CV exerted a positive feedback on the unit(s) of the pattern generator that controls the elongation phase. A simple computational model was implemented to test the consequences of such feedback. The simulations indicate that the duty cycle of CV depended on the strength of the positive feedback between CV and the pattern generator circuit. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Rhythmic movements of animals are controlled by neuronal networks that have been conceived as hierarchical structures. At the basis of this hierarchy, we find the motoneurons, few neurons at the top control global aspects of the behavior (e.g., onset, duration); and within these two ends, specific neuronal circuits control

  5. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is published any time by summarizing in the form of an interim report the data required for research and experiment such as the results of the functional test on various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste management, and the report of study meetings in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, the conspicuous results obtained halfway in research, new techniques, discussion on other papers and reports and others. In this report, the gists of 71 papers on the research activities under visiting research program performed in the second half of 1984 are collected, and the subject number, the title of research reporters, and the summary of report for each research are given. (Kako, I.)

  6. RHYTHMIC MUSIC PEDAGOGY: A SCANDINAVIAN APPROACH TO MUSIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauge Torunn Bakken

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic music pedagogy is a relatively new Scandinavian approach to classroom music education that offers a variety of methods and strategies for teaching and learning music, especially within the performance of improvised and rhythmic music. This article is based on two earlier projects published in Norwegian, in which the concept of rytmisk musikkpedagogikk (or “rhythmic music pedagogy” as well as its applications and implications were thoroughly described. This research confirms that rhythmic music pedagogy may be an effective strategy for learning music in general, but most especially for learning skills associated with ensemble musicianship and playing by ear. In a multicultural and fluid society in which there are tendencies toward passivity and fragmentation, it may be more important than ever to maintain the idea of music as a collaborative creative process that extends across borders; in this context, rhythmic music pedagogy can play a central role in children’s social development. As a social medium, ensemble playing requires the participant to decentralize socially, since the perspectives of the other participants are necessary for a successful performance. The activity’s general potential for re-structuring social settings and moving boundaries in a positive way should not be underestimated.

  7. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995 carried out in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University in 1995. As cooperative activities of KUR, 9 projects and 91 ordinary researches are described in their summaries, with 10 ordinary researches in KUCA cooperative activities. Titles of the 9 projects are development of biological effect analysis of monochromatic neutron spectrum field, study on optimization of bottle condition in ultra cold neutron fission experiment, feature improvement of KUR-ISOL and nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear physics using it, fundamental study on development of new compound for thermal neutron trapping therapy and expansion of its adopting illness, study on properties of synthetic metal using nuclear procedure, neutron diffraction of magnetic substances under the extreme conditions (high pressure, high magnetic field), study on movement in environment of harmful substances, fundamental study on radiation protection against controllable radiation in KUR, and dynamic property study of metal materials using low speed neutron scattering method. (G.K.)

  8. Predictive coding of music--brain responses to rhythmic incongruity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Ostergaard, Leif; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, models of music processing in the brain have mainly discussed the specificity of brain modules involved in processing different musical components. We argue that predictive coding offers an explanatory framework for functional integration in musical processing. Further, we provide empirical evidence for such a network in the analysis of event-related MEG-components to rhythmic incongruence in the context of strong metric anticipation. This is seen in a mismatch negativity (MMNm) and a subsequent P3am component, which have the properties of an error term and a subsequent evaluation in a predictive coding framework. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the evoked responses in expert jazz musicians compared with rhythmically unskilled non-musicians. We propose that these differences trace a functional adaptation and/or a genetic pre-disposition in experts which allows for a more precise rhythmic prediction.

  9. Simple neural substrate predicts complex rhythmic structure in duetting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Ana; Trevisan, M. A.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2005-09-01

    Horneros (Furnarius Rufus) are South American birds well known for their oven-looking nests and their ability to sing in couples. Previous work has analyzed the rhythmic organization of the duets, unveiling a mathematical structure behind the songs. In this work we analyze in detail an extended database of duets. The rhythms of the songs are compatible with the dynamics presented by a wide class of dynamical systems: forced excitable systems. Compatible with this nonlinear rule, we build a biologically inspired model for how the neural and the anatomical elements may interact to produce the observed rhythmic patterns. This model allows us to synthesize songs presenting the acoustic and rhythmic features observed in real songs. We also make testable predictions in order to support our hypothesis.

  10. Time-frequency analysis of human motion during rhythmic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omkar, S N; Vyas, Khushi; Vikranth, H N

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical signals due to human movements during exercise are represented in time-frequency domain using Wigner Distribution Function (WDF). Analysis based on WDF reveals instantaneous spectral and power changes during a rhythmic exercise. Investigations were carried out on 11 healthy subjects who performed 5 cycles of sun salutation, with a body-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) as a motion sensor. Variance of Instantaneous Frequency (I.F) and Instantaneous Power (I.P) for performance analysis of the subject is estimated using one-way ANOVA model. Results reveal that joint Time-Frequency analysis of biomechanical signals during motion facilitates a better understanding of grace and consistency during rhythmic exercise.

  11. Rhythmic Effects of Syntax Processing in Music and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Harim; Sontag, Samuel; Park, YeBin S; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Music and language are human cognitive and neural functions that share many structural similarities. Past theories posit a sharing of neural resources between syntax processing in music and language (Patel, 2003), and a dynamic attention network that governs general temporal processing (Large and Jones, 1999). Both make predictions about music and language processing over time. Experiment 1 of this study investigates the relationship between rhythmic expectancy and musical and linguistic syntax in a reading time paradigm. Stimuli (adapted from Slevc et al., 2009) were sentences broken down into segments; each sentence segment was paired with a musical chord and presented at a fixed inter-onset interval. Linguistic syntax violations appeared in a garden-path design. During the critical region of the garden-path sentence, i.e., the particular segment in which the syntactic unexpectedness was processed, expectancy violations for language, music, and rhythm were each independently manipulated: musical expectation was manipulated by presenting out-of-key chords and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated by perturbing the fixed inter-onset interval such that the sentence segments and musical chords appeared either early or late. Reading times were recorded for each sentence segment and compared for linguistic, musical, and rhythmic expectancy. Results showed main effects of rhythmic expectancy and linguistic syntax expectancy on reading time. There was also an effect of rhythm on the interaction between musical and linguistic syntax: effects of violations in musical and linguistic syntax showed significant interaction only during rhythmically expected trials. To test the effects of our experimental design on rhythmic and linguistic expectancies, independently of musical syntax, Experiment 2 used the same experimental paradigm, but the musical factor was eliminated-linguistic stimuli were simply presented silently, and rhythmic expectancy was manipulated at the critical

  12. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  13. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be designed...

  14. 5 CFR 330.504 - Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Part-time Direct Hire Program. 330.504 Section 330.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... To Protect Competitive Principles § 330.504 Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program. (a) A person hired under the Part-time Direct Hire Program may not be changed to...

  15. Circadian control of mRNA polyadenylation dynamics regulates rhythmic protein expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Shihoko; Sher-Chen, Elaine L.; Green, Carla B.

    2012-01-01

    Green and colleagues perform a global analysis of circadian-controlled poly(A) tails and identify hundreds of mRNAs that display dynamic rhythmic polyadenylation states. They identify three distinct classes of mRNAs with rhythmic poly(A) tails. Interestingly, class III mRNAs are controlled not by transcription, but by rhythmic cytoplasmic polyadenylation, and are regulated by the components of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation machinery, CPEB2 in particular, which are themselves rhythmically ex...

  16. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical Report of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, is published any time as a prompt report as occasion requires. In this report, the title, names of reporters and summary of each of 53 researches which were carried out under the visiting research program in the first half of 1983 are given. The titles are, for example, a mechanism for the anodic oxidation of GaAs, gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation study of relaxation phenomena, the studies on the genesis of volcanic rocks by partition of trace elements, neutron activation analysis of geochemical standard rock samples, studies on the changes of elements in the fur of rats with various disease, neutron activation analysis on glacier ice strata and glaciegla lake sediments in Nepal Himalayas, low temperature irradiation effects on bcc metals, organ and its subcellular distribution of manganese ion in animals, structure analysis of orthorhombic BaTiO 3 by profile analysis method, regional distribution of Mn, Zn and Cu in human brain, neutron diffraction study of Mn-Ni alloy, structural change of KCoF 3 in the vicinity of the critical region, activation analysis of trace elements in tumor tissues (thyroid) and so on. (Kako, I.)

  17. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Now the summary report of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1991 has been put in order and published. As compared with the past reports, in the report of this year, pages increased and the style changed, but this is due to the change of the method of adopting researches to that throughout one year from fiscal year 1991. So far one page was allotted to every subject, but this limit was relaxed according to the contents. This style is not yet fixed. As well known, discussion is going on about the way the research reactor and the Research Reactor Institute should be. As for this summary report, in order to receive the international evaluation, it was decided to publish the report in English from fiscal year 1992, and the Progress Report on the research by the Institute personnel is included in it. In this report, 98 summaries of the researches using the KUR and 15 summaries of the researches using the KUCA are collected. One summary which was not reported in fiscal year 1990 is added. (K.I.)

  18. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait in cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Shashank; Ghai, Ishan; Effenberg, Alfred O

    2018-01-01

    Auditory entrainment can influence gait performance in movement disorders. The entrainment can incite neurophysiological and musculoskeletal changes to enhance motor execution. However, a consensus as to its effects based on gait in people with cerebral palsy is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait in people with cerebral palsy. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine guidelines, from inception until July 2017, on online databases: Web of Science, PEDro, EBSCO, Medline, Cochrane, Embase and ProQuest. Kinematic and spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated in a meta-analysis across studies. Of 547 records, nine studies involving 227 participants (108 children/119 adults) met our inclusion criteria. The qualitative review suggested beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait performance among all included studies. The meta-analysis revealed beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait dynamic index (Hedge's g =0.9), gait velocity (1.1), cadence (0.3), and stride length (0.5). This review for the first time suggests a converging evidence toward application of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance and stability in people with cerebral palsy. This article details underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and use of cueing as an efficient home-based intervention. It bridges gaps in the literature, and suggests translational approaches on how rhythmic auditory cueing can be incorporated in rehabilitation approaches to enhance gait performance in people with cerebral palsy.

  19. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait in cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shashank Ghai,1 Ishan Ghai,2 Alfred O. Effenberg1 1Institute for Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany; 2School of Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany Abstract: Auditory entrainment can influence gait performance in movement disorders. The entrainment can incite neurophysiological and musculoskeletal changes to enhance motor execution. However, a consensus as to its effects based on gait in people with cerebral palsy is still warranted. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to analyze the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters of gait in people with cerebral palsy. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine guidelines, from inception until July 2017, on online databases: Web of Science, PEDro, EBSCO, Medline, Cochrane, Embase and ProQuest. Kinematic and spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated in a meta-analysis across studies. Of 547 records, nine studies involving 227 participants (108 children/119 adults met our inclusion criteria. The qualitative review suggested beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait performance among all included studies. The meta-analysis revealed beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait dynamic index (Hedge’s g=0.9, gait velocity (1.1, cadence (0.3, and stride length (0.5. This review for the first time suggests a converging evidence toward application of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance and stability in people with cerebral palsy. This article details underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and use of cueing as an efficient home-based intervention. It bridges gaps in the literature, and suggests translational approaches on how rhythmic auditory cueing can be incorporated in rehabilitation approaches to

  20. Rhythmic Engagement with Music in Early Childhood: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings on spontaneous movement and rhythmic engagement with music in infancy. Using the identical stimuli and procedures from the original study, I investigated spontaneous rhythmic movements in response to music, infant-directed speech, and contrasting rhythmic patterns in 30…

  1. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    Introduction: Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of

  2. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Panalysis showed a lower percentage of body fat in the gymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  3. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar

  4. The Acoustic Reality of the Kachruvian Circles: A Rhythmic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ee Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the rhythmic properties of varieties of English found in each of the concentric circles of Kachru's model can, in any way, be elucidated by the "Three Circles" model. A measurement and comparison of the rhythm of three varieties of English: British English (from the Inner Circle), Singapore English (from…

  5. Modeling discrete and rhythmic movements through motor primitives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degallier, Sarah; Ijspeert, Auke

    2010-10-01

    Rhythmic and discrete movements are frequently considered separately in motor control, probably because different techniques are commonly used to study and model them. Yet the increasing interest in finding a comprehensive model for movement generation requires bridging the different perspectives arising from the study of those two types of movements. In this article, we consider discrete and rhythmic movements within the framework of motor primitives, i.e., of modular generation of movements. In this way we hope to gain an insight into the functional relationships between discrete and rhythmic movements and thus into a suitable representation for both of them. Within this framework we can define four possible categories of modeling for discrete and rhythmic movements depending on the required command signals and on the spinal processes involved in the generation of the movements. These categories are first discussed in terms of biological concepts such as force fields and central pattern generators and then illustrated by several mathematical models based on dynamical system theory. A discussion on the plausibility of theses models concludes the work.

  6. Corpus-Based Rhythmic Pattern Analysis of Ragtime Syncopation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Hendrik Vincent; Volk, A.; de Haas, W.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on rhythmic patterns in the RAG-collection of approximately 11.000 symbolically encoded ragtime pieces. While characteristic musical features that define ragtime as a genre have been debated since its inception, musicologists argue that specific syncopation

  7. Rhythmic regularity revisited : Is beat induction indeed pre-attentive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.; Honing, H.; Cambouropoulos, E.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.

    2012-01-01

    When listening to musical rhythm, regularity in time is often perceived in the form of a beat or pulse. External rhythmic events can give rise to the perception of a beat, through a process known as beat induction. In addition, internal processes, like long-term memory, working memory and automatic

  8. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait in people with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether rhythmic music and metronome cues alter spatiotemporal gait measures and gait variability in people with Alzheimer disease (AD). A repeated-measures study requiring participants to walk under different cueing conditions. University movement laboratory. Of the people (N=46) who met study criteria (a diagnosis of probable AD and ability to walk 100m) at routine medical review, 30 (16 men; mean age ± SD, 80±6y; revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination range, 26-79) volunteered to participate. Participants walked 4 times over an electronic walkway synchronizing to (1) rhythmic music and (2) a metronome set at individual mean baseline comfortable speed cadence. Gait spatiotemporal measures and gait variability (coefficient of variation [CV]). Data from individual walks under each condition were combined. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare uncued baseline, cued, and retest measures. Gait velocity decreased with both music and metronome cues compared with baseline (baseline, 110.5cm/s; music, 103.4cm/s; metronome, 105.4cm/s), primarily because of significant decreases in stride length (baseline, 120.9cm; music, 112.5cm; metronome, 114.8cm) with both cue types. This was coupled with increased stride length variability compared with baseline (baseline CV, 3.4%; music CV, 4.3%; metronome CV, 4.5%) with both cue types. These changes did not persist at (uncued) retest. Temporal variability was unchanged. Rhythmic auditory cueing at comfortable speed tempo produced deleterious effects on gait in a single session in this group with AD. The deterioration in spatial gait parameters may result from impaired executive function associated with AD. Further research should investigate whether these instantaneous cue effects are altered with more practice or with learning methods tailored to people with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Transitions between discrete and rhythmic primitives in a unimanual task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternad, Dagmar; Marino, Hamal; Charles, Steven K.; Duarte, Marcos; Dipietro, Laura; Hogan, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements in order to “stress” the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: starting at 2 s, the metronome intervals decreased by 36 ms per cycle to 200 ms, stayed at 200 ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models. PMID:23888139

  10. Transitions between Discrete and Rhythmic Primitives in a Unimanual Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar eSternad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a sequence of progressively faster discrete movements, in order to stress the system. We hypothesized that the increasing pace would elicit a transition to rhythmic movements, assumed to be computationally and neurally more efficient. Abrupt transitions between the two types of movements would support the hypothesis that rhythmic and discrete movements are distinct primitives. Ten subjects performed planar point-to-point arm movements paced by a metronome: Starting at 2s the metronome intervals decreased by 36ms per cycle to 200ms, stayed at 200ms for several cycles, then increased by similar increments. Instructions emphasized to insert explicit stops between each movement with a duration that equaled the movement time. The experiment was performed with eyes open and closed, and with short and long metronome sounds, the latter explicitly specifying the dwell duration. Results showed that subjects matched instructed movement times but did not preserve the dwell times. Rather, they progressively reduced dwell time to zero, transitioning to continuous rhythmic movements before movement times reached their minimum. The acceleration profiles showed an abrupt change between discrete and rhythmic profiles. The loss of dwell time occurred earlier with long auditory specification, when subjects also showed evidence of predictive control. While evidence for hysteresis was weak, taken together, the results clearly indicated a transition between discrete and rhythmic movements, supporting the proposal that representation is based on primitives rather than on veridical internal models.

  11. Interactions of Circadian Rhythmicity, Stress and Orexigenic Neuropeptide Systems: Implications for Food Intake Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Anna; Gundlach, Andrew L; Hess, Grzegorz; Lewandowski, Marian H

    2017-01-01

    Many physiological processes fluctuate throughout the day/night and daily fluctuations are observed in brain and peripheral levels of several hormones, neuropeptides and transmitters. In turn, mediators under the "control" of the "master biological clock" reciprocally influence its function. Dysregulation in the rhythmicity of hormone release as well as hormone receptor sensitivity and availability in different tissues, is a common risk-factor for multiple clinical conditions, including psychiatric and metabolic disorders. At the same time circadian rhythms remain in a strong, reciprocal interaction with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent findings point to a role of circadian disturbances and excessive stress in the development of obesity and related food consumption and metabolism abnormalities, which constitute a major health problem worldwide. Appetite, food intake and energy balance are under the influence of several brain neuropeptides, including the orexigenic agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone and relaxin-3. Importantly, orexigenic neuropeptide neurons remain under the control of the circadian timing system and are highly sensitive to various stressors, therefore the potential neuronal mechanisms through which disturbances in the daily rhythmicity and stress-related mediator levels contribute to food intake abnormalities rely on reciprocal interactions between these elements.

  12. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed in...

  13. Neural entrainment to rhythmically-presented auditory, visual and audio-visual speech in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan James Power

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory cortical oscillations have been proposed to play an important role in speech perception. It is suggested that the brain may take temporal ‘samples’ of information from the speech stream at different rates, phase-resetting ongoing oscillations so that they are aligned with similar frequency bands in the input (‘phase locking’. Information from these frequency bands is then bound together for speech perception. To date, there are no explorations of neural phase-locking and entrainment to speech input in children. However, it is clear from studies of language acquisition that infants use both visual speech information and auditory speech information in learning. In order to study neural entrainment to speech in typically-developing children, we use a rhythmic entrainment paradigm (underlying 2 Hz or delta rate based on repetition of the syllable ba, presented in either the auditory modality alone, the visual modality alone, or as auditory-visual speech (via a talking head. To ensure attention to the task, children aged 13 years were asked to press a button as fast as possible when the ba stimulus violated the rhythm for each stream type. Rhythmic violation depended on delaying the occurrence of a ba in the isochronous stream. Neural entrainment was demonstrated for all stream types, and individual differences in standardized measures of language processing were related to auditory entrainment at the theta rate. Further, there was significant modulation of the preferred phase of auditory entrainment in the theta band when visual speech cues were present, indicating cross-modal phase resetting. The rhythmic entrainment paradigm developed here offers a method for exploring individual differences in oscillatory phase locking during development. In particular, a method for assessing neural entrainment and cross-modal phase resetting would be useful for exploring developmental learning difficulties thought to involve temporal sampling

  14. Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA National Organic Program Rule.

  15. Renewable Fuel Pathways II Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways under Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels derived from biogas fuel pathways under the RFS program and other minor amendments related to survey requirements associated with ULSD program and misfueling mitigation regulations for E15.

  16. INFLUENCE OF COMPETITIVE EXPERIENCE ON STATIC POSTURAL BALANCE IN A GROUP OF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS OF HIGH LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Scursatone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic gymnastics is the unique female sport which includes aspects of both artistic gymnastics and dance and is characterized by the use of small apparatuses (e.g., rope, clubs, ribbon, hoop and ball. Many studies compared the balance ability of athletes from different sports, underlying that gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability (Hrysomallis, 2011; Bressel, Yonker, Kras & Heath, 2007. No literature analysed the influence of  the competitive experience of rhytmic gymnasts on the static postural balance.Objective: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of years of competitive experience, hours of physical training and competition level on static postural balance in elite rhythmic gymnastics female athletes.  

  17. The problem of the quality of judging in rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Perederij

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop a classification of factors influencing the quality of judging in rhythmic gymnastics. As a result of consolidation of theoretical information and practical experience was a list of the factors that negatively affect the behavior of judges in gymnastics, which were divided into two groups: the objective and non-objective (subjective. Objective factors include intense competition schedule, fatigue, especially memory, attention, competition rules, to the subjective: the ratio of judges to their gymnast (team or to the opposing team, the lack of interest in the performance, composition of the judging panel, the influence of authority and popularity sportswomen dependence on its management. Respondents were unanimous in that independent professional judges are needed in a rhythmic gymnastics. It is set that 64% respondent mark the presence of pressure on judges from the side of competitors.

  18. Understanding Epileptiform After-Discharges as Rhythmic Oscillatory Transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Gerold; Taylor, Peter N; Wang, Yujiang

    2017-01-01

    Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when using the same stimulation parameters in the same patient, wide variability in the duration of transient response has been reported. These transients have long been considered important for the mapping of the excitability levels in the epileptic brain but their dynamic mechanism is still not well understood. To investigate the occurrence of abnormal transients dynamically, we use a thalamo-cortical neural population model of epileptic spike-wave activity and study the interaction between slow and fast subsystems. In a reduced version of the thalamo-cortical model, slow wave oscillations arise from a fold of cycles (FoC) bifurcation. This marks the onset of a region of bistability between a high amplitude oscillatory rhythm and the background state. In vicinity of the bistability in parameter space, the model has excitable dynamics, showing prolonged rhythmic transients in response to suprathreshold pulse stimulation. We analyse the state space geometry of the bistable and excitable states, and find that the rhythmic transient arises when the impending FoC bifurcation deforms the state space and creates an area of locally reduced attraction to the fixed point. This area essentially allows trajectories to dwell there before escaping to the stable steady state, thus creating rhythmic transients. In the full thalamo-cortical model, we find a similar FoC bifurcation structure. Based on the analysis, we propose an explanation of why stimulation induced epileptiform activity may vary between trials, and predict how the variability could be related to ongoing oscillatory background activity. We compare our dynamic mechanism with other mechanisms (such as a slow parameter change) to generate excitable transients, and we discuss the proposed excitability mechanism in the context of stimulation responses in the epileptic cortex.

  19. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  20. A Computer Program to Evaluate Timber Production Investments Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. Schweitzer

    1968-01-01

    A computer program has been written in Fortran IV to calculate probability distributions of present worths of investments in timber production. Inputs can include both point and probabilistic estimates of future costs, prices, and yields. Distributions of rates of return can also be constructed.

  1. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  2. 48 CFR 819.7111 - Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mentor-Protégé Program. 819.7111 Section 819.7111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7111 Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program. (a) A mentor or protégé may voluntarily withdraw from the...

  3. Somatotype of top-level serbian rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purenović-Ivanović, Tijana; Popović, Ružena

    2014-03-27

    Body size and build influence performance in many sports, especially in those belonging to the group of female aesthetic sports (rhythmic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, and figure skating). These sports pose high specific demands upon the functional, energy, motor and psychological capacities of athletes, but also upon the size, body build and composition of the performers, particularly of the top-level female athletes. The study of the top athletes (rhythmic gymnasts, in this case) may provide valuable information on the morphological requirements for achieving success in this sport. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to analyze the somatotype of 40 Serbian top-level rhythmic gymnasts, aged 13.04±2.79, and to form the five age group categories. The anthropometric variables included body height, body mass, the selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. All of the anthropometric data were collected according to International Biological Programme, and then processed in the Somatotype 1.2. The applied analysis of variance indicated an increase in endomorphic component with age. The obtained results show that the balanced ectomorph is a dominant somatotype, being similar for all of the athletes that took part in the research (3.54-3.24-4.5). These results are in line with the ones obtained in previous studies.

  4. Rhythmic abilities and musical training in Parkinson's disease: do they help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochen De Cock, V; Dotov, D G; Ihalainen, P; Bégel, V; Galtier, F; Lebrun, C; Picot, M C; Driss, V; Landragin, N; Geny, C; Bardy, B; Dalla Bella, S

    2018-01-01

    Rhythmic auditory cues can immediately improve gait in Parkinson's disease. However, this effect varies considerably across patients. The factors associated with this individual variability are not known to date. Patients' rhythmic abilities and musicality (e.g., perceptual and singing abilities, emotional response to music, and musical training) may foster a positive response to rhythmic cues. To examine this hypothesis, we measured gait at baseline and with rhythmic cues in 39 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and 39 matched healthy controls. Cognition, rhythmic abilities and general musicality were assessed. A response to cueing was qualified as positive when the stimulation led to a clinically meaningful increase in gait speed. We observed that patients with positive response to cueing ( n  = 17) were more musically trained, aligned more often their steps to the rhythmic cues while walking, and showed better music perception as well as poorer cognitive flexibility than patients with non-positive response ( n  = 22). Gait performance with rhythmic cues worsened in six patients. We concluded that rhythmic and musical skills, which can be modulated by musical training, may increase beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing in Parkinson's disease. Screening patients in terms of musical/rhythmic abilities and musical training may allow teasing apart patients who are likely to benefit from cueing from those who may worsen their performance due to the stimulation.

  5. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on parkinsonian gait: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Shashank; Ghai, Ishan; Schmitz, Gerd; Effenberg, Alfred O

    2018-01-11

    The use of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance in parkinsonian patients' is an emerging area of interest. Different theories and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have been suggested for ascertaining the enhancement in motor performance. However, a consensus as to its effects based on characteristics of effective stimuli, and training dosage is still not reached. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of different auditory feedbacks on gait and postural performance in patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to PRISMA guidelines, from inception until May 2017, on online databases; Web of science, PEDro, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and PROQUEST. Of 4204 records, 50 studies, involving 1892 participants met our inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed an overall positive effect on gait velocity, stride length, and a negative effect on cadence with application of auditory cueing. Neurophysiological mechanisms, training dosage, effects of higher information processing constraints, and use of cueing as an adjunct with medications are thoroughly discussed. This present review bridges the gaps in literature by suggesting application of rhythmic auditory cueing in conventional rehabilitation approaches to enhance motor performance and quality of life in the parkinsonian community.

  6. Electrophysiology of Hypothalamic Magnocellular Neurons In vitro: A Rhythmic Drive in Organotypic Cultures and Acute Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H; Ciofi, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  7. Electrophysiology of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in vitro: a rhythmic drive in organotypic cultures and acute slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eIsrael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  8. What is orgasm? A model of sexual trance and climax via rhythmic entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Orgasm is one of the most intense pleasures attainable to an organism, yet its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. On the basis of existing literatures, this article introduces a novel mechanistic model of sexual stimulation and orgasm. In doing so, it characterizes the neurophenomenology of sexual trance and climax, describes parallels in dynamics between orgasms and seizures, speculates on possible evolutionary origins of sex differences in orgasmic responding, and proposes avenues for future experimentation. Here, a model is introduced wherein sexual stimulation induces entrainment of coupling mechanical and neuronal oscillatory systems, thus creating synchronized functional networks within which multiple positive feedback processes intersect synergistically to contribute to sexual experience. These processes generate states of deepening sensory absorption and trance, potentially culminating in climax if critical thresholds are surpassed. The centrality of rhythmic stimulation (and its modulation by salience) for surpassing these thresholds suggests ways in which differential orgasmic responding between individuals—or with different partners—may serve as a mechanism for ensuring adaptive mate choice. Because the production of rhythmic stimulation combines honest indicators of fitness with cues relating to potential for investment, differential orgasmic response may serve to influence the probability of continued sexual encounters with specific mates. PMID:27799079

  9. Rhythmic Behavior Is Controlled by the SRm160 Splicing Factor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Esteban J; Hernando, Carlos E; Polcowñuk, Sofía; Bertolin, Agustina P; Mancini, Estefania; Ceriani, M Fernanda; Yanovsky, Marcelo J

    2017-10-01

    Circadian clocks organize the metabolism, physiology, and behavior of organisms throughout the day-night cycle by controlling daily rhythms in gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. While many transcription factors underlying circadian oscillations are known, the splicing factors that modulate these rhythms remain largely unexplored. A genome-wide assessment of the alterations of gene expression in a null mutant of the alternative splicing regulator SR-related matrix protein of 160 kDa (SRm160) revealed the extent to which alternative splicing impacts on behavior-related genes. We show that SRm160 affects gene expression in pacemaker neurons of the Drosophila brain to ensure proper oscillations of the molecular clock. A reduced level of SRm160 in adult pacemaker neurons impairs circadian rhythms in locomotor behavior, and this phenotype is caused, at least in part, by a marked reduction in period ( per ) levels. Moreover, rhythmic accumulation of the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR in the dorsal projections of these neurons is abolished after SRm160 depletion. The lack of rhythmicity in SRm160-downregulated flies is reversed by a fully spliced per construct, but not by an extra copy of the endogenous locus, showing that SRm160 positively regulates per levels in a splicing-dependent manner. Our findings highlight the significant effect of alternative splicing on the nervous system and particularly on brain function in an in vivo model. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Planning under uncertainty solving large-scale stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Operations Research]|[Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1992-12-01

    For many practical problems, solutions obtained from deterministic models are unsatisfactory because they fail to hedge against certain contingencies that may occur in the future. Stochastic models address this shortcoming, but up to recently seemed to be intractable due to their size. Recent advances both in solution algorithms and in computer technology now allow us to solve important and general classes of practical stochastic problems. We show how large-scale stochastic linear programs can be efficiently solved by combining classical decomposition and Monte Carlo (importance) sampling techniques. We discuss the methodology for solving two-stage stochastic linear programs with recourse, present numerical results of large problems with numerous stochastic parameters, show how to efficiently implement the methodology on a parallel multi-computer and derive the theory for solving a general class of multi-stage problems with dependency of the stochastic parameters within a stage and between different stages.

  11. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year

  12. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year.

  13. 77 FR 17143 - Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Medicare and Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435 and 457 Medicaid Program; Eligibility Changes Under... for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435, and 457 [CMS-2349-F] RIN 0938-AQ62 Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  14. 77 FR 47913 - The National Center for Mobility Management Under FTA's National Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Management Under FTA's National Research Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), as the primary staff agency to the Federal... transportation service delivery. FTA, under its National Research Program, plans to fund a National Center for...

  15. 34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of problems may be researched under the... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND... Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program? Problems...

  16. 75 FR 72682 - Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... members not in a present duty status. This authority includes payment for health care services in private... 0790-AI52 Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special... assigns responsibilities for health care eligibility under the Secretarial Designee Program. It also...

  17. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable for...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable for...

  19. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall: (a...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall: (a...

  1. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and importers...

  2. Efficiency of Decoupled Farm Programs under Distortionary Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini; Paolo Sckokai

    1994-01-01

    When lump-sum taxation is not feasible, decoupled transfers to farmers (which require raising government revenue) will entail welfare loss somewhere in the economy. Assuming the government's objective is to assure a given welfare level for farmers, we show that when decoupling is possible, free trade is always superior to some tariff protection for a small country, even under Distortionary taxation. As expected, for a large country there is scope for an optimal tariff policy that improves the...

  3. Non-equilibrium thermodynamical description of rhythmic motion patterns of active systems: a canonical-dissipative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotov, D G; Kim, S; Frank, T D

    2015-02-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium thermodynamical variables of a canonical-dissipative limit cycle oscillator describing rhythmic motion patterns of active systems. These variables are statistical entropy, non-equilibrium internal energy, and non-equilibrium free energy. In particular, the expression for the non-equilibrium free energy is derived as a function of a suitable control parameter. The control parameter determines the Hopf bifurcation point of the deterministic active system and describes the effective pumping of the oscillator. In analogy to the equilibrium free energy of the Landau theory, it is shown that the non-equilibrium free energy decays as a function of the control parameter. In doing so, a similarity between certain equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions is pointed out. Data from an experiment on human rhythmic movements is presented. Estimates for pumping intensity as well as the thermodynamical variables are reported. It is shown that in the experiment the non-equilibrium free energy decayed when pumping intensity was increased, which is consistent with the theory. Moreover, pumping intensities close to zero could be observed at relatively slow intended rhythmic movements. In view of the Hopf bifurcation underlying the limit cycle oscillator model, this observation suggests that the intended limit cycle movements were actually more similar to trajectories of a randomly perturbed stable focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of rhythmic activity in a central pattern generator: analysis of the role of neuromodulator and activity-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Golowasch, Jorge

    2011-11-01

    The pyloric network of decapods crustaceans can undergo dramatic rhythmic activity changes. Under normal conditions the network generates low frequency rhythmic activity that depends obligatorily on the presence of neuromodulatory input from the central nervous system. When this input is removed (decentralization) the rhythmic activity ceases. In the continued absence of this input, periodic activity resumes after a few hours in the form of episodic bursting across the entire network that later turns into stable rhythmic activity that is nearly indistinguishable from control (recovery). It has been proposed that an activity-dependent modification of ionic conductance levels in the pyloric pacemaker neuron drives the process of recovery of activity. Previous modeling attempts have captured some aspects of the temporal changes observed experimentally, but key features could not be reproduced. Here we examined a model in which slow activity-dependent regulation of ionic conductances and slower neuromodulator-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration reproduce all the temporal features of this recovery. Key aspects of these two regulatory mechanisms are their independence and their different kinetics. We also examined the role of variability (noise) in the activity-dependent regulation pathway and observe that it can help to reduce unrealistic constraints that were otherwise required on the neuromodulator-dependent pathway. We conclude that small variations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, a Ca(2+) uptake regulation mechanism that is directly targeted by neuromodulator-activated signaling pathways, and variability in the Ca(2+) concentration sensing signaling pathway can account for the observed changes in neuronal activity. Our conclusions are all amenable to experimental analysis.

  5. A little elastic for a better performance: kinesiotaping of the motor effector modulates neural mechanisms for rhythmic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Riccardo; Quarta, Eros; Cohen, Erez J; Gottard, Anna; Minciacchi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    A rhythmic motor performance is brought about by an integration of timing information with movements. Investigations on the millisecond time scale distinguish two forms of time control, event-based timing and emergent timing. While event-based timing asserts the existence of a central internal timekeeper for the control of repetitive movements, the emergent timing perspective claims that timing emerges from dynamic control of nontemporal movements parameters. We have recently demonstrated that the precision of an isochronous performance, defined as performance of repeated movements having a uniform duration, was insensible to auditory stimuli of various characteristics (Bravi et al., 2014). Such finding has led us to investigate whether the application of an elastic therapeutic tape (Kinesio® Tex taping; KTT) used for treating athletic injuries and a variety of physical disorders, is able to reduce the timing variability of repetitive rhythmic movement. Young healthy subjects, tested with and without KTT, have participated in sessions in which sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs) were performed under various auditory conditions and during their recall. Kinematics was recorded and temporal parameters were extracted and analyzed. Our results show that the application of KTT decreases the variability of rhythmic movements by a 2-fold effect: on the one hand KTT provides extra proprioceptive information activating cutaneous mechanoreceptors, on the other KTT biases toward the emergent timing thus modulating the processes for rhythmic movements. Therefore, KTT appears able to render movements less audio dependent by relieving, at least partially, the central structures from time control and making available more resources for an augmented performance.

  6. A little elastic for a better performance: kinesiotaping of the motor effector modulates neural mechanisms for rhythmic movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo eBravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A rhythmic motor performance is brought about by an integration of timing information with movements. Investigations on the millisecond time scale distinguish two forms of time control, event-based timing and emergent timing. While event-based timing asserts the existence of a central internal timekeeper for the control of repetitive movements, the emergent timing perspective claims that timing emerges from dynamic control of nontemporal movements parameters. We have recently demonstrated that the precision of an isochronous performance, defined as performance of repeated movements having a uniform duration, was insensible to auditory stimuli of various characteristics (Bravi et al., 2014. Such finding has led us to investigate whether the application of an elastic therapeutic tape (Kinesio® Tex taping; KTT used for treating athletic injuries and a variety of physical disorders, is able to reduce the timing variability of repetitive rhythmic movement. Young healthy subjects, tested with and without KTT, have participated in sessions in which sets of repeated isochronous wrist's flexion-extensions (IWFEs were performed under various auditory conditions and during their recall. Kinematics was recorded and temporal parameters were extracted and analyzed. Our results show that the application of KTT decreases the variability of rhythmic movements by a twofold effect: on the one hand KTT provides extra proprioceptive information activating cutaneous mechanoreceptors, on the other KTT biases toward the emergent timing thus modulating the processes for rhythmic movements. Therefore, KTT appears able to render movements less audio dependent by relieving, at least partially, the central structures from time control and making available more resources for an augmented performance.

  7. 48 CFR 719.273-9 - Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273-9 Section 719.273-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273-9 Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program. (a) A Mentor or Protégé may voluntarily withdraw from the Program. However, in no event shall such withdrawal...

  8. Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants: Classification and association with brain injury and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeke, Lauren C; van Ooijen, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; van Huffelen, Alexander C; van Haastert, Ingrid C; van Stam, Carolien; Benders, Manon J; Toet, Mona C; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-12-01

    Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome. Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born Rhythmic patterns were observed in 62.3% (ictal 1.3%, PEDs 44%, other waveforms 86.3%) with multiple patterns in 36.4%. Ictal discharges were only observed in one and excluded from further analyses. The EEG location of the other waveforms (pRhythmic waveforms related to head position are likely artefacts. Rhythmic EEG patterns may have a different significance in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Circadian Rhythmicity in the Activities of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase from Lemna perpusilla and Spirodela polyrhiza 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, William R.; Koukkari, Willard L.

    1978-01-01

    The oscillations in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity from Spirodela polyrhiza and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities from Lemna perpusilla displayed a circadian rhythm under continuous light. Rhythmicity in enzymic activity could not be detected in continuous darkness since under this condition phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity remains at a fairly constantly low level. Results from our studies of the oscillatory pattern of the respective activities of phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyase support their “inseparability.” PMID:16660569

  10. YOUNG LEARNERS’ RHYTHMIC AND INTONATION SKILLS THROUGH DRAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Beskorsa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of implementing drama techniques into the process of developing young learners’ rhythmic and intonation skills. The main task of learning the foreign language is using it as a mean of pupils’ communication in oral and written forms. The author proves that drama techniques integrate successfully all types of speech activities. It is specified that this method transfers the focus from teaching grammatically correct speech to training clear and effective communication. The author emphasizes on that sentence stress and speed of speech has the greatest influence on the rhythm. The application of these drama techniques are thought to increase primary school pupils’ level of motivation to master the language skills perfectly, it provides a positive psychological climate in English classes. The teachers’ role has a tendency to minimizing. They act as facilitators. In author’s opinion if they do impose the authority implementing drama activities into the classroom, the educational value of drama techniques will be never gained. It is also disclosed that rhythmic and intonation skills shouldn’t be formed spontaneously, the process of their development has to be conducted in certain stages (presentation and production to make pupils’ speech fluent and pronunciation clear, introducing the exercises based on drama techniques. At the stage of presentation the following exercises have the most methodological value: speed dictations, dictogloss, asking questions to practise recognizing word boundaries, matching phrases to stress patterns, marking stresses and weak forms, authentic listening. At production stage they suggest using exercises like play reading and play production. The following pieces of drama texts are recommended to be applied for teaching primary school children: jazz chants, poems, scripted plays and simple scenes from different movie genres. It is also proved that drama techniques and

  11. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The book carries a large number of summary studies made by using the Research Reactor (KUR) or the Critical Assembly (KUCA). These studies include low temperature irradiation effect on iron-alloy and ceramics, study on the influence of the neutron irradiation on the low temperature strength of various welded joint of dissimilar materials, effects of neutron irradiation on superconducting properties under stress in superconducting wires, neutron activation analysis and photo-emission phenomena from gamma-ray irradiated rock-forming minerals, study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors, distribution and mobility of ions of metal elements in stem, activation analysis of high purity metals, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of superionic conductor, neutron spectrometry with CR-39 track detector, geochemical study on trace element abundances in island arc igneous rocks, experiment for measurement of neutron flux distribution in a tight pitch-lattice with a dy-wir, reactor rate distribution measurement of tight pitch lattice core with internal blanket, measurement of the foil reaction rates in a critical core, and many more. (N.K.)

  12. Champagne experiences various rhythmical bubbling regimes in a flute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José-Carlos

    2006-09-20

    Bubble trains are seen rising gracefully from a few points on the glass wall (called nucleation sites) whenever champagne is poured into a glass. As time passes during the gas-discharging process, the careful observation of some given bubble columns reveals that the interbubble distance may change suddenly, thus revealing different rhythmical bubbling regimes. Here, it is reported that the transitions between the different bubbling regimes of some nucleation sites during gas discharging is a process which may be ruled by a strong interaction between tiny gas pockets trapped inside the nucleation site and/or also by an interaction between the tiny bubbles just blown from the nucleation site.

  13. Self-Generated Auditory Feedback as a Cue to Support Rhythmic Motor Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopher Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A goal of the SKILLS project is to develop Virtual Reality (VR-based training simulators for different application domains, one of which is juggling. Within this context the value of multimodal VR environments for skill acquisition is investigated. In this study, we investigated whether it was necessary to render the sounds of virtual balls hitting virtual hands within the juggling training simulator. First, we recorded sounds at the jugglers’ ears and found the sound of ball hitting hands to be audible. Second, we asked 24 jugglers to juggle under normal conditions (Audible or while listening to pink noise intended to mask the juggling sounds (Inaudible. We found that although the jugglers themselves reported no difference in their juggling across these two conditions, external juggling experts rated rhythmic stability worse in the Inaudible condition than in the Audible condition. This result suggests that auditory information should be rendered in the VR juggling training simulator.

  14. Superior short-term learning effect of visual and sensory organisation ability when sensory information is unreliable in adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ya; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Tsao, Hung-Ting

    2017-06-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts specialise in dynamic balance under sensory conditions of numerous somatosensory, visual, and vestibular stimulations. This study investigated whether adolescent rhythmic gymnasts are superior to peers in Sensory Organisation test (SOT) performance, which quantifies the ability to maintain standing balance in six sensory conditions, and explored whether they plateaued faster during familiarisation with the SOT. Three and six sessions of SOTs were administered to 15 female rhythmic gymnasts (15.0 ± 1.8 years) and matched peers (15.1 ± 2.1 years), respectively. The gymnasts were superior to their peers in terms of fitness measures, and their performance was better in the SOT equilibrium score when visual information was unreliable. The SOT learning effects were shown in more challenging sensory conditions between Sessions 1 and 2 and were equivalent in both groups; however, over time, the gymnasts gained marginally significant better visual ability and relied less on visual sense when unreliable. In conclusion, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts have generally the same sensory organisation ability and learning rates as their peers. However, when visual information is unreliable, they have superior sensory organisation ability and learn faster to rely less on visual sense.

  15. Low-Frequency Components in Rat Pial Arteriolar Rhythmic Diameter Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Dominga; Mastantuono, Teresa; Di Maro, Martina; Varanini, Maurizio; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the frequency components present in spontaneous rhythmic diameter changes in rat pial arterioles. Pial microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Rhythmic luminal variations were evaluated via computer-assisted methods. Spectral analysis was carried out on 30-min recordings under baseline conditions and after administration of acetylcholine (Ach), papaverine (Pap), Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) prior to Ach, indomethacin (INDO), INDO prior to Ach, charybdotoxin and apamin, and charybdotoxin and apamin prior to Ach. Under baseline conditions all arteriolar orders showed 3 frequency components in the ranges of 0.0095-0.02, 0.02-0.06, and 0.06-0.2 Hz, another 2 in the ranges of 0.2-2.0 and 2.5-4.5 Hz, and another ultra-low-frequency component in the range of 0.001-0.0095 Hz. Ach caused a significant increase in the spectral density of the frequency components in the range of 0.001-0.2 Hz. Pap was able to slightly increase spectral density in the ranges of 0.001-0.0095 and 0.0095-0.02 Hz. L-NNA mainly attenuated arteriolar responses to Ach. INDO prior to Ach did not affect the endothelial response to Ach. Charybdotoxin and apamin, suggested as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor inhibitors, reduced spectral density in the range of 0.001-0.0095 Hz before and after Ach administration. In conclusion, regulation of the blood flow distribution is due to several mechanisms, one of which is affected by charibdotoxin and apamin, modulating the vascular tone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  17. 76 FR 71993 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Claims Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Claims Management Program AGENCY: Transportation... Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management... the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register...

  18. Judging in Rhythmic Gymnastics at Different Levels of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Catarina; Ávila-Carvalho, Lurdes; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena; Bobo-Arce, Marta

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to analyse the quality of difficulty judging in rhythmic gymnastics, at different levels of performance. The sample consisted of 1152 difficulty scores concerning 288 individual routines, performed in the World Championships in 2013. The data were analysed using the mean absolute judge deviation from the final difficulty score, a Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intra-class correlations, for consistency and reliability assessment. For validity assessment, mean deviations of judges' difficulty scores, the Kendall's coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were calculated. Overall, the results in terms of consistency (Cronbach's alpha mostly above 0.90) and reliability (intra-class correlations for single and average measures above 0.70 and 0.90, respectively) were satisfactory, in the first and third parts of the ranking on all apparatus. The medium level gymnasts, those in the second part of the ranking, had inferior reliability indices and highest score dispersion. In this part, the minimum of corrected item-total correlation of individual judges was 0.55, with most values well below, and the matrix for between-judge correlations identified remarkable inferior correlations. These findings suggest that the quality of difficulty judging in rhythmic gymnastics may be compromised at certain levels of performance. In future, special attention should be paid to the judging analysis of the medium level gymnasts, as well as the Code of Points applicability at this level.

  19. Rhythmic Density Affects Listeners' Emotional Response to Microtiming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Senn

    2017-10-01

    – Study A investigates the effect of fixed time displacements within and between the parts played by different musicians. Listeners (n = 160 reacted negatively to irregularities within the drum track, but the mutual displacement of bass vs. drums did not have an effect.– Study B develops three metrics to calculate the average microtiming magnitude in a musical excerpt. The experiment showed that listeners' (n = 160 emotional responses to expert performance microtiming aligned with each other across styles, when microtiming magnitude was adjusted for rhythmic density. This indicates that rhythmic density is a unifying moderator for listeners' emotional response to microtiming in swing and funk.– Study C used the data from both experiments in order to compare the effect of fixed microtiming displacements (from Study A with scaled versions of the originally performed microtiming patterns (from Study B. It showed that fixed snare drum displacements irritated expert listeners more than the more flexible deviations occurring in the original performances. This provides some evidence that listeners' emotional response to microtiming deviations not only depends on the magnitude of the deviations, but also on the kind and origin of the microtiming patterns (fixed lab displacements vs. flexible performance microtiming.

  20. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, A W G; Broersma, M; van der Stouwe, A M M; van Wingen, G A; Groot, P F C; Speelman, J D; Maurits, N M; van Rootselaar, A F

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar output in essential tremor during rhythmic finger tapping employing functional MRI. Thirty-one propranolol-sensitive essential tremor patients with upper limb tremor and 29 healthy controls were measured. T2*-weighted EPI sequences were acquired. The task consisted of alternating rest and finger tapping blocks. A whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis was performed, the latter focusing on the cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus and inferior olive nucleus. Activations were also related to tremor severity. In patients, dentate activation correlated positively with tremor severity as measured by the tremor rating scale part A. Patients had reduced activation in widespread cerebellar cortical regions, and additionally in the inferior olive nucleus, and parietal and frontal cortex, compared to controls. The increase in dentate activation with tremor severity supports involvement of the dentate nucleus in essential tremor. Cortical and cerebellar changes during a motor timing task in essential tremor might point to widespread changes in cerebellar output in essential tremor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhythmic Haptic Stimuli Improve Short-Term Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shusheng; Wang, Dangxiao; Afzal, Naqash; Zhang, Yuru; Wu, Ruilin

    2016-01-01

    Brainwave entrainment using rhythmic visual and/or auditory stimulation has shown its efficacy in modulating neural activities and cognitive ability. In the presented study, we aim to investigate whether rhythmic haptic stimulation could enhance short-term attention. An experiment with sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) increasing protocol was performed in which participants were presented sinusoidal vibrotactile stimulus of 15 Hz on their palm. Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.) was performed before and after the stimulating session. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded across the stimulating session and the two attention test sessions. SMR band power manifested a significant increase after stimulation. Results of T.O.V.A. tests indicated an improvement in the attention of participants who had received the stimulation compared to the control group who had not received the stimulation. The D prime score of T.O.V.A. reveals that participants performed better in perceptual sensitivity and sustaining attention level compared to their baseline performance before the stimulating session. These findings highlight the potential value of using haptics-based brainwave entrainment for cognitive training.

  2. Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu; Ichihara, Chihiro; Shiroya, Seiji; Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaboration

  3. Now you hear it: a predictive coding model for understanding rhythmic incongruity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Dietz, Martin; Witek, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Rhythmic incongruity in the form of syncopation is a prominent feature of many contemporary musical styles. Syncopations afford incongruity between rhythmic patterns and the meter, giving rise to mental models of differently accented isochronous beats. Syncopations occur either in isolation or as...

  4. The development of rhythmic abilities among of secondary school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaskina O. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available this article is aimed to examine the system of development of rhythmic abilities. It is also studied and analyzed systems of development of rhythmicity of Jacques Dalcroze, V.A. Griner. The definition of the concept «rhythm» is revealed.

  5. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  6. Visual cortex responses reflect temporal structure of continuous quasi-rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Christian; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG. Our findings substantiate a systematic and sustained neural phase-locking to stimulation in all three frequency ranges. Further, we found that allocation of spatial attention enhances EEG-stimulus locking to theta- and alpha-band stimulation. Our results bridge recent findings regarding phase locking ("entrainment") to quasi-rhythmic visual input and "frequency-tagging" experiments employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. We propose that sustained EEG-stimulus locking can be considered as a continuous neural signature of processing dynamic sensory input in early visual cortices. Accordingly, EEG-stimulus locking serves to trace the temporal evolution of rhythmic as well as quasi-rhythmic visual input and is subject to attentional bias. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 34 CFR 660.2 - Who is eligible to apply for grants under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to apply for grants under this program? 660.2 Section 660.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM...

  8. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  9. Methods of Software Quality Assurance under a Nuclear Quality Assurance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a substantial implementation of a software quality assurance under a nuclear quality assurance program. The relationship of the responsibility between a top-level nuclear quality assurance program such as ASME/NQA-1 and its lower level software quality assurance is described. Software quality assurance activities and software quality assurance procedures during the software development life cycle are also described

  10. 76 FR 74849 - Fund Availability Under the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... programs under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f) ( http://www.huduser...: Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program Office, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100... funding per state. See Section E of this Notice for maximum allowable grant amounts. FOR FURTHER...

  11. 75 FR 79087 - Fund Availability Under the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... (HUD) for programs under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f) ( http... Veteran Families Program Office, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100 Chester Avenue... the Final Rule, an eligible entity may submit only one application per State. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  12. 44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.7 Offers and appeals under the SRL program. (a) Consultation. States and communities... mitigation activity. These consultations shall be initiated in the early stages of the project development...

  13. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small Business...

  14. 75 FR 52976 - Issuance of Revised Users' Manual for Commission Mediation Program for Investigations Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Issuance of Revised Users' Manual for Commission Mediation Program... 65615 (Nov. 8, 2008). The Commission has determined to issue a revised Users' Manual for its program for the mediation of investigations under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. The revised Users' Manual...

  15. NEARSOL - a simple program to model actinide speciation and solubility under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, S.J.; Pryke, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    A simple program, NearSol, has been written in Fortran 77 on the Harwell Central Computer to model the aqueous speciation and solubility of actinides under near-field conditions for disposal using a simple thermodynamic approach. The methodology and running of the program are described together with a worked example. (author)

  16. Time-varying spectral analysis revealing differential effects of sevoflurane anaesthesia: non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-T; Wu, H-T; Tsao, J; Yien, H-W; Hseu, S-S

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect various physiological dynamics. In particular, variation of R-R peak interval (RRI) of electrocardiography appears regularly oscillatory in deeper levels of anaesthesia and less regular in lighter levels of anaesthesia. We proposed a new index, non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio (NRR), to quantify this feature and investigated its potential to estimate depth of anaesthesia. Thirty-one female patients were enrolled in this prospective study. The oscillatory pattern transition of RRI was visualised by the time-varying power spectrum and quantified by NRR. The prediction of anaesthetic events, including skin incision, first reaction of motor movement during emergence period, loss of consciousness (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by NRR were evaluated by serial prediction probability (PK ) analysis; the ability to predict the decrease of effect-site sevoflurane concentration was also evaluated. The results were compared with Bispectral Index (BIS). NRR well-predicted first reaction (PK  > 0.90) 30 s ahead, earlier than BIS and significantly better than HRV indices. NRR well-correlated with sevoflurane concentration, although its correlation was inferior to BIS, while HRV indices had no such correlation. BIS indicated LOC and ROC best. Our findings suggest that NRR provides complementary information to BIS regarding the differential effects of anaesthetics on the brain, especially the subcortical motor activity. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 75 FR 18138 - Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Component members not in a present duty status. This authority includes payment for health care services in... 0790-AI52] Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special... establish policies and assign responsibilities for health care eligibility under the Secretarial Designee...

  18. Do heart failure disease management programs make financial sense under a bundled payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Reed, Shelby D; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D

    2011-05-01

    Policy makers have proposed bundling payments for all heart failure (HF) care within 30 days of an HF hospitalization in an effort to reduce costs. Disease management (DM) programs can reduce costly HF readmissions but have not been economically attractive for caregivers under existing fee-for-service payment. Whether a bundled payment approach can address the negative financial impact of DM programs is unknown. Our study determined the cost-neutral point for the typical DM program and examined whether published HF DM programs can be cost saving under bundled payment programs. We used a decision analytic model using data from retrospective cohort studies, meta-analyses, 5 randomized trials evaluating DM programs, and inpatient claims for all Medicare beneficiaries discharged with an HF diagnosis from 2001 to 2004. We determined the costs of DM programs and inpatient care over 30 and 180 days. With a baseline readmission rate of 22.9%, the average cost for readmissions over 30 days was $2,272 per patient. Under base-case assumptions, a DM program that reduced readmissions by 21% would need to cost $477 per patient to be cost neutral. Among evaluated published DM programs, 2 of the 5 would increase provider costs (+$15 to $283 per patient), whereas 3 programs would be cost saving (-$241 to $347 per patient). If bundled payments were broadened to include care over 180 days, then program saving estimates would increase, ranging from $419 to $1,706 per patient. Proposed bundled payments for HF admissions provide hospitals with a potential financial incentive to implement DM programs that efficiently reduce readmissions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity Disrupts the Rhythmic Profiles of Maternal and Fetal Progesterone in Rat Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Mark, Peter J; Clarke, Michael W; Waddell, Brendan J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of abnormal fetal growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because steroid hormones regulate fetal growth, and both pregnancy and obesity markedly alter circadian biology, we hypothesized that maternal obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic profiles of steroid hormones in rat pregnancy. Obesity was established by cafeteria (CAF) feeding for 8 wk prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. Control (CON) animals had ad libitum access to chow. Daily profiles of plasma corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, progesterone, and testosterone were measured at Days 15 and 21 of gestation (term = 23 days) in maternal (both days) and fetal (Day 21) plasma. CAF mothers exhibited increased adiposity relative to CON and showed fetal and placental growth restriction. There was no change, however, in total fetal or placental mass due to slightly larger litter sizes in CAF. Nocturnal declines in progesterone were observed in maternal (39% lower) and fetal (45% lower) plasma in CON animals, but these were absent in CAF animals. CAF mothers were hyperlipidemic at both days of gestation, but this effect was isolated to the dark period at Day 21. CAF maternal testosterone was slightly lower at Day 15 (8%) but increased above CON by Day 21 (16%). Despite elevated maternal testosterone, male fetal testosterone was suppressed by obesity on Day 21. Neither maternal nor fetal glucocorticoid profiles were affected by obesity. In conclusion, obesity disrupts rhythmic profiles of maternal and fetal progesterone, preventing the normal nocturnal decline. Obesity subtly changed testosterone profiles but did not alter maternal and fetal glucocorticoids. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Meta-analysis of Drosophila circadian microarray studies identifies a novel set of rhythmically expressed genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Keegan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Five independent groups have reported microarray studies that identify dozens of rhythmically expressed genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Limited overlap among the lists of discovered genes makes it difficult to determine which, if any, exhibit truly rhythmic patterns of expression. We reanalyzed data from all five reports and found two sources for the observed discrepancies, the use of different expression pattern detection algorithms and underlying variation among the datasets. To improve upon the methods originally employed, we developed a new analysis that involves compilation of all existing data, application of identical transformation and standardization procedures followed by ANOVA-based statistical prescreening, and three separate classes of post hoc analysis: cross-correlation to various cycling waveforms, autocorrelation, and a previously described fast Fourier transform-based technique. Permutation-based statistical tests were used to derive significance measures for all post hoc tests. We find application of our method, most significantly the ANOVA prescreening procedure, significantly reduces the false discovery rate relative to that observed among the results of the original five reports while maintaining desirable statistical power. We identify a set of 81 cycling transcripts previously found in one or more of the original reports as well as a novel set of 133 transcripts not found in any of the original studies. We introduce a novel analysis method that compensates for variability observed among the original five Drosophila circadian array reports. Based on the statistical fidelity of our meta-analysis results, and the results of our initial validation experiments (quantitative RT-PCR, we predict many of our newly found genes to be bona fide cyclers, and suggest that they may lead to new insights into the pathways through which clock mechanisms regulate behavioral rhythms.

  1. Summary of work completed under the Environmental and Dynamic Equipment Qualification research program (EDQP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; Bramwell, D.L.; Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the results of the main projects undertaken under the Environmental and Dynamic Equipment Qualification Research Program (EDQP) sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under FIN A6322. Lasting from fiscal year 1983 to 1987, the program dealt with environmental and dynamic (including seismic) equipment qualification issues for mechanical and electromechanical components and systems used in nuclear power plants. The research results have since been used by both the NRC and industry. The program included seven major research projects that addressed the following issues: (a) containment purge and vent valves performing under design basis loss of coolant accident loads, (b) containment piping penetrations and isolation valves performing under seismic loadings and design basis and severe accident containment wall displacements, (c) shaft seals for primary coolant pumps performing under station blackout conditions, (d) electrical cabinet internals responding to in-structure generated motion (rattling), and (e) in situ piping and valves responding to seismic loadings. Another project investigating whether certain containment isolation valves will close under design basis conditions was also started under this program. This report includes eight main section, each of which provides a brief description of one of the projects, a summary of the findings, and an overview of the application of the results. A bibliography lists the journal articles, papers, and reports that document the research

  2. Systems Level Regulation of Rhythmic Growth Rate and Biomass Accumulation in Grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Steve A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Objectives: Several breakthroughs have been recently made in our understanding of plant growth and biomass accumulation. It was found that plant growth is rhythmically controlled throughout the day by the circadian clock through a complex interplay of light and phytohormone signaling pathways. While plants such as the C4 energy crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and possibly the C3 grass Brachypodium distachyon also exhibit daily rhythms in growth rate, the molecular details of its regulation remain to be explored. A better understanding of diurnally regulated growth behavior in grasses may lead to species-specific mechanisms highly relevant to future strategies to optimize energy crop biomass yield. Here we propose to devise a systems approach to identify, in parallel, regulatory hubs associated with rhythmic growth in C3 and C4 plants. We propose to use rhythmicity in daily growth patterns to drive the discovery of regulatory network modules controlling biomass accumulation. Description: The project is divided in three main parts: 1) Performing time-lapse imaging and growth measurement in B. distachyon and S. bicolor to determine growth rate dynamic during the day/night cycle. Identifying growth-associated genes whose expression patterns follow the observed growth dynamics using deep sequencing technology, 2) identifying regulators of these genes by screening for DNA-binding proteins interacting with the growth-associated gene promoters identified in Aim 1. Screens will be performed using a validated yeast-one hybrid strategy paired with a specifically designed B. distachyon and S. bicolor transcription factor libraries (1000 clones each), and 3) Selecting 50 potential growth regulators from the screen for downstream characterization. The selection will be made by using a sytems biology approach by calculating the connectivity between growth rate, rhythmic gene expression profiles and TF expression profile and determine which TF is likely part of a hub

  3. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  4. Theta oscillations locked to intended actions rhythmically modulate perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Alice; Ambrogioni, Luca; Medendorp, W Pieter; Maris, Eric

    2017-07-07

    Ongoing brain oscillations are known to influence perception, and to be reset by exogenous stimulations. Voluntary action is also accompanied by prominent rhythmic activity, and recent behavioral evidence suggests that this might be coupled with perception. Here, we reveal the neurophysiological underpinnings of this sensorimotor coupling in humans. We link the trial-by-trial dynamics of EEG oscillatory activity during movement preparation to the corresponding dynamics in perception, for two unrelated visual and motor tasks. The phase of theta oscillations (~4 Hz) predicts perceptual performance, even >1 s before movement. Moreover, theta oscillations are phase-locked to the onset of the movement. Remarkably, the alignment of theta phase and its perceptual relevance unfold with similar non-monotonic profiles, suggesting their relatedness. The present work shows that perception and movement initiation are automatically synchronized since the early stages of motor planning through neuronal oscillatory activity in the theta range.

  5. Rhythmic Degradation Explains and Unifies Circadian Transcriptome and Proteome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lück

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rich mammalian cellular circadian output affects thousands of genes in many cell types and has been the subject of genome-wide transcriptome and proteome studies. The results have been enigmatic because transcript peak abundances do not always follow the peaks of gene-expression activity in time. We posited that circadian degradation of mRNAs and proteins plays a pivotal role in setting their peak times. To establish guiding principles, we derived a theoretical framework that fully describes the amplitudes and phases of biomolecules with circadian half-lives. We were able to explain the circadian transcriptome and proteome studies with the same unifying theory, including cases in which transcripts or proteins appeared before the onset of increased production rates. Furthermore, we estimate that 30% of the circadian transcripts in mouse liver and Drosophila heads are affected by rhythmic posttranscriptional regulation.

  6. Effect of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Hemiplegic Gait Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on both kinematic and temporospatial gait patterns in patients with hemiplegia. Eighteen hemiplegic patients diagnosed with either cerebral palsy or stroke participated in this study. All participants underwent the 4-week gait training with RAS. The treatment was performed for 30 minutes per each session, three sessions per week. RAS was provided with rhythmic beats using a chord progression on a keyboard. Kinematic and temporospatial data were collected and analyzed using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Gait training with RAS significantly improved both proximal and distal joint kinematic patterns in hip adduction, knee flexion, and ankle plantar flexion, enhancing the gait deviation index (GDI) as well as ameliorating temporal asymmetry of the stance and swing phases in patients with hemiplegia. Stroke patients with previous walking experience demonstrated significant kinematic improvement in knee flexion in mid-swing and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance. Among stroke patients, subacute patients showed a significantly increased GDI score compared with chronic patients. In addition, household ambulators showed a significant effect on reducing anterior tilt of the pelvis with an enhanced GDI score, while community ambulators significantly increased knee flexion in mid-swing phase and ankle dorsiflexion in terminal stance phase. Gait training with RAS has beneficial effects on both kinematic and temporospatial patterns in patients with hemiplegia, providing not only clinical implications of locomotor rehabilitation with goal-oriented external feedback using RAS but also differential effects according to ambulatory function.

  7. Rhythmic diel pattern of gene expression in juvenile maize leaf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jończyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous biochemical and physiological parameters of living organisms follow a circadian rhythm. Although such rhythmic behavior is particularly pronounced in plants, which are strictly dependent on the daily photoperiod, data on the molecular aspects of the diurnal cycle in plants is scarce and mostly concerns the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we studied the leaf transcriptome in seedlings of maize, an important C4 crop only distantly related to A. thaliana, throughout a cycle of 10 h darkness and 14 h light to look for rhythmic patterns of gene expression. RESULTS: Using DNA microarrays comprising ca. 43,000 maize-specific probes we found that ca. 12% of all genes showed clear-cut diel rhythms of expression. Cluster analysis identified 35 groups containing from four to ca. 1,000 genes, each comprising genes of similar expression patterns. Perhaps unexpectedly, the most pronounced and most common (concerning the highest number of genes expression maxima were observed towards and during the dark phase. Using Gene Ontology classification several meaningful functional associations were found among genes showing similar diel expression patterns, including massive induction of expression of genes related to gene expression, translation, protein modification and folding at dusk and night. Additionally, we found a clear-cut tendency among genes belonging to individual clusters to share defined transcription factor-binding sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Co-expressed genes belonging to individual clusters are likely to be regulated by common mechanisms. The nocturnal phase of the diurnal cycle involves gross induction of fundamental biochemical processes and should be studied more thoroughly than was appreciated in most earlier physiological studies. Although some general mechanisms responsible for the diel regulation of gene expression might be shared among plants, details of the diurnal regulation of gene expression seem to differ

  8. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  9. Mechanisms of circadian rhythmicity of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, James V; Ramanathan, Raghupathy; Lee, K Monica; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and certain other chemicals varies over a 24-h period. Because the metabolism of some drugs follows a diurnal rhythm, it was decided to investigate whether the hepatic metabolic activation of CCl(4) was rhythmic and coincided in time with maximum susceptibility to CCl(4) hepatotoxicity. A related objective was to test the hypothesis that abstinence from food during the sleep cycle results in lipolysis and formation of acetone, which participates in induction of liver microsomal cytochrome P450IIE1 (CYP2E1), resulting in a diurnal increase in CCl(4) metabolic activation and acute liver injury. Groups of fed and fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single oral dose of 800 mg of CCl(4)/kg at 2- to 4-h intervals over a 24-h period. Serum enzyme activities, measured 24 h post dosing as indices of acute liver injury, exhibited distinct maxima in both fed and fasted animals dosed with CCl(4) near the beginning of their dark/active cycle. Blood acetone, hepatic CYP2E1 activity, and covalent binding of (14)CCl(4)/metabolites to hepatic microsomal proteins in untreated rats fed ad libitum followed circadian rhythms similar to that of susceptibility to CCl(4). Parallel fluctuations of greater amplitude were seen in rats fasted for 24 h. Hepatic glutathione levels were lowest at the time of greatest susceptibility to CCl(4). Acetone dose-response experiments showed high correlations between blood acetone levels, CYP2E1 induction, and CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Pretreatment with diallyl sulfide suppressed CYP2E1 and abolished the circadian rhythmicity of susceptibility to CCl(4). These findings provide additional support for acetone's physiological role in CYP2E1 induction and for CYP2E1's role in modulating CCl(4) chronotoxicity in rats.

  10. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Teległó, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted.

  11. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement.

  12. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Woerd, Erik S; Oostenveld, Robert; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Lange, Floris P; Praamstra, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i) entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii) the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii) whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways.

  13. Simulation of the control rod drop under seismic excitations. Experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, Th.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental program that will be performed at the end of 1998 at the CEA Saclay on a specially constructed analytical mock-up of a control rod. The purpose of these tests is to partially validate the current methodology of the drop time numerical calculations of a PWR (pressurized water reactor) control rod under seismic excitations. The French nuclear partners (EDF and FRAMATOME) are involved in this program. (author)

  14. Rhythmic activity of feline dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons during fictive motor actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirchuk, Brent; Stecina, Katinka; Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl

    2013-01-01

    (without phasic afferent feedback). In this study, we compared the activity of DSCT and VSCT neurons during fictive rhythmic motor behaviors. We used decerebrate cat preparations in which fictive motor tasks can be evoked while the animal is paralyzed and there is no rhythmic sensory input from hindlimb......Neurons of the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (DSCT) have been described to be rhythmically active during walking on a treadmill in decerebrate cats, but this activity ceased following deafferentation of the hindlimb. This observation supported the hypothesis that DSCT neurons primarily relay...

  15. High-density EEG characterization of brain responses to auditory rhythmic stimuli during wakefulness and NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Patel, Yogi A; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; Page, Jessica M; Price, Betsy; Boyle, Michael R; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2018-04-01

    Auditory rhythmic sensory stimulation modulates brain oscillations by increasing phase-locking to the temporal structure of the stimuli and by increasing the power of specific frequency bands, resulting in Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSR). The ASSR is altered in different diseases of the central nervous system such as schizophrenia. However, in order to use the ASSR as biological markers for disease states, it needs to be understood how different vigilance states and underlying brain activity affect the ASSR. Here, we compared the effects of auditory rhythmic stimuli on EEG brain activity during wake and NREM sleep, investigated the influence of the presence of dominant sleep rhythms on the ASSR, and delineated the topographical distribution of these modulations. Participants (14 healthy males, 20-33 years) completed on the same day a 60 min nap session and two 30 min wakefulness sessions (before and after the nap). During these sessions, amplitude modulated (AM) white noise auditory stimuli at different frequencies were applied. High-density EEG was continuously recorded and time-frequency analyses were performed to assess ASSR during wakefulness and NREM periods. Our analysis revealed that depending on the electrode location, stimulation frequency applied and window/frequencies analysed the ASSR was significantly modulated by sleep pressure (before and after sleep), vigilance state (wake vs. NREM sleep), and the presence of slow wave activity and sleep spindles. Furthermore, AM stimuli increased spindle activity during NREM sleep but not during wakefulness. Thus, (1) electrode location, sleep history, vigilance state and ongoing brain activity needs to be carefully considered when investigating ASSR and (2) auditory rhythmic stimuli during sleep might represent a powerful tool to boost sleep spindles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatic rhythmicity of endoplasmic reticulum stress is disrupted in perinatal and adult mice models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Junpei; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Asilmaz, Esra; Ray, Shuvra; Nguyen, Vi; Carter, Rebeca; Novelli, Marco; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Oben, Jude A

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the regulation of hepatic ER stress in healthy liver and adult or perinatally programmed diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female mice were fed either obesogenic or control diet before mating, during pregnancy and lactation. Post-weaning, offspring from each maternal group were divided into either obesogenic or control diet. At six months, offspring were sacrificed at 4-h intervals over 24 h. Offspring fed obesogenic diets developed NAFLD phenotype, and the combination of maternal and offspring obesogenic diets exacerbated this phenotype. UPR signalling pathways (IREα, PERK, ATF6) and their downstream regulators showed different basal rhythmicity, which was modified in offspring exposed to obesogenic diet and maternal programming. The double obesogenic hit increased liver apoptosis measured by TUNEL staining, active caspase-3 and phospho-JNK and GRP78 promoter methylation levels. This study demonstrates that hepatic UPR is rhythmically activated. The combination of maternal obesity (MO) and obesogenic diets in offspring triggered altered UPR rhythmicity, DNA methylation and cellular apoptosis.

  17. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  18. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation to improve balance and gait in a subject with orthopedic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungermann, Cathryn M; Gras, Laura Z

    2011-12-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the effect of therapeutic riding with a subject who had an orthopedic diagnosis. This is a single-subject case report. The study was conducted at an equestrian facility with an indoor riding arena. The subject was a 59-year-old woman with grade I spondylolisthesis at L4/L5 and multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis in central and foraminal canals. The subject had an anterior cervical fusion of C3-C7. The subject has been ambulating with a straight cane due to her history of frequent falls. Gait, agility, strength, range of motion, and balance testing were performed. The subject had impairments of bilateral lower extremities with an ataxic gait pattern and was at risk for continued falls according to the balance measures. The intervention comprised therapeutic riding sessions 3 times a week for 20 minutes for 4 weeks. Each riding session was immediately followed by a 10-minute independent walking program with a metronome for rhythmic auditory stimulation. The outcome measures were as follows: Manual muscle testing and range of motion of the lower extremities, Gait Speed Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Four-Square Step Test, Chair Stand Test, Single Leg Stance. Improvements were seen in lower extremity strength and range of motion and balance. The subject improved on balance scores, placing her out of the risk for falls category. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation improved lower extremity range of motion, strength, and balance with this subject.

  19. Anatomy of Respiratory Rhythmic Systems in Brain Stem and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jüch, P.J.W.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of two respiratory rhythmic loci in the dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum were studied by retrograde and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. The injection areas were determined with extracellular activity recording using HRP filled glass micropipettes,

  20. The Performance of Bach: Study of Rhythmic Timing by Skilled Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes 15 performances of "Bach's Suite Number 3 for Violoncello solo, Bourree Number 1" and determines what patterns of rhythmic variation (rubato) were used by soloists. Indicates that the soloists demonstrated four identifiable and similar trends in the performances. (CMK)

  1. Slowed EEG rhythmicity in patients with chronic pancreatitis: evidence of abnormal cerebral pain processing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Schou; Hansen, Tine Maria; Gravesen, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Intractable pain usually dominates the clinical presentation of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythmicity has been associated with abnormal cortical pain processing in other chronic pain disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the spectral distribution...

  2. Artistic versus rhythmic gymnastics: effects on bone and muscle mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Dorado, C; Ara, I; Perez-Gomez, J; Olmedillas, H; Delgado-Guerra, S; Calbet, J A L

    2007-05-01

    We compared 35 prepubertal girls, 9 artistic gymnasts and 13 rhythmic gymnasts with 13 nonphysically active controls to study the effect of gymnastics on bone and muscle mass. Lean mass, bone mineral content and areal density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical fitness was also assessed. The artistic gymnasts showed a delay in pubertal development compared to the other groups (partistic gymnasts had a 16 and 17 % higher aerobic power and anaerobic capacity, while the rhythmic group had a 14 % higher anaerobic capacity than the controls, respectively (all partistic gymnasts had higher lean mass (partistic and the rhythmic gymnasts (partistic group compared to the other groups. Lean mass strongly correlated with bone mineral content (r=0.84, partistic gymnastic participation is associated with delayed pubertal development, enhanced physical fitness, muscle mass, and bone density in prepubertal girls, eliciting a higher osteogenic stimulus than rhythmic gymnastic.

  3. 40 CFR 80.1142 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all of the following criteria: (i) The refiner produced gasoline at its refineries by processing crude... Standard § 80.1142 What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program? (a)(1) Gasoline produced by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a)), is exempt from the renewable fuel...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country... another country, has been substantially transformed in a Free Trade Agreement country into a new and... Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements. 252.225-7045 Section 252.225-7045 Federal...

  5. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  6. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  7. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  8. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  9. 78 FR 53423 - Notice of Funds Availability Under the Intermediary Relending Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... request the form. You may also write a letter containing all of the information requested in the form... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Funds Availability Under the Intermediary Relending Program AGENCIES: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  10. 34 CFR 658.2 - Who is eligible to apply for assistance under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to apply for assistance under this program? 658.2 Section 658.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES...

  11. Multimodal shipments under program on Russian-origin research reactor SFA return to Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, A.N.; Ivashchenko, A.A.; Kanashov, B.A.; Komarov, S.V.; Komarov, S.N.; Barinkov, O.P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes experience in preparation and organization of research reactor nuclear material import under the Program on Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Return to the Russian Federation. It also summarizes evolution of transport equipment, conveyances and routes and describes types of packages, their adaptation and certification, safety issues, peculiarities and prospective use of the packagings and conveyances. (author)

  12. 78 FR 32991 - Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 433 [CMS-2327-CN] RIN 0938-AR38 Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS...

  13. 77 FR 56712 - Agency Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503, (202) 395... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0554.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Homeless Providers...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6225 - Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under a Core Program Cooperative Agreement, activities must develop and maintain a recipient's abilities... safety plans, quality assurance project plans, and community relation plans); (2) Provisions for... staff to manage publicly-funded cleanups, oversee responsible party-lead cleanups, and provide clerical...

  15. 76 FR 70469 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Airspace Waiver Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Airspace Waiver Program AGENCY: Transportation Security... Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment...

  16. 12 CFR 370.6 - Assessments under the Debt Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.6 Assessments under the Debt Guarantee... participating entity shall ensure that funds in an amount at least equal to the amount of the assessment are... institution shall provide the necessary funds for payment of its assessments. (3) Failure to take all...

  17. 78 FR 45452 - Mailing of Tickets Under the Ticket To Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Security Online, at www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Congress established the Ticket... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 411 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0034] RIN 0960-AH34 Mailing of Tickets Under the Ticket To Work Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule...

  18. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Report is prepared and approved in accordance with § 385.26; and (3) Not exceed a total cost of... RESTORATION PLAN CERP Implementation Processes § 385.13 Projects implemented under additional program authority. (a) To expedite implementation of the Plan, the Corps of Engineers and non-Federal sponsors may...

  19. 20 CFR 411.245 - What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program? 411.245 Section 411.245 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... formats. For purposes of this section, accessible format means by media that is appropriate to a...

  20. Homotopy Method for a General Multiobjective Programming Problem under Generalized Quasinormal Cone Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined interior point homotopy continuation method is proposed for solving general multiobjective programming problem. We prove the existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path from almost any interior initial interior point to a solution of the KKT system under some basic assumptions.

  1. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  2. 34 CFR 381.22 - How does the Secretary allocate funds under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROTECTION AND... Secretary pays directly to an eligible system that submits an application that meets the requirements of... eligible systems established under this program. (2) After the reservation required by paragraph (a)(1) of...

  3. Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics: A Collaborative Project Under Erasmus+ Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurlewicz, Agnieszka; Nunes, Claudia; Russo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics (MODCLIM) is a Strategic Partnership for the Development of Training Workshops and Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics, funded through the European Commission under the Erasmus Plus Program, Key Action 2: Cooperation for innovation and the exchang...

  4. 34 CFR 403.70 - How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Leadership Activities? 403.70 Section 403.70 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.70 How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? A State shall use funds reserved under section...

  5. International program: Feasibility of the evacuation of high-level radioactive wastes under the ocean depths. (Seabed Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Seabed feasibility program is an international scientific program of research on the feasibility of the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into the geological formations making up the floor of the great abyssal plains of the oceans. Decided in 1977, the program is aimed at answering the three following questions: 1) are there potentially favourable sites. 2) is the disposal of wastes possible. 3) does the operation present safety guarantees. First initiated by four countries (USA, UK, Japan and France), the program sponsored by the OECD nuclear energy agency was gathering ten countries and the Commission of the European communities in 1988. The techniques of waste disposal by means of drilling in consolidated sediments and penetrators in loose sediments have been studied. The penetrator technique has been the most thoroughly studied, especially through in situ experiments in the Atlantic ocean. The various factors affecting safety have been studied and the radiological consequences of a burial operation assessed through models. It has been concluded that such an operation could be carried out technically under quite satisfying conditions [fr

  6. Green supplier development program selection using NGT and VIKOR under fuzzy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Anjali; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Developing environmental performance of suppliers is critical for green supply chain management. Organizations are nowadays investing in various green supplier development programs to enhance their supplier performances. The decision to select the right program for green supplier development...... is often a challenging decision due to lack of prior experience, limited quantitative information, specific context of the organization, and varying supplier backgrounds. This paper addresses the problem of evaluating green supplier development programs and proposes a fuzzy NGT (Nominal Group Technique......)-VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) based solution approach. NGT is used to identify criteria for evaluating green supplier development programs. Fuzzy theory is used to address qualitative (linguistic) ratings for the alternatives and the selected criteria used under lack...

  7. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-06-15

    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  8. Jazz drummers recruit language-specific areas for the processing of rhythmic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdener, Marcus; Humbel, Thierry; Esposito, Fabrizio; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2014-03-01

    Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language. Comparing the BOLD responses to rhythmic variations between professional jazz drummers and musical laypersons, we found that only highly trained rhythmic experts show additional activity in left-hemispheric supramarginal gyrus, a higher-order region involved in processing of linguistic syntax. This suggests an additional functional recruitment of brain areas usually dedicated to complex linguistic syntax processing for the analysis of rhythmical patterns only in professional jazz drummers, who are especially trained to use rhythmical cues for communication.

  9. Rhythmic Cognition in Humans and Animals: Distinguishing Meter and Pulse Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a cognitive and comparative perspective on human rhythmic cognition that emphasizes a key distinction between pulse perception and meter perception. Pulse perception involves the extraction of a regular pulse or 'tactus' from a stream of events. Meter perception involves grouping of events into hierarchical trees with differing levels of 'strength', or perceptual prominence. I argue that metrically-structured rhythms are required to either perform or move appropriately to music (e.g. to dance. Rhythms, from this metrical perspective, constitute 'trees in time'. Rhythmic syntax represents a neglected form of musical syntax, and warrants more thorough neuroscientific investigation. The recent literature on animal entrainment clearly demonstrates the capacity to extract the pulse from rhythmic music, and to entrain periodic movements to this pulse, in several parrot species and a California sea lion, and a more limited ability to do so in one chimpanzee. However, the ability of these or other species to infer hierarchical rhythmic trees remains, for the most part, unexplored (with some apparent negative results from macaques. The results from this new animal comparative research, combined with new methods to explore rhythmic cognition neurally, provide exciting new routes for understanding not just rhythmic cognition, but hierarchical cognition more generally, from a biological and neural perspective.

  10. Timescales and Mechanisms of Sigh-Like Bursting and Spiking in Models of Rhythmic Respiratory Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Rubin, Jonathan E

    2017-12-01

    Neural networks generate a variety of rhythmic activity patterns, often involving different timescales. One example arises in the respiratory network in the pre-Bötzinger complex of the mammalian brainstem, which can generate the eupneic rhythm associated with normal respiration as well as recurrent low-frequency, large-amplitude bursts associated with sighing. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain sigh generation: the recruitment of a neuronal population distinct from the eupneic rhythm-generating subpopulation or the reconfiguration of activity within a single population. Here, we consider two recent computational models, one of which represents each of the hypotheses. We use methods of dynamical systems theory, such as fast-slow decomposition, averaging, and bifurcation analysis, to understand the multiple-timescale mechanisms underlying sigh generation in each model. In the course of our analysis, we discover that a third timescale is required to generate sighs in both models. Furthermore, we identify the similarities of the underlying mechanisms in the two models and the aspects in which they differ.

  11. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches

  12. Neural entrainment to the rhythmic structure of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-02-01

    The neural resonance theory of musical meter explains musical beat tracking as the result of entrainment of neural oscillations to the beat frequency and its higher harmonics. This theory has gained empirical support from experiments using simple, abstract stimuli. However, to date there has been no empirical evidence for a role of neural entrainment in the perception of the beat of ecologically valid music. Here we presented participants with a single pop song with a superimposed bassoon sound. This stimulus was either lined up with the beat of the music or shifted away from the beat by 25% of the average interbeat interval. Both conditions elicited a neural response at the beat frequency. However, although the on-the-beat condition elicited a clear response at the first harmonic of the beat, this frequency was absent in the neural response to the off-the-beat condition. These results support a role for neural entrainment in tracking the metrical structure of real music and show that neural meter tracking can be disrupted by the presentation of contradictory rhythmic cues.

  13. Familiarity with music increases walking speed in rhythmic auditory cuing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. 34 CFR 403.161 - How must funds be used under the Comprehensive Career Guidance and Counseling Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidance and Counseling Programs? 403.161 Section 403.161 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Special Programs? Comprehensive Career Guidance and Counseling Programs § 403.161 How must funds be used under the Comprehensive Career Guidance and Counseling Programs? (a) A State shall use not...

  15. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...

  16. Rhymes in the development of rhythmic and speaking skills of preschool and early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelobrk-Babić Ozrenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept, definition and classification of nursery rhymes, and how they are processed. Rhymes are 'short children's songs that serve to counting children at play, which at the same time can be very suitable for developing a sense of rhythm' (Pedagogical Lexicon, 1996, pp. 56. There are several types of nursery rhymes and their classification according to different criteria. They can be classified according to form and content, as well as whether their authors are children or adults. The criterion of understanding classifies them into rhymes rational sense, irrational - meaningless, and rhymes with a partial sense (see examples of rhymes at Milenkovic & Dragojevic, 2009. According to an embodiment - the musical component rhymes are classified in the speaking which develops a sense of rhythm and sung, whose melodic movement of the highest in the fourth volume. Treatment begins with teaching nursery rhymes by ear, then the symbols represents the rhythm of nursery rhymes (phases with the adoption rhymes see at: Milenkovic & Dragojevic, 2009. In addition to this term in the literature can be found other names for the same name forms: counting, beads, classifying. There are many advantages that rhymes processing brings: the development of speech and speech creativity, encourage foreign language learning, developing communication skills, emotional and social maturation, encouraging cultural‚ awareness, developing ethical and moral values, exploring the contents of nature and society. In selecting the nursery rhymes, it is necessary to pay attention to mental and physical development of children and to adjust the selected rhymes to their age. The paper presents the characteristics of rhythmic development and speaking skills of preschool and early school age. To this end are designed examples rhythmic rhymes and pointed to the need for interdisciplinary nature of the teaching subjects, and the correlation of teaching Serbian

  17. Inexact Multistage Stochastic Chance Constrained Programming Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to formulate water allocation schemes under uncertainties in the water resources management systems, an inexact multistage stochastic chance constrained programming (IMSCCP model is proposed. The model integrates stochastic chance constrained programming, multistage stochastic programming, and inexact stochastic programming within a general optimization framework to handle the uncertainties occurring in both constraints and objective. These uncertainties are expressed as probability distributions, interval with multiply distributed stochastic boundaries, dynamic features of the long-term water allocation plans, and so on. Compared with the existing inexact multistage stochastic programming, the IMSCCP can be used to assess more system risks and handle more complicated uncertainties in water resources management systems. The IMSCCP model is applied to a hypothetical case study of water resources management. In order to construct an approximate solution for the model, a hybrid algorithm, which incorporates stochastic simulation, back propagation neural network, and genetic algorithm, is proposed. The results show that the optimal value represents the maximal net system benefit achieved with a given confidence level under chance constraints, and the solutions provide optimal water allocation schemes to multiple users over a multiperiod planning horizon.

  18. Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.

  19. Omega-3 intake in people with epilepsy under regular hemodialysis program: here to stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alessandra Scorza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the many risk factors suggested for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, higher frequency of seizures is a very consistent issue. Furthermore, it has been established that hemodialysis-associated seizure is a complication of the dialysis procedure. Thus, since a possible relation between cardiovascular abnormalities and SUDEP among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program should not be neglected, we propose in this paper that omega-3 fatty acids offer opportunities for prevention of sudden cardiac death or improved treatment in people with epilepsy under the regular hemodialysis program.

  20. Clean energy technology transfer. A review of programs under the UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Benioff, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and results of programs designed to operationalize the technology transfer provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These programs share a common goal of demonstrating modalities for developed country parties to fulfill their obligation under the UNFCCC to support technology transfer to developing country parties that facilitates their participation in global efforts to combat climate changes. Several related U.S. bilateral programs and programs supported by the Climate Technology Initiative, a multilateral effort on behalf of a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, are included in this review. The discussion highlights a number of common elements of the approaches of many of these programs as well as some differences. It presents case studies that focus on methods and results in China, Mexico, and Southern Africa, and catalogues and describes the implementation activities and results that these programs have achieved. It concludes by assessing the implications of this experience for the international community as it moves forward with the climate change technology transfer enterprise

  1. Step-to-step variability in treadmill walking: influence of rhythmic auditory cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Terrier

    Full Text Available While walking, human beings continuously adjust step length (SpL, step time (SpT, step speed (SpS = SpL/SpT and step width (SpW by integrating both feedforward and feedback mechanisms. These motor control processes result in correlations of gait parameters between consecutive strides (statistical persistence. Constraining gait with a speed cue (treadmill and/or a rhythmic auditory cue (metronome, modifies the statistical persistence to anti-persistence. The objective was to analyze whether the combined effect of treadmill and rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC modified not only statistical persistence, but also fluctuation magnitude (standard deviation, SD, and stationarity of SpL, SpT, SpS and SpW. Twenty healthy subjects performed 6 × 5 min. walking tests at various imposed speeds on a treadmill instrumented with foot-pressure sensors. Freely-chosen walking cadences were assessed during the first three trials, and then imposed accordingly in the last trials with a metronome. Fluctuation magnitude (SD of SpT, SpL, SpS and SpW was assessed, as well as NonStationarity Index (NSI, which estimates the dispersion of local means in the times series (SD of 20 local means over 10 steps. No effect of RAC on fluctuation magnitude (SD was observed. SpW was not modified by RAC, what is likely the evidence that lateral foot placement is separately regulated. Stationarity (NSI was modified by RAC in the same manner as persistent pattern: Treadmill induced low NSI in the time series of SpS, and high NSI in SpT and SpL. On the contrary, SpT, SpL and SpS exhibited low NSI under RAC condition. We used relatively short sample of consecutive strides (100 as compared to the usual number of strides required to analyze fluctuation dynamics (200 to 1000 strides. Therefore, the responsiveness of stationarity measure (NSI to cued walking opens the perspective to perform short walking tests that would be adapted to patients with a reduced gait perimeter.

  2. Comparison between treadmill training with rhythmic auditory stimulation and ground walking with rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait ability in chronic stroke patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Park, So-yeon; Kim, Yong-wook; Woo, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Generally, treadmill training is very effective intervention, and rhythmic auditory stimulation is designed to feedback during gait training in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities in chronic stroke patients following either treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (TRAS) or over ground walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation (ORAS). Nineteen subjects were divided into two groups: a TRAS group (9 subjects) and an ORAS group (10 subjects). Temporal and spatial gait parameters and motor recovery ability were measured before and after the training period. Gait ability was measured by the Biodex Gait trainer treadmill system, Timed up and go test (TUG), 6 meter walking distance (6MWD) and Functional gait assessment (FGA). After the training periods, the TRAS group showed a significant improvement in walking speed, step cycle, step length of the unaffected limb, coefficient of variation, 6MWD, and, FGA when compared to the ORAS group (p <  0.05). Treadmill walking training during the rhythmic auditory stimulation may be useful for rehabilitation of patients with chronic stroke.

  3. Different types of theta rhythmicity are induced by social and fearful stimuli in a network associated with social memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, Alex; Wagner, Shlomo

    2015-02-16

    Rhythmic activity in the theta range is thought to promote neuronal communication between brain regions. In this study, we performed chronic telemetric recordings in socially behaving rats to monitor electrophysiological activity in limbic brain regions linked to social behavior. Social encounters were associated with increased rhythmicity in the high theta range (7-10 Hz) that was proportional to the stimulus degree of novelty. This modulation of theta rhythmicity, which was specific for social stimuli, appeared to reflect a brain-state of social arousal. In contrast, the same network responded to a fearful stimulus by enhancement of rhythmicity in the low theta range (3-7 Hz). Moreover, theta rhythmicity showed different pattern of coherence between the distinct brain regions in response to social and fearful stimuli. We suggest that the two types of stimuli induce distinct arousal states that elicit different patterns of theta rhythmicity, which cause the same brain areas to communicate in different modes.

  4. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental and radiological remediation under Canada's global partnership program 2004-11 - 59185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the '911' attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative in 2002 to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. This major international initiative addressed four priority areas: (1) Chemical Weapon Destruction (2) Nuclear powered submarine eliminations (3) Nuclear and radiological security; and (4) Employment for former weapon scientists. Additionally the initiative has addressed Biological Non- Proliferation. Canada's execution of all these program areas has resulted in substantial environmental benefits aside from the eradication and securing of WMMD. This paper reviews the environmental and radiological remediation achievements of the four primary Global Partnership program areas addressed under Canadian funding 2004 through 2011. (author)

  6. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  7. The impact of transmission constraints on the emissions leakage under cap-and-trade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauma, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    Several regional cap-and-trade (C and T) programs are considered or implemented in the United States to control greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector. One concern is the possibility of emissions leakage due to a lack of coherence in the geographic scope of the regional electricity market and the C and T program. Leakage in the context of regulating CO 2 emissions is defined as the short-run displacement of CO 2 emissions from the capped region to other uncapped regions due to the imposition of a regional C and T scheme. However, the presence of transmission congestion could interact with regulations in an unanticipated way to determining whether leakage would occur and its magnitude if happens. In this paper, we use a two-node network to study the conditions under which the CO 2 leakage would happen in a radial network under a C and T program. These conditions are related to transmission capacity, merit order change, and relative production cost between capped and uncapped regions. Since CO 2 leakage would likely occur in a radial network during the time when there is surplus transmission capacity, if regional CO 2 policies could influence power grid management and operations decisions, then there might be space for a better multi-objective coordination. - Highlights: ► We study conditions under which the CO 2 leakage would happen under a C and T program. ► Conditions relate to transmission capacity, merit order change and production cost. ► Transmission congestion interacts with environmental regulations. ► CO 2 leakage would likely occur when there is surplus transmission capacity. ► Power grid management and operations decisions should be carefully scrutinized.

  8. Robust stochastic fuzzy possibilistic programming for environmental decision making under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Guo H.; Nie, Xianghui

    2009-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution is one of serious environmental issues, especially within an agricultural system. This study aims to propose a robust chance-constrained fuzzy possibilistic programming (RCFPP) model for water quality management within an agricultural system, where solutions for farming area, manure/fertilizer application amount, and livestock husbandry size under different scenarios are obtained and interpreted. Through improving upon the existing fuzzy possibilistic programming, fuzzy robust programming and chance-constrained programming approaches, the RCFPP can effectively reflect the complex system features under uncertainty, where implications of water quality/quantity restrictions for achieving regional economic development objectives are studied. By delimiting the uncertain decision space through dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints, the RCFPP enhances the robustness of the optimization processes and resulting solutions. The results of the case study indicate that useful information can be obtained through the proposed RCFPP model for providing feasible decision schemes for different agricultural activities under different scenarios (combinations of different p-necessity and p i levels). A p-necessity level represents the certainty or necessity degree of the imprecise objective function, while a p i level means the probabilities at which the constraints will be violated. A desire to acquire high agricultural income would decrease the certainty degree of the event that maximization of the objective be satisfied, and potentially violate water management standards; willingness to accept low agricultural income will run into the risk of potential system failure. The decision variables under combined p-necessity and p i levels were useful for the decision makers to justify and/or adjust the decision schemes for the agricultural activities through incorporation of their implicit knowledge. The results also suggest that

  9. Tilt stability in nonlinear programming under Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 446-464 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : variational analysis * second-order theory * generalized differentiation * tilt stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/outrata-tilt stability in nonlinear programming under mangasarian-fromovitz constraint qualification.pdf

  10. Factors influencing success of metal to plastic conversion programs for under-hood applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, L.J. [Amoco Chemicals Polymers Business Group, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Desai, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares high performance engineering polymers available today for under-hood applications. It includes an example of an end cap showing value-added capabilities such as design for machining and assembly (DFMA), team approach and computer aided engineering being used for a most cost-effective custom molding solution. These techniques should be part of standard design procedure for conversion programs to cope with the challenges of today and tomorrow. (orig./HW)

  11. Rhythmic Auditory Cueing in Motor Rehabilitation for Stroke Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ga Eul; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence demonstrating the effects of rhythmic auditory cueing for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients, this synthesized analysis is needed in order to improve rehabilitative practice and maximize clinical effectiveness. This study aimed to systematically analyze the literature on rhythmic auditory cueing for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients by highlighting the outcome variables, type of cueing, and stage of stroke. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled or clinically controlled trials was conducted. Electronic databases and music therapy journals were searched for studies including stroke, the use of rhythmic auditory cueing, and motor outcomes, such as gait and upper-extremity function. A total of 10 studies (RCT or CCT) with 356 individuals were included for meta-analysis. There were large effect sizes (Hedges's g = 0.984 for walking velocity; Hedges's g = 0.840 for cadence; Hedges's g = 0.760 for stride length; and Hedges's g = 0.456 for Fugl-Meyer test scores) in the use of rhythmic auditory cueing. Additional subgroup analysis demonstrated that although the type of rhythmic cueing and stage of stroke did not lead to statistically substantial group differences, the effect sizes and heterogeneity values in each subgroup implied possible differences in treatment effect. This study corroborates the beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing, supporting its expanded application to broadened areas of rehabilitation for stroke patients. Also, it suggests the future investigation of the differential outcomes depending on how rhythmic auditory cueing is provided in terms of type and intensity implemented. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    te Woerd, Erik S.; Oostenveld, Robert; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; de Lange, Floris P.; Praamstra, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i) entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii) ...

  13. Stochastic–multiobjective market equilibrium analysis of a demand response program in energy market under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the impact of a demand response program under uncertainty. • Stochastic Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated. • Case study of the Taiwanese electric power market is conducted. • Demand response decreases power price, generation, and emissions. • Demand uncertainty increases energy price and supply risk in the results. - Abstract: In the electricity market, demand response programs are designed to shift peak demand and enhance system reliability. A demand response program can reduce peak energy demand, power transmission congestion, or high energy-price conditions by changing consumption patterns. The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of a demand response program in the energy market, under demand uncertainty. A stochastic–multiobjective Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated to simulate demand response in an uncertain energy market. Then, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions and a linear complementarity problem are derived for the stochastic Nash–Cournot model. Accordingly, the linear complementarity problem is solved and its stochastic market equilibrium solution is determined by using a general algebraic modeling system. Additionally, the case of the Taiwanese electric power market is taken up here, and the results show that a demand response program is capable of reducing peak energy consumption, energy price, and carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that demand response program decreases electricity price by 2–10%, total electricity generation by 0.5–2%, and carbon dioxide emissions by 0.5–2.5% in the Taiwanese power market. In the simulation, demand uncertainty leads to an 2–7% increase in energy price and supply risk in the market. Additionally, tradeoffs between cost and carbon dioxide emissions are presented.

  14. Inexact nonlinear improved fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for irrigation water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An inexact nonlinear mλ-measure fuzzy chance-constrained programming (INMFCCP) model is developed for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. Techniques of inexact quadratic programming (IQP), mλ-measure, and fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP) are integrated into a general optimization framework. The INMFCCP model can deal with not only nonlinearities in the objective function, but also uncertainties presented as discrete intervals in the objective function, variables and left-hand side constraints and fuzziness in the right-hand side constraints. Moreover, this model improves upon the conventional fuzzy chance-constrained programming by introducing a linear combination of possibility measure and necessity measure with varying preference parameters. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then applied to a case study in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. An interval regression analysis method is used to obtain interval crop water production functions in the whole growth period under uncertainty. Therefore, more flexible solutions can be generated for optimal irrigation water allocation. The variation of results can be examined by giving different confidence levels and preference parameters. Besides, it can reflect interrelationships among system benefits, preference parameters, confidence levels and the corresponding risk levels. Comparison between interval crop water production functions and deterministic ones based on the developed INMFCCP model indicates that the former is capable of reflecting more complexities and uncertainties in practical application. These results can provide more reliable scientific basis for supporting irrigation water management in arid areas.

  15. Improving Reading Skills in Students with Dyslexia: The Efficacy of a Rhythmic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eAntonietti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The core deficit underlying developmental dyslexia (DD has been identified in difficulties in dynamic and rapidly changing auditory information processing, which contribute to the development of impaired phonological representations for words. It has been argued that enhancing basic musical rhythm perception skills in children with DD may have a positive effect on reading abilities because music and language share common mechanisms and thus transfer effects from the former to the latter are expected to occur. A computer-assisted training, called Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT, was designed in which reading exercises are combined with rhythm background. Fourteen junior high school students with DD took part to 9 biweekly individual sessions of 30 minutes in which RRT was implemented. Reading improvements after the intervention period were compared with ones of a matched control group of 14 students with DD who received no intervention. Results indicated that RRT had a positive effect on both reading speed and accuracy, and significant effects were found on short pseudo-words reading speed, long pseudo-words reading speed, high frequency long words reading accuracy, and text reading accuracy. No difference in rhythm perception between the intervention and control group were found. Findings suggest that rhythm facilitates the development of reading skill because of the temporal structure it imposes to word decoding.

  16. Language dominance shapes non-linguistic rhythmic grouping in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel; Gervain, Judit

    2016-07-01

    To what degree non-linguistic auditory rhythm perception is governed by universal biases (e.g., Iambic-Trochaic Law; Hayes, 1995) or shaped by native language experience is debated. It has been proposed that rhythmic regularities in spoken language, such as phrasal prosody affect the grouping abilities of monolinguals (e.g., Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Here, we assessed the non-linguistic tone grouping biases of Spanish monolinguals, and three groups of Basque-Spanish bilinguals with different levels of Basque experience. It is usually assumed in the literature that Basque and Spanish have different phrasal prosodies and even linguistic rhythms. To confirm this, first, we quantified Basque and Spanish phrasal prosody (Experiment 1a) and duration patterns used in the classification of languages into rhythm classes (Experiment 1b). The acoustic measurements revealed that regularities in phrasal prosody systematically differ across Basque and Spanish; by contrast, the rhythms of the two languages are only minimally dissimilar. In Experiment 2, participants' non-linguistic rhythm preferences were assessed in response to non-linguistic tones alternating in either intensity (Intensity condition) or in duration (Duration condition). In the Intensity condition, all groups showed a trochaic grouping bias, as predicted by the Iambic-Trochaic Law. In the Duration Condition the Spanish monolingual and the most Basque-dominant bilingual group exhibited opposite grouping preferences in line with the phrasal prosodies of their native/dominant languages, trochaic in Basque, iambic in Spanish. The two other bilingual groups showed no significant biases, however. Overall, results indicate that duration-based grouping mechanisms are biased toward the phrasal prosody of the native and dominant language; also, the presence of an L2 in the environment interacts with the auditory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Precise temperature compensation of phase in a rhythmic motor pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamont S Tang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Most animal species are cold-blooded, and their neuronal circuits must maintain function despite environmental temperature fluctuations. The central pattern generating circuits that produce rhythmic motor patterns depend on the orderly activation of circuit neurons. We describe the effects of temperature on the pyloric rhythm of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab, Cancer borealis. The pyloric rhythm is a triphasic motor pattern in which the Pyloric Dilator (PD, Lateral Pyloric (LP, and Pyloric (PY neurons fire in a repeating sequence. While the frequency of the pyloric rhythm increased about 4-fold (Q(10 approximately 2.3 as the temperature was shifted from 7 degrees C to 23 degrees C, the phase relationships of the PD, LP, and PY neurons showed almost perfect temperature compensation. The Q(10's of the input conductance, synaptic currents, transient outward current (I(A, and the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h, all of which help determine the phase of LP neuron activity, ranged from 1.8 to 4. We studied the effects of temperature in >1,000 computational models (with different sets of maximal conductances of a bursting neuron and the LP neuron. Many bursting models failed to monotonically increase in frequency as temperature increased. Temperature compensation of LP neuron phase was facilitated when model neurons' currents had Q(10's close to 2. Together, these data indicate that although diverse sets of maximal conductances may be found in identified neurons across animals, there may be strong evolutionary pressure to restrict the Q(10's of the processes that contribute to temperature compensation of neuronal circuits.

  18. Distributed Attention Is Implemented through Theta-Rhythmic Gamma Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Schreyer, Helene Marianne; van Pelt, Stan; Fries, Pascal

    2015-08-31

    When subjects monitor a single location, visual target detection depends on the pre-target phase of an ∼8 Hz brain rhythm. When multiple locations are monitored, performance decrements suggest a division of the 8 Hz rhythm over the number of locations, indicating that different locations are sequentially sampled. Indeed, when subjects monitor two locations, performance benefits alternate at a 4 Hz rhythm. These performance alternations were revealed after a reset of attention to one location. Although resets are common and important events for attention, it is unknown whether, in the absence of resets, ongoing attention samples stimuli in alternation. Here, we examined whether spatially specific attentional sampling can be revealed by ongoing pre-target brain rhythms. Visually induced gamma-band activity plays a role in spatial attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that performance on two simultaneously monitored stimuli can be predicted by a 4 Hz modulation of gamma-band activity. Brain rhythms were assessed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) while subjects monitored bilateral grating stimuli for a unilateral target event. The corresponding contralateral gamma-band responses were subtracted from each other to isolate spatially selective, target-related fluctuations. The resulting lateralized gamma-band activity (LGA) showed opposite pre-target 4 Hz phases for detected versus missed targets. The 4 Hz phase of pre-target LGA accounted for a 14.5% modulation in performance. These findings suggest that spatial attention is a theta-rhythmic sampling process that is continuously ongoing, with each sampling cycle being implemented through gamma-band synchrony. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous movement tempo is influenced by observation of rhythmical actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Marco; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Moisello, Clara; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2009-09-28

    Observation of people performing movements facilitates motor planning, execution and memory formation. Tempo, a crucial aspect involved in the execution of rhythmic movements, is normally perceived and learned through auditory channels. In this work, we ascertained whether: first, the frequency of self-paced finger movements (SPMs), which in normal subjects is around 2 Hz, is modified by prior observation of movements performed at either 1 or 3 Hz; second, such changes are lasting; third, there is an effect of time interval between observation and performance. We finally determined the effect of providing explicit information about the upcoming motor task. Seventy-two normal subjects (12 groups) performed a simple finger sequence at different intervals after observation of videos of either landscapes or finger opposition movements. Both with and without information about the upcoming task, observation influenced the tempo of SPMs and led to memory formation. With knowledge of the upcoming task, such changes occurred at all observation-execution intervals, while without instructions, changes took place only when SPMs were performed immediately after observation. Compared to explicit instructions, the absence of instructions produced tempo's changes that more closely resembled the observed rhythms. We conclude that learning requires a prompt comparison between visual and sensorimotor representations of movements; moreover, learning with explicit instructions is more efficient, as activity in both the dorsal and ventral streams might be potentiated by the chatecholaminergic attentional systems that promote long-term potentiation. These results provide the bases for novel neurorehabilitation strategies in terms of temporal re-organization of movement.

  20. Temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Weiqi; Ren, Shilong; Lang, Weiguang; Liang, Boyi; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Using woody plant phenological data in the Beijing Botanical Garden from 1979 to 2013, we revealed three levels of phenology rhythms and examined their coherence with temperature rhythms. First, the sequential and correlative rhythm shows that occurrence dates of various phenological events obey a certain time sequence within a year and synchronously advance or postpone among years. The positive correlation between spring phenophase dates is much stronger than that between autumn phenophase dates and attenuates as the time interval between two spring phenophases increases. This phenological rhythm can be explained by positive correlation between above 0 °C mean temperatures corresponding to different phenophase dates. Second, the circannual rhythm indicates that recurrence interval of a phenophase in the same species in two adjacent years is about 365 days, which can be explained by the 365-day recurrence interval in the first and last dates of threshold temperatures. Moreover, an earlier phenophase date in the current year may lead to a later phenophase date in the next year through extending recurrence interval. Thus, the plant phenology sequential and correlative rhythm and circannual rhythm are interacted, which mirrors the interaction between seasonal variation and annual periodicity of temperature. Finally, the multi-year rhythm implies that phenophase dates display quasi-periodicity more than 1 year. The same 12-year periodicity in phenophase and threshold temperature dates confirmed temperature controls of the phenology multi-year rhythm. Our findings provide new perspectives for examining phenological response to climate change and developing comprehensive phenology models considering temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity.

  1. Contributions of intrinsic motor neuron properties to the production of rhythmic motor output in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, O; Kjaerulff, O; Tresch, M C

    2000-01-01

    Motor neurons are endowed with intrinsic and conditional membrane properties that may shape the final motor output. In the first half of this paper we present data on the contribution of I(h), a hyperpolarization-activated inward cation current, to phase-transition in motor neurons during rhythmic...... firing. Motor neurons were recorded intracellularly during locomotion induced with a mixture of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and serotonin, after pharmacological blockade of I(h). I(h) was then replaced by using dynamic clamp, a computer program that allows artificial conductances to be inserted into real...... neurons. I(h) was simulated with biophysical parameters determined in voltage clamp experiments. The data showed that electronic replacement of the native I(h) caused a depolarization of the average membrane potential, a phase-advance of the locomotor drive potential, and increased motor neuron spiking...

  2. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  3. Processing rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading: An eye movement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi eLuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010. Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2+1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1+1] or [2+2]. This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader’s eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed, less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis

  4. Interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation reinstates natural 1/f timing in gait of Parkinson's patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hove

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD and basal ganglia dysfunction impair movement timing, which leads to gait instability and falls. Parkinsonian gait consists of random, disconnected stride times--rather than the 1/f structure observed in healthy gait--and this randomness of stride times (low fractal scaling predicts falling. Walking with fixed-tempo Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS can improve many aspects of gait timing; however, it lowers fractal scaling (away from healthy 1/f structure and requires attention. Here we show that interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation reestablishes healthy gait dynamics in PD patients. In the experiment, PD patients and healthy participants walked with a no auditory stimulation, b fixed-tempo RAS, and c interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation. The interactive system used foot sensors and nonlinear oscillators to track and mutually entrain with the human's step timing. Patients consistently synchronized with the interactive system, their fractal scaling returned to levels of healthy participants, and their gait felt more stable to them. Patients and healthy participants rarely synchronized with fixed-tempo RAS, and when they did synchronize their fractal scaling declined from healthy 1/f levels. Five minutes after removing the interactive rhythmic stimulation, the PD patients' gait retained high fractal scaling, suggesting that the interaction stabilized the internal rhythm generating system and reintegrated timing networks. The experiment demonstrates that complex interaction is important in the (reemergence of 1/f structure in human behavior and that interactive rhythmic auditory stimulation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving gait of PD patients.

  5. 75 FR 54898 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Part C funds under The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care...

  6. 34 CFR 661.2 - Who is eligible to apply for a grant under the Business and International Education Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 661.2 Who is eligible to apply for a grant under the Business and... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a grant under the Business and International Education Program? 661.2 Section 661.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  7. 34 CFR 379.11 - What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional types of project activities may be... EDUCATION PROJECTS WITH INDUSTRY What Kinds of Activities Does the Department of Education Assist Under This Program? § 379.11 What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program? The...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are supportable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and...

  10. 45 CFR 287.125 - What supportive and job retention services may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What supportive and job retention services may be provided under the NEW Program? 287.125 Section 287.125 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Operations § 287.125 What supportive and job retention services may be provided under the NEW Program? The...

  11. Effect of monochromatic light on circadian rhythmic expression of clock genes in the hypothalamus of chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the effect of monochromatic light on circadian clock gene expression in chick hypothalamus, a total 240 newly hatched chickens were reared under blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL) and white light (WL), respectively. On the post-hatched day 14, 24-h profiles of seven core clock genes (cClock, cBmal1, cBmal2, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) were measured at six time points (CT 0, CT 4, CT 8, CT 12, CT 16, CT 20, circadian time). We found all these clock genes expressed with a significant rhythmicity in different light wavelength groups. Meanwhile, cClock and cBmal1 showed a high level under GL, and followed a corresponding high expression of cCry1. However, RL decreased the expression levels of these genes. Be consistent with the mRNA level, CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins also showed a high level under GL. The CLOCK-like immunoreactive neurons were observed not only in the SCN, but also in the non-SCN brain region such as the nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, the periventricularis nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus and the median eminence. All these results are consistent with the auto-regulatory circadian feedback loop, and indicate that GL may play an important role on the circadian time generation and development in the chick hypothalamus. Our results also suggest that the circadian clock in the chick hypothalamus such as non-SCN brain region were involved in the regulation of photo information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 30951 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Funds for the Tutwiler Clinic. SUMMARY: HRSA will award non-competitively Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C funds to the Tutwiler Clinic, Tutwiler, Mississippi, to support...

  13. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

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    2013-05-01

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C funds award...

  14. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

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    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  15. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

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    2013-03-28

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  16. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY...: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive Award To... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  17. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  18. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early Intervention Services One-Time... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  19. A Recourse-Based Type-2 Fuzzy Programming Method for Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a recourse-based type-2 fuzzy programming (RTFP method is developed for supporting water pollution control of basin systems under uncertainty. The RTFP method incorporates type-2 fuzzy programming (TFP within a two-stage stochastic programming with recourse (TSP framework to handle uncertainties expressed as type-2 fuzzy sets (i.e., a fuzzy set in which the membership function is also fuzzy and probability distributions, as well as to reflect the trade-offs between conflicting economic benefits and penalties due to violated policies. The RTFP method is then applied to a real case of water pollution control in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China, where chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Solutions of optimal production plans of economic activities under each probabilistic pollutant discharge allowance level and membership grades are obtained. The results are helpful for the authorities in exploring the trade-off between economic objective and pollutant discharge decision-making based on river water pollution control.

  20. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. Results During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%, and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Conclusion Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  1. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B

    2009-10-30

    In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%), and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  2. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design

  3. Multi-Year Program under Budget Constraints Using Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Adiguna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road investment appraisal requires joint consideration of multiple criteria which are related to engineering, economic, social and environmental impacts. The investment consideration could be based on the economic analysis but however for some factors, such as environmental, social, and political, are difficult to quantify in monetary term. The multi-criteria analysis is the alternative tool which caters the requirements of the issues above. The research, which is based on 102 class D and class E paved road sections in Kenya, is about to optimize road network investment under budget constraints by applying a multi-criteria analysis (MCA method and compare it with the conventional economic analysis. The MCA is developed from hierarchy structure which is considered as the analytical framework. The framework is based on selected criteria and weights which are assigned from Kenya road policy. The HDM-4 software is applied as decision-making tool to obtain the best investment alternatives and road work programs from both MCA and economic analysis. The road work programs will be the results from the analysis using both MCA and economic analysis within HDM-4 software to see the difference and compare the results between both programs. The results from MCA show 51 road sections need periodic work, which is overlay or resealing. Meanwhile, 51 others need rehabilitation or reconstruction. The five years road work program which based on economic analysis result shows that it costs almost Kenyan Shilling (KES 130 billion to maintain the class D and E paved road in Kenya. Meanwhile, the MCA only requires KES 59.5 billion for 5 years program. These results show huge margin between two analyses and somehow MCA result provides more efficient work program compared to economic analysis.

  4. Role of the placenta in fetal programming: underlying mechanisms and potential interventional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2007-07-01

    Adverse influences during fetal life alter the structure and function of distinct cells, organ systems or homoeostatic pathways, thereby 'programming' the individual for an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult life. Fetal programming can be caused by a number of different perturbations in the maternal compartment, such as altered maternal nutrition and reduced utero-placental blood flow; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. Perturbations in the maternal environment must be transmitted across the placenta in order to affect the fetus. Here, we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the maternal environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal programming. In IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) pregnancies, the increased placental vascular resistance subjects the fetal heart to increased work load, representing a possible direct link between altered placental structure and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. A decreased activity of placental 11beta-HSD-2 (type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity can increase fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which programmes the fetus for later hypertension and metabolic disease. The placenta appears to function as a nutrient sensor regulating nutrient transport according to the ability of the maternal supply line to deliver nutrients. By directly regulating fetal nutrient supply and fetal growth, the placenta plays a central role in fetal programming. Furthermore, perturbations in the maternal compartment may affect the methylation status of placental genes and increase placental oxidative/nitrative stress, resulting in changes in placental function. Intervention strategies targeting the placenta in order to prevent or alleviate altered fetal growth and/or fetal programming include altering placental growth and nutrient transport by maternally administered IGFs (insulin

  5. Stability of multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems under fuzziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Sinna Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems under fuzzy environment. In the proposed method, tentative solutions are obtained and evaluated by using the partial information on preference of the decision-makers at each level. The existing results concerning the qualitative analysis of some basic notions in parametric linear programming problems are reformulated to study the stability of multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems. An algorithm for obtaining any subset of the parametric space, which has the same corresponding Pareto optimal solution, is presented. Also, this paper established the model for the supply-demand interaction in the age of electronic commerce (EC. First of all, the study uses the individual objectives of both parties as the foundation of the supply-demand interaction. Subsequently, it divides the interaction, in the age of electronic commerce, into the following two classifications: (i Market transactions, with the primary focus on the supply demand relationship in the marketplace; and (ii Information service, with the primary focus on the provider and the user of information service. By applying the bi-level programming technique of interaction process, the study will develop an analytical process to explain how supply-demand interaction achieves a compromise or why the process fails. Finally, a numerical example of information service is provided for the sake of illustration.

  6. Optimization of axial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for BWR fuel under control rod programming, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for optimizing the axial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for the reload BWR fuel under control rod programming. The problem was to minimize the enrichment requirement subject to the criticality and axial power peaking constraints. The optimization technique was based on the successive linear programming method, each linear programming problem being solved by a goal programming algorithm. A rapid and practically accurate core neutronics model, named the modified one-dimensional core model, was developed to describe the batch-averaged burnup behavior of the reload fuel. A core burnup simulation algorithm, employing a burnup-power-void iteration, was also developed to calculate the rigorous equilibrium cycle performance. This method was applied to the optimization of axial two- and 24-region fuels for demonstrative purposes. The optimal solutions for both fuels have proved the optimality of what is called burnup shape optimization spectral shift. For the two-region fuel with a practical power peaking of 1.4, the enrichment distribution was nearly uniform, because a bottom-peaked burnup shape flattens the axial power shape. Optimization of the 24-region fuel has shown a potential improvement in BWR fuel cycle economics, which will guide future advancement in BWR fuel designs. (author)

  7. Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Eberle, F.; Goeller, B.; Gulden, W.; Kadlec, J.; Messemer, G.; Mueller, S.; Wolf, E.

    1983-10-01

    This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.) [de

  8. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    learn a closed motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing. One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds. For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill – even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmical effects on motor learning.

  9. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing). One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds). For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill-even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmic effects on motor learning.

  10. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    motor skill (technique acquisition of indoor rowing). One group was treated with visual information and two groups with audiovisual information (sonification vs. natural sounds). For all three groups learning became evident and remained stable. Participants treated with additional movement sonification showed better performance compared to both other groups. Results indicate that movement sonification enhances motor learning of a complex gross motor skill—even exceeding usually expected acoustic rhythmic effects on motor learning. PMID:27303255

  11. HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Sato, Minoru

    1992-11-01

    HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)

  12. Estimation of Finite Population Mean in Multivariate Stratified Sampling under Cost Function Using Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical utilization of stratified random sampling scheme, the investigator meets a problem to select a sample that maximizes the precision of a finite population mean under cost constraint. An allocation of sample size becomes complicated when more than one characteristic is observed from each selected unit in a sample. In many real life situations, a linear cost function of a sample size nh is not a good approximation to actual cost of sample survey when traveling cost between selected units in a stratum is significant. In this paper, sample allocation problem in multivariate stratified random sampling with proposed cost function is formulated in integer nonlinear multiobjective mathematical programming. A solution procedure is proposed using extended lexicographic goal programming approach. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details and to compare the efficiency of proposed compromise allocation.

  13. Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula eRoncaglia-Denissen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether second language (L2 competence affects musical rhythm aptitude in Turkish early (TELG and late learners (TLLG of German in comparison to German monolingual speakers (GMC. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants’ short-term and working memory capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both L2 speaker groups perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than monolinguals. No differences were found between early and late learners’ performances. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of cognitive share between language and music.

  14. Ensuring childhood vaccination among slums dwellers under the National Immunization Program in India - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Sahu, Damodar; Agrawal, Ashish; Vashi, Meeta Dhaval

    2018-04-04

    Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe. This systematic review, provides insights on immunization status in slums, identifies various factors influencing it thus, exploring opportunities that may be available to improve vaccination coverage under the National Immunization Program. Taking into account the above aspects, a review of literature was undertaken in various databases that included studies published between 2006 and 2017. In India, ~33% of the urban population lives in slums with suboptimal vaccination coverage ranging from 14% to upto 90%. Few of the important causes for low coverage included socioeconomic factors such as poor community participation, lack of awareness, frequent migration, and loss of daily income. Hence, mere presence of vaccines in the National Immunization Program doesn't do the job, there is a definite unmet need to emphasize upon the importance of immunization among slums dwellers and take necessary steps. For instance, delivering immunization services at the doorstep (e.g. pulse polio program), community-based education, text messaging as reminders and incentivized immunization services are some of the opportunities that can be explored and implemented to improve immunization status in the slums. Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and

  15. Genomic Analysis Reveals Contrasting PIFq Contribution to Diurnal Rhythmic Gene Expression in PIF-Induced and -Repressed Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guiomar; Soy, Judit; Monte, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Members of the PIF quartet (PIFq; PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5) collectively contribute to induce growth in Arabidopsis seedlings under short day (SD) conditions, specifically promoting elongation at dawn. Their action involves the direct regulation of growth-related and hormone-associated genes. However, a comprehensive definition of the PIFq-regulated transcriptome under SD is still lacking. We have recently shown that SD and free-running (LL) conditions correspond to "growth" and "no growth" conditions, respectively, correlating with greater abundance of PIF protein in SD. Here, we present a genomic analysis whereby we first define SD-regulated genes at dawn compared to LL in the wild type, followed by identification of those SD-regulated genes whose expression depends on the presence of PIFq. By using this sequential strategy, we have identified 349 PIF/SD-regulated genes, approximately 55% induced and 42% repressed by both SD and PIFq. Comparison with available databases indicates that PIF/SD-induced and PIF/SD-repressed sets are differently phased at dawn and mid-morning, respectively. In addition, we found that whereas rhythmicity of the PIF/SD-induced gene set is lost in LL, most PIF/SD-repressed genes keep their rhythmicity in LL, suggesting differential regulation of both gene sets by the circadian clock. Moreover, we also uncovered distinct overrepresented functions in the induced and repressed gene sets, in accord with previous studies in other examined PIF-regulated processes. Interestingly, promoter analyses showed that, whereas PIF/SD-induced genes are enriched in direct PIF targets, PIF/SD-repressed genes are mostly indirectly regulated by the PIFs and might be more enriched in ABA-regulated genes.

  16. Can We Efficiently Check Concurrent Programs Under Relaxed Memory Models in Maude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrahman, Yehia Abd; Andric, Marina; Beggiato, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    to the state space explosion. Several techniques have been proposed to mitigate those problems so to make verification under relaxed memory models feasible. We discuss how to adopt some of those techniques in a Maude-based approach to language prototyping, and suggest the use of other techniques that have been......Relaxed memory models offer suitable abstractions of the actual optimizations offered by multi-core architectures and by compilers of concurrent programming languages. Using such abstractions for verification purposes is challenging in part due to their inherent non-determinism which contributes...

  17. Fundamental R and D program on water chemistry of supercritical pressure water under radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Wada, Yoichi; Yotsuyanagi, Tadasu

    2003-01-01

    In a supercritical water-cooled reactor, property of water changes significantly around the critical point. It is expected that irradiation and change of water property will affect the chemistry and material corrosion. Deep understanding of interactions between supercritical water and materials under irradiation is important. However, comprehensive data on radiolysis, kinetics, corrosion and thermodynamics have not been obtained due to the severe experimental condition. To get such data by experiments and computer simulations, a national program funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) has been started since December 2002. (author)

  18. Rhythmic ganglion cell activity in bleached and blind adult mouse retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzler, Jacob; Channappa, Lakshmi; Zeck, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa--a degenerative disease which often leads to incurable blindness--the loss of photoreceptors deprives the retina from a continuous excitatory input, the so-called dark current. In rodent models of this disease this deprivation leads to oscillatory electrical activity in the remaining circuitry, which is reflected in the rhythmic spiking of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). It remained unclear, however, if the rhythmic RGC activity is attributed to circuit alterations occurring during photoreceptor degeneration or if rhythmic activity is an intrinsic property of healthy retinal circuitry which is masked by the photoreceptor's dark current. Here we tested these hypotheses by inducing and analysing oscillatory activity in adult healthy (C57/Bl6) and blind mouse retinas (rd10 and rd1). Rhythmic RGC activity in healthy retinas was detected upon partial photoreceptor bleaching using an extracellular high-density multi-transistor-array. The mean fundamental spiking frequency in bleached retinas was 4.3 Hz; close to the RGC rhythm detected in blind rd10 mouse retinas (6.5 Hz). Crosscorrelation analysis of neighbouring wild-type and rd10 RGCs (separation distance rhythmic RGC spiking in these retinas is driven by a network of presynaptic neurons. The inhibition of glutamatergic ganglion cell input or the inhibition of gap junctional coupling abolished the rhythmic pattern. In rd10 and rd1 retinas the presynaptic network leads to local field potentials, whereas in bleached retinas additional pharmacological disinhibition is required to achieve detectable field potentials. Our results demonstrate that photoreceptor bleaching unmasks oscillatory activity in healthy retinas which shares many features with the functional phenotype detected in rd10 retinas. The quantitative physiological differences advance the understanding of the degeneration process and may guide future rescue strategies.

  19. Entrained rhythmic activities of neuronal ensembles as perceptual memory of time interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Muto, Akira; Baier, Herwig; Poo, Mu-ming

    2008-11-06

    The ability to process temporal information is fundamental to sensory perception, cognitive processing and motor behaviour of all living organisms, from amoebae to humans. Neural circuit mechanisms based on neuronal and synaptic properties have been shown to process temporal information over the range of tens of microseconds to hundreds of milliseconds. How neural circuits process temporal information in the range of seconds to minutes is much less understood. Studies of working memory in monkeys and rats have shown that neurons in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex and the thalamus exhibit ramping activities that linearly correlate with the lapse of time until the end of a specific time interval of several seconds that the animal is trained to memorize. Many organisms can also memorize the time interval of rhythmic sensory stimuli in the timescale of seconds and can coordinate motor behaviour accordingly, for example, by keeping the rhythm after exposure to the beat of music. Here we report a form of rhythmic activity among specific neuronal ensembles in the zebrafish optic tectum, which retains the memory of the time interval (in the order of seconds) of repetitive sensory stimuli for a duration of up to approximately 20 s. After repetitive visual conditioning stimulation (CS) of zebrafish larvae, we observed rhythmic post-CS activities among specific tectal neuronal ensembles, with a regular interval that closely matched the CS. Visuomotor behaviour of the zebrafish larvae also showed regular post-CS repetitions at the entrained time interval that correlated with rhythmic neuronal ensemble activities in the tectum. Thus, rhythmic activities among specific neuronal ensembles may act as an adjustable 'metronome' for time intervals in the order of seconds, and serve as a mechanism for the short-term perceptual memory of rhythmic sensory experience.

  20. Diurnal rhythmicity of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 in the rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens; Hindersson, Peter; Gräs, Søren

    2006-08-01

    Circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous clocks in the central brain oscillator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and peripheral tissues. The molecular basis for the circadian clock consists of a number of genes and proteins that form transcriptional/translational feedback loops. In the mammalian gonads, clock genes have been reported in the testes, but the expression pattern is developmental rather than circadian. Here we investigated the daily expression of the two core clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in the rat ovary using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. Both Per1 and Per2 mRNA displayed a statistically significant rhythmic oscillation in the ovary with a period of 24 h in: 1) a group of rats during proestrus and estrus under 12-h light,12-h dark cycles; 2) a second group of rats representing a mixture of all 4 d of the estrous cycle under 12-h light,12-h dark conditions; and 3) a third group of rats representing a mixture of all 4 d of estrous cycle during continuous darkness. Per1 mRNA was low at Zeitgeber time 0-2 and peaked at Zeitgeber time 12-14, whereas Per2 mRNA was delayed by approximately 4 h relative to Per1. By in situ hybridization histochemistry, Per mRNAs were localized to steroidogenic cells in preantral, antral, and preovulatory follicles; corpora lutea; and interstitial glandular tissue. With newly developed antisera, we substantiated the expression of Per1 and Per2 in these cells by single/double immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we visualized the temporal intracellular movements of PER1 and PER2 proteins. These findings suggest the existence of an ovarian circadian clock, which may play a role both locally and in the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis.

  1. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of t...

  2. A Rhythmic Musical Intervention for Poor Readers: A Comparison of Efficacy with a Letter-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Adeetee; Power, Alan; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children with reading difficulties show impaired auditory rhythm perception and impairments in musical beat perception tasks. Rhythmic musical interventions with poorer readers may thus improve rhythmic entrainment and consequently improve reading and phonological skills. Here we compare the effects of a musical…

  3. 48 CFR 3019.705 - Responsibilities for the contracting officer under the subcontracting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.705...

  4. Using an Artificial Neural Bypass to Restore Cortical Control of Rhythmic Movements in a Human with Quadriplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Friedenberg, David A.; Annetta, Nicholas; Glenn, Bradley; Bockbrader, Marcie; Majstorovic, Connor; Domas, Stephanie; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Rezai, Ali; Bouton, Chad

    2016-09-01

    Neuroprosthetic technology has been used to restore cortical control of discrete (non-rhythmic) hand movements in a paralyzed person. However, cortical control of rhythmic movements which originate in the brain but are coordinated by Central Pattern Generator (CPG) neural networks in the spinal cord has not been demonstrated previously. Here we show a demonstration of an artificial neural bypass technology that decodes cortical activity and emulates spinal cord CPG function allowing volitional rhythmic hand movement. The technology uses a combination of signals recorded from the brain, machine-learning algorithms to decode the signals, a numerical model of CPG network, and a neuromuscular electrical stimulation system to evoke rhythmic movements. Using the neural bypass, a quadriplegic participant was able to initiate, sustain, and switch between rhythmic and discrete finger movements, using his thoughts alone. These results have implications in advancing neuroprosthetic technology to restore complex movements in people living with paralysis.

  5. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  6. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  7. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions.

  8. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: component analysis of EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the central nervous system (CNS) builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when performing different types of movement: discrete, point-to-point movements in eight different directions and continuous figure-eight movements in both the normal, upright orientation and rotated 90°. To test for the effects of biomechanical constraints, movements were performed in the frontal-parallel or sagittal planes, corresponding to two different nominal flexion/abduction postures of the shoulder. In all cases we measured limb kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) signals for seven different muscles acting around the shoulder. We first performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMG signals on a movement-by-movement basis. We found a surprisingly consistent pattern of muscle groupings across movement types and movement planes, although we could detect systematic differences between the PCs derived from movements performed in each shoulder posture and between the principal components associated with the different orientations of the figure. Unexpectedly we found no systematic differences between the figure eights and the point-to-point movements. The first three principal components could be associated with a general co-contraction of all seven muscles plus two patterns of reciprocal activation. From these results, we surmise that both "discrete-rhythmic movements" such as the figure eight, and discrete point-to-point movement may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the impedance of the limb over the time span of the movement and two others operating to generate movement, one aligned with the

  9. Rhythmic Interlimb Coordination Impairments and the Risk for Developing Mobility Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Travison, Thomas; Kennedy, David N; Tucker, Katherine L; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S; Bean, Jonathan F

    2017-08-01

    The identification of novel rehabilitative impairments that are risk factors for mobility limitations may improve their prevention and treatment among older adults. We tested the hypothesis that impaired rhythmic interlimb ankle and shoulder coordination are risk factors for subsequent mobility limitations among older adults. We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults (N = 99) aged 67 years and older who did not have mobility limitations (Short Physical Performance Battery score > 9) at baseline. Participants performed antiphase coordination of the right and left ankles or shoulders while paced by an auditory metronome. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined odds ratios (ORs) for mobility limitations at 1-year follow-up as a function of coordination variability and asymmetry. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, Mini-Mental State Examination score, number of chronic conditions, and baseline Short Physical Performance Battery score, ORs were significant for developing mobility limitations based on a 1 SD difference in the variability of ankle (OR = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05) and shoulder (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.17-3.29) coordination. ORs were significant for asymmetry of shoulder (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.25-3.57), but not ankle (OR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.59-1.55) coordination. Similar results were found in unadjusted analyses. The results support our hypothesis that impaired interlimb ankle and shoulder coordination are risk factors for the development of mobility limitations. Future work is needed to further examine the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying this relationship and to test whether enhancing coordination alters mobility limitations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  11. Optogenetic release of ACh induces rhythmic bursts of perisomatic IPSCs in hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Nagode

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh influences a vast array of phenomena in cortical systems. It alters many ionic conductances and neuronal firing behavior, often by regulating membrane potential oscillations in populations of cells. Synaptic inhibition has crucial roles in many forms of oscillation, and cholinergic mechanisms regulate both oscillations and synaptic inhibition. In vitro investigations using bath-application of cholinergic receptor agonists, or bulk tissue electrical stimulation to release endogenous ACh, have led to insights into cholinergic function, but questions remain because of the relative lack of selectivity of these forms of stimulation. To investigate the effects of selective release of ACh on interneurons and oscillations, we used an optogenetic approach in which the light-sensitive non-selective cation channel, Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, was virally delivered to cholinergic projection neurons in the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB of adult mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT promoter. Acute hippocampal slices obtained from these animals weeks later revealed ChR2 expression in cholinergic axons. Brief trains of blue light pulses delivered to untreated slices initiated bursts of ACh-evoked, inhibitory post-synaptic currents (L-IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal cells that lasted for 10's of seconds after the light stimulation ceased. L-IPSC occurred more reliably in slices treated with eserine and a very low concentration of 4-AP, which were therefore used in most experiments. The rhythmic, L-IPSCs were driven primarily by muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs, and could be suppressed by endocannabinoid release from pyramidal cells. Finally, low-frequency oscillations (LFOs of local field potentials (LFPs were significantly cross-correlated with the L-IPSCs, and reversal of the LFPs near s. pyramidale confirmed that the LFPs were driven by perisomatic inhibition. This optogenetic approach

  12. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  13. Listing of engineering research contract reports under the DREAM, AERD and ERDAF programs of the Research Branch, 1973-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B A; Thuns, A; Feldman, M

    1988-01-01

    To supplement in-house investigations, Agriculture Canada contracted out research in a number of programs including three which supported engineering work. This document lists the contracts awarded under the programs and provides reference citations of the contract reports. Reports are grouped by file number, scientific authority, author or contractor, and subject, and a subject index is also included. The three programs are: Development, Research and Evaluation in Agricultural Mechanization (DREAM), Agricultural Engineering Research and Development Program (AERD), and Energy Research and Development in Agriculture and Food (ERDAF). AERD, which replaced DREAM, has been terminated, but the ERDAF program is still continuing as of the date of this document.

  14. Research on radionuclide migration under subsurface geochemical conditions. JAERI/AECL Phase II Collaborative Program Year 1 (joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    A radionuclide migration experiment program for fractured rocks was performed under the JAERI/AECL Phase-II Collaborative Program on research and development in radioactive waste management. The program started in the fiscal year 1993, as a five-year program consists of Quarried block radionuclide migration program, Speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, Isotopic hydrogeology and Groundwater flow model development. During the first year of the program (Program Year 1: March 18, 1994 - September 30, 1994), a plan was developed to take out granite blocks containing part of natural water-bearing fracture from the wall of the experimental gallery at the depth of 240 m, and literature reviews were done in the area of the speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, isotopic hydrogeology and the groundwater flow model development to proceed further work for the Program Year 2. (author)

  15. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  16. Waste management under multiple complexities: Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Lv Ying; Li Gongchen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming is proposed. ► It’s the first application to waste management under multiple complexities. ► It tackles nonlinear economies-of-scale effects in interval-parameter constraints. ► It estimates costs more accurately than the linear-regression-based model. ► Uncertainties are decreased and more satisfactory interval solutions are obtained. - Abstract: To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP’s advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP’s solutions demonstrate

  17. Neurobiological foundations of neurologic music therapy: rhythmic entrainment and the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system's motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy.

  18. The Beat Goes on: Rhythmic Modulation of Cortical Potentials by Imagined Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Allen; Albert, Robert; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Band, Guido; van der Molen, Maurits

    2006-01-01

    A frequency analysis was used to tag cortical activity from imagined rhythmic movements. Participants synchronized overt and imagined taps with brief visual stimuli presented at a constant rate, alternating between left and right index fingers. Brain potentials were recorded from across the scalp and topographic maps made of their power at the…

  19. Differential maturation of rhythmic clock gene expression during early development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Ines H; Lahiri, Kajori; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Loosli, Felix; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Vallone, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    One key challenge for the field of chronobiology is to identify how circadian clock function emerges during early embryonic development. Teleosts such as the zebrafish are ideal models for studying circadian clock ontogeny since the entire process of development occurs ex utero in an optically transparent chorion. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) represents another powerful fish model for exploring early clock function with, like the zebrafish, many tools available for detailed genetic analysis. However, to date there have been no reports documenting circadian clock gene expression during medaka development. Here we have characterized the expression of key clock genes in various developmental stages and in adult tissues of medaka. As previously reported for other fish, light dark cycles are required for the emergence of clock gene expression rhythms in this species. While rhythmic expression of per and cry genes is detected very early during development and seems to be light driven, rhythmic clock and bmal expression appears much later around hatching time. Furthermore, the maturation of clock function seems to correlate with the appearance of rhythmic expression of these positive elements of the clock feedback loop. By accelerating development through elevated temperatures or by artificially removing the chorion, we show an earlier onset of rhythmicity in clock and bmal expression. Thus, differential maturation of key elements of the medaka clock mechanism depends on the developmental stage and the presence of the chorion.

  20. Separating bathymetric data representing multiscale rhythmic bed forms : a geostatistical and spectral method compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Thaiënne A.G.P.; Lindenbergh, Roderik C.; Egberts, Paul J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The superimposition of rhythmic bed forms of different spatial scales is a common and natural phenomenon on sandy seabeds. The dynamics of such seabeds may interfere with different offshore activities and are therefore of interest to both scientists and offshore developers. State-of-the-art echo

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of rhythmic spinal interneurons measured with two-photon calcium imaging and coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alex C; Dietz, Shelby B; Zhong, Guisheng; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M; Webb, Watt W

    2010-12-01

    In rhythmic neural circuits, a neuron often fires action potentials with a constant phase to the rhythm, a timing relationship that can be functionally significant. To characterize these phase preferences in a large-scale, cell type-specific manner, we adapted multitaper coherence analysis for two-photon calcium imaging. Analysis of simulated data showed that coherence is a simple and robust measure of rhythmicity for calcium imaging data. When applied to the neonatal mouse hindlimb spinal locomotor network, the phase relationships between peak activity of >1,000 ventral spinal interneurons and motor output were characterized. Most interneurons showed rhythmic activity that was coherent and in phase with the ipsilateral motor output during fictive locomotion. The phase distributions of two genetically identified classes of interneurons were distinct from the ensemble population and from each other. There was no obvious spatial clustering of interneurons with similar phase preferences. Together, these results suggest that cell type, not neighboring neuron activity, is a better indicator of an interneuron's response during fictive locomotion. The ability to measure the phase preferences of many neurons with cell type and spatial information should be widely applicable for studying other rhythmic neural circuits.

  2. An analysis of rhythmic ratios in scores of various kinds of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Desain, P.W.M.; Honing, H.J.; Lipscomb, S.D.; Ashley, R.; Gjerdignen, R.O.; Webster, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate our daily experience of rhythm. The frequency of occurrence of rhythmic patterns consisting of two intervals was counted in different music corpora. Only subdivisions of metrical units were considered. A very large corpus of diverse kinds of music (western

  3. Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle metabolism from near infrared spectroscopy during rhythmic handgrip in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Pott, F; Madsen, P

    1998-01-01

    The rate of metabolism in forearm flexor muscles (MO2) was derived from near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS-O2) during ischaemia at rest rhythmic handgrip at 15% and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI), and recovery in seven subjects. The MO2 was compared...

  5. Inter-limb coupling in bimanual rhythmic coordination in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, M.H.G.; Geuze, RH

    2004-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that rhythmic inter-limb coordination is disturbed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aims to investigate whether this coordination deficit is primarily the result of an impaired coupling, related to hypoactivation of the supplementary motor area

  6. Rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants : Classification and association with brain injury and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C; van Ooijen, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; van Haastert, Ingrid C; van Stam, Carolien; Benders, Manon J; Toet, Mona C; Hellström-Westas, Lena; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Classify rhythmic EEG patterns in extremely preterm infants and relate these to brain injury and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 77 infants born <28 weeks gestational age (GA) who had a 2-channel EEG during the first 72 h after birth. Patterns detected by the BrainZ seizure

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study comparing rhythmic finger tapping in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guio, François; Jacobson, Sandra W; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2012-02-01

    This study compared brain activation during unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in 12-year-old children with that of adults. Subjects pressed a button at a pace initially indicated by a metronome (12 consecutive tones), and then continued for 16 seconds of unpaced tapping to provide an assessment of their ability to maintain a steady rhythm. These analyses focused on the superior vermis of the cerebellum, which is known to play a key role in timing. Twelve adults and 12 children performed this rhythmic finger tapping task in a 3 T scanner. Whole-brain analyses were performed in Brain Voyager, with a random-effects analysis of variance using a general linear model. A dedicated cerebellar atlas was used to localize cerebellar activations. As in adults, unpaced rhythmic finger tapping in children demonstrated activations in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and cerebellum. However, overall activation was different, in that adults demonstrated much more deactivation in response to the task, particularly in the occipital and frontal cortices. The other main differences involved the additional recruitment of motor and premotor areas in children compared with adults, and increased activity in the vermal region of the cerebellum. These findings suggest that the timing component of the unpaced rhythmic finger tapping task is less efficient and automatic in children, who need to recruit the superior vermis more intensively to maintain the rhythm, although they performed somewhat more poorly than adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards a Rhythmanalysis of Debt Dressage: Education as Rhythmic Resistance in Everyday Indebted Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Jason Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Debt shapes subjectivity by rhythmically training indebted subjects. Stated slightly differently, there exists a debt dressage that produces indebted subjectivity. One of the principle aims of this article is to introduce rhythm into the debt analysis debates. Building on Henri Lefebvre's book "Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday…

  9. The Relationship between Reduplicated Babble Onset and Laterality Biases in Infant Rhythmic Arm Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.; Hall, Amanda J.; Nickel, Lindsay; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually identical audible and silent rattles…

  10. Some phonetic experiments on : Double stress and rhythmic variation in R.P. English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, van V.J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis examines the phonetic nature of so-called double-stressed words in English (also called equal- stressed or even-stressed), and the susceptibility of these words to rhythmic adjustment (stress clash avoidance). An acoustic analysis of stress correlates was made of disyllabic words

  11. Auditory Processing Interventions and Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparison of Phonemic and Rhythmic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two auditory processing interventions for developmental dyslexia, one based on rhythm and one based on phonetic training. Thirty-three children with dyslexia participated and were assigned to one of three groups (a) a novel rhythmic processing intervention designed to highlight auditory…

  12. Effects of Musicality on the Perception of Rhythmic Structure in Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Boll-Avetisyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language and music share many rhythmic properties, such as variations in intensity and duration leading to repeating patterns. Perception of rhythmic properties may rely on cognitive networks that are shared between the two domains. If so, then variability in speech rhythm perception may relate to individual differences in musicality. To examine this possibility, the present study focuses on rhythmic grouping, which is assumed to be guided by a domain-general principle, the Iambic/Trochaic law, stating that sounds alternating in intensity are grouped as strong-weak, and sounds alternating in duration are grouped as weak-strong. German listeners completed a grouping task: They heard streams of syllables alternating in intensity, duration, or neither, and had to indicate whether they perceived a strong-weak or weak-strong pattern. Moreover, their music perception abilities were measured, and they filled out a questionnaire reporting their productive musical experience. Results showed that better musical rhythm perception ability was associated with more consistent rhythmic grouping of speech, while melody perception ability and productive musical experience were not. This suggests shared cognitive procedures in the perception of rhythm in music and speech. Also, the results highlight the relevance of considering individual differences in musicality when aiming to explain variability in prosody perception.

  13. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, E.S. te; Oostenveld, R.; Bloem, B.R.; Lange, F.P. de; Praamstra, P.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this

  14. Neurobiological foundations of neurologic music therapy: rhythmic entrainment and the motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy. PMID:25774137

  15. Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.P.; Schmidt-Kassow, M.; Heine, A.; Vuust, P.; Kotz, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different

  16. Neurobiological Foundations of Neurologic Music Therapy: Rhythmic Entrainment and the Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eThaut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEntrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks and biological systems (e.g. fire flies. However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al, 1999. Physiological, kinematic and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of Neurologic Music Therapy.

  17. Speak on time! Effects of a musical rhythmic training on children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Céline; Falk, Simone; Schön, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates temporal adaptation in speech interaction in children with normal hearing and in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs). We also address the question of whether musical rhythmic training can improve these skills in children with hearing loss (HL). Children named pictures presented on the screen in alternation with a virtual partner. Alternation rate (fast or slow) and the temporal predictability (match vs mismatch of stress occurrences) were manipulated. One group of children with normal hearing (NH) and one with HL were tested. The latter group was tested twice: once after 30 min of speech therapy and once after 30 min of musical rhythmic training. Both groups of children (NH and with HL) can adjust their speech production to the rate of alternation of the virtual partner. Moreover, while children with normal hearing benefit from the temporal regularity of stress occurrences, children with HL become sensitive to this manipulation only after rhythmic training. Rhythmic training may help children with HL to structure the temporal flow of their verbal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhythmic Rituals and Emergent Listening: Intra-Activity, Sonic Sounds and Digital Composing with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    (Re)Entering data from a networked collaborative project exploring how sound operates as a mechanism for attuning towards cultural difference and community literacies, this article examines one primary grade classroom's participation to investigate the rhythmic rituals of 'emergent listening' in early childhood literacy. Thinking with sound…

  19. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  20. 77 FR 57096 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... Medical Center managed the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program through a contractual agreement with the...

  1. 75 FR 73110 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services.../AIDS Program, Part C funds for the Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, Viral Disease... HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental...

  2. 38 CFR 21.21 - Election of benefits under education programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 21.21 Election of benefits under education programs administered by the Department of Veterans... education programs administered by VA must make an election of benefits between chapter 31 and any other VA... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election of benefits...

  3. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  4. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  5. 75 FR 36426 - Legislative Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act....) 111-148. Section 5202 of the ACA changes the Nursing Student Loan (NSL) program by: (1) Increasing the... degree in nursing. Below are details on how the ACA changes Sections 836(a), 836(b)(1), and 836(b)(3) of...

  6. 75 FR 36099 - Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health Service Act AGENCY... changes Section 723 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regarding administration of the PCL program...

  7. 49 CFR 17.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 17.6 Section 17.6 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.6 What...

  8. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.31 As a Tribe, what is my... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  9. Study of the Insurance Premium Charged to Borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    Insurance premiums being charged to borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program were studied to determine if the rate exceeded the rate necessary to protect the reserves of the insurer. Attention was directed to whether historical changes in the GSL program have affected insurance premiums. Guaranty agency's sources and uses of funds…

  10. Efficient implementation of real-time programs under the VAX/VMS operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for writing efficient real-time programs under the VAX/VMS oprating system are presented. Basic operations are presented for executing at real-time priority and for avoiding needlless processing delays. A highly efficient technique for accessing physical devices by mapping to the input/output space and accessing the device registrs directly is described. To illustrate the application of the technique, examples are included of different uses of the technique on three devices in the Langley Avionics Integration Research Lab (AIRLAB): the KW11-K dual programmable real-time clock, the Parallel Communications Link (PCL11-B) communication system, and the Datacom Synchronization Network. Timing data are included to demonstrate the performance improvements realized with these applications of the technique.

  11. Apparatus for dynamic measurement of gases released from materials heated under programmed temperature-time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, J.W.; Abernathey, R.M.

    1982-04-01

    This apparatus, a prototype of one being constructed for hotcell examination of irradiated nuclear materials, measures dynamic release rates and integrated volumes of individual gases from materials heated under controlled temperature-time programs. It consists of an inductively heated vacuum furnace connected to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A computerized control system with data acquisition provides scanning rates down to 1s and on-line tabular and graphic displays. Heating rates are up to 1300 0 C/min to a maximum temperature of 2000 0 C. The measurement range is about 10 -6 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for H 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O, N 2 , and CO and 10 -8 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for He, Kr, and Xe. Applications are described for measurements of Kr and Xe in mixed oxide fuel, various gases in UO 2 pellets, and He in 238 PuO 2 power and heat sources

  12. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Pricing Weather Derivatives under Issuer Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Karl Härdle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contingent claims with payoff based on a pre-specified weather index. Firms exposed to weather risk can transfer it to financial markets via weather derivatives. We develop a utility-based model for pricing baskets of weather derivatives under default risk on the issuer side in over-the-counter markets. In our model, agents maximise the expected utility of their terminal wealth, while they dynamically rebalance their weather portfolios over a finite investment horizon. Using dynamic programming approach, we obtain semi-closed forms for the equilibrium prices of weather derivatives and for the optimal strategies of the agents. We give an example on how to price rainfall derivatives on selected stations in China in the universe of a financial investor and a weather exposed crop insurer.

  13. Building Capacity in Using Earth Observations Under the GOFC-GOLD and TAT Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) is a coordinated international effort to provide ongoing space-based and in-situ observations of forests and other vegetation cover. The main goal of GOFC/GOLD is to support a forum for international information exchange, observation and data coordination, and a framework for establishing the necessary long-term monitoring systems. GOFC-GOLD has two Implementation Teams: Land Cover Characteristics and Change, and Fire Monitoring and Mapping. Additionally, it includes two working groups: the Working Group on Biomass Monitoring and the Working group on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), the latter being aligned with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Regional networks are an integral part of the GOFC-GOLD program, with some networks fully developed and some still emerging. GOFC-GOLD provides training workshops to build capacity in the regions. Capacity building in using Earth Observation techniques and applications is also promoted by cooperation of NASA and ESA under the Trans-Atlantic Training (TAT) program. The main objective of TAT is training of early career scientists and students in East European and Baltic countries emphasizing outstanding technical issues in remote sensing of land-cover/land-use change and ecosystems processes. TAT promotes data sharing and advanced research methods and technologies through series of training sessions. Three TAT sessions have been held until now, each session consisting of 5-10 tutors and about 30 early career scientists and students from Eastern Europe. The sessions include lectures on remote sensing covering the full solar spectrum and hands-on practice. The experience obtained in capacity building activities under GOFC-GOLD and TAT will be shared with the audience.

  14. Rhythmic Firing of Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus Neurons in Monkeys during Eye Movement Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Okada

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN has been thought to be involved in the control of behavioral state. Projections to the entire thalamus and reciprocal connections with the basal ganglia nuclei suggest a potential role for the PPTN in the control of various rhythmic behaviors, including waking/sleeping and locomotion. Recently, rhythmic activity in the local field potentials was recorded from the PPTN of patients with Parkinson's disease who were treated with levodopa, suggesting that rhythmic firing is a feature of the functioning PPTN and might change with the behaving conditions even within waking. However, it remains unclear whether and how single PPTN neurons exhibit rhythmic firing patterns during various behaving conditions, including executing conditioned eye movement behaviors, seeking reward, or during resting. We previously recorded from PPTN neurons in healthy monkeys during visually guided saccade tasks and reported task-related changes in firing rate, and in this paper, we reanalyzed these data and focused on their firing patterns. A population of PPTN neurons demonstrated a regular firing pattern in that the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals was lower than what would be expected of theoretical random and irregular spike trains. Furthermore, a group of PPTN neurons exhibited a clear periodic single spike firing that changed with the context of the behavioral task. Many of these neurons exhibited a periodic firing pattern during highly active conditions, either the fixation condition during the saccade task or the free-viewing condition during the intertrial interval. We speculate that these task context-related changes in rhythmic firing of PPTN neurons might regulate the monkey's attentional and vigilance state to perform the task.

  15. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  16. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  17. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  18. Two-stage stochastic programming model for the regional-scale electricity planning under demand uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Traditional electricity supply planning models regard the electricity demand as a deterministic parameter and require the total power output to satisfy the aggregate electricity demand. But in today's world, the electric system planners are facing tremendously complex environments full of uncertainties, where electricity demand is a key source of uncertainty. In addition, electricity demand patterns are considerably different for different regions. This paper developed a multi-region optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming framework to incorporate the demand uncertainty. Furthermore, the decision tree method and Monte Carlo simulation approach are integrated into the model to simplify electricity demands in the form of nodes and determine the values and probabilities. The proposed model was successfully applied to a real case study (i.e. Taiwan's electricity sector) to show its applicability. Detail simulation results were presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. Finally, the long-term electricity development roadmap at a regional level could be provided on the basis of our simulation results. - Highlights: • A multi-region, two-stage stochastic programming model has been developed. • The decision tree and Monte Carlo simulation are integrated into the framework. • Taiwan's electricity sector is used to illustrate the applicability of the model. • The results under deterministic and stochastic cases are shown for comparison. • Optimal portfolios of regional generation technologies can be identified.

  19. JAERI R & D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called {open_quotes}OMEGA,{close_quotes} is presented. Under this national program, major R&D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

  20. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  1. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. te Woerd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways.

  2. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  3. 48 CFR 2019.705 - Responsibilities of the contracting officer under the subcontracting assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Subcontracting With Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 2019.705...

  4. 48 CFR 319.705 - Responsibilities of the Contracting Officer under the subcontracting assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Subcontracting With Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 319.705...

  5. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...

  6. 78 FR 44580 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  7. 75 FR 41510 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by...). The interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period...

  8. 78 FR 4427 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  9. 75 FR 5339 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  10. 77 FR 4359 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by...). The interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period...

  11. 76 FR 4127 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  12. 76 FR 47225 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  13. 77 FR 42754 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  14. 34 CFR 403.111 - How must funds be used under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION... under that award to improve vocational education programs. (2) Projects assisted with funds awarded... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Secondary School...

  15. Study on the rhythmic variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wu Guo; Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the rhythmic fluctuation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with EH and CHD. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were determined with RIA at 8Am, 4Pm and midnight in 61 patients with EH, 46 patients with CHD and 36 controls. Results: The normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern of plasma cortisol levels was retained in the EH and CHD patients. However, the levels were all significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls, especially in the midnight specimens. Conclusion: Marked elevated plasma cortisol levels were observed in patients with EH and CHD, with the normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern retained. (authors)

  16. Setting the pace: host rhythmic behaviour and gene expression patterns in the facultatively symbiotic cnidarian Aiptasia are determined largely by Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Michal; Schnytzer, Yisrael; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; Caspi, Vered Chalifa; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Miller, David J; Levy, Oren

    2018-05-09

    All organisms employ biological clocks to anticipate physical changes in the environment; however, the integration of biological clocks in symbiotic systems has received limited attention. In corals, the interpretation of rhythmic behaviours is complicated by the daily oscillations in tissue oxygen tension resulting from the photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the associated algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium. In order to better understand the integration of biological clocks in cnidarian hosts of Symbiodinium, daily rhythms of behaviour and gene expression were studied in symbiotic and aposymbiotic morphs of the sea-anemone Aiptasia diaphana. The results showed that whereas circatidal (approx. 12-h) cycles of activity and gene expression predominated in aposymbiotic morphs, circadian (approx. 24-h) patterns were the more common in symbiotic morphs, where the expression of a significant number of genes shifted from a 12- to 24-h rhythm. The behavioural experiments on symbiotic A. diaphana displayed diel (24-h) rhythmicity in body and tentacle contraction under the light/dark cycles, whereas aposymbiotic morphs showed approximately 12-h (circatidal) rhythmicity. Reinfection experiments represent an important step in understanding the hierarchy of endogenous clocks in symbiotic associations, where the aposymbiotic Aiptasia morphs returned to a 24-h behavioural rhythm after repopulation with algae. Whilst some modification of host metabolism is to be expected, the extent to which the presence of the algae modified host endogenous behavioural and transcriptional rhythms implies that it is the symbionts that influence the pace. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of the endosymbiotic algae in determining the timing and the duration of the extension and contraction of the body and tentacles and temporal gene expression.

  17. Role of light and the circadian clock in the rhythmic oscillation of intraocular pressure: Studies in VPAC2 receptor and PACAP deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Georg, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2018-04-01

    The intraocular pressure of mice displays a daily rhythmicity being highest during the dark period. The present study was performed to elucidate the role of the circadian clock and light in the diurnal and the circadian variations in intraocular pressure in mice, by using animals with disrupted clock function (VPAC2 receptor knockout mice) or impaired light information to the clock (PACAP knockout mice). In wildtype mice, intraocular pressure measured under light/dark conditions showed a statistically significant 24 h sinusoidal rhythm with nadir during the light phase and peak during the dark phase. After transfer of the wildtype mice into constant darkness, the intraocular pressure increased, but the rhythmic changes in intraocular pressure continued with a pattern identical to that obtained during the light/dark cycle. The intraocular pressure in VPAC2 receptor deficient mice during light/dark conditions also showed a sinusoidal pattern with significant changes as a function of a 24 h cycle. However, transfer of the VPAC2 receptor knockout mice into constant darkness completely abolished the rhythmic changes in intraocular pressure. The intraocular pressure in PACAP deficient mice oscillated significantly during both 24 h light and darkness and during constant darkness. During LD conditions, the amplitude of PACAP deficient was significantly lower compared to wildtype mice, resulting in higher daytime and lower nighttime values. In conclusion, by studying the VPAC2 receptor knockout mouse which lacks circadian control and the PACAP knockout mouse which displays impaired light signaling, we provided evidence that the daily intraocular pressure rhythms are primarily generated by the circadian master clock and to a lesser extent by environmental light and darkness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  19. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, P.; Walke, J. [National Resources Development Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  20. Chemotherapy appointment scheduling under uncertainty using mean-risk stochastic integer programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Michelle; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2018-03-01

    Oncology clinics are often burdened with scheduling large volumes of cancer patients for chemotherapy treatments under limited resources such as the number of nurses and chairs. These cancer patients require a series of appointments over several weeks or months and the timing of these appointments is critical to the treatment's effectiveness. Additionally, the appointment duration, the acuity levels of each appointment, and the availability of clinic nurses are uncertain. The timing constraints, stochastic parameters, rising treatment costs, and increased demand of outpatient oncology clinic services motivate the need for efficient appointment schedules and clinic operations. In this paper, we develop three mean-risk stochastic integer programming (SIP) models, referred to as SIP-CHEMO, for the problem of scheduling individual chemotherapy patient appointments and resources. These mean-risk models are presented and an algorithm is devised to improve computational speed. Computational results were conducted using a simulation model and results indicate that the risk-averse SIP-CHEMO model with the expected excess mean-risk measure can decrease patient waiting times and nurse overtime when compared to deterministic scheduling algorithms by 42 % and 27 %, respectively.

  1. Models of psychological service provision under Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Kohn, Fay; Morley, Belinda; Blashki, Grant; Naccarella, Lucio

    2006-08-01

    The Access to Allied Psychological Services component of Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program enables eligible general practitioners to refer consumers to allied health professionals for affordable, evidence-based mental health care, via 108 projects conducted by Divisions of General Practice. The current study profiled the models of service delivery across these projects, and examined whether particular models were associated with differential levels of access to services. We found: 76% of projects were retaining their allied health professionals under contract, 28% via direct employment, and 7% some other way; Allied health professionals were providing services from GPs' rooms in 63% of projects, from their own rooms in 63%, from a third location in 42%; and The referral mechanism of choice was direct referral in 51% of projects, a voucher system in 27%, a brokerage system in 24%, and a register system in 25%. Many of these models were being used in combination. No model was predictive of differential levels of access, suggesting that the approach of adapting models to the local context is proving successful.

  2. Relative Affordability of Health Insurance Premiums under CHIP Expansion Programs and the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Laugesen, Miriam J; Yesus, Ambeshie; Escarce, José J

    2011-10-01

    Affordability is integral to the success of health care reforms aimed at ensuring universal access to health insurance coverage, and affordability determinations have major policy and practical consequences. This article describes factors that influenced the determination of affordability benchmarks and premium-contribution requirements for Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expansions in three states that sought to universalize access to coverage for youth. It also compares subsidy levels developed in these states to the premium subsidy schedule under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for health insurance plans purchased through an exchange. We find sizeable variability in premium-contribution requirements for children's coverage as a percentage of family income across the three states and in the progressivity and regressivity of the premium-contribution schedules developed. These findings underscore the ambiguity and subjectivity of affordability standards. Further, our analyses suggest that while the ACA increases the affordability of family coverage for families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty level, the evolution of CHIP over the next five to ten years will continue to have significant implications for low-income families.

  3. Improvement of technical training of sportswomen in rhythmic gymnastics by means of acrobatics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove experimentally the technique of improvement of technical training of sportswomen in rhythmic gymnastics by means of acrobatics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: analysis and synthesis of references, pedagogical observations, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, method of expert assessment (qualimetry, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the level of technical skill of performance of pre-acrobatic elements by sportswomen of rhythmic gymnastics before carrying out the pedagogical experiment is determined. The dynamics of indicators of the level of technical preparedness of sportswomen of rhythmic gymnastics is defined. Conclusions: it is established that additional resources of acrobatics influence significantly the level of technical preparedness of sportswomen of rhythmic gymnastics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation.

  4. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction frequency in human detrusor strips correlates with phasic intravesical pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhoun, Andrew F; Speich, John E; Cooley, Lauren F; Bell, Eugene D; Barbee, R Wayne; Guruli, Georgi; Ratz, Paul H; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    Low amplitude rhythmic contractions (LARC) occur in detrusor smooth muscle and may play a role in storage disorders such as overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LARC frequencies identified in vitro from strips of human urinary bladder tissue correlate with in vivo LARC frequencies, visualized as phasic intravesical pressure (p ves ) waves during urodynamics (UD). After IRB approval, fresh strips of human urinary bladder were obtained from patients. LARC was recorded with tissue strips at low tension (rhythmic frequency similar to the in vitro LARC frequency quantified in human urinary bladder tissue strips. Further refinements of this technique may help identify subsets of individuals with LARC-mediated storage disorders.

  5. Analysis of rhythmic variance - ANORVA. A new simple method for detecting rhythms in biological time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Celec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic variations of variables are ubiquitous in biomedical science. A number of methods for detecting rhythms have been developed, but they are often difficult to interpret. A simple procedure for detecting cyclic variations in biological time series and quantification of their probability is presented here. Analysis of rhythmic variance (ANORVA is based on the premise that the variance in groups of data from rhythmic variables is low when a time distance of one period exists between the data entries. A detailed stepwise calculation is presented including data entry and preparation, variance calculating, and difference testing. An example for the application of the procedure is provided, and a real dataset of the number of papers published per day in January 2003 using selected keywords is compared to randomized datasets. Randomized datasets show no cyclic variations. The number of papers published daily, however, shows a clear and significant (p<0.03 circaseptan (period of 7 days rhythm, probably of social origin

  6. Internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation is important for rhythmic PERIOD1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ha Lee

    Full Text Available The mouse PERIOD1 (mPER1 plays an important role in the maintenance of circadian rhythm. Translation of mPer1 is directed by both a cap-dependent process and cap-independent translation mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES in the 5' untranslated region (UTR. Here, we compared mPer1 IRES activity with other cellular IRESs. We also found critical region in mPer1 5'UTR for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (HNRNPQ binding. Deletion of HNRNPQ binding region markedly decreased IRES activity and disrupted rhythmicity. A mathematical model also suggests that rhythmic IRES-dependent translation is a key process in mPER1 oscillation. The IRES-mediated translation of mPer1 will help define the post-transcriptional regulation of the core clock genes.

  7. Tempo discrimination of musical patterns: effects due to pitch and rhythmic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate a set of factors that may influence the perceived rate of an auditory event. In a paired-comparison task, subjects were presented with a set of music-like patterns that differed in their relative number of contour changes and in the magnitude of pitch skips (Experiment 1) as well as in the compatibility of rhythmic accent structure with the arrangement of pitch relations (Experiment 2) Results indicated that, relative to their standard referents, comparison melodies were judged to unfold more slowly when they displayed more changes in pitch direction, greater pitch distances, and an incompatible rhythmic accent structure. These findings are suggested to stem from an imputed velocity hypothesis, in which people overgeneralize certain invariant relations that typically occur between melodic and temporal accent structure within Western music.

  8. Relations between female students' personality traits and reported handicaps to rhythmic gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Champely, Stephane; Brunel, Philippe C

    2005-04-01

    The present study evaluated the relative contributions of Self-esteem, Trait anxiety, and Public Self-consciousness to self-handicapping on a sex-typed task, within a specific academic sport context. Prior to the competitive examination used to recruit French Physical Education Teachers, female sport students (N = 74) were asked to list and rate on a 7-point scale handicaps which could be disruptive to their Rhythmic Gymnastics performance. Self-esteem did not account for significant variance in any category of handicaps. Trait Anxiety was negatively related to handicaps related to Rhythmic Gymnastics and to Social and Work Commitments. Public Self-consciousness was significantly related to endorsement of Friends and Family Commitments handicaps. These results were discussed in relation to the literature.

  9. Facial Muscle Coordination in Monkeys During Rhythmic Facial Expressions and Ingestive Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephen V.; Lanzilotto, Marco; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the origins of communication signals generally, and primate orofacial communication signals in particular, suggest that these signals derive by ritualization of noncommunicative behaviors, notably including ingestive behaviors such as chewing and nursing. These theories are appealing in part because of the prominent periodicities in both types of behavior. Despite their intuitive appeal, however, there are little or no data with which to evaluate these theories because the coordination of muscles innervated by the facial nucleus has not been carefully compared between communicative and ingestive movements. Such data are especially crucial for reconciling neurophysiological assumptions regarding facial motor control in communication and ingestion. We here address this gap by contrasting the coordination of facial muscles during different types of rhythmic orofacial behavior in macaque monkeys, finding that the perioral muscles innervated by the facial nucleus are rhythmically coordinated during lipsmacks and that this coordination appears distinct from that observed during ingestion. PMID:22553017

  10. Pair Programming: Under What Conditions Is It Advantageous for Middle School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Pair programming is a strategy that grew out of industry and has shown promise for performance and retention in computer programming courses at universities and in industry. In this study, we examine whether pair programming is effective in K-12, what it is effective for, and how partners influence each other. We collected the data from 320 middle…

  11. 77 FR 3784 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... program which provides full marketing, media, public information, and program strategy support to the... Wear, Vessel Safety Check Program (VSC), Boating Safety Education Courses, Propeller Strike Avoidance, Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Awareness and Education, and other recreational boating safety issues on an as...

  12. A Bootstrap Based Measure Robust to the Choice of Normalization Methods for Detecting Rhythmic Features in High Dimensional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Yolanda; Rueda, Cristina; Fernández, Miguel A; Peddada, Shyamal D

    2018-01-01

    Motivation: Gene-expression data obtained from high throughput technologies are subject to various sources of noise and accordingly the raw data are pre-processed before formally analyzed. Normalization of the data is a key pre-processing step, since it removes systematic variations across arrays. There are numerous normalization methods available in the literature. Based on our experience, in the context of oscillatory systems, such as cell-cycle, circadian clock, etc., the choice of the normalization method may substantially impact the determination of a gene to be rhythmic. Thus rhythmicity of a gene can purely be an artifact of how the data were normalized. Since the determination of rhythmic genes is an important component of modern toxicological and pharmacological studies, it is important to determine truly rhythmic genes that are robust to the choice of a normalization method. Results: In this paper we introduce a rhythmicity measure and a bootstrap methodology to detect rhythmic genes in an oscillatory system. Although the proposed methodology can be used for any high-throughput gene expression data, in this paper we illustrate the proposed methodology using several publicly available circadian clock microarray gene-expression datasets. We demonstrate that the choice of normalization method has very little effect on the proposed methodology. Specifically, for any pair of normalization methods considered in this paper, the resulting values of the rhythmicity measure are highly correlated. Thus it suggests that the proposed measure is robust to the choice of a normalization method. Consequently, the rhythmicity of a gene is potentially not a mere artifact of the normalization method used. Lastly, as demonstrated in the paper, the proposed bootstrap methodology can also be used for simulating data for genes participating in an oscillatory system using a reference dataset. Availability: A user friendly code implemented in R language can be downloaded from http://www.eio.uva.es/~miguel/robustdetectionprocedure.html.

  13. The properties and interrelationships of various force-time parameters during maximal repeated rhythmic grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masakatsu; Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the properties and interrelationships of various force-time parameters including the inflection point for the rate of decline in force during a maximal repeated rhythmic grip. Fifteen healthy males (age M=21.5, SD=2.1 yr, height M=172.4, SD=5.7 cm, body mass M=68.2, SD=9.2 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed a maximal repeated rhythmic grip with maximal effort with a target frequency of 30 grip.min(-1) for 6 min. The force value decreased linearly and markedly until about 70% of maximal strength for about 55 s after the onset of a maximal repeated rhythmic grip, and then decreased moderately. Because all parameters showed fair or good correlations between 3 min and 6 min, they are considered to be able to sufficiently evaluate muscle endurance for 3 min instead of 6 min. However, there were significant differences between 3 min and 6 min in the integrated area, the final force, the rate of the decrement constant (k) fitting the force decreasing data to y=ae(-kx)+b and the force of maximal difference between the force and a straight line from peak force to the final force. Their parameters may vary generally by the length of a steady state, namely, a measurement time. The final force value before finishing and the rate of the decrement constant (k) reflect the latter phase during a maximal repeated rhythmic grip. Although many parameters show relatively high mutual relationships, the rate constant (k) shows relatively low correlations with other parameters. We inferred that decreasing the time until 80% of maximal strength and the amount of the decrement force for the first 1 min reflect a linear decrease in the initial phase.

  14. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on self-paced oscillatory movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckel, Mathieu; Pozzo, Thierry; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping) while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20 s before a 2 s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced) while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with the task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e., motor/perceptual resonance). In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a motoric

  15. The impact of the perception of rhythmic music on oscillatory self-paced movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu ePeckel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by theories of perception-action coupling and embodied music cognition, we investigated how rhythmic music perception impacts self-paced oscillatory movements. In a pilot study, we examined the kinematic parameters of self-paced oscillatory movements, walking and finger tapping using optical motion capture. In accordance with biomechanical constraints accounts of motion, we found that movements followed a hierarchical organization depending on the proximal/distal characteristic of the limb used. Based on these findings, we were interested in knowing how and when the perception of rhythmic music could resonate with the motor system in the context of these constrained oscillatory movements. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment where participants performed four different effector-specific movements (lower leg, whole arm and forearm oscillation and finger tapping while rhythmic music was playing in the background. Musical stimuli consisted of computer-generated MIDI musical pieces with a 4/4 metrical structure. The musical tempo of each song increased from 60 BPM to 120 BPM by 6 BPM increments. A specific tempo was maintained for 20s before a 2s transition to the higher tempo. The task of the participant was to maintain a comfortable pace for the four movements (self-paced while not paying attention to the music. No instruction on whether to synchronize with the music was given. Results showed that participants were distinctively influenced by the background music depending on the movement used with the tapping task being consistently the most influenced. Furthermore, eight strategies put in place by participants to cope with task were unveiled. Despite not instructed to do so, participants also occasionally synchronized with music. Results are discussed in terms of the link between perception and action (i.e. motor/perceptual resonance. In general, our results give support to the notion that rhythmic music is processed in a

  16. Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding: a novel approach to modeling rhythm and meter perception in music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Witek, Maria A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Musical rhythm, consisting of apparently abstract intervals of accented temporal events, has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. How does the cognitive system enable our experiences of rhythmically complex music? In this paper, we describe some common forms of rhythmic complexity in music and propose the theory of predictive coding (PC) as a framework for understanding how rhythm and rhythmic complexity are processed in the brain. We also consider why we feel so compelled by rhythmic tension in music. First, we consider theories of rhythm and meter perception, which provide hierarchical and computational approaches to modeling. Second, we present the theory of PC, which posits a hierarchical organization of brain responses reflecting fundamental, survival-related mechanisms associated with predicting future events. According to this theory, perception and learning is manifested through the brain’s Bayesian minimization of the error between the input to the brain and the brain’s prior expectations. Third, we develop a PC model of musical rhythm, in which rhythm perception is conceptualized as an interaction between what is heard (“rhythm”) and the brain’s anticipatory structuring of music (“meter”). Finally, we review empirical studies of the neural and behavioral effects of syncopation, polyrhythm and groove, and propose how these studies can be seen as special cases of the PC theory. We argue that musical rhythm exploits the brain’s general principles of prediction and propose that pleasure and desire for sensorimotor synchronization from musical rhythm may be a result of such mechanisms. PMID:25324813

  17. Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding: A novel approach to modeling rhythm and meter perception in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eVuust

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm, consisting of apparently abstract intervals of accented temporal events, has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. How does the cognitive system enable our experiences of rhythmically complex music? In this paper, we describe some common forms of rhythmic complexity in music and propose the theory of predictive coding as a framework for understanding how rhythm and rhythmic complexity are processed in the brain. We also consider why we feel so compelled by rhythmic tension in music. First, we consider theories of rhythm and meter perception, which provide hierarchical and computational approaches to modeling. Second, we present the theory of predictive coding, which posits a hierarchical organization of brain responses reflecting fundamental, survival-related mechanisms associated with predicting future events. According to this theory, perception and learning is manifested through the brain’s Bayesian minimization of the error between the input to the brain and the brain’s prior expectations. Third, we develop a predictive coding model of musical rhythm, in which rhythm perception is conceptualized as an interaction between what is heard (‘rhythm’ and the brain’s anticipatory structuring of music (‘meter’. Finally, we review empirical studies of the neural and behavioral effects of syncopation, polyrhythm and groove, and propose how these studies can be seen as special cases of the predictive coding theory. We argue that musical rhythm exploits the brain’s general principles of prediction and propose that pleasure and desire for sensorimotor synchronization from musical rhythm may be a result of such mechanisms.

  18. MEG time-frequency analyses for pre- and post-surgical evaluation of patients with epileptic rhythmic fast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Nakane, Shingo; Asahina, Naoko; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Nakama, Hideyuki; Otsuki, Taisuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Saitoh, Shinji

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery for epilepsy, we analyzed rhythmic fast activity by magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after surgery using time-frequency analysis. To assess reliability, the results obtained by pre-surgical MEG and intraoperative electrocorticography were compared. Four children with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy caused by circumscribed cortical lesion were examined in the present study using 204-channel helmet-shaped MEG with a sampling rate of 600Hz. One patient had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and three patients had focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Aberrant areas were superimposed, to reconstruct 3D MRI images, and illustrated as moving images. In three patients, short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of MEG showed rhythmic activities just above the lesion with FCD and in the vicinity of DNT. In one patient with FCD in the medial temporal lobe, rhythmic activity appeared in the ipsilateral frontal lobe and temporal lateral aspect. These findings correlate well with the results obtained by intraoperative electrocorticography. After the surgery, three patients were relieved of their seizures, and the area of rhythmic MEG activity disappeared or become smaller. One patient had residual rhythmic MEG activity, and she suffered from seizure relapse. Time-frequency analyses using STFT successfully depicted MEG rhythmic fast activity, and would provide valuable information for pre- and post-surgical evaluations to define surgical strategies for patients with epilepsy.

  19. Comparison of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Toyota, Risa; Haraki, Shingo; Yano, Hiroyuki; Higashiyama, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshio; Yano, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumihiko; Yatani, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity can be a normal variant of oromotor activity, which can be exaggerated in patients with sleep bruxism. However, few studies have tested the possibility in naturally sleeping animals to study the neurophysiological mechanisms of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. This study aimed to investigate the similarity of cortical, cardiac and electromyographic manifestations of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep between guinea pigs and human subjects. Polysomnographic recordings were made in 30 freely moving guinea pigs and in eight healthy human subjects. Burst cycle length, duration and activity of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity were compared with those for chewing. The time between R-waves in the electrocardiogram (RR interval) and electroencephalogram power spectrum were calculated to assess time-course changes in cardiac and cortical activities in relation to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. In animals, in comparison with chewing, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity had a lower burst activity, longer burst duration and longer cycle length (P motor activation in comparison to human subjects. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Sequentially allocated clinical trial of rhythmic stabilization exercises and TENS in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos D; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2008-02-01

    To examine the effectiveness of rhythmic stabilization exercises and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and their combination in treating women with chronic low back pain. Sequentially allocated, single-blinded and controlled study, with a two-month follow-up. The data were collected in a patient rehabilitation setting. A total of 92 women (34-46 years old) with chronic low back pain were studied. Sequential allocation was undertaken into four groups: ;rhythmic stabilization' (n=23), ;rhythmic stabilization - TENS' (n=23), TENS (n=23), and a placebo group (n = 23). Each programme lasted for four weeks. All outcome measures were assessed prior to, immediately after, four weeks and eight weeks post intervention. Data were obtained on functional disability, pain intensity, trunk extension range of motion, dynamic endurance of trunk flexion and static endurance of trunk extension. A total of 88 patients provided two-month follow-up data. The ;rhythmic stabilization' and the ;rhythmic stabilization - TENS' groups displayed statistically significant (Ppain intensity (ranging from 21.2 to 42.8%), trunk extension range of motion (ranging from 6.5 to 25.5%), dynamic endurance of trunk flexion and static endurance of trunk extension (ranging from 13.5 to 74.3%) compared with the remaining groups. The rhythmic stabilization programmes resulted in more gains in women with chronic low back pain regarding the present outcome variables compared with the other groups; therefore, its application in female chronic low back pain patients aged 34-46 years is recommended.

  1. Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait kinematic parameters of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, M; Sohrabi, M; Taheri Torbati, H R; Nikkhah, K; NaeimiKia, M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait kinematic parameters of patients with multiple sclerosis. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 18 subjects, comprising 4 males and 14 females with Multiple Sclerosis with expanded disability status scale of 3 to 6 were chosen. Subjects were selected by available and targeted sampling and were randomly divided into two experimental (n = 9) and control (n = 9) groups. Exercises were gait with rhythmic auditory stimulation by a metronome device, in addition to gait without stimulation for the experimental and control groups, respectively. Training was carried out for 3 weeks, with 30 min duration for each session 3 times a week. Stride length, stride time, double support time, cadence and gait speed were measured by motion analysis device. Results: There was a significant difference between stride length, stride time, double support time, cadence and gait speed in the experimental group, before and after the training. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the enhancement of stride length, stride time, cadence and gait speed in favor of the experimental group. While this difference was not significant for double support time. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that rhythmic auditory stimulation is an effective rehabilitation method to improve gait kinematic parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  2. Analysis of amplitude-phase disturbances of Wolf's numbers rhythmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojchishin, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical analysis of Wolf's number rhythmic structure has been carried out. Wolf's number time series is considered as a stochastic signal with irregular disturbances of rhythmic structure appearing because of random variability of single cycle parameters. A method and an algorythm for transforming the signal, to reduce all quasi-eleven-year cycles of mean-monthly Wolf's numbers to a signal mean duration, to find out and to eliminate rhythmic phase disturbances, are proposed. An estimate of the accuracy of the procedure is given. The results of calculations (on the mean duration range of cycles) of estimates of their mathematical expectation, dispersion and correlation function depending on time and its shift are given. The conclusion that Wolf's number time series may be treated as a sequence of stochastic cycles with randomly varying amplitude, duration and phase is grounded. A possibility for reducing the forecast of smoothed mean-monthly Wolf's numbers for one or more cycles ahead to the forecast of only three abovementioned parameters is pointed out

  3. A method for discrimination of noise and EMG signal regions recorded during rhythmic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Rex; Wall, Christine E

    2016-12-08

    Analyses of muscular activity during rhythmic behaviors provide critical data for biomechanical studies. Electrical potentials measured from muscles using electromyography (EMG) require discrimination of noise regions as the first step in analysis. An experienced analyst can accurately identify the onset and offset of EMG but this process takes hours to analyze a short (10-15s) record of rhythmic EMG bursts. Existing computational techniques reduce this time but have limitations. These include a universal threshold for delimiting noise regions (i.e., a single signal value for identifying the EMG signal onset and offset), pre-processing using wide time intervals that dampen sensitivity for EMG signal characteristics, poor performance when a low frequency component (e.g., DC offset) is present, and high computational complexity leading to lack of time efficiency. We present a new statistical method and MATLAB script (EMG-Extractor) that includes an adaptive algorithm to discriminate noise regions from EMG that avoids these limitations and allows for multi-channel datasets to be processed. We evaluate the EMG-Extractor with EMG data on mammalian jaw-adductor muscles during mastication, a rhythmic behavior typified by low amplitude onsets/offsets and complex signal pattern. The EMG-Extractor consistently and accurately distinguishes noise from EMG in a manner similar to that of an experienced analyst. It outputs the raw EMG signal region in a form ready for further analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait in Parkinsonian patients with and without freezing of gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arias

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG in Parkinson's disease (PD rises in prevalence when the effect of medications decays. It is known that auditory rhythmic stimulation improves gait in patients without FOG (PD-FOG, but its putative effect on patients with FOG (PD+FOG at the end of dose has not been evaluated yet. This work evaluates the effect of auditory rhythmic stimulation on PD+FOG at the end of dose. 10 PD+FOG and 9 PD-FOG patients both at the end of dose periods, and 10 healthy controls were asked to perform several walking tasks. Tasks were performed in the presence and absence of auditory sensory stimulation. All PD+FOG suffered FOG during the task. The presence of auditory rhythmic stimulation (10% above preferred walking cadence led PD+FOG to significantly reduce FOG. Velocity and cadence were increased, and turn time reduced in all groups. We conclude that auditory stimulation at the frequency proposed may be useful to avoid freezing episodes in PD+FOG.

  5. Rhythm, movement, and autism: Using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blythe eLaGasse

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased focus on movement and sensory abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. This has come from research demonstrating cortical and cerebellar difference in autism, with suggestion of early cerebellar dysfunction. As evidence for an extended profile of ASD grows, there are vast implications for treatment and therapy for individuals with autism. Persons with autism are often provided behavioral or cognitive strategies for navigating their environment; however, these strategies do not consider differences in motor functioning. One accommodation that has not yet been explored in the literature is the use of auditory rhythmic cueing to improve motor functioning in ASD. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential impact of auditory rhythmic cueing for motor functioning in persons with ASD. To this effect, we review research on rhythm in motor rehabilitation, draw parallels to motor dysfunction in ASD, and propose a rationale for how rhythmic input can improve sensorimotor functioning, thereby allowing individuals with autism to demonstrate their full cognitive, behavioral, social, and communicative potential.

  6. Synthesis of asymmetric movement trajectories in timed rhythmic behaviour by means of frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadeland, Carl Haakon

    2017-01-01

    Results from different empirical investigations on gestural aspects of timed rhythmic movements indicate that the production of asymmetric movement trajectories is a feature that seems to be a common characteristic of various performances of repetitive rhythmic patterns. The behavioural or neural origin of these asymmetrical trajectories is, however, not identified. In the present study we outline a theoretical model that is capable of producing syntheses of asymmetric movement trajectories documented in empirical investigations by Balasubramaniam et al. (2004). Characteristic qualities of the extension/flexion profiles in the observed asymmetric trajectories are reproduced, and we conduct an experiment similar to Balasubramaniam et al. (2004) to show that the empirically documented movement trajectories and our modelled approximations share the same spectral components. The model is based on an application of frequency modulated movements, and a theoretical interpretation offered by the model is to view paced rhythmic movements as a result of an unpaced movement being "stretched" and "compressed", caused by the presence of a metronome. We discuss our model construction within the framework of event-based and emergent timing, and argue that a change between these timing modes might be reflected by the strength of the modulation in our model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Model of rhythmic ball bouncing using a visually controlled neural oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrin, Guillaume; Siegler, Isabelle A; Makarov, Maria; Rodriguez-Ayerbe, Pedro

    2017-10-01

    The present paper investigates the sensory-driven modulations of central pattern generator dynamics that can be expected to reproduce human behavior during rhythmic hybrid tasks. We propose a theoretical model of human sensorimotor behavior able to account for the observed data from the ball-bouncing task. The novel control architecture is composed of a Matsuoka neural oscillator coupled with the environment through visual sensory feedback. The architecture's ability to reproduce human-like performance during the ball-bouncing task in the presence of perturbations is quantified by comparison of simulated and recorded trials. The results suggest that human visual control of the task is achieved online. The adaptive behavior is made possible by a parametric and state control of the limit cycle emerging from the interaction of the rhythmic pattern generator, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The study demonstrates that a behavioral model based on a neural oscillator controlled by visual information is able to accurately reproduce human modulations in a motor action with respect to sensory information during the rhythmic ball-bouncing task. The model attractor dynamics emerging from the interaction between the neuromusculoskeletal system and the environment met task requirements, environmental constraints, and human behavioral choices without relying on movement planning and explicit internal models of the environment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Circadian rhythmicity of active GSK3 isoforms modulates molecular clock gene rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besing, Rachel C; Paul, Jodi R; Hablitz, Lauren M; Rogers, Courtney O; Johnson, Russell L; Young, Martin E; Gamble, Karen L

    2015-04-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives and synchronizes daily rhythms at the cellular level via transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprising clock genes such as Bmal1 and Period (Per). Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a serine/threonine kinase, phosphorylates at least 5 core clock proteins and shows diurnal variation in phosphorylation state (inactivation) of the GSK3β isoform. Whether phosphorylation of the other primary isoform (GSK3α) varies across the subjective day-night cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if the endogenous rhythm of GSK3 (α and β) phosphorylation is critical for rhythmic BMAL1 expression and normal amplitude and periodicity of the molecular clock in the SCN. Significant circadian rhythmicity of phosphorylated GSK3 (α and β) was observed in the SCN from wild-type mice housed in constant darkness for 2 weeks. Importantly, chronic activation of both GSK3 isoforms impaired rhythmicity of the GSK3 target BMAL1. Furthermore, chronic pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 with 20 µM CHIR-99021 enhanced the amplitude and shortened the period of PER2::luciferase rhythms in organotypic SCN slice cultures. These results support the model that GSK3 activity status is regulated by the circadian clock and that GSK3 feeds back to regulate the molecular clock amplitude in the SCN. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Joint Rhythmic Movement Increases 4-Year-Old Children's Prosocial Sharing and Fairness Toward Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitch, Tal-Chen; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    The allocation of resources to a peer partner is a prosocial act that is of fundamental importance. Joint rhythmic movement, such as occurs during musical interaction, can induce positive social experiences, which may play a role in developing and enhancing young children's prosocial skills. Here, we investigated whether joint rhythmic movement, free of musical context, increases 4-year-olds' sharing and sense of fairness in a resource allocation task involving peers. We developed a precise procedure for administering joint synchronous experience, joint asynchronous experience, and a baseline control involving no treatment. Then we tested how participants allocated resources between self and peer. We found an increase in the generous allocation of resources to peers following both synchronous and asynchronous movement compared to no treatment. At a more theoretical level, this result is considered in relation to previous work testing other aspects of child prosociality, for example, peer cooperation, which can be distinguished from judgments of fairness in resource allocation tasks. We draw a conceptual distinction between two types of prosocial behavior: resource allocation (an other-directed individual behavior) and cooperation (a goal-directed collaborative endeavor). Our results highlight how rhythmic interactions, which are prominent in joint musical engagements and synchronized activity, influence prosocial behavior between preschool peers.

  10. Shared rhythmic subcortical GABAergic input to the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Tim James; Salib, Minas; Joshi, Abhilasha; Unal, Gunes; Berry, Naomi; Somogyi, Peter

    2018-04-05

    Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum. Extracellularly recording and labeling GABAergic entorhinal-projecting neurons in awake behaving mice show that these subcortical neurons, named orchid cells, fire in long rhythmic bursts during immobility and locomotion. Orchid cells discharge near the peak of hippocampal and entorhinal theta oscillations, couple to entorhinal gamma oscillations, and target subpopulations of extra-hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Thus, orchid cells are a specialized source of rhythmic subcortical GABAergic modulation of 'upstream' and 'downstream' cortico-cortical circuits involved in mnemonic functions. © 2018, Viney et al.

  11. Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter for Gait Rehabilitation Motion Estimation and Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukov, Vladimir; Bonnet, Vincent; Karg, Michelle; Venture, Gentiane; Kulic, Dana

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a method to enable the use of non-intrusive, small, wearable, and wireless sensors to estimate the pose of the lower body during gait and other periodic motions and to extract objective performance measures useful for physiotherapy. The Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter (Rhythmic-EKF) algorithm is developed to estimate the pose, learn an individualized model of periodic movement over time, and use the learned model to improve pose estimation. The proposed approach learns a canonical dynamical system model of the movement during online observation, which is used to accurately model the acceleration during pose estimation. The canonical dynamical system models the motion as a periodic signal. The estimated phase and frequency of the motion also allow the proposed approach to segment the motion into repetitions and extract useful features, such as gait symmetry, step length, and mean joint movement and variance. The algorithm is shown to outperform the extended Kalman filter in simulation, on healthy participant data, and stroke patient data. For the healthy participant marching dataset, the Rhythmic-EKF improves joint acceleration and velocity estimates over regular EKF by 40% and 37%, respectively, estimates joint angles with 2.4° root mean squared error, and segments the motion into repetitions with 96% accuracy.

  12. Project selection problem under uncertainty: An application of utility theory and chance constrained programming to a real case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosnavi Atashgah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting from a pool of interdependent projects under certainty, when faced with resource constraints, has been studied well in the literature of project selection problem. After briefly reviewing and discussing popular modeling approaches for dealing with uncertainty, this paper proposes an approach based on chance constrained programming and utility theory for a certain range of problems and under some practical assumptions. Expected Utility Programming, as the proposed modeling approach, will be compared with other well-known methods and its meaningfulness and usefulness will be illustrated via two numerical examples and one real case.

  13. Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi E; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy. A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups. Human gait analysis laboratory. Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method. Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed. Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.

  14. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  15. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  16. Age-Related Changes in Bimanual Instrument Playing with Rhythmic Cueing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ji Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in bimanual coordination of older adults have been demonstrated to significantly limit their functioning in daily life. As a bimanual sensorimotor task, instrument playing has great potential for motor and cognitive training in advanced age. While the process of matching a person’s repetitive movements to auditory rhythmic cueing during instrument playing was documented to involve motor and attentional control, investigation into whether the level of cognitive functioning influences the ability to rhythmically coordinate movement to an external beat in older populations is relatively limited. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine how timing accuracy during bimanual instrument playing with rhythmic cueing differed depending on the degree of participants’ cognitive aging. Twenty one young adults, 20 healthy older adults, and 17 older adults with mild dementia participated in this study. Each participant tapped an electronic drum in time to the rhythmic cueing provided using both hands simultaneously and in alternation. During bimanual instrument playing with rhythmic cueing, mean and variability of synchronization errors were measured and compared across the groups and the tempo of cueing during each type of tapping task. Correlations of such timing parameters with cognitive measures were also analyzed. The results showed that the group factor resulted in significant differences in the synchronization errors-related parameters. During bimanual tapping tasks, cognitive decline resulted in differences in synchronization errors between younger adults and older adults with mild dimentia. Also, in terms of variability of synchronization errors, younger adults showed significant differences in maintaining timing performance from older adults with and without mild dementia, which may be attributed to decreased processing time for bimanual coordination due to aging. Significant correlations were observed between variability of

  17. 34 CFR 371.10 - What types of projects are authorized under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL... programs for American Indians with disabilities who reside on Federal or State reservations. (Authority...

  18. 75 FR 65049 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Omnibus Household Survey Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    .... OMB Control Number: 2139-0012. Affected Public: The target population for the OHS Program is the non... for dealing with congestion; Telecommuting information; Commuting costs; Availability of...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5741 - Eligibility under more than one program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Educational Assistance Test Program...) Title II of the Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952, (iii) The War Orphans' Educational...

  20. Enhancing the Careers of Under-Represented Junior Faculty in Biomedical Research: The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva K; Liu, Li; Jeffe, Donna B; Jobe, Jared B; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Pace, Betty S; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2014-01-01

    The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID) in Health-Related Research is a career advancement opportunity sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Three mentored programs address difficulties experienced by junior investigators in establishing independent research careers and academic advancement. Aims are to increase the number of faculty from under-represented minority groups who successfully compete for external research funding. Data were collected using a centralized data-entry system from three Summer Institutes. Outcomes include mentees' satisfaction rating about the program, grant and publications productivity and specific comments. Fifty-eight junior faculty mentees (38% male) noticeably improved their rates of preparing/submitting grant applications and publications, with a 18-23% increase in confidence levels in planning and conducting research. According to survey comments, the training received in grantsmanship skills and one-on-one mentoring were the most valuable program components. The SIPID mentoring program was highly valued by the junior faculty mentees. The program will continue in 2011-2014 as PRIDE (PRogram to Increase Diversity among individuals Engaged in health-related research). Long-term follow-up of current mentees will be indexed at five years post training (2013). In summary, these mentoring programs hope to continue increasing the diversity of the next generation of scientists in biomedical research.

  1. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  2. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of noncompetitive award of Part C funds for Saint Michael's Medical...

  3. 75 FR 28263 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health... continue providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group...

  4. 28 CFR 30.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 30.6 Section 30.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... consult with local elected officials. (b) Each state that adopts a process shall notify the Attorney...

  5. 20 CFR 669.680 - What activities and services may be provided under the MSFW youth program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the MSFW youth program? 669.680 Section 669.680 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... provide activities and services to MSFW youth that include: (1) Intensive services and training services... interpersonal skills development; (3) Community service projects; (4) Small business development technical...

  6. 34 CFR 692.111 - For what purposes may a State use its payment under the GAP Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aid programs; (v) An explanation that in order to be eligible for a LEAP Grant under GAP, at a minimum...-participating institution of higher education in the State of the student's residence or an out-of-state... an institution that is a partner in the partnership of the State of the student's residence, files a...

  7. 13 CFR 119.11 - What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) A research proposal indicating the thesis, method(s), scope, duration, and implementation plans... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program? 119.11 Section 119.11 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  8. 34 CFR 403.150 - What activities does the Secretary support under the Consumer and Homemaking Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the...; (ix) Conserving limited resources; (x) Understanding the impact of new technology on life and work... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary support under the...

  9. 34 CFR 426.5 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Program for Model Consumer and Homemaking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the impact of new technology on life and work; (k) Applying consumer and homemaking education skills... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary fund under the Program for Model Consumer and Homemaking Education Projects? 426.5 Section 426.5 Education Regulations of...

  10. One size fits all? : optimization of rainbow trout breeding program under diverse preferences and genotype-by-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.

    2013-01-01

    Global fish breeders distribute improved animal material to several continents to be farmed under diverse environments, and for very different market conditions. When establishing a global breeding program, there is a need to assess whether or not a single breeding objective satisfies the

  11. 24 CFR 1000.160 - Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are non-dwelling structures...-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on cost or design standards? Yes. Non-dwelling structures must be of a design, size and with features or...

  12. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  13. 78 FR 59338 - Notice of Funds Availability Under the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    .... Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and applicants..., sexual orientation, or all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance....) If you wish to file a Civil Rights program complaint of discrimination, complete the USDA Program...

  14. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  15. 34 CFR 661.10 - What activities does the Secretary assist under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development of new programs for nontraditional, mid-career, or part-time students; (b) Development of programs... education in international business activities; (h) Development of opportunities for business and other... community colleges, and at undergraduate and graduate schools of business; (d) Development of area studies...

  16. Learning Under the Tree : Evaluating Skillful Parenting Program in West Kenya ICS Full Evaluation Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, R.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571502; de Haan, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074405624

    2016-01-01

    Summary The central purpose of this evaluation is to determine if and how the Skillful Parenting Program (SPP) effects the parenting of its participants. In addition, it aims to determine how the parenting program was adapted to the West Kenyan setting, and how the specific content and processes of

  17. A model for planning the chemical integrated system under uncertainty by the grey programming approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2013-01-01

    demand, and the production capacity have been considered as mutative variables, then an improved model in which some parameters are not constant has been developed and a new method to solve the grey linear programming has been proposed. In the grey programming model, the value of credibility can...

  18. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu

    2015-01-01

    in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed...

  19. 78 FR 18617 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... nationally for more real time accident information and to identify accidents that may involve regulatory non... associated lead and processing times resulting in a lag time between available funds and spending. The total... Factory Visit Program/Boat Testing Program, with an additional $857 for travel expenses. ($1,985,478).\\1...

  20. Some advances in fracture studies under the heavy-section steel technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Corwin, W.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bass, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results are summarized from HSST studies in three major areas that relate to assessing nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) conditions: irradiation effects on the fracture properties of stainless steel cladding, crack run-arrest behavior under nonisothermal conditions, and fracture behavior of a thick-wall vessel under combined thermal and pressure loadings

  1. Chronotype-dependent circadian rhythmicity of driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Among the factors associated with driving safety, sleep-related variables constitute a leading cause of road accidents. Circadian fluctuations of driver's somnolence has been previously linked to road safety. However, the role of chronotype in this relationship has been poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the present work was to address whether driving performance is influenced by circadian patterns, in turn modulated by the driver's chronotype and the time of day (i.e. synchrony effect). We assessed 47 healthy young adults with specific chronotypes in several simulated driving sessions, both in the morning and in the evening. We collected driving performance data, along with self-reported levels of activation prior to each driving session and other sleep-related variables. Participants drove less safely when testing times took place outside their optimal time of day, as determined by their chronotype and confirmed by self-reported levels of activation. These differences were more pronounced in the morning, when morning types shown a better driving performance. Our results suggest that chronotype plays an important role as a modulator of the relationship between the time of day and driving safety. Therefore, it is necessary to acknowledge this variable in theoretical models of driving behavior, and for the improvement of occupational accidents prevention programs.

  2. Reaching Non-Traditional and Under-Served Communities through Global Astronomy Month Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Global Astronomy Month (GAM), organized each year by Astronomers Without Borders (AWB), has become the world's largest annual celebration of astronomy. Launched as a follow-up to the unprecedented success of the 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009, GAM quickly attracted not only traditional partners in astronomy and space science outreach, but also unusual partners from very different fields. GAM's third annual edition, GAM2012, included worldwide programs for the sight-impaired, astronomy in the arts, and other non-traditional programs. The special planetarium program, OPTICKS, combined elements such as Moonbounce (sending images to the Moon and back) and artistic elements in a unique presentation of the heavens. Programs were developed to present the heavens to the sight-impaired as well. The Cosmic Concert, in which a new musical piece is composed each year, combined with background images of celestial objects, and presented during GAM, has become an annual event. Several astronomy themed art video projects were presented online. AWB's Astropoetry Blog held a very successful contest during GAM2012 that attracted more than 70 entries from 17 countries. Students were engaged by participation in special GAM campaigns of the International Asteroid Search Campaign. AWB and GAM have both developed into platforms where innovative programs can develop, and interdisciplinary collaborations can flourish. As AWB's largest program, GAM brings the audience and resources that provide a boost for these new types of programs. Examples, lessons learned, new projects, and plans for the future of AWB and GAM will be presented.

  3. Effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing on the stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Ye, Miao; Li, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) on stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females. The findings of this study might be used as clinical guidance of physical therapy for choosing the suitable frequency of RAC. [Subjects] Thirteen healthy young females were recruited in this study. [Methods] Ten meters walking tests were measured in all subjects under 4 conditions with each repeated 3 times and a 3-min seated rest period between repetitions. Subjects first walked as usual and then were asked to listen carefully to the rhythm of a metronome and walk with 3 kinds of RAC (90%, 100%, and 110% of the mean cadence). The three frequencies (90%, 100%, and 110%) of RAC were randomly assigned. Gait speed, stride length, and cadence were calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 17.0) computer package. [Results] The gait speed and cadence of 90% RAC walking showed significant decreases compared with normal walking and 100% and 110% RAC walking. The stride length, cadence, and gait speed of 110% RAC walking showed significant increases compared with normal walking and 90% and 100% RAC walking. [Conclusion] Our results showed that 110% RAC was the best of the 3 cueing frequencies for improvement of stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

  4. Rhythmic Working Memory Activation in the Human Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Leszczyński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM maintenance is assumed to rely on a single sustained process throughout the entire maintenance period. This assumption, although fundamental, has never been tested. We used intracranial electroencephalography (EEG recordings from the human hippocampus in two independent experiments to investigate the neural dynamics underlying WM maintenance. We observed periodic fluctuations between two different oscillatory regimes: Periods of “memory activation” were reflected by load-dependent alpha power reductions and lower levels of cross-frequency coupling (CFC. They occurred interleaved with periods characterized by load-independent high levels of alpha power and CFC. During memory activation periods, a relevant CFC parameter (load-dependent changes of the peak modulated frequency correlated with individual WM capacity. Fluctuations between these two periods predicted successful performance and were locked to the phase of endogenous delta oscillations. These results show that hippocampal maintenance is a dynamic rather than constant process and depends critically on a hierarchy of oscillations.

  5. 75 FR 78725 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ...: Funding was provided for this program which provides full marketing, media, public information, and... media and boating safety information at http://www.uscgboating.org for a worldwide audience. It covers a...

  6. 34 CFR 692.71 - What activities may be funded under the SLEAP Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achievement; or (2) Wish to enter a program of study leading to a career in— (i) Information technology; (ii) Mathematics, computer science, or engineering; (iii) Teaching; or (iv) Other fields determined by the State to...

  7. 50 CFR 80.25 - Multiyear financing under the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act in two ways: (1) States may finance the entire cost of the acquisition... Program. (a) States may finance the acquisition of lands or interests in lands including water rights and...

  8. Cyltran: finite element programs for flow and mass transport under cylindrically symmetric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1984-11-01

    A group of finite element programs are described which may be used for the analysis of complex single borehole hydraulic and tracer experiments in porous media. An outline is given of the theoretical development of the model and the computational procedures used. The equations are solved with the aid of routines specifically designed for efficient operation on vector processing machines. Finally, two simple examples of output generated by the programs are given. (author)

  9. 75 FR 3968 - Fund Availability Under the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States, are considered eligible entities under the... possession of the United States, to apply for funding under this NOFA to create transitional housing and... territory or possession of the United States, will be considered in the third funding priority as applicable...

  10. Experimental program on fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Cecchi, P.

    1985-01-01

    During LMFBR plant operation, fuel developments are primarily concerned with the fuel pin irradiation behaviour under steady-state conditions up to high burn-up levels. But additional studies under off-normal conditions are necessary in order to assess fuel pin performance and to define operational limits. (author)

  11. THE EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE RHYTHMIC TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON SPEED OF 9-10 YEARS OLD GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Aleksić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By different moving activities, learning about their body and its mothoric, a child develops its mothoric, acquires different motoric skills and habits and develops motoric activities. In this work, the subject of the research is just one segment of the anthropological area which refers to the appearance of appropriate motor abilities-speed. The research involved a total sample of 99 girls from the 3th and 4th grade of elementary school. The subjects were classified in experimental and control groups. The experimental group was made of 51 students and they were practicing according to planning instruction where the rhythmic gymnastics had the primary part. The control group of 48 students was practicing according to official instructional plan and program for P.E. of the Republic of Serbia. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. Research data was processed using SPSS standard statistics procedure. The multi-variant procedures were used in this research ant those were: the multi-variant analysis of the variable MANCOVA i MANOVA. Also, the mono-variant procedures were used and those were: the variable analysis ANCOVA, ANOVA and the interval of entrust. Considering the difference of the influence of the treatment, it can be pointed out that the experimental program, with all its characteristics, widely contributed to all its segments to the improvement of speed. It is known that the use of physical exercise stimulation only within regular physical education classes is not sufficient to provoke essential improvement of motoric abilities. Therefore it is very important not only to try to animate schoolboys for participation in additional sporting activities, especial rhythmic gymnastics, out of regular physical education classes, but, what is even more important, to increase the number of physical education classes a week, with the

  12. The Use of Footstep Sounds as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation for Gait Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Pili, Roberta; Corona, Federica; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano A; Bernardis, Paolo; Casula, Carlo; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Pau, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    The use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in the management of gait disturbances associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Typically, the RAS consists of metronome or music-based sounds (artificial RAS), while ecological footstep sounds (ecological RAS) have never been used for rehabilitation programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a rehabilitation program integrated either with ecological or with artificial RAS. An observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation integrated with RAS. Thirty-eight individuals affected by PD were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions (ecological vs. artificial RAS); thirty-two of them (age 68.2 ± 10.5, Hoehn and Yahr 1.5-3) concluded all phases of the study. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait and clinical variables were assessed before the rehabilitation period, at its end, and after a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-two participants were analyzed. The results revealed that both groups improved in the majority of biomechanical and clinical measures, independently of the type of sound. Moreover, exploratory analyses for separate groups were conducted, revealing improvements on spatio-temporal parameters only in the ecological RAS group. Overall, our results suggest that ecological RAS is equally effective compared to artificial RAS. Future studies should further investigate the role of ecological RAS, on the basis of information revealed by our exploratory analyses. Theoretical, methodological, and practical issues concerning the implementation of ecological sounds in the rehabilitation of PD patients are discussed. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03228888.

  13. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Claudia; Steinsträter, Olaf; Pantev, Christo

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a MMN in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge. We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory (SA) training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and the superior frontal (SFG) and orbitofrontal (OFG) gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilateral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  14. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Olyvia; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Kritikou, Maria; Donti, Anastasia; Theodorakou, Kalliopi

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years) were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22) based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0), shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8), straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9), sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9) and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7), but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, panalysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9%) of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers), physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  15. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  16. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity: a study of diagnostic accuracy following STARD criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Åkeson, Per; Pedersen, Birthe; Pinborg, Lars H; Ziebell, Morten; Jespersen, Bo; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity using a distributed source model. Source localization of rhythmic ictal scalp EEG activity was performed in 42 consecutive cases fulfilling inclusion criteria. The study was designed according to recommendations for studies on diagnostic accuracy (STARD). The initial ictal EEG signals were selected using a standardized method, based on frequency analysis and voltage distribution of the ictal activity. A distributed source model-local autoregressive average (LAURA)-was used for the source localization. Sensitivity, specificity, and measurement of agreement (kappa) were determined based on the reference standard-the consensus conclusion of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team. Predictive values were calculated from the surgical outcome of the operated patients. To estimate the clinical value of the ictal source analysis, we compared the likelihood ratios of concordant and discordant results. Source localization was performed blinded to the clinical data, and before the surgical decision. Reference standard was available for 33 patients. The ictal source localization had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 76%. The mean measurement of agreement (kappa) was 0.61, corresponding to substantial agreement (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.84). Twenty patients underwent resective surgery. The positive predictive value (PPV) for seizure freedom was 92% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 43%. The likelihood ratio was nine times higher for the concordant results, as compared with the discordant ones. Source localization of rhythmic ictal activity using a distributed source model (LAURA) for the ictal EEG signals selected with a standardized method

  17. Synthesis of high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, Osbert C; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-06-01

    We propose an approach to synthesizing high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation using cognitive rhythm generator (CRG) networks, wherein the CRG is a hybrid oscillator comprised of (1) a bank of neuronal modes, (2) a ring device (clock), and (3) a static output nonlinearity (mapper). Networks of coupled CRGs have been previously implemented to simulate the electrical activity of biological neural networks, including in silico models of epilepsy, producing outputs of similar waveform and complexity to the biological system. This has enabled CRG network models to be used as platforms for testing seizure control strategies. Presently, we take the application one step further, envisioning therapeutic CRG networks as rhythmic signal generators creating neuromimetic signals for stimulation purposes, motivated by recent research indicating that stimulus complexity and waveform characteristics influence neuromodulation efficacy. To demonstrate this concept, an epileptiform CRG network generating spontaneous seizure-like events (SLEs) was coupled to a therapeutic CRG network, forming a closed-loop neuromodulation system. SLEs are associated with low-complexity dynamics and high phase coherence in the network. The tuned therapeutic network generated a high-complexity, multi-banded rhythmic stimulation signal with prominent theta and gamma-frequency power that suppressed SLEs and increased dynamic complexity in the epileptiform network, as measured by a relative increase in the maximum Lyapunov exponent and decrease in phase coherence. CRG-based neuromodulation outperformed both low and high-frequency periodic pulse stimulation, suggesting that neuromodulation using complex, biomimetic signals may provide an improvement over conventional electrical stimulation techniques for treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relative contribution of physical fitness to the technical execution score in youth rhythmic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donti Olyvia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical fitness and a technical execution score in rhythmic gymnasts varying in the performance level. Forty-six young rhythmic gymnasts (age: 9.9 ±1.3 years were divided into two groups (qualifiers, n=24 and non-qualifiers, n=22 based on the results of the National Championships. Gymnasts underwent a series of physical fitness tests and technical execution was evaluated in a routine without apparatus. There were significant differences between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in the technical execution score (p=0.01, d=1.0, shoulder flexion (p=0.01, d=0.8, straight leg raise (p=0.004, d=0.9, sideways leg extension (p=0.002, d=0.9 and body fat (p=.021, d=0.7, but no differences were found in muscular endurance and jumping performance. The technical execution score for the non-qualifiers was significantly correlated with shoulder extension (r=0.423, p<0.05, sideways leg extension (r=0.687, p<0.01, push ups (r=0.437, p<0.05 and body fat (r=0.642, p<0.01, while there was only one significant correlation with sideways leg extension (r=0.467, p<0.05 for the qualifiers. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sideways leg extension, body fat, and push ups accounted for a large part (62.9% of the variance in the technical execution score for the non-qualifiers, while for the qualifiers, only 37.3% of the variance in the technical execution score was accounted for by sideways leg extension and spine flexibility. In conclusion, flexibility and body composition can effectively discriminate between qualifiers and non-qualifiers in youth rhythmic gymnastics. At the lower level of performance (non-qualifiers, physical fitness seems to have a greater effect on the technical execution score.

  19. Entrainment of Breast Cell Lines Results in Rhythmic Fluctuations of MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Chacolla-Huaringa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are essential for temporal (~24 h regulation of molecular processes in diverse species. Dysregulation of circadian gene expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, depression, and cancer. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified as critical modulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally, and perhaps involved in circadian clock architecture or their output functions. The aim of the present study is to explore the temporal expression of miRNAs among entrained breast cell lines. For this purpose, we evaluated the temporal (28 h expression of 2006 miRNAs in MCF-10A, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cells using microarrays after serum shock entrainment. We noted hundreds of miRNAs that exhibit rhythmic fluctuations in each breast cell line, and some of them across two or three cell lines. Afterwards, we validated the rhythmic profiles exhibited by miR-141-5p, miR-1225-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-222-5p, miR-769-3p, and miR-548ay-3p in the above cell lines, as well as in ZR-7530 and HCC-1954 using RT-qPCR. Our results show that serum shock entrainment in breast cells lines induces rhythmic fluctuations of distinct sets of miRNAs, which have the potential to be related to endogenous circadian clock, but extensive investigation is required to elucidate that connection.

  20. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLappe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mismatch negativity (MMN, an event-related potential (ERP representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a mismatch negativity in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge.We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, inferior frontal cortex (IFC, and the superior frontal (SFG and orbitofrontal (OFG gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilatral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule, an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  1. BK channels regulate spontaneous action potential rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian ( approximately 24 hr rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by "clock genes", less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K(+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1(-/- mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT and Kcnma1(-/- slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1(-/- SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.

  2. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for the tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperatures and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtl number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid for superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its

  3. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters are required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtle number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid of superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its structure

  4. What is fetal programming?: a lifetime health is under the control of in utero health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Young Ju

    2017-11-01

    The "Barker hypothesis" postulates that a number of organ structures and associated functions undergo programming during embryonic and fetal life, which determines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that carry into adulthood. Hence, any stimulus or insult at a critical period of embryonic and fetal development can result in developmental adaptations that produce permanent structural, physiological and metabolic changes, thereby predisposing an individual to cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine disease in adult life. This article will provide evidence linking these diseases to fetal undernutrition and an overview of previous studies in this area as well as current advances in understanding the mechanism and the role of the placenta in fetal programming.

  5. The influence of oxytocin on interpersonal rhythmic synchronization and social bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Line; Witek, Maria; Hansen, Niels Chr.

    oxytocin. In this study we investigated the role of oxytocin on interpersonal rhythmic synchronization, and its relation to pro-social effects, using an interactive finger tapping setup. Pairs of two tapped together, and both participants in each pair received either oxytocin or a non-active placebo...... as nasal spray. Our preliminary analyses showed trends in which intranasally administered oxytocin improved interpersonal synchronization. In this poster we present the full data set and analysis of the effect of oxytocin on interpersonal synchronization and social bonding....

  6. Non-linear changes in rhythmic variability of European art music: Quantitative support for historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Sadakata, Makiko; Pearce, Marcus

    It is a long-held belief in historical musicology that the prosody of composers’ native languages is reflected in the rhythmic and melodic properties of their music. Applying the normalised Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) to speech alongside musical scores, research has established quantitative...... music up until the mid-19th century, after which French music diverged into an Austro-German school and a French nationalist school. In sum, using musical nPVI analysis, we provide quantitative support for music-historical descriptions of an Italian-dominated Baroque (composer birth years: 1600...

  7. Ground Reaction Forces Generated During Rhythmical Squats as a Dynamic Loads of the Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantak, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic forces generated by moving persons can lead to excessive vibration of the long span, slender and lightweight structure such as floors, stairs, stadium stands and footbridges. These dynamic forces are generated during walking, running, jumping and rhythmical body swaying in vertical or horizontal direction etc. In the paper the mathematical models of the Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs) generated during squats have been presented. Elaborated models was compared to the GRFs measured during laboratory tests carried out by author in wide range of frequency using force platform. Moreover, the GRFs models were evaluated during dynamic numerical analyses and dynamic field tests of the exemplary structure (steel footbridge).

  8. Dynamics of cardiovascular parameters in combined aortic malformations under the influence of a physical therapy program during the rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kalmykov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study hemodynamic parameters and the reaction of the cardiovascular system to the dosed physical load of patients combined aortic defect with heart failure of the I degree under the influence of the complex physical therapy program developed by us during the rehabilitation process. Material & Methods: the study involved 26 middle-aged men with a diagnosis: combined aortic valve disease, HF I st. Result: dynamics of functional parameters of the cardiovascular system of patients under the influence of the physical therapy program is analyzed. Conclusion: the combination of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic gymnastics, independent activities and dosed walking with a therapeutic massage contributes to the normalization of vascular tone, motor-vascular reflexes and blood pressure, increasing the tolerance of the cardiovascular system to physical activity.

  9. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than 0.10...

  10. 77 FR 4564 - Request for Information Regarding the Reinsurance Program Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...? 12. What COIs could arise for such potential subcontractors? Data Collection 13. Describe current... comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available... reinsurance program. Section 1321(c)(1) of the Affordable Care Act directs the Secretary to take such actions...

  11. 76 FR 48204 - Fund Availability Under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... programs addressing emotional, social, spiritual, and generative needs. Terminally Ill (1) Help... optimize reintegration such as life-skills education, recreational activities, and follow up case..., and medication education. Through this NOFA, VA seeks to renew the FY 2009 previous grant and per diem...

  12. 76 FR 41756 - Notice of Funds Availability Under the Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program To Provide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Statement ``The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and... status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political... contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1442 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any changes to its situation between approval of the extension application and the end of its approved..., including reducing the length of such an extension, if conditions or situations change between approval of... services: U.S. EPA, Attn: RFS Program, 6406J, 1310 L Street, NW., 6th floor, Washington, DC 20005. (202...

  14. 76 FR 29183 - Exclusion of Orphan Drugs for Certain Covered Entities Under 340B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... and, if they are, at what price. These covered entities do not know if they can buy these orphan drugs... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 10 RIN 0906-AA94 Exclusion of Orphan Drugs for... Prices of Drugs Purchased by Covered Entities.'' Section 340B implemented a drug pricing program by which...

  15. Considerations underlying SSIs review of SKBs complement to the Research Program for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Nolin, J.; Sundqvist, G.

    1995-04-01

    Two documents are presented: i) SSI's background review PM for SKB's complement to the research program for 1992. ii) An interdisciplinary study of the steering principles in the Swedish waste management. This work is an independent contribution to the debate about waste management in Sweden

  16. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated…

  17. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Gilroy, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO 2 -emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO 2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO 2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO 2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. 76 FR 29253 - Part F Special Projects of National Significance Program Cooperative Agreement Under the Ryan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... linkages to critical HIV care and support services if the model programs can be adapted in jails and HIV... 2011 Grantee/organization name State Grant No. authorized authorized funding level funding level... for the Exception to Competition Critical funding for linkages to HIV medical care, treatment services...

  20. 76 FR 29252 - Part F Special Projects of National Significance Program Cooperative Agreement Under the Ryan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ..., analysis, and dissemination of effective models for linking HIV positive individuals in jail settings to... are capable of impacting service delivery systems and increase linkages to critical HIV care and support services if the model programs can be adapted in jails and HIV service delivery settings across...

  1. A study of adopting maintenance rule under the periodic safety review and reliability centered maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilyoo, Kim

    2001-01-01

    U.S Maintenance Rule (MR) has three main functions. One is to monitor the performance changes of SSCs (Structure, System, and Component) caused by risk informed applications. Periodic Safety Review (PSR) program is widely adopted in Europe while it is not adopted in U. S. A where MR and new oversight program are instead used. Recently, in Korea, it was determined to adopt PSR, and the first PSR program has started this year for Kori unit 1 as a pilot plant. Also, a traditional Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been performed for 4 systems of YGN unit 1 and 2 and it will be applied to the other nuclear power plants in Korea. However, since MR is adopting many useful concept of RCM, traditional RCM could not be further performed without being associated with MR. Thus, MR, RCM and PSR have recently become hot issue policies which should be well associated each other in Korea, and this paper suggests a desirable new maintenance process which would embrace the concepts of the three policies, and also discusses whether U.S. MR is necessary even though a PSR program is already adopted, and if necessary, then how cost-effectively it can be introduced to. (author)

  2. THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF SCHOOLCHILDREN IN IASI UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE NATIONAL PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia BOBU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, dental caries continues to represent a major issue of public health. In Romania, the National Program for Oral and Dental Diseases Prevention was implemented between 1999-2010, addressed to children attending primary school and consisting of weekly mouth rinses with 0.2% NaF solution. In the present study, the dynamic evolution of oral health status of schoolchildren aged 6-12 years in Iasi, under the impact of this Program, was analyzed. The results showed a decreasing trend in the prevalence and incidence of dental caries, a constant decrease of caries experience indices DMFT and DMFS and, within them, the increasing trend of fillings indicator FS and the decrease of deep lesions weight. The conclusion is that tooth decay has declined in schoolchildren in Iasi during the development of the National Prevention Program.

  3. Achievement in research on ion beam application under the scientific cooperation program with the Gesellschaft fuer schwerionenforschung mbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Maekawa, Yasunari (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Gasellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung mbH (GSI) signed a memorandum of 'Research and Development in the Field of Ion Beam Application' in January, 1991 and started the cooperative research program. The cooperation has been implemented by means of joint research between JAERI and GSI, exchange of scientific and technical experts, and providing mutual exchange of research materials as well as technical information. This report summarizes the cooperative research activities under the cooperative research program in the last 12 years. The list of publications and several articles relating to this cooperative research program are attached as an appendix. All the attached articles are reprinted with permission from the publishers. (author)

  4. Economic Return of Clinical Trials Performed Under the Pediatric Exclusivity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer S.; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Grabowski, Henry G.; Reid, Elizabeth D.; Mangum, Barry; Schulman, Kevin A.; Goldsmith, John V.; Murphy, M. Dianne; Califf, Robert M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2009-01-01

    Context In 1997, Congress authorized the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to grant 6 month extensions of marketing rights through the Pediatric Exclusivity program if industry sponsors complete FDA-requested pediatric trials. The program has been praised for creating incentives for studies in children; it has been criticized as a “windfall” to the innovator drug industry. This critique has been a substantial part of Congressional debate on the program, which is due to sunset in 2007. Objective To quantify the economic return to industry for completing Pediatric Exclusivity. Design Cohort study of programs conducted for Pediatric Exclusivity. We selected 9 drugs that were granted Pediatric Exclusivity. From the final study reports submitted to FDA, we obtained key elements of the clinical trial design and study operations. We estimated the cost of performing each study and converted these into estimates of after-tax cash outflows. We obtained 3-year market sales and converted these into estimates of after-tax cash inflows based upon 6 months of additional market protection. We then calculated the net economic return (cash inflows less outflows) and ratio net return to costs (net economic return divided by cash outflows) for each product. Main Outcome Measures Net economic return and ratio of net return to cost. Results The indications studied reflected a broad representation of the program: asthma, tumors, attention deficit disorder, hypertension, depression/generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux, bacterial infection, and bone mineralization. The distribution of net economic return for 6 months of exclusivity varied substantially among products [net return ranged from (−)$8.9 million to (+)$507.9 million; ratio of return to cost ranged from −0.68 to 73.6] Conclusions The economic return for pediatric exclusivity is highly variable. Pediatric Exclusivity, as an incentive to complete much-needed clinical trials in children, can

  5. Structural design aspects of innovative designs under development in the current US Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The US Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactor (LMR) program has been restructured and is now focussed on the development of innovative plant designs which emphasize shorter construction times, increased use of passive, inherently safe features, cost-competitiveness with LWR plants, and minimization of safety-related systems. These changes have a considerable effect on the structural design aspects of the LMR plant. These structural problems and their solutions now under study form the main focus of this paper. (orig.)

  6. An interval fixed-mix stochastic programming method for greenhouse gas mitigation in energy systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.L.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; Li, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an interval fixed-mix stochastic programming (IFSP) model is developed for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction management under uncertainties. In the IFSP model, methods of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and fixed-mix stochastic programming (FSP) are introduced into an integer programming framework, such that the developed model can tackle uncertainties described in terms of interval values and probability distributions over a multi-stage context. Moreover, it can reflect dynamic decisions for facility-capacity expansion during the planning horizon. The developed model is applied to a case of planning GHG-emission mitigation, demonstrating that IFSP is applicable to reflecting complexities of multi-uncertainty, dynamic and interactive energy management systems, and capable of addressing the problem of GHG-emission reduction. A number of scenarios corresponding to different GHG-emission mitigation levels are examined; the results suggest that reasonable solutions have been generated. They can be used for generating plans for energy resource/electricity allocation and capacity expansion and help decision makers identify desired GHG mitigation policies under various economic costs and environmental requirements.

  7. White certificates — Energy efficiency programs under private information of consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an objective of public interventions at least since the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978 (PURPA). Recently, conservation has received considerable attention in the United States and in particular in the European Union but this time in order to mitigate global warming. Policy measures include regulations at the technical level and the introduction of white certificates in order to force utilities and firms to invest into conservation in a way similar to the already existing renewable energy quota. This paper derives the optimal mechanism if utilities must deal with white certificates facing consumers holding private information. The optimal mechanism has some theoretically interesting features like restricted participation and a discontinuity. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency programs are again an objective of public interventions. • White certificates force utilities to invest in conservation. • However, issues of private information are ignored. • Conservation program accounting for private information • The optimal contract has non-standard features like a discontinuity

  8. Reducibility of ceria-lanthana mixed oxides under temperature programmed hydrogen and inert gas flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, S.; Blanco, G.; Cifredo, G.; Perez-Omil, J.A.; Pintado, J.M.; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of La/Ce mixed oxides, with La molar contents of 20, 36 and 57%. We carry out the study of the structural, textural and redox properties of the mixed oxides, comparing our results with those for pure ceria. For this aim we use temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. The mixed oxides are more easy to reduce in a flow of hydrogen than ceria. Moreover, in an inert gas flow they release oxygen in higher amounts and at lower temperatures than pure CeO 2 . The textural stability of the mixed oxides is also improved by incorporation of lanthana. All these properties make the ceria-lanthana mixed oxides interesting alternative candidates to substitute ceria in three-way catalyst formulations. (orig.)

  9. Program Director Perceptions of Surgical Resident Training and Patient Care under Flexible Duty Hour Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Lily V; Dahlke, Allison R; Rajaram, Ravi; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Love, Remi; Odell, David D; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Yang, Anthony D

    2016-06-01

    The Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial was a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial of 117 general surgery programs, comparing standard ACGME resident duty hour requirements ("Standard Policy") to flexible, less-restrictive policies ("Flexible Policy"). Participating program directors (PDs) were surveyed to assess their perceptions of patient care, resident education, and resident well-being during the study period. A survey was sent to all PDs of the general surgery residency programs participating in the FIRST trial (N = 117 [100% response rate]) in June and July 2015. The survey compared PDs' perceptions of the duty hour requirements in their arm of the FIRST trial during the study period from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015. One hundred percent of PDs in the Flexible Policy arm indicated that residents used their additional flexibility in duty hours to complete operations they started or to stabilize a critically ill patient. Compared with the Standard Policy arm, PDs in the Flexible Policy arm perceived a more positive effect of duty hours on the safety of patient care (68.9% vs 0%; p care (98.3% vs 0%; p care (71.8%), continuity of care (94.0%), quality of resident education (83.8%), and resident well-being (55.6%) would be improved with a hypothetical permanent adoption of more flexible duty hours. Program directors involved in the FIRST trial perceived improvements in patient safety, continuity of care, and multiple aspects of resident education and well-being with flexible duty hours. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of wetlands for water quality improvement under the USEPA Region V Clean Lakes Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Judith C.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    1991-03-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region V Clean Lakes Program employs artificial and modified natural wetlands in an effort to improve the water quality of selected lakes. We examined use of wetlands at seven lake sites and evaluated the physical and institutional means by which wetland projects are implemented and managed, relative to USEPA program goals and expert recommendations on the use of wetlands for water quality improvement. Management practices recommended by wetlands experts addressed water level and retention, sheet flow, nutrient removal, chemical treatment, ecological and effectiveness monitoring, and resource enhancement. Institutional characteristics recommended included local monitoring, regulation, and enforcement and shared responsibilities among jurisdictions. Institutional and ecological objectives of the National Clean Lakes Program were met to some degree at every site. Social objectives were achieved to a lesser extent. Wetland protection mechanisms and appropriate institutional decentralization were present at all sites. Optimal management techniques were employed to varying degrees at each site, but most projects lack adequate monitoring to determine adverse ecological impacts and effectiveness of pollutant removal and do not extensively address needs for recreation and wildlife habitat. There is evidence that the wetland projects are contributing to improved lake water quality; however, more emphasis needs to be placed on wetland protection and long-term project evaluation.

  11. An inexact mixed risk-aversion two-stage stochastic programming model for water resources management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, B; Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, L

    2015-02-01

    Uncertainties exist in the water resources system, while traditional two-stage stochastic programming is risk-neutral and compares the random variables (e.g., total benefit) to identify the best decisions. To deal with the risk issues, a risk-aversion inexact two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for water resources management under uncertainty. The model was a hybrid methodology of interval-parameter programming, conditional value-at-risk measure, and a general two-stage stochastic programming framework. The method extends on the traditional two-stage stochastic programming method by enabling uncertainties presented as probability density functions and discrete intervals to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. It could not only provide information on the benefits of the allocation plan to the decision makers but also measure the extreme expected loss on the second-stage penalty cost. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of water resources management. Results showed that that could help managers generate feasible and balanced risk-aversion allocation plans, and analyze the trade-offs between system stability and economy.

  12. The expression of the clock gene cycle has rhythmic pattern and is affected by photoperiod in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannatos, Dimitrios; Gkouvitsas, Theodoros; Kourti, Anna

    2017-06-01

    To obtain clues to the link between the molecular mechanism of circadian and photoperiod clocks, we have cloned the circadian clock gene cycle (Sncyc) in the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, which undergoes facultative diapause controlled by photoperiod. Sequence analysis revealed a high degree of conservation among insects for this gene. SnCYC consists of 667 amino acids and structural analysis showed that it contains a BCTR domain in its C-terminal in addition to the common domains found in Drosophila CYC, i.e. bHLH, PAS-A, PAS-B domains. The results revealed that the sequence of Sncyc showed a similarity to that of its mammalian orthologue, Bmal1. We also investigated the expression patterns of Sncyc in the brain of larvae growing under long-day 16L: 8D (LD), constant darkness (DD) and short-day 10L: 14D (SD) conditions using qRT-PCR assays. The mRNAs of Sncyc expression was rhythmic in LD, DD and SD cycles. Also, it is remarkable that the photoperiodic conditions affect the expression patterns and/or amplitudes of circadian clock gene Sncyc. This gene is associated with diapause in S. nonagrioides, because under SD (diapause conditions) the photoperiodic signal altered mRNA accumulation. Sequence and expression analysis of cyc in S. nonagrioides shows interesting differences compared to Drosophila where this gene does not oscillate or change in expression patterns in response to photoperiod, suggesting that this species is an interesting new model to study the molecular control of insect circadian and photoperiodic clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in gait patterns induced by rhythmic auditory stimulation for adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Yoo, Ga Eul; Chong, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2016-12-01

    The effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait in adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) were investigated. A total of 14 adolescents with ABI were initially recruited, and 12 were included in the final analysis (n = 6 each). They were randomly assigned to the experimental (RAS) or the control (conventional gait training) groups. The experimental group received gait training with RAS three times a week for 4 weeks. For both groups, spatiotemporal parameters and kinematic data, such as dynamic motions of joints on three-dimensional planes during a gait cycle and the range of motion in each joint, were collected. Significant group differences in pre-post changes were observed in cadence, walking velocity, and step time, indicating that there were greater improvements in those parameters in the RAS group compared with the control group. Significant increases in hip and knee motions in the sagittal plane were also observed in the RAS group. The changes in kinematic data significantly differed between groups, particularly from terminal stance to mid-swing phase. An increase of both spatiotemporal parameters and corresponding kinematic changes of hip and knee joints after RAS protocol indicates that the use of rhythmic cueing may change gait patterns in adolescents with ABI. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Aberrant rhythmic expression of cryptochrome2 regulates the radiosensitivity of rat gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wang; Caiyan, Li; Ling, Zhu; Jiayun, Zhao

    2017-09-29

    In this study, we investigated the role of the clock regulatory protein cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) in determining the radiosensitivity of C6 glioma cells in a rat model. We observed that Cry2 mRNA and protein levels showed aberrant rhythmic periodicity of 8 h in glioma tissues, compared to 24 h in normal brain tissue. Cry2 mRNA and protein levels did not respond to irradiation in normal tissues, but both were increased at the ZT4 (low Cry2) and ZT8 (high Cry2) time points in gliomas. Immunohistochemical staining of PCNA and TUNEL assays demonstrated that high Cry2 expression in glioma tissues was associated with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that glioma cell fate was independent of p53, but was probably dependent on p73, which was more highly expressed at ZT4 (low Cry2) than at ZT8 (high Cry2). Levels of both p53 and p73 were unaffected by irradiation in normal brain tissues. These findings suggest aberrant rhythmic expression of Cry2 influence on radiosensitivity in rat gliomas.

  15. Predictive rhythmic tapping to isochronous and tempo changing metronomes in the nonhuman primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Jorge; Yc, Karyna; Ayala, Yaneri A; Dotov, Dobromir; Prado, Luis; Merchant, Hugo

    2018-04-30

    Beat entrainment is the ability to entrain one's movements to a perceived periodic stimulus, such as a metronome or a pulse in music. Humans have a capacity to predictively respond to a periodic pulse and to dynamically adjust their movement timing to match the varying music tempos. Previous studies have shown that monkeys share some of the human capabilities for rhythmic entrainment, such as tapping regularly at the period of isochronous stimuli. However, it is still unknown whether monkeys can predictively entrain to dynamic tempo changes like humans. To address this question, we trained monkeys in three tapping tasks and compared their rhythmic entrainment abilities with those of humans. We found that, when immediate feedback about the timing of each movement is provided, monkeys can predictively entrain to an isochronous beat, generating tapping movements in anticipation of the metronome pulse. This ability also generalized to a novel untrained tempo. Notably, macaques can modify their tapping tempo by predicting the beat changes of accelerating and decelerating visual metronomes in a manner similar to humans. Our findings support the notion that nonhuman primates share with humans the ability of temporal anticipation during tapping to isochronous and smoothly changing sequences of stimuli. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. DNA Replication Is Required for Circadian Clock Function by Regulating Rhythmic Nucleosome Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Dang, Yunkun; Matsu-Ura, Toru; He, Yubo; He, Qun; Hong, Christian I; Liu, Yi

    2017-07-20

    Although the coupling between circadian and cell cycles allows circadian clocks to gate cell division and DNA replication in many organisms, circadian clocks were thought to function independently of cell cycle. Here, we show that DNA replication is required for circadian clock function in Neurospora. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of DNA replication abolished both overt and molecular rhythmicities by repressing frequency (frq) gene transcription. DNA replication is essential for the rhythmic changes of nucleosome composition at the frq promoter. The FACT complex, known to be involved in histone disassembly/reassembly, is required for clock function and is recruited to the frq promoter in a replication-dependent manner to promote replacement of histone H2A.Z by H2A. Finally, deletion of H2A.Z uncoupled the dependence of the circadian clock on DNA replication. Together, these results establish circadian clock and cell cycle as interdependent coupled oscillators and identify DNA replication as a critical process in the circadian mechanism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Rehabilitation of Aphasia: application of the Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy to the Italian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela eCortese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia is a complex disorder, frequent after stroke (~38%, with a detailed pathophysiological characterization. Proper approaches are mandatory to devise an efficient rehabilitative strategy, in order to address the everyday life and professional disability. Several rehabilitative procedures are based on psycholinguistic, cognitive, psychosocial or pragmatic approaches, among these with neurobehavioral ratio, the Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT .Van Eeckhout’s adaptation to the French language (Melodic-Rhythmic Therapy: MRT has implemented the training strategy by adding a rhythmic structure reproducing the French prosody.Purposes of this study were to adapt the MRT rehabilitation procedures to the Italian language and to verify its efficacy in a group of 6 chronic patients (5 males with severe non-fluent aphasia and without specific aphasic treatments at least from 9 months. The patients were treated 4 days a week for 16 weeks, with sessions of 30-40 min. They were assessed 6 months after the end of the treatment (follow-up. The patients showed a significant improvement at the Aachener Aphasie Test in different fields of spontaneous speech, with superimposable results at the follow-up. Albeit preliminary, these findings support the use of MRT in the rehabilitation after stroke. Specifically, MRT seems to benefit from its stronger structure than the available stimulation-facilitation procedures and allows a better quantification of the rehabilitation efficacy.

  18. Electrophysiological Study of Algorithmically Processed Metric/Rhythmic Variations in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists from the fields of audio signal processing, phonetics and cognitive neuroscience aiming at studying the perception of modifications in meter, rhythm, semantics and harmony in language and music. A special time-stretching algorithm was developed to work with natural speech. In the language part, French sentences ending with tri-syllabic congruous or incongruous words, metrically modified or not, were made. In the music part, short melodies made of triplets, rhythmically and/or harmonically modified, were built. These stimuli were presented to a group of listeners that were asked to focus their attention either on meter/rhythm or semantics/harmony and to judge whether or not the sentences/melodies were acceptable. Language ERP analyses indicate that semantically incongruous words are processed independently of the subject's attention thus arguing for automatic semantic processing. In addition, metric incongruities seem to influence semantic processing. Music ERP analyses show that rhythmic incongruities are processed independently of attention, revealing automatic processing of rhythm in music.

  19. Electrophysiological Study of Algorithmically Processed Metric/Rhythmic Variations in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kronland-Martinet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists from the fields of audio signal processing, phonetics and cognitive neuroscience aiming at studying the perception of modifications in meter, rhythm, semantics and harmony in language and music. A special time-stretching algorithm was developed to work with natural speech. In the language part, French sentences ending with tri-syllabic congruous or incongruous words, metrically modified or not, were made. In the music part, short melodies made of triplets, rhythmically and/or harmonically modified, were built. These stimuli were presented to a group of listeners that were asked to focus their attention either on meter/rhythm or semantics/harmony and to judge whether or not the sentences/melodies were acceptable. Language ERP analyses indicate that semantically incongruous words are processed independently of the subject's attention thus arguing for automatic semantic processing. In addition, metric incongruities seem to influence semantic processing. Music ERP analyses show that rhythmic incongruities are processed independently of attention, revealing automatic processing of rhythm in music.

  20. Study on Quality Indicator System of Rhythmic Gymnasts in Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is a sport item with the direct aim of winning as well as a good ornamental value. The scientific selection by the rhythmic gymnasts is necessary for the success, and also the beginning for the scientific training of the gymnasts in their special training stage. According to RG characteristics and the physical characteristics of the gymnasts, also in combination with the investigations & interviews to the coaches who have years of training experience in RG, the experts & scholars on RG study & teaching in universities, and by referring to relevant documents, this paper established the quality indicator system in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We summarized and selected several indicators obviously influencing the RG training and divided them into the three types of factors: physical factors, flexibility & strength factors, and speed & dexterity factors, according to which 12 specific indicators, their weights and comprehensive evaluation coefficients. Based on these indicators, we established the quality indicator system of the gymnasts, and developed corresponding software system, providing scientific theoretical basis & practical application basis for the selection & evaluation of the gymnasts.