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Sample records for program tibetan shows

  1. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  2. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  3. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Evolution of Tibetan Sheep Based on mtDNA D-Loop Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Liu

    Full Text Available The molecular and population genetic evidence of the phylogenetic status of the Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries is not well understood, and little is known about this species' genetic diversity. This knowledge gap is partly due to the difficulty of sample collection. This is the first work to address this question. Here, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of 636 individual Tibetan sheep from fifteen populations were assessed using 642 complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop. Samples were collected from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China, and reference data were obtained from the six reference breed sequences available in GenBank. The length of the sequences varied considerably, between 1031 and 1259 bp. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.992±0.010 and 0.019±0.001, respectively. The average number of nucleotide differences was 19.635. The mean nucleotide composition of the 350 haplotypes was 32.961% A, 29.708% T, 22.892% C, 14.439% G, 62.669% A+T, and 37.331% G+C. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four previously defined haplogroups (A, B, C, and D were found in the 636 individuals of the fifteen Tibetan sheep populations but that only the D haplogroup was found in Linzhou sheep. Further, the clustering analysis divided the fifteen Tibetan sheep populations into at least two clusters. The estimation of the demographic parameters from the mismatch analyses showed that haplogroups A, B, and C had at least one demographic expansion in Tibetan sheep. These results contribute to the knowledge of Tibetan sheep populations and will help inform future conservation programs about the Tibetan sheep native to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

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    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  6. Tibetan Minzu Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine

    2017-01-01

    merchants, customers, Buddhist devotees, and voyeurs, this article presents novel understandings of the ethnic goods market in urban Chengdu. The article first explores the growth of the market, which is the result of a history of political and economic reforms, increased mobility, and religious revival......In downtown Chengdu a pocket of Tibetan culture has sprung up: a Tibetan market where Tibetans and Han Chinese meet to buy and sell ethnic minority products. Pointing to how Tibetan migration to Chengdu has contributed to the growth of a vibrant ‘minzu market’ attracting Tibetan and Han Chinese....... Second, it maps the market infrastructure according to the ethnicity of the shopkeepers and the commodities that are traded. Although there is still a clear ethnic division in the market, this article also documents the emergence of Han Chinese market participation in forms of trade that have...

  7. Role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Dajun; Yin, Hang; Zhaxi, Duojie; Jiagong, Zhala; Schaller, George B; Mishra, Charudutt; McCarthy, Thomas M; Wang, Hao; Wu, Lan; Xiao, Lingyun; Basang, Lamao; Zhang, Yuguang; Zhou, Yunyun; Lu, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia, including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China's Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km(2) of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km(2) lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve's core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km(2) ) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve's core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders' attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. AMDO TIBETAN TONGUE TWISTERS

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    Blo rtan rdo rje

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan tongue twisters are a distinctive and significant part of Tibetan oral folk literature. They are made up of words and phrases related to what people see and experience in daily life. These words are strung together and are difficult to articulate rapidly and fluently, often because of a succession of questions and/ or similar consonantal sounds. This article sheds light on this poorly studied, vanishing, aspect of Tibetan tradition by focusing on tongue twisters that were once popular in Pha bzhi (Hayu 哈 玉 , a subdivision of Skya rgya (Jiajia 贾 加 Administrative Village, Skya rgya Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha 尖扎 County, Rma lho (Huangnan 黄南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China.

  9. Tibetan Interpretations of Authenticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The four means of authentication are arguments for the authentication of Buddhist teachings in a Tibetan tradition. Different traditions emphasize different means of authentication. These reveal interesting facts about the self-image of these traditions.......The four means of authentication are arguments for the authentication of Buddhist teachings in a Tibetan tradition. Different traditions emphasize different means of authentication. These reveal interesting facts about the self-image of these traditions....

  10. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Tibetan Buddhist monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehle, Michael Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a common diagnosis in athletes and especially runners. This article discusses 3 cases of patellofemoral pain caused by pronounced inactivity and prolonged knee hyperflexion at altitude in a unique population of Tibetan Buddhist monks. In this case, the monks responded well to a program of activity modification and exercises.

  11. Prehistoric human settling on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Dong, G.; Xia, H.

    2017-12-01

    When and where did human first settle down on the Tibetan Plateau is under hot debate among archaeologist, anthropologists, geneticist and paleo-geographers. Based on systematic archaeological, chronological and archaeo-botanical studies of 53 sites in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we propose that agriculture facilitated human permanent settlement on the Tibetan Plateau initially since 5200 years ago below 2500 masl and since 3600 years ago up to around 4000 masl, possibly assisted by domesticated animals (Chen et al. 2015). By redating the age of hand- and footprints in Chusang site in Tibet, Meyer et al. (2017) argue that hunter-gatherers permanently occupied central Tibetan Plateau in early Holocene (before 7.4 ka) without the help of agriculture. Except for the possible problem of dating, however, the limited hand- and footprints could only indicate the presence of prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the remote central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene, unable to support the permanent inhabitation assertion (Zhang et al., 2017). To better understand how human spread to, settle on and adapt to the Tibetan Plateau, we are closely working together with anthropologists, archaeologists and geneticists to do system Paleolithic surveys, full excavations, and genetic analysis of ancient and modern human, animals and plants. Our preliminary study show that human migrated to the Tibetan Plateau from the last Deglacial period to late Holocene mainly from North China via Yellow River valley and its tributary valleys in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau (NETP). This migration is constituted of four stages (Upper Paleolithic, Epi-Paleolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age) with different adaptation strategies, including microlithic technology, millet and barley farming, and sheep herding and so on (Zhang et al., 2016). In addition, our new finds in Tibet indicate that there are probably more migration routes from southeast and southwest Tibetan Plateau in the late Pleistocene or

  12. Pasture types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Vuitton, Dominique A; Xiao, Yongfu; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

  13. Vertebrate Fossils Imply Paleo-elevations of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Wu, F.; Wang, S.; Hou, S.

    2017-12-01

    uplifted high enough to obstruct the exchange of mammals in the Middle Miocene. The Pliocene mammalian fauna of the Zanda Basin showed initiation of cold-adapted lineages that predate Ice Age megafauna, which implied that the Tibetan Plateau reached its modern elevation.

  14. Mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Chen, Yu; Liu, Fuyu; Jiang, Chunhua; Gao, Yuqi

    2011-02-01

    The Tibetan wild ass, or kiang (Equus kiang) is endemic to the cold and hypoxic (4000-7000 m above sea level) climates of the montane and alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the E. kiang mitochondrial genome. Our results show that E. kiang mitochondrial DNA is 16,634 bp long, and predicted to encode all the 37 genes that are typical for vertebrates.

  15. Vulnerability of the Tibetan Pastoral Systems to Climate and Global Change

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    Yang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate and global change on Tibetan pastoral systems have become increasingly evident. Thus, a significant research endeavor is to explore the combined effects of these changes on the livelihoods of herder households and communities, on the adaptation strategies they adopted to respond to the current and expected risks associated with these changes, and on the emerging opportunities that can strengthen their resilience and adaptive capacity. We performed an integrated analysis of the dynamics of Tibetan pastoral systems influenced by climate and global changes by using the analytical framework developed by Ostrom. Climate and global changes have significantly altered the attributes of and the interactions within Tibetan pastoral systems, thus posing great challenges to their sustainable development. We used Nagqu County, a remote area of the northern Tibetan Plateau of China, as a case study to analyze the adaptation strategies adopted by local herders to respond to multiple stressors, as well as the emerging opportunities that they can take advantage of to increase their adaptive capacity. Findings show that although local herders have developed various adaptation strategies, such as planting forage grass, buying fodder from the market, renting pastures, joining formal or informal cooperatives, and diversifying livelihoods, social, cultural, and institutional challenges still exist. To enhance the adaptive capacity of herders and to reduce their vulnerability, we recommend that future rangeland policies and programs promote: (1 comprehensive support for formal or informal pastoral cooperatives, (2 development of the rangeland economy to take advantage of the multifunctionalities of rangeland ecosystems, and (3 revitalization of the mobility paradigm to allow the flexible use of rangelands.

  16. The extinct animal show: the paleoimagery tradition and computer generated imagery in factual television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Vincent

    2009-03-01

    Extinct animals have always been popular subjects for the media, in both fiction, and factual output. In recent years, a distinctive new type of factual television program has emerged in which computer generated imagery is used extensively to bring extinct animals back to life. Such has been the commercial audience success of these programs that they have generated some public and academic debates about their relative status as science, documentary, and entertainment, as well as about their reflection of trends in factual television production, and the aesthetic tensions in the application of new media technologies. Such discussions ignore a crucial contextual feature of computer generated extinct animal programs, namely the established tradition of paleoimagery. This paper examines a selection of extinct animal shows in terms of the dominant frames of the paleoimagery genre. The paper suggests that such an examination has two consequences. First, it allows for a more context-sensitive evaluation of extinct animal programs, acknowledging rather than ignoring relevant representational traditions. Second, it allows for an appraisal and evaluation of public and critical reception of extinct animal programs above and beyond the traditional debates about tensions between science, documentary, entertainment, and public understanding.

  17. Tibetan singing bowls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Bush, John W M

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behaviour is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface. (invited article)

  18. Tibetan Magmatism Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Kapp, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A database containing previously published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data on Mesozoic to Quaternary igneous rocks in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system are presented. The database is intended to serve as a repository for new and existing igneous rock data and is publicly accessible through a web-based platform that includes an interactive map and data table interface with search, filtering, and download options. To illustrate the utility of the database, the age, location, and ɛHft composition of magmatism from the central Gangdese batholith in the southern Lhasa terrane are compared. The data identify three high-flux events, which peak at 93, 50, and 15 Ma. They are characterized by inboard arc migration and a temporal and spatial shift to more evolved isotopic compositions.

  19. A BRIEF SOCIO-LINGUISTIC SURVEY OF ZHOUQU TIBETAN

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    Abe Powell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief sketch of the socio-linguistic situation of Zhouqu Tibetan, a unique Tibetic variety spoken in Gansu Province, China. The authors used participatory methods to investigate questions of language vitality, domains of language use, language attitudes, and dialectal variation. The results show that: (1 Zhouqu Tibetan is used in all language domains; (2 locals see their language as an integral part of their identity even though they acknowledge that Chinese language proficiency is necessary for employment, education, and healthcare; and (3 locals perceive little in the way of dialectal variation in Zhouqu Tibetan, with only Boyu Village's speech variety being divergent to the point that it impacts intelligibility.

  20. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  1. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

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    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  2. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  3. [Research on blood distribution of Tibetan population in Ali area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Li, D D; Li, H L; Hou, L A; Liu, Z J; Yang, H Y; Qiu, L

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To explore the distribution of ABO blood group in the healthy population in the Ali area of Tibet, and to analyze the difference of blood group distribution between the Tibetan population in Ali and the Tibet Tibetan population. Methods: The blood distribution of 509 apparent healthy volunteers of Tueti County and Gal County, Tibet, which were randomly selected from September to November in 2016; 137 Tibetan blood donors, from 2016 September to2017 July and 84 Tibetan blood donors from 2015 August to 2017 July was analyzed retrospectively. The blood type was tested by the slide method. By reviewing the Chinese and foreign language database, seven articles on Tibetan blood group distribution were obtained. And the data of the blood distribution of the Ali area population and the Tibet Tibetan population were compared. Results: The ABO phenotype frequencies of 507 apparent healthy people, 137 blood donors and 84 recipients were B>O>A>AB. The composition ratio were 36.1%, 34.5%, 21.5 %, 7.9%; 40.1%, 35.0%, 17.5%, 7.3%; 39.3%, 34.5%, 20.2%, 6.0%.There was no statistically significant difference in blood group distribution between the donors and the recipients ( P >0.05). And there was no significant difference in the blood group distribution between Ali and Shigatse, Nagqu, Lhasa, Shannan. However, the differences between Ali and Qamdo, Nyingchi areas were statistically significant. Conclusion: The geographical position of the blood from the west to east, B type shows a downward trend, O type blood composition ratio shows an upward trend.

  4. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  5. Tibetan/English Code-Switching Practices in the Tibetan Diaspora Classrooms: Perceptions of Select 6th Grade Teachers

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    Phuntsog, Nawang

    2018-01-01

    The role of the mother tongue-based schooling of Tibetan children has been debated passionately in the Tibetan Diaspora since 1985. Dharamsala, India, the seat of the Tibetan Diaspora, is the research site. Tibetan children are instructed in all school subjects in the Tibetan language up until 6th grade at which time the language of instruction is…

  6. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

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    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  7. Alienation of Tibetan Adolescents in Rural Boarding Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gazang

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alienation is a symptom of problems in relations among the individual, school, community, and family. Based on a research conducted with a sample of 897 Tibetan adolescent students in Grades 7 to 12, this study reveals that over one third of subjects experience high levels of alienation. Questionnaire data and field work show possible…

  8. Recent geological events and intrinsic behavior influence the population genetic structure of the chiru and tibetan gazelle on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Jiang, Zhigang; Xu, Aichun; Zeng, Yan; Li, Chunwang

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which a species responds to environmental changes is mediated not only by extrinsic processes such as time and space, but also by species-specific ecology. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplifted approximately 3000 m and experienced at least four major glaciations during the Pleistocene epoch in the Quaternary Period. Consequently, the area experienced concurrent changes in geomorphological structure and climate. Two species, the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii, chiru) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata), both are endemic on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, where their habitats overlap, but have different migratory behaviors: the chiru is inclined to have female-biased dispersal with a breeding migration during the calving season; in contrast, Tibetan gazelles are year-round residents and never migrate distantly. By using coalescence methods we compared mitochondrial control region DNA sequences and variation at nine microsatellite loci in these two species. Coalescent simulations indicate that the chiru and Tibetan gazelle do not share concordant patterns in their genealogies. The non-migratory Tibetan gazelle, that is more vulnerable to the impact of drastic geographic changes such as the elevation of the plateau, glaciations and so on, appears to have a strong population genetic structure with complicated demographic history. Specifically, the Tibetan gazelle population appears to have experienced isolation and divergence with population fluctuations since the Middle Pleistocene (0.781 Ma). However, it showed continued decline since the Upper Pleistocene (0.126 Ma), which may be attributed to the irreversible impact of increased human activities on the plateau. In contrast, the migratory chiru appears to have simply experienced population expansion. With substantial gene flow among regional populations, this species shows no historical population isolation and divergence. Thus, this study adds to many empirical studies that show historical

  9. [Genetic cloning and expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in high altitude hypoxic adaptation species Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wuren, Tana; Ma, Lan; Yang, Ying-Zhong; Ge, Ri-Li

    2011-12-25

    In order to investigate the role of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the adaptation mechanism to high altitude hypoxia, the cloning of the HIF-1α gene cDNA of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), using RT-PCR and RACE, was applied, and the comparative analysis of the tissue-specific expressions of HIF-1α among Tibetan antelope, Tibetan sheep and plain sheep was performed using real-time PCR and Western blot. The sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA sequences acquired by cloning from the HIF-1α gene of Tibetan antelope comprised a 2 471-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 1 911-bp 3'UTR. The similarity between its coding sequence, predicted amino acid sequence and HIF-1α of other mammals exceeded 87%, in which the similarity with cow was up to more than 98%, which showed that this sequence was the cDNA of HIF-1α of Tibetan antelope. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein appeared in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, with the highest expression in lung. HIF-1α mRNA and protein had obvious differential expression in these tissues. Further research showed that Tibetan antelope and Tibetan sheep possessed higher expressions of HIF-1α protein in the three tissues above-mentioned compared with plain sheep, and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were higher than those of Tibetan sheep. It illustrates that the hypoxic HIF-1α-specific expression is one of the molecular bases of high altitude hypoxia adaptation in Tibetan antelope.

  10. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G. In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan mastiffs based on mitochondrial hypervariable region I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhanjun; Chen, Huiling; Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Chengdong

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the number of Tibetan mastiffs, which is a precious germplasm resource and cultural heritage, is decreasing sharply. Therefore, the genetic diversity of Tibetan mastiffs needs to be studied to clarify its phylogenetics relationships and lay the foundation for resource protection, rational development and utilization of Tibetan mastiffs. We sequenced hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 110 individuals from Tibet region and Gansu province. A total of 12 polymorphic sites were identified which defined eight haplotypes of which H4 and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being identified first. The haplotype diversity (Hd: 0.808), nucleotide diversity (Pi: 0.603%), the average number of nucleotide difference (K: 3.917) of Tibetan mastiffs from Gansu were higher than those from Tibet region (Hd: 0.794; Pi: 0.589%; K: 3.831), which revealed higher genetic diversity in Gansu. In terms of total population, the genetic variation was low. The median-joining network and phylogenetic tree based on the mtDNA hypervariable region I showed that Tibetan mastiffs originated from grey wolves, as the other domestic dogs and had different history of maternal origin. The mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests indicated that Tibetan mastiffs were in genetic equilibrium or in a population decline.

  12. Know How? Show How: Experienced Teachers Share Best Practices through Ontario Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Lindy; Anthony, Paul; Strachan, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Launched in 2007, the Teacher Learning and Leadership Program, out of Ontario, Canada, operates on the belief that classroom teachers know their learning needs and the needs of their students best. Additionally, the program assumes teachers have the greatest knowledge of how to build and foster multiple learning networks in order to share their…

  13. Epidemiological investigation and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus in yaks (Bos grunniens), Tibetan pigs and Tibetans on Qinghai Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Hui; Lei, Zhixin; Luo, Houqiang; Mehmood, Khalid; Shahzad, Muhammad; Lan, Yanfang; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-09-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a diverse zoonotic parasite and causes Cystic echinococcosis (CE) disease in humans and livestock. However, scare information is available about the epidemic situation of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and native Tibetans on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Therefore, a study was carried out to find prevalence and risk factors of E. granulosus in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetans. Serum samples from yaks (1371), Tibetan pigs (454) and Tibetans (600) were collected and assessed by commercial ELISA kits. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to find the variables possibly associated with exposure of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetan. The overall prevalence of E. granulosus in yaks was 6.49%. In different regions, the prevalence were ranged from 3.43% to 11.79%. In male and female yaks, the prevalence was 5.67% and 7.04%, respectively. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 2.20% to 10.9%. While, in different years, the prevalence was 3.61% in 2014, 9.66% in 2015, and 6.33% in 2016. According to the conditional stepwise logistic regression, three factors (region, age and year) were demonstrated to be risk factors influencing the prevalence of E. granulosus in yaks significantly (Pgranulosus with the distribution of 5.47, 5.70 and 13.27% prevalence in Gongbo'gvamda, Mainling, and Nyingchi region, respectively. In male and female Tibetan pigs, the prevalence was 7.12% and 7.49% respectively, while region was considered as a significant (Pgranulosus infection in Tibetan pigs. The total prevalence of E. granulosus infection in Tibetans was 1.83%, while in male and female Tibetans, the prevalence was 1.41% and 2.21%, respectively. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 0 to 3.21%. In Tibetans contacting animals or not was 2.41% and 0.54% respectively, and breeding dogs or not was 3.0% and 1.09%, respectively. Risk factors (gender age, contact animal and breed

  14. Hexabromocyclododecane in alpine fish from the Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Nali; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) has just been listed into Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant recently. This paper studied the HBCDs in 79 wild fish from high mountain lakes and rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. The ∑HBCDs in fish muscles ranged from non detectable levels to 13.7 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (mean value of 2.12 ng/g lw) with a high detection frequency of 65.8%. α-HBCD dominated among the isomers and accounted for 78.2% of the total burden. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs in the fish were significantly correlated with the lipid content . A decreasing trend was observed between α-HBCD and trophic level. Positive correlation was also noted between the HBCD levels in fish from lakes and the annual precipitation, and this implied the long-range atmospheric transport of HBCDs to the Tibet Plateau. This was the first work to widely explore HBCDs contamination in the aquatic ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau. -- Highlights: •HBCDs were ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau. •α-HBCD showed a negative correlation with TL in the Lhasa River aquatic food web. •Concentrations of ∑HBCD were significantly correlated with lipid contents of fish. -- HBCD was ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau, and its concentration was significantly correlated with lipid content

  15. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  16. The Political Sense of Urgency for Educational Leadership Preparation Programs to Show Impact Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Valerie; Asadoorian, Malcolm O., III

    2014-01-01

    Higher education today is confronted with increasing marketization and aggressive regulation of the public sector. In an attempt to address these challenging issues, public universities are undergoing unprecedented change, particularly Colleges of Education. Redesigning educational leadership preparation programs, working in partnership with local…

  17. The changes of plasma adrenomedullin level in Han and tibetan health adult men in plateau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaolin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes and clinical significance of plasma adrenomedullin in Han and Tibetan health adult men at the state of chronic hypoxia. The Han health adult who migrated and lived above sea level 4200 meter for 1∼3 years and the native Tibetan were involved in this study. The plasma adrenomedullin levels in both Han and Tibetan health adult men were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma adrenomedullin levels of native Tibetan were significantly higher than that of migrated Han worker (P<0.05). The plasma adrenomedullin might play a regulatory role on the physiological function in the health adult men who live in high altitude hypoxic state. (authors)

  18. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  19. Influence of Western Tibetan Plateau Summer Snow Cover on East Asian Summer Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng; Huang, Gang; Liu, Ge; Zhu, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    The influence of boreal winter-spring eastern Tibetan Plateau snow anomalies on the East Asian summer rainfall variability has been the focus of previous studies. The present study documents the impacts of boreal summer western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies on summer rainfall over East Asia. Analysis shows that more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau induces anomalous cooling in the overlying atmospheric column. The induced atmospheric circulation changes are different corresponding to more snow cover in the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. The atmospheric circulation changes accompanying the western Plateau snow cover anomalies are more obvious over the midlatitude Asia, whereas those corresponding to the southern Plateau snow cover anomalies are more prominent over the tropics. As such, the western and southern Tibetan Plateau snow cover anomalies influence the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation through different pathways. Nevertheless, the East Asian summer circulation and precipitation anomalies induced by the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies tend to display similar distribution so that they are more pronounced when the western and southern Plateau snow cover anomalies work in coherence. Analysis indicates that the summer snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau may be related to late spring snow anomalies due to the persistence. The late spring snow anomalies are related to an obvious wave train originating from the western North Atlantic that may be partly associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  1. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  2. Naturalistic perspectives of traditional Tibetan medicine and contemporary relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Chengxin ZHAO; Li TONG

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM) has unique naturalistic connotation. Understanding naturalism from the TTM helps us to increase our understanding of organic cosmology and naturalism itself. It also helps us to realize the potential of naturalism. Hopefully this will show us a broader Asian naturalism and multidimensional prospect of the international organic cosmology. This paper intends to describe and analyze the naturalism hidden in the TTM by combining the source, theory, system and pr...

  3. REVIEW: TIBETAN ENVIRONMENTALISTS IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Bill Bleisch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Liu Jianqiang (Ian Rowen, Cyrus K Hui, and Emily T Yeh, translators 2015. Tibetan Environmentalists in China: The King of Dzi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Lexington Books. xxi + 327 pp, index. ISBN 978-0-7391-9973-2 (hardback 105USD - ISBN 978-0-7391-9974-9 (electronic 103.35USD. This translation is an edited and updated version of Sky Beads - Tibetan Legends by Chinese journalist Liu Jianqiang, an accomplished investigative reporter (Fowler and Dean 2006; Shapiro 2016:126. The author began work on the book in 2006 when he was a visiting scholar at Peking University. He subsequently conducted a series of lengthy in-depth interviews with several remarkable individuals from various regions of Tibet - Tashi Dorje Hashi (Tador; Rukai Karma Samdrup (Karma and his older brother, Rinchen Samdrup (Rinchen; Tsewang Gendun Denba (Gendun, Musuo Lobsang Tsundru (Musuo, and others. What may have begun for the author as an investigation of local Tibetan environmental activism soon became something very different and more interesting: an exploration of the "remarkable lives" of individuals who had chosen to play a vibrant part in shaping the present and future of their home. The book explores not only their activities and thoughts on environmental and cultural conservation, but how these were shaped by their pasts and their current beliefs. The narrative digs unabashedly into all aspects of their lives, successes and mistakes, commitments and doubts. There is even an entire chapter devoted to the most intimate details of their complicated love lives, remarkable for the honesty and openness of the interviews.

  4. Mealtime at a Tibetan monastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Eric C

    2010-01-01

    With assistance from lay volunteers and using a giant stove, Tibetan monks at Longen monastery in rural Qinghai province China prepare and serve meals for several hundred of their peers during the summer retreat. In the past, rugged geography and the isolation of this monastery above 13,000 feet gave reasons for the monks to eat local meat since other foodstuffs were unavailable in an area unable to support agriculture beyond herding animals, chiefly yaks and cows. However, closer contact with the outside has allowed the monks to adopt a vegetarian diet, but one that still uses local resources such as yoghurt and wild sweet potatoes.

  5. AHP 35: Tibetan Marmot Hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the hunting, cooking, and eating of marmots among pastoralists in Gcan tsha thang (Jianzhatan Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha County, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Folklore positing a connection between humans and marmots is discussed and Sangs rgyas bkra shis provides a story about local marmot hunters and gives accounts from his paternal grandmother (Pa 10 skyid, b. 1941 about marmot hunting in 1958. A conclusion suggests directions for future research. Accounts of marmot hunting and marmot product use from Yul shul (Yushu and Dkar mdzes (Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefectures, a map of Mtsho sngon, and six photographs provide further detail.

  6. Tibetan medicine. Part I: Introduction to Tibetan medicine and the rGyud-bzi (Fourth Tantra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasaad Steiner, R

    1987-01-01

    Tibetan medicine is one example of a traditional cultural health care system. Until recently, geographic barriers have permitted this medical tradition to evolve in an uninterrupted way. The history, concepts, and foundations of Tibetan medicine are closely interwoven with those of Buddhism in Tibet The following essay is an introductory overview of Tibetan medicine. The purpose of this essay is to provide a conceptual framework and a proper perspective for understanding a highly edited translation of one chapter from a traditional Tibetan medical text.

  7. [Immune regulation activity and mechanism of Tibetan Kefir exopolysaccharide fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Zhang, Lanwei

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanism on immune regulation activity in mice of two Tibetan Kefir exoploysaccharides (EPS) with different molecular weight of 0.1 x 10(5) - 3 x 10(5) (fraction 1) and 1.8 x 10(3) (fraction 2). The immune regulation activity experiment was carried out in vitro based on the Functional Assessment Procedure and Test Methods of Health Food, which was issued by Ministry of Health of China. First, we treated mice subjects with EPS at doses of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg through ig. Then we detected the index of immune organs, the ability of antibody production (tested by HC50), activity of NK cell, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and phagocytosis of macrophage in mice. Finally, we examined the expression of Erk protein in Macrophages by Western Blot assay. Fraction 1 could promote HC50, activity of NK cell and DTH in mice which low dose showed better. Fraction 2 could promote DTH, phagocytosis of macrophage which high dose showed better. The expression of Erk and COX-2 had the same trend with Phagocytic index. We verified the two fractions of Tibetan Kefir EPS could enhance immune functions in mice. Fraction 1 regulated immune function through NK cell and B cell while fraction 2 through macrophage cell and T cell. The effects to macrophage of Tibetan Kefir EPS in mice may realize through extra cellular signal-regulated kinase Erk pathway.

  8. Tibetan Precious Pills as Therapeutics and Rejuvenating Longevity Tonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gerke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan precious pills are frequently attributed with a variety of efficacies, from “magical” powers, prevention of poisoning and infectious diseases, protection from harmful spirits and exposure to diseases while travelling, to rejuvenating and prolonging life through clearing the senses and promoting strength and vigor. They are prescribed as strong medicines for severe diseases, but are also advertised as rejuvenating tonics for the healthy. This paper explores the rejuvenating qualities attributed to precious pills in terms of how they are currently advertised, how rejuvenation is and has been explained in Tibetan works on precious pills, and how Tibetan physicians understand these attributes. How do these domains interact and refer to each other? I compare aspects of rejuvenation in precious pill formulas with contemporary presentations of precious pills online and on published leaflets given out to patients in India and elsewhere. In Tibetan medical texts certain precious pills that contain the complex and processed mercury-sulfide ash called tsotel in addition to a large variety of other medicinal substances are presented as “precious pills” or rinchen rilbu, and only some of those are said to have rejuvenating effects on the body; most are primarily prescribed for specific diseases. The practice of giving precious pills to the healthy emerges more prominently in eighteenth to nineteenth century manuals on administering precious pills (Czaja 2015, which parallels the establishment of influential medical and monastic networks that promoted the making of tsotel and precious pills. I argue that precious pills have more recently widened their specific therapeutic target beyond that of medicine into becoming popular pills for rejuvenation, even if they do not contain tsotel, as part of pharmaceutical commodification. I also show how presentations of precious pills as “rejuvenating” are deeply linked to their availability.

  9. AHP 40: Review: The Social Life of Tibetan Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gerke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The book under review is a part of Lexington Books' series "Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture." The author, Amy Holmes-Tagchungdarpa, has a background in Religious Studies and researched the interrelationships between textual biography and social community networks of the Tibetan Buddhist lineage holder and Mahāmudrā and Dzogchen master, Tokden Shakya Shri (1853–1919 from Latokh, which at the time was a kingdom and one of five polities in Kham, Eastern Tibet, and today is in Chamdo County in the Tibet Autonomous Region. She interviewed contemporary students and family of Shakya Shri as well as translated excerpts from the master's biography, the Garland of Flowers. The Tibetan text is not appended, but interested readers can refer to the complete translation of the Garland of Flowers by Elio Guarisco (2009. An old black and white photo of the master, as well as photos of his community in Nepal and the stupas his followers helped to renovate, are included in the book. A map showing the regions of Shakya Shri's residences and spiritual influence would have been useful. ...

  10. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chunyan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant

  11. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanchun; Dao, Zhiling; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Yitao; Long, Chunlin

    2009-05-05

    Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It

  12. Identification and characterization of short tandem repeats in the Tibetan macaque genome based on resequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, San-Xu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Peng, Chang-Jun; Yue, Bi-Song; Fan, Zhen-Xin; Li, Jing

    2018-07-18

    The Tibetan macaque, which is endemic to China, is currently listed as a Near Endangered primate species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Short tandem repeats (STRs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. They are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. To clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide STRs and understand their variation among Tibetan macaques, we conducted a genome-wide survey of STRs with next-generation sequencing of five macaque samples. A total of 1 077 790 perfect STRs were mined from our assembly, with an N50 of 4 966 bp. Mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, followed by tetra- and di-nucleotide repeats. Analysis of GC content and repeats showed consistent results with other macaques. Furthermore, using STR analysis software (lobSTR), we found that the proportion of base pair deletions in the STRs was greater than that of insertions in the five Tibetan macaque individuals (Pgenome showed good amplification efficiency and could be used to study population genetics in Tibetan macaques. The neighbor-joining tree classified the five macaques into two different branches according to their geographical origin, indicating high genetic differentiation between the Huangshan and Sichuan populations. We elucidated the distribution characteristics of STRs in the Tibetan macaque genome and provided an effective method for screening polymorphic STRs. Our results also lay a foundation for future genetic variation studies of macaques.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan mastiffs based on mitochondrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHANJUN REN

    sites were identified which defined eight haplotypes of which H4 and H8 were unique to Tibetan ... tion rate makes HVRI preferred to study molecular evolution ... Tibetan mastiffs; hypervariable region; genetic diversity; mitochondrial DNA.

  14. Religious beliefs influence neural substrates of self-reflection in Tibetans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanhong; Wang, Cheng; He, Xi; Mao, Lihua; Zhang, Li

    2010-06-01

    Previous transcultural neuroimaging studies have shown that the neural substrates of self-reflection can be shaped by different cultures. There are few studies, however, on the neural activity of self-reflection where religion is viewed as a form of cultural expression. The present study examined the self-processing of two Chinese ethnic groups (Han and Tibetan) to investigate the significant role of religion on the functional anatomy of self-representation. We replicated the previous results in Han participants with the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and left anterior cingulate cortex showing stronger activation in self-processing when compared with other-processing conditions. However, no typical self-reference pattern was identified in Tibetan participants on behavioral or neural levels. This could be explained by the minimal subjective sense of 'I-ness' in Tibetan Buddhists. Our findings lend support to the presumed role of culture and religion in shaping the neural substrate of self.

  15. Tibetan Language at Home in the Diaspora: The Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Schooling of Tibetans in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsog, Nawang

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual paper reports the rare and unprecedented mother tongue based schooling of Tibetan children in exile in India as a success story that can serve as a model for displaced and indigenous peoples. A brief historical development of Tibetan language is offered to highlight the circuitous journey of Tibetan language from the indigenous to…

  16. Recruitment Methods and Show Rates to a Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program for High-Risk Men: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Veda N.; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Goplerud, Julia; Raysor, Susan; Kim, Taylor Y.; Bagden, Loretta; Mastalski, Kathleen; Zakrzewski, Debra; Leimkuhler, Suzanne; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Men with a family history (FH) of prostate cancer (PCA) and African American (AA) men are at higher risk for PCA. Recruitment and retention of these high-risk men into early detection programs has been challenging. We report a comprehensive analysis on recruitment methods, show rates, and participant factors from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP), which is a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening study. Materials and Methods Men 35–69 years are eligible if they have a FH of PCA, are AA, or have a BRCA1/2 mutation. Recruitment methods were analyzed with respect to participant demographics and show to the first PRAP appointment using standard statistical methods Results Out of 707 men recruited, 64.9% showed to the initial PRAP appointment. More individuals were recruited via radio than from referral or other methods (χ2 = 298.13, p < .0001). Men recruited via radio were more likely to be AA (p<0.001), less educated (p=0.003), not married or partnered (p=0.007), and have no FH of PCA (p<0.001). Men recruited via referrals had higher incomes (p=0.007). Men recruited via referral were more likely to attend their initial PRAP visit than those recruited by radio or other methods (χ2 = 27.08, p < .0001). Conclusions This comprehensive analysis finds that radio leads to higher recruitment of AA men with lower socioeconomic status. However, these are the high-risk men that have lower show rates for PCA screening. Targeted motivational measures need to be studied to improve show rates for PCA risk assessment for these high-risk men. PMID:19758657

  17. Tibetan Firefly Luciferase with Low Temperature Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Liu, Zichao; Liang, Xingcai; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Fireflies are widespread all over the world and a numerous numbers of luciferases have been isolated and characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized the luciferase and luciferase-like genes from a Tibetan firefly collected in Shangri-La, China. The altitude of this area is more than 3300 m. We saw this Tibetan firefly flying with strong luminescence after sunset at ~10°C. We analyzed the transcriptome of Tibetan firefly using head, thorax, abdomen (without light organ), and light organ tissue by RNA sequencing. We identified one luciferase gene, which was almost identical to luciferase from fireflies Pyrocoelia species, and expressed specifically in the light organ. Interestingly, the optimal temperature of the Tibetan firefly recombinant luciferase was 10°C. The K m for D-luciferin and ATP of the recombinant luciferase was 23 and 154 μm, respectively. The optimal pH was around 7.0-7.5. The emission peak was 556 nm at pH 8.0, while it shifted to 606 nm at pH 6.0. We also found a luciferase-like gene with 43% identical amino acids to the Tibetan firefly luciferase, which was scarcely expressed in any portion of the adult body. No luciferase activity was detected for this luciferase-like protein. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history. PMID:27980504

  19. Numberical Calculations of Atmospheric Conditions over Tibetan Plateau by Using WRF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xuan; Yao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongshuai; Liu, Liyong; Li, Junrong; Yin, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The wind field, precipitable water vapor are analyzed by using the mesoscale numerical model WRF over Tibetan Plateau, and the aerosol is analyzed by using WRF- CHEM model. The spatial and vertical distributions of the relevant atmospheric factors are summarized, providing truth evidence for selecting and further evaluating an astronomical site. It has been showed that this method could provide good evaluation of atmospheric conditions. This study serves as a further demonstration towards astro-climate regionalization, and provides with essential database for astronomical site survey over Tibetan Plateau. (paper)

  20. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from Tibetan pigs in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Rui, Yapei; Li, Kun; Huang, Shucheng; Han, Zhaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Wenteng; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Li, Jiakui

    2017-10-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP), often caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, occurs in Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds and also the prevalence of infection. M. hyopneumoniae was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 16S rRNA sequencing. Twenty-nine inflammatory gross-lesions were observed in 155 lungs of slaughtered pigs. Invasion of focal lymphocytes was confirmed by paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining of lung sections. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from slaughtered Tibetan pigs and nasal swabs from others were assayed using PCR. The prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds (via ELISA) was 20.48% (93/454) in 3 provinces (Sichuan, Tibet autonomous region, and Qinghai) between October and December of 2014. The difference in prevalence among animals in six different growing stages was statistically significant (P hyopneumoniae antibody was detected in breeding sows (45.83%; 22/48) and piglets (50%; 3/6). PCR and gel electrophoresis of BALF showed that 6.45% (10/155) of pigs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae in serum was higher in piglets and breeding sows than in any other group. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that M. hyopneumoniae is prevalent among Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation of M. hyopneumoniae prevalence in Tibetan pigs of Western China using serological tests, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequencing.

  1. Population genetics for 23 Y-STR loci in Tibetan in China and confirmation of DYS448 null allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yi; Gao, Jingshang; Fan, Guangyao; Liao, Linchuan; Hou, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    Tibetan is one of 56 ethnic groups in China, where a level of genetic sub-structure might be expected. Although a global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci and Y-STR databases with PPY23 kit were created with collaborative effort, there was a lack of data for Tibetan population. In this study we evaluated 248 unrelated male individuals of Chinese Tibetan living in the Tibet Autonomous Region to explore the underlying genetic structure of Tibetan populations. These samples were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) by using PPY23 kit. A total of 224 different haplotypes were found. Haplotype diversity was 0.9990. Both Rst pairwise analyses and multidimensional scaling plot showed the genetic structure of Tibetan population was significantly different from some of Chinese ethnic groups and neighboring populations. There were few interesting null features at DYS448 observed by PPY23 that deserved some comment. It revealed that PPY23 marker set provided substantially stronger discriminatory power in Tibetan population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin

    2015-02-01

    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Contrast of lithospheric dynamics across the southern and eastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujun; Fan, Taoyuan; Wu, Zhonghai

    2018-05-01

    Both of the southern and eastern margins of the Tibetan Plateau are bounded by the cratonic blocks (Indian plate and Sichuan basin). However, there are many differences in tectonic deformation, lithospheric structure and surface heat flow between these two margins. What dynamics cause these differences? With the constraints of the lithospheric structure and surface heat flow across the southern and eastern margins of Tibetan Plateau, we constructed 2-D thermal-mechanical finite-element models to investigate the dynamics across these two margins. The results show that the delamination of mantle lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane in Oligocene and the rheological contrast between the Indian and Tibetan crust are the two main factors that control the subduction of the Indian plate. The dynamics across the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau are different from the southern margin. During the lateral expansion of the Tibetan Plateau, pure shear thickening is the main deformation characteristic for the Songpan-Ganzi lithosphere. This thickening results in the reduction of geothermal gradient and surface heat flow. From this study, it can be seen that the delamination of the mantle lithosphere and the rheological contrast between the Tibetan Plateau and its bounding blocks are the two main factors that control the lithospheric deformation and surface heat flow.

  4. The Cosmic Mandala: Celebrating Tibetan Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2008-05-01

    The past decade has seen an increased establishment of Tibetan cultural centers in North America and increased public interest in and media coverage of Tibetan culture. As a result, interest has grown in all aspects of this rich tradition. Astronomy has long played an important role in the lives of the Tibetan people, from their unique luni-solar calendar to their tradition of combining what they call "astro-science" and medicine. To this day, nomads in northern Tibet will ask the North Star - the "Stable Star of the North" - to protect a wayward animal for the night in the expectation that the star will aid in the animal's return in the morning. In Tibetan cosmology, our universe is symbolized as a series of parallel disks centered around Mount Meru, with the heavenly bodies orbiting around it. Central to this cosmology is the concept that time and space have no absolute beginning or end (paralleling the concept of eternal human reincarnation), but that at any given time there exist a billionfold impermanent universes, each one involved in its own independent 4-stage cycle of emptiness, becoming, unfolding, and dissolution. Two distinct symbolic cosmology systems, the Abhidharma ("Topics of special knowledge") and Kalachakra ("Wheel of time"), are recognized in Tibetan culture. These cosmologies also differ in their geographical description of Mount Meru and the "continents" as well as the specifics of the 4-stage cosmological cycle. This poster will celebrate the richness of Tibetan "astro-science", including the calendar, star names, traditional cosmological systems, and astronomical artwork, and demonstrate ways that this tradition can be directly utilized to celebrate and teach cultural cosmologies during the IYA.

  5. AHP 28: Review: China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ryan Weiner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of China's minorities has become something of an ethnographic subgenre. Given the political sensitivities involved, however, it is unsurprising that relatively little of this fieldwork has been conducted among populations the Chinese state defines as 'Tibetan'. Beth Merriam's important new addition to the literature, China's 'Tibetan' Frontiers, begins to fill this gap. However, as the author is quick to point out, hers is not an ethnography of Tibet or Tibetans, nor the ethno-cultural region of Khams, or even Yushu Prefecture. It is, instead, an intensely local, "school-based study" (10 of Trinde (Khri 'du, Chenduo Township, a remote, eponymously named county seat in the far south of Qinghai Province. Meriam spent fourteen months (2002-2003 as the first foreign teacher at Trinde County Nationalities Middle School. Her inquiry is focused on the region's cultural elite, "a small educated class of the local population" (10 primarily consisting of the school's directors and teachers, but also students, work unit functionaries, cadres, and NGO administrators. "Rather than analysing a specific 'ethnic group,' or political structure," Meriam writes, her study "proceeds from a critical vantage point of practices and concepts associated with a number of broadly-defined political themes and social contexts" (292. The result is a compelling and sophisticated ethnography that not only problematizes the Chinese state's narratives of national(ity unity, but also those disseminated within the exile Tibetan community. Moreover, Meriam explicitly challenges the English-language field of "Tibetan studies," in which "nationality rubrics are also commonly invoked as discrete, homogenous, and unambiguous objects of knowledge" (290. As suggested by the book's title, she summarizes, "A key argument of this ethnography is that context and practice are more appropriate bases for analysis than 'ethnicity,' 'identity' or 'Tibetans'" (147.

  6. AHP 27: A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Bum ཚེ་རིང་འབུམ།

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsering Bum (b. 1985 describes his early life in Amdo in terms of dreams, herding, punishment from a lama, schooling experiences, attending a Kalachakra teaching, a lhatzi gathering, irrigation, his grandfather, archery, and other important moments and influences. Another incredible production from Kevin Stuart's Tibetan English students! Tsering Bum gives us a series of intricately woven vignettes of his childhood and adolescence in a small Tibetan village in Qinghai Province. A Northeastern Tibetan Childhood takes readers into the social and material culture of Tsering's family and fellow villagers. We begin with a home scene on the heated brick hyitsi 'bed', where the family sleeps, meals are taken, and guests are entertained. Through Tsering's writing we taste the noodles his mother makes by hand, know the life of the herders, meet ritualists who communicate with the mountain deity, visit a Kalachakra for blessings, experience an archery contest that ends in singing and drink, swim naked in cold mountain rivers, celebrate Losar, or Tibetan new year festival, visit a nomad festival, enter the transformative world of a county primary school, and hear the accounts of three deaths. The stories take us through a landscape of mountains, rivers, and grasslands to new worlds that for the narrator end with a kindled sense of global vision and self-worth. Mark Bender, Ohio State University I highly recommend this exciting new work. Tsering Bum's account of his life is a quick and pleasant read, full of insights into many aspects of contemporary Tibetan culture. From village rituals associated with death and archery contests to the challenges of modern schooling in rural areas, Tsering Bum leads us quickly through a narrative that links past and present to hopes for the future. Tibetan Buddhism and mountain pilgrimage play a limited but significant role in the story. As a historian, I was most interested in the chapter 'Grandpa' that recounts the

  7. New insights into trace elements deposition in the snow packs at remote alpine glaciers in the northern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Qin, Xiang; Li, Xiaofei; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2015-10-01

    Trace element pollution resulting from anthropogenic emissions is evident throughout most of the atmosphere and has the potential to create environmental and health risks. In this study we investigated trace element deposition in the snowpacks at two different locations in the northern Tibetan Plateau, including the Laohugou (LHG) and the Tanggula (TGL) glacier basins, and its related atmospheric pollution information in these glacier areas, mainly focusing on 18 trace elements (Li, Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Nb, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, and Pb). The results clearly demonstrate that pronounced increases of both concentrations and crustal enrichment factors (EFs) are observed in the snowpack at the TGL glacier basin compared to that of the LHG glacier basin, with the highest EFs for Sb and Zn in the TGL basin, whereas with the highest EFs for Sb and Cd in the LHG basin. Compared with other studies in the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions, trace element concentration showed gradually decreasing trend from Himalayan regions (southern Tibetan Plateau) to the TGL basin (central Tibetan Plateau), and to the LHG basin (northern Tibetan Plateau), which probably implied the significant influence of atmospheric trace element transport from south Asia to the central Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, EF calculations at two sites showed that most of the heavy metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb) were from anthropogenic sources and some other elements (e.g., Li, Rb, and Ba) were mainly originated from crustal sources. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm and CALIOP/CALIPSO transect showed significant influence of atmospheric pollutant transport from south Asia to the Tibetan Plateau, which probably caused the increased concentrations and EFs of trace element deposition in the snowpack on the TGL glacier basin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Constructing a Tibetan Demos in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine

    2012-01-01

    homeland. Two specific instances of the construction of a transnational exile demos are investigated: citizenship and political representation. The Tibetan Government-in-Exile's formalized idea of citizenship builds upon ideals of equal and loyal members who form a single unit bounded by a common cause...

  9. (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as it represents a unique bovine species adapted to ..... al., 1993; Udina et al., 2003), mastitis caused by. Staphylococcus sp. ... for prevention and treatment in many cases (Gerald et al., 2003). But in ...

  10. Genomic Analysis Reveals Hypoxia Adaptation in the Tibetan Mastiff by Introgression of the Gray Wolf from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Benpeng; Wang, Zhen; Li, Yixue

    2017-03-01

    The Tibetan Mastiff (TM), a native of the Tibetan Plateau, has quickly adapted to the extreme highland environment. Recently, the impact of positive selection on the TM genome was studied and potential hypoxia-adaptive genes were identified. However, the origin of the adaptive variants remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the signature of genetic introgression in the adaptation of TMs with dog and wolf genomic data from different altitudes in close geographic proximity. On a genome-wide scale, the TM was much more closely related to other dogs than wolves. However, using the 'ABBA/BABA' test, we identified genomic regions from the TM that possibly introgressed from Tibetan gray wolf. Several of the regions, including the EPAS1 and HBB loci, also showed the dominant signature of selective sweeps in the TM genome. We validated the introgression of the two loci by excluding the possibility of convergent evolution and ancestral polymorphisms and examined the haplotypes of all available canid genomes. The estimated time of introgression based on a non-coding region of the EPAS1 locus mostly overlapped with the Paleolithic era. Our results demonstrated that the introgression of hypoxia adaptive genes in wolves from the highland played an important role for dogs living in hypoxic environments, which indicated that domestic animals could acquire local adaptation quickly by secondary contact with their wild relatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Rumen prokaryotic communities of ruminants under different feeding paradigms on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dan; Chen, Huai; Zhao, Xinquan; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Xu, Tianwei; Jiang, Lin; Zhan, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Yak and Tibetan sheep are the major indigenous ruminants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China. The aim of this work was to study the differences in ruminal fermentation parameters and rumen prokaryotic community composition between hosts and feeding paradigms. The 16S rRNA genes targeting bacteria and archaea were sequenced using the MiSeq platform. The results showed that the prokaryotic community structure between yak and Tibetan sheep was significantly different (PTibetan sheep of the two groups (P=0.026). The core prokaryotic populations that existed in the rumen mostly dominated the structure. There was an obvious correlation of the prokaryotic community composition at the phylum and genus levels with the host or the feeding pattern. In addition, Tibetan sheep showed significantly higher yields of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than yak, as did the NG group compared with the TMR group. In conclusion, both the host and feeding pattern may influence rumen microbial ecology system, with host effects being more important than those of the feeding pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxygen-18 in present-day precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新平; 姚檀栋; 中尾正义

    2001-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations of the δ18O in precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau are analyzed. There is no temperature effect in the southern Tibetan Plateau. Amount effect has been observed at Lhasa station. However, the seasonal variations of the δ18O in precipitation are different from that of precipitation intensity, showing that the precipitation intensity is not a main controlling factor on the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation in the southern Tibetan Plateau. There is notable temperature effect in the middle and northern Tibetan Plateau. The seasonal variations of the δ18O in precipitation are almost consistent with those of air temperature there, indicating that temperature is a main factor controlling the stable isotopic variations in precipitation. A meridional cross-section shows that a notable depletion of the stable isotopic ratio in precipitation takes place in the Himalayas due to very strong rainout of vapor as it rises over the Himalayas, then the δ18O remains basi

  13. Provenance of cryoconite deposited on the glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau: new insights from Nd-Sr isotopic composition and size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents the Nd-Sr isotopic compositions and size distributions of cryoconite deposited on the glaciers at different locations on the Tibetan Plateau, in order to trace its source areas and the provenance of long-range transported (LRT) Asian dust on the Tibetan Plateau. The result of SEM-EDS analysis indicated that mineral dust particles were dominant in the cryoconite. Most of the cryoconite samples from the Tibetan Plateau indicated different Sr and Nd isotopic composition compared with sand from large deserts (e.g., the Taklimakan and Qaidam deserts). Some cryoconite samples showed very similar Nd-Sr isotopic ratios compared with those of nearby glacier basins (e.g., at Laohugou Glacier No.12, Dongkemadi Glacier and Shiyi Glacier), indicating the potential input of local crustal dust to cryoconite. The volume-size distribution for the cryoconite particles also indicated bi-modal distribution graphs with volume median diameters ranging from 0.57 to 20 μm and from 20 to 100 μm, demonstrating the contribution of both LRT Asian dust and local dust inputs to cryoconite. Based on the particle size distribution, we calculated a mean number ratio of local dust contribution to cryoconite ranging from 0.7% (Baishui Glacier No.1) to 17.6% (Shiyi Glacier) on the Tibetan Plateau. In general, the marked difference in the Nd-Sr isotopic ratios of cryoconite compared with those of large deserts probably indicates that, materials from the western deserts have not been easily transported to the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau by the Westerlies under the current climatic conditions, and the arid deserts on the Tibetan Plateau are the most likely sources for cryoconite deposition. The resistance of the Tibetan Plateau to the Westerlies may have caused such phenomena, especially for LRT eolian dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau. Thus, this work is of great importance in understanding the large scale eolian dust transport and climate over the Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Identifying signatures of natural selection in Tibetan and Andean populations using dense genome scan data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bigham

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. Although these responses have been well characterized physiologically, their underlying genetic basis remains unknown. We performed a genome scan to identify genes showing evidence of adaptation to hypoxia. We looked across each chromosome to identify genomic regions with previously unknown function with respect to altitude phenotypes. In addition, groups of genes functioning in oxygen metabolism and sensing were examined to test the hypothesis that particular pathways have been involved in genetic adaptation to altitude. Applying four population genetic statistics commonly used for detecting signatures of natural selection, we identified selection-nominated candidate genes and gene regions in these two populations (Andeans and Tibetans separately. The Tibetan and Andean patterns of genetic adaptation are largely distinct from one another, with both populations showing evidence of positive natural selection in different genes or gene regions. Interestingly, one gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, EGLN1 (also known as PHD2, shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. However, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Our results indicate that several key HIF-regulatory and targeted genes are responsible for adaptation to high altitude in Andeans and Tibetans, and several different chromosomal regions are implicated in the putative response to selection. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaption and provide a basis for future genotype/phenotype association

  15. Functional measures show improvements after a home exercise program following supervised balance training in older adults with elevated fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisher, Kristen; Mann, Kimberly; VanDyke, Sarah; Johansson, Charity; Vallabhajosula, Srikant

    2018-03-05

    Supervised balance training shows immediate benefit for older adults at fall risk. The long-term effectiveness of such training can be enhanced by implementing a safe and simple home exercise program (HEP). We investigated the effects of a12-week unsupervised HEP following supervised clinic-based balance training on functional mobility, balance, fall risk, and gait. Six older adults with an elevated fall risk obtained an HEP and comprised the HEP group (HEPG) and five older adults who were not given an HEP comprised the no HEP group (NoHEPG). The HEP consisted of three static balance exercises: feet-together, single-leg stance, and tandem. Each exercise was to be performed twice for 30-60 s, once per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Participants were educated on proper form, safety, and progression of exercises. Pre- and post-HEP testing included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments, Activities-Balance Confidence, Late-Life Functional Disability Instrument and instrumented assessments of balance and gait (Limits of Stability, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, Gait). A healthy control group (HCG; n = 11) was also tested. For most of the measures, the HEPG improved to the level of HCG. Though task-specific improvements like BBS and SPPB components were seen, the results did not carry over to more dynamic assessments. Results provide proof of concept that a simple HEP can be independently implemented and effective for sustaining and/or improving balance in older adults at elevated fall-risk after they have undergone a clinic-based balance intervention.

  16. Water chemistry in the rives of the permafrost regions on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ma, X.; Ye, L.; Liu, G.

    2017-12-01

    Qinghai-Tibetan is the largest middle-low latitude permafrost areas on the world. There are several large rivers in the plateau, and the changes of the water resources of these rivers are associated with the water resource security of more than 1.35 billion people. Due to the high gradients, these rivers have a tremendous amount of potential energy for electricity output. To promote economic and social development and provide clean energy, hydropower development has taken place on several rivers which originate on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Since dam construction affect the flow velocity, water temperature, sediments delivery as well as organic matter and nitrogen, it is important to investigate the river chemistry in the head rivers of the reservoirs. We examined the water physio-chemical characteristics in the rivers under the typical vegetation types in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and further analyzed their relationship to vegetation. The results showed that the total suspended sediment in the rivers were higher within the catchment of alpine steppe, with the lowest dissolved organic carbon content. In contrast, the rivers within the meadow had the highest dissolved organic carbon and lowest total suspension sediment. The dissolved organic carbon significantly positively correlated with the proportions of the meadow and wet meadow in the catchment. The pH, turbidity, and SUVA254 and dissolved organic carbon also correlated with each other. The results suggest that the vegetation type strongly affect the water chemistry in the permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  17. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011–2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level. PMID:27119379

  18. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  19. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lan; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the popular domestic varieties and quality standard of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 11 genera and 99 species (including varieties), as well as 28 medicinal materials varieties of Scrophulariaceae plants were recorded in the relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards arid literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, parts, and efficacies of medicinal plant. Among them, about 41.4% (including 41 species) of endemic plants, about 15.2% (including 15 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except the medicinal materials of Scrophalaria ningpoensis, Lagotis brevituba, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Veronica eriogyne general, most varieties have not completed quality standard. Consequently it is necessary to reinforce the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation investigation, the effects of the species resources material foundation and biological activity, quality standard, specification the medical terms of the plants, and promote Tibetan medicinal vareties-terminologies-sources such as the criterion and quality standard system for enriching the varieties of Tibetan medicinal materials and Chinese medicinal resources.

  20. Changes in effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau during the period 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, S.; Zhao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Observed evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, actual evapotranspiration trends and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are poorly understood. We analyzed the spatiotemporal changes in potential evapotranspiration(PET), actual evapotranspiration(AET) and effective moisture (defined as AET/PET) during 1981-2010. Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010. New plant functional types were defined for the Tibetan Plateau and evapotranspiration is simulated by the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). The results show regional trends towards decreasing PET and statistically significant increases in AET (p < 0.05) and effective moisture (p < 0.001) during the period 1981-2010. A transition from significant negative to positive PET occurred in 1997. Additionally, a pronounced increase in effective moisture occurred during the period 1981-1997 because of significant decreased PET before 1997.

  1. Fate of Glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau by 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, K.

    2017-12-01

    As the third polar on the Earth, the Tibetan plateau holds more than 40,000 glaciers which have experienced a rapid retreat in recent decades. The variability of equilibrium line altitude (ELA) indicates expansion and wastage of glacier directly. Here we simulated the ELA variability in the Tibetan Plateau based on a full surface energy and mass balance model. The simulation results are agreement with the observations. The ELAs have risen at a rate of 2-8m/a since 1970 throughout the Plateau, especially in the eastern Plateau where the ELAs have risen to or over the top altitude of glacier, indicating the glaciers are accelerating to melting over there. Two glaciers, XD glacier in the center of the Plateau and Qiyi glacier in the Qilian Mountain, are chosen to simulate its future ELA variability in the scenarios of RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 given by IPCC. The results show the ELAs will arrive to its maximum in around 2040 in RCP2.6, while the ELAs will be over the top altitude of glaciers in 2035-2045 in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, suggesting the glaciers in the eastern Plateau will be melting until the disappear of the glaciers by the end of 2100.

  2. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  4. Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due

  5. Quantifying species diversity with a DNA barcoding-based method: Tibetan moth species (Noctuidae on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jin

    Full Text Available With the ongoing loss of biodiversity, there is a great need for fast and effective ways to assess species richness and diversity: DNA barcoding provides a powerful new tool for this. We investigated this approach by focusing on the Tibetan plateau, which is one of the world's top biodiversity hotspots. There have been few studies of its invertebrates, although they constitute the vast majority of the region's diversity. Here we investigated species diversity of the lepidopteran family Noctuidae, across different environmental gradients, using measurements based on traditional morphology as well as on DNA barcoding. The COI barcode showed an average interspecific K2P distance of 9.45±2.08%, which is about four times larger than the mean intraspecific distance (1.85±3.20%. Using six diversity indices, we did not detect any significant differences in estimated species diversity between measurements based on traditional morphology and on DNA barcoding. Furthermore, we found strong positive correlations between them, indicating that barcode-based measures of species diversity can serve as a good surrogate for morphology-based measures in most situations tested. Eastern communities were found to have significantly higher diversity than Western ones. Among 22 environmental factors tested, we found that three (precipitation of driest month, precipitation of driest quarter, and precipitation of coldest quarter were significantly correlated with species diversity. Our results indicate that these factors could be the key ecological factors influencing the species diversity of the lepidopteran family Noctuidae on the Tibetan plateau.

  6. Quantifying Species Diversity with a DNA Barcoding-Based Method: Tibetan Moth Species (Noctuidae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qian; Han, Huilin; Hu, XiMin; Li, XinHai; Zhu, ChaoDong; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Ward, Robert D.; Zhang, Ai-bing

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing loss of biodiversity, there is a great need for fast and effective ways to assess species richness and diversity: DNA barcoding provides a powerful new tool for this. We investigated this approach by focusing on the Tibetan plateau, which is one of the world's top biodiversity hotspots. There have been few studies of its invertebrates, although they constitute the vast majority of the region's diversity. Here we investigated species diversity of the lepidopteran family Noctuidae, across different environmental gradients, using measurements based on traditional morphology as well as on DNA barcoding. The COI barcode showed an average interspecific K2P distance of , which is about four times larger than the mean intraspecific distance (). Using six diversity indices, we did not detect any significant differences in estimated species diversity between measurements based on traditional morphology and on DNA barcoding. Furthermore, we found strong positive correlations between them, indicating that barcode-based measures of species diversity can serve as a good surrogate for morphology-based measures in most situations tested. Eastern communities were found to have significantly higher diversity than Western ones. Among 22 environmental factors tested, we found that three (precipitation of driest month, precipitation of driest quarter, and precipitation of coldest quarter) were significantly correlated with species diversity. Our results indicate that these factors could be the key ecological factors influencing the species diversity of the lepidopteran family Noctuidae on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:23741330

  7. Differential growth of the northern Tibetan margin: evidence for oblique stepwise rise of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Wenbei; Zhang, Weibin; Wu, Lin; Yang, Liekun; Wang, Yinzhi; Zhu, Rixiang

    2017-01-01

    Models of how high elevations formed across Tibet predict: (a) the continuous thickening of a “viscous sheet”; (b) time-dependent, oblique stepwise growth; and (c) synchronous deformation across Tibet that accompanied collision. Our new observations may shed light on this issue. Here, we use 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology from massifs in the hanging walls of thrust structures along the Kunlun Belt, the first-order orogenic range at the northern Tibetan margin, to elucidate the exhumation history. The results show that these massifs, and hence the plateau margin, were subject to slow, steady exhumation during the Early Cenozoic, followed by a pulse of accelerated exhumation during 40–35 Ma. The exhumation rate increases westward (from ~0.22 to 0.34 and 0.5 mm/yr). The two-fold increase in exhumation in the western part (0.5 mm/yr) compared to the eastern part suggests westward increases in exhumation and compressional stress along the Kunlun Belt. We relate these observations to the mechanisms responsible for the oblique stepwise rise of Tibet. After collision, oblique subduction beneath Kunlun caused stronger compressional deformation in the western part than in the eastern part, resulting in differential growth and lateral extrusion. PMID:28117351

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil across the Tibetan Plateau: Spatial distribution, source and air–soil exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both the atmosphere and soil of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Concentrations of PAHs were therefore measured in 13 XAD resin-based passive air samplers and 41 surface (0–5 cm) soil samples across the TP. The average concentration of atmospheric PAHs was 5.55 ng/m 3 , which was lower than that reported for other background areas, but higher than the Arctic. Concentrations in the soils fell in a wide range from 5.54 to 389 ng/g, with an average of 59.9 ng/g. Elevation was found to play an important role in determining the spatial distribution of soil PAHs. The air–soil exchange state showed that the soils of the TP will likely remain as a sink for high molecular weight PAHs, but may become a potential “secondary source” for low molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The levels of PAHs in air and soil of the Tibetan Plateau were relatively lower than other background region of world. • The soil PAHs concentration decreased with the increase of elevation. • The Tibetan Plateau will likely remain as a sink for high molecular weight PAHs. • The Tibetan Plateau may become a potential “secondary source” for low molecular weight PAHs. -- The Tibetan soil will likely remain as a sink for high molecular weight PAHs, but may become a potential “secondary source” for low molecular weight PAHs

  9. Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Zhai, Weiwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hong; Yang, He-Chuan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Li, Yan; Gao, Yun; Ge, Ri-Li; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Oral health status of Tibetan and local school children of Kushalnagar, Mysore district, India: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Havaldar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of migrants culturally different from inhabitants of the host country is now a widespread phenomenon. It is known that dietary habits and oral hygiene practices vary from country to country, which in turn has a profound effect on oral health. Objectives: To assess and compare the oral health status of Tibetan school children and local school children of Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe. Study design: A survey was conducted at Kushalnagar (Bylakuppe, in Mysore district, India to assess the oral health status of Tibetan school children (n = 300 and local school children (n = 300 and compared using World Health Organization oral health proforma (1997. Results: The proportional values are compared using chi-square test and the mean values are compared using Student′s t-test. Statistically significant results were obtained for soft tissue lesions, dental caries, malocclusion, and treatment needs. However, results were not significant when gingivitis was compared in the two populations. Conclusions: Tibetan school children showed higher prevalence of Angular cheilitis, gingival bleeding, dental caries experience, malocclusion, and treatment needs in comparison with non-Tibetans. Among the Tibetan school children, the requirement for two or more surface filling was more.

  11. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program Shows Potential in Reducing Symptoms of Depression and Stress among Young People with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…

  12. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  13. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  14. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan Hien, V.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an essential source of water for Southeast Asia. The runoff from its ~34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~50 000 km2, feeds Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like the Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has an impact on the runoff. Unfortunately,

  15. AHP 10: CHILDBIRTH AND CHILDCARE IN RDO SBIS TIBETAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klu mo tshe ring ཀླུ་མོ་ཚེ་རིང་།

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rdo sbis (Daowei 道帏 Tibetan Autonomous Township, Xunhua 循化 Salar Autonomous County, Haidong 海东 Region, is located in eastern Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China. Knowledge, beliefs, and behavior associated with childbirth, midwifery, and childcare in Rdo sbis Township Tibetan communities are described, focusing on a single village as a case-study.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Tibetan Mastiffs Based on Mitochondrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being first identified. The haplotype ... relationship with humans, e.g. keeping house, accompanying and herding. ... At present, how to maintain and increase the genetic diversity of. Tibetan ...

  17. Traditional Tibetan Physical Culture as Seen from A Culturological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING LINGHUI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Traditional Tibetan physical culture is an important part of Tibetan culture.It has rich cultural connotations, its own characteristics, and inherent development laws.From prehistoric times to the Kingdom of Tufan to the Qing period, physical culture promoted civilization and progress in Tibet.

  18. Analysis of turbulence characteristics over the northern Tibetan Plateau area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. S.; Ma, Y. M.; Ma, W. Q.; Hu, Z. Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Su, Z. B.; Sun, G. L.

    2006-07-01

    Based on CATOP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CA-IMP) on the Tibetan Plateau) turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law tinder both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law." tinder unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements recorded in snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region, southern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2013-08-01

    In May 2009, snowpit samples were collected from a high-elevation glacier in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region on the southern Tibetan Plateau. A set of elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was analyzed to investigate the concentrations, deposition fluxes of trace elements, and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources deposited on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Concentrations of most of the trace elements in snowpit samples from the Zhadang glacier are significantly lower than those examined from central Asia (e.g., eastern Tien Shan), with higher concentrations during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. The elements of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni display low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), while Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb show high EF values in the snow samples, suggesting anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote, high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Together with the fact that the concentration levels of such elements in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region are significantly higher than those observed on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, our results suggest that the high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau may be more sensitive to variations in the anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric trace elements than that in the central Himalayas. Moreover, the major difference between deposition fluxes estimated in our snow samples and those recently measured at Nam Co Station for elements such as Cr and Cu may suggest that atmospheric deposition of some of trace elements reconstructed from snowpits and ice cores could be grossly underestimated on the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 3-D mechanical modeling of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Since the last 50 million years, 2500km shorting of Indian Plate moving north collided with the Eurasian Plate has resulted in rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau shaped into the most intensive and extensive orogen on earth (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Li et al., 2013). Based on previous geological and geophysical investigations (Royden et al., 1997; Clark and Royden, 2000), two end-member models of the entire Tibetan Plateau are proposed: thin visous sheet model and lateral escape model. However, when we scope into a special local area, for example, Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, end-member models could change to lower crustal flow model and upper crust shorting model. Recently, with vigorous geophysical observations, more data such as differential traveltime tomography and seismic velocity structure in the Tibetan Plateau actually reveal that the eastward crustal flow from the central Tibetan plateau is expected to divert north-eastward and south-eastward around the rigid Sichuan basin (Royden et al., 1997, 2008; Clark and Royden, 2000). Moreover, both the P-wave polarization tomography and gravitational anomaly and the GPS data from the intensive crustal movement monitoring network in China show that the north-eastward crustal flow divide two direction due to the Ordos Block as a barrier with rigid, cold and stable crust. In order to investigate mechanical of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, especially along the Xi'an-Taiyuan-Datong, we construct 3-D geological finite element model with high resolution topography and non-homogeneous strata. For the uncertainties of computational parameters, such as the depth and width and viscosity coefficient of the middle-lower crust, and the pressure differences, several models were tested to analyze the spatial distribution of curst flow and try to known about the uplift of Datong in Shanxi Province.

  1. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and underthrusted below Asia after initial collision. Here we present a paleomagnetic investigation of a Jurassic (limestones) and Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic sandstones) section of the Tibetan Himalaya. The limestones yielded positive fold test, showing a prefolding origin of the isolated remanent magnetizations. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic investigation reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic limestones is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones is detrital magnetite. Our observations lead us to conclude that the Jurassic limestones record a prefolding remagnetization, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones retain a primary remanence. The volcaniclastic sandstones yield an Early Cretaceous paleolatitude of 55.5°S [52.5°S, 58.6°S] for the Tibetan Himalaya, suggesting it was part of the Indian continent at that time. The size of "Greater India" during Jurassic time cannot be estimated from these limestones. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8°S [21.8°S, 26.1°S] during the remagnetization process is suggested. It is likely that the remagnetization, caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite, was induced during 103-83 or 77-67 Ma. The inferred paleolatitudes at these two time intervals imply very different tectonic consequences for the Tibetan Himalaya.

  2. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: Metal contents of four selected rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiang; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Duo Bu; Gjessing, Egil T.

    2008-01-01

    The water used by 85% of the Asian population originates in Tibetan Plateau. During April and May of 2006, water samples were collected from four major Asian rivers in the Plateau (i.e. the Salween, Mekong, Yangtze River and Yarlung Tsangpo) and analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Li, Mn, Al, Fe, Mg and Hg. The results showed that elements such as Mg were rather high in Tibetan rivers, giving a mean electrical conductance of 36 mS/m. In a few locations, the results also showed relatively high concentrations of Al and Fe (>1 mg/L). However, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, and Cr were generally low. Contamination with Pb was identified at a few locations in the Salween and Ni at a few sites in the Yangtze River. - For the first time, total dissolved metal contents in source water of four major Asian rivers were evaluated at the same time

  3. May All Good Things Gather Here - Life, Religion, and Marriage in a Mi nyag Tibetan Village

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis bzang po; Gerald Roche (editor); CK Stuart (editor); Timothy Thurston (editor); Elena McKinlay (editor)

    2012-01-01

    This work documents marriage customs and related oral traditions in Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Villagers speak the poorly documented Mi nyag language. This study provides novel linguistic and ethnographic data, including a Mi nyag-English word list, maps showing the distribution of Mi nyag-speaking communities, and numerous full-color photographs of village life and wedding festivities. Of special...

  4. May All Good Things Gather Here: Life, Religion and Marriage in a Mi nyag Tibetan Village

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis bzang po

    2012-01-01

    This work documents marriage customs and related oral traditions in Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Villagers speak the poorly documented Mi nyag language. This study provides novel linguistic and ethnographic data, including a Mi nyag-English word list, maps showing the distribution of Mi nyag-speaking communities, and numerous full-color photographs of village life and wedding festivities. Of special...

  5. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  6. The Tibetan Policy of Chinese Communist Party

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 朝美

    2001-01-01

    This study is a part of the master degree thesis on Tibet that covers the religious policy of CCP (Chinese Communist Party) toward Tibet. For the last 50 years of 20th century, various policies by CCP have been undertaken into Tibet. Up to now, however, they are not always successful. On the contrary, it can be recognized that antagonistic feeling of Tibetan people against Hanzu race has been even accelerated. This is why one of reasons for it may be attributed to the religious policy of CCP ...

  7. Land–biosphere–atmosphere interactions over the Tibetan plateau from MODIS observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Menglin S; Mullens, Terrence J

    2012-01-01

    Eleven years (2000–10) of monthly observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show the diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations of skin temperature over the Tibetan plateau (75–100°E, 27–45°N) at 0.05° × 0.05° resolution. A slight warming trend is observed during this period of time, although the relatively short duration of the observation makes such a trend uncertain. More importantly, using the most recent climatology of land skin temperature, spatially high correlation coefficients are found among normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), water vapor and cloud relations, indicating that the land surface, vegetation and atmosphere influence one another. Such a quantitative understanding of these relationships at high spatial resolution would be helpful for modeling the biosphere–atmosphere–land surface interaction processes over the Tibetan plateau. (letter)

  8. Summer rainfall over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau controlled by deep convection over the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenhao; Lin, Yanluan; Wright, Jonathon S.; Ming, Yi; Xie, Yuanyu; Wang, Bin; Luo, Yong; Huang, Wenyu; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Lei; Tian, Lide; Peng, Yiran; Xu, Fanghua

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of precipitation and moisture transport over the Tibetan Plateau for glacier mass balance, river runoff and local ecology, changes in these quantities remain highly uncertain and poorly understood. Here we use observational data and model simulations to explore the close relationship between summer rainfall variability over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau (SWTP) and that over central-eastern India (CEI), which exists despite the separation of these two regions by the Himalayas. We show that this relationship is maintained primarily by ‘up-and-over' moisture transport, in which hydrometeors and moisture are lifted by convective storms over CEI and the Himalayan foothills and then swept over the SWTP by the mid-tropospheric circulation, rather than by upslope flow over the Himalayas. Sensitivity simulations confirm the importance of up-and-over transport at event scales, and an objective storm classification indicates that this pathway accounts for approximately half of total summer rainfall over the SWTP. PMID:26948491

  9. Combining CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Data to Invert the Lithospheric Magnetic Field in the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yaodong; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Bingbing; Li, Fupeng; Guo, Fei

    2017-01-26

    CHAMP and Swarm satellite magnetic data are combined to establish the lithospheric magnetic field over the Tibetan Plateau at satellite altitude by using zonal revised spherical cap harmonic analysis (R-SCHA). These data are integrated with geological structures data to analyze the relationship between magnetic anomaly signals and large-scale geological tectonic over the Tibetan Plateau and to explore the active tectonic region based on the angle of the magnetic anomaly. Results show that the model fitting error is small for a layer 250-500 km high, and the RMSE of the horizontal and radial geomagnetic components is better than 0.3 nT. The proposed model can accurately describe medium- to long-scale lithospheric magnetic anomalies. Analysis indicates that a negative magnetic anomaly in the Tibetan Plateau significantly differs with a positive magnetic anomaly in the surrounding area, and the boundary of the positive and negative regions is generally consistent with the geological tectonic boundary in the plateau region. Significant differences exist between the basement structures of the hinterland of the plateau and the surrounding area. The magnetic anomaly in the Central and Western Tibetan Plateau shows an east-west trend, which is identical to the direction of the geological structures. The magnetic anomaly in the eastern part is arc-shaped and extends along the northeast direction. Its direction is significantly different from the trend of the geological structures. The strongest negative anomaly is located in the Himalaya block, with a central strength of up to -9 nT at a height of 300 km. The presence of a strong negative anomaly implies that the Curie isotherm in this area is relatively shallow and deep geological tectonic activity may exist.

  10. Ecotone shift and major droughts during the mid-late Holocene in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Caiming; Liu, Kam-Biu; Morrill, Carrie; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Peng, Jinlan; Tang, Lingyu

    2008-04-01

    A well-dated pollen record from a large lake located on the meadow-steppe ecotone provides a history of ecotone shift in response to monsoonal climate changes over the last 6000 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. The pollen record indicates that the ecotone shifted eastward during 6000-4900, 4400-3900, and 2800-1600 cal. yr BP when steppes occupied this region, whereas it shifted westward during the other intervals when the steppes were replaced by meadows. The quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate derived from the pollen record shows that monsoon precipitation fluctuated around the present level over the last 6000 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. Three major drought episodes of 5600-4900, 4400-3900, and 2800-2400 cal. yr BP are detected by pollen signals and lake sediments. Comparison of our record with other climatic proxy data from the Tibetan Plateau and other monsoonal regions shows that these episodes are three major centennial-scale monsoon weakening events.

  11. Observational Evidence of EHP Effects on the Melting of Snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Observational evidences are presented showing that the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) regions, bounded by the high altitude Himalayan mountains, are subject to heavy loading of absorbing aerosols, i.e., black carbon and dust, which can lead to widespread enhancement warming over the Tibetan Plateau and accelerated snowmelt in the western Tibetan Plateau (WTP) and Himalayas. The two pre-monsoon seasons of 2004 and 2005 were strikingly contrasting in terms of the aerosol loading over IGP. The warming of the TP in 2004 relative to 2005 was widespread, covering most of the WTP and Himalayas. This warming is closely linked to patterns of the snow melt. Consistent with the Elevated Heat Pump hypothesis, we find that increased loading of absorbing aerosols over IGP in the pre-monsoon season is associated with increased heating of the upper troposphere by dynamical feedback induced by aerosol heating, and enhances the rate of snowmelt over Himalayas and the WTP in April-May. Composite analysis with more contrasting years also shows that the heating of the troposphere by elevated dust and black carbon aerosols in the boreal spring can lead to widespread enhanced land-atmosphere warming, and accelerated snow melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Seasonal variations of stable isotope in precipitation and moisture transport at Yushu,eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Precipitation δ 18O at Yushu, eastern Tibetan Plateau, shows strong fluctuation and lack of clear seasonality. The seasonal pattern of precipitation stable isotope at Yushu is apparently different from either that of the southwest monsoon region to the south or that of the inland region to the north. This different seasonal pattern probably reflects the shift of different moisture sources. In this paper, we present the spatial comparison of the seasonal patterns of precipitation δ 18O, and calculate the moisture transport flux by using the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data. This allows us to discuss the relation between moisture transport flux and precipitation δ 18O. This study shows that both the southwest monsoon from south and inland air mass transport from north affected the seasonal precipitation δ 18O at Yushu, eastern Tibetan Plateau. Southwest monsoon brings the main part of the moisture, but southwest transport flux is weaker than in the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau. However, contribution of the inland moisture from north or local evaporation moisture is enhanced. The combined effect is the strong fluctuation of summer precipitation δ 18O at Yushu and comparatively poor seasonality.

  13. Past and future spatiotemporal changes in evapotranspiration and effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yunhe; Wu, Shaohong; Zhao, Dongsheng

    2013-10-01

    evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, patterns and trends of evapotranspiration and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are complex and poorly understood. Here, we analyze spatiotemporal changes in evapotranspiration and effective moisture (defined as the ratio of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) to reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo)) based on the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010 and future climate projections were generated by a regional climate model through the 21st century. The results show regional trends towards decreasing ETo and statistically significant increases in ETa (p stress, because of generally increased effective moisture. Future regional differences are most pronounced in terms of effective moisture, which shows notable increases in the northwestern plateau and decreases in the southeastern plateau. Moreover, the reduced magnitude of effective moisture is likely to intensify in the long term, due mainly to increased evaporative demand.

  14. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Massively parallel sequencing of 165 ancestry informative SNPs in two Chinese Tibetan-Burmese minority ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; He, Guanglin; Luo, Tao; Zhao, Xueying; Liu, Jing; Wang, Mengge; Zhou, Di; Chen, Xu; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2018-05-01

    The Tibeto-Burman language, one subfamily of the Sino-Tibetan languages, is spoken by over 60 million people all over East Asia. Yet the ethnic origin and genetic architecture of Tibeto-Burman speaking populations remain largely unexplored. In the present study, 169 Chinese individuals from Tibeto-Burman speaking populations (two ethnic groups: Tibetan and Yi) in four different geographic regions in western China were analyzed using the Precision ID Ancestry Panel (165 AISNPs) and the Ion PGM System. The performance and corresponding forensic statistical parameters of this AISNPs panel were investigated. Comprehensive population genetic comparisons (143 populations based on Kidd' SNPs, 92 populations on the basis of Seldin' SNPs and 31 populations based on the Precision ID Ancestry Panel) and ancestry inference were further performed. Sequencing performance demonstrated that the Precision ID Ancestry Panel is effective and robust. Forensic characteristics suggested that this panel not only can be used for ancestry estimation of Tibeto-Burman populations but also for individual identification. Tibetan and Yi shared a common genetic ancestry origin but experienced the complex history of gene flow, local adaptation, and isolation, and constructed the specific genetic landscape of human genetic diversity of Highlander and Lowlander populations. Tibetan-Burman populations and other East Asian populations showed sufficient genetic difference and could be distinguished into three distinct groups. Furthermore, analysis of population structure revealed that significant genetic difference was existed inter-continent populations and strong genetic affinity was observed within-continent populations. Additional population-specific AISNPs and a relatively more comprehensive database with sufficient reference population data remain necessary to get better-scale resolution within a geographically proximate populations in East Asia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. The link between Tibetan Plateau monsoon and Indian summer precipitation: a linear diagnostic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Sielmann, Frank; Zhu, Xiuhua; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, Xiefei; Peng, Ting; Wang, Lei

    2017-12-01

    The thermal forcing of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is analyzed to investigate the formation and variability of Tibetan Plateau Summer Monsoon (TPSM), which affects the climates of the surrounding regions, in particular the Indian summer monsoon precipitation. Dynamic composites and statistical analyses indicate that the Indian summer monsoon precipitation is less/greater than normal during the strong/weak TPSM. Strong (weak) TPSM is associated with an anomalous near surface cyclone (anticyclone) over the western part of the Tibetan Plateau, enhancing (reducing) the westerly flow along its southern flank, suppressing (favoring) the meridional flow of warm and moist air from the Indian ocean and thus cutting (providing) moisture supply for the northern part of India and its monsoonal rainfall. These results are complemented by a dynamic and thermodynamic analysis: (i) A linear thermal vorticity forcing primarily describes the influence of the asymmetric heating of TP generating an anomalous stationary wave flux. Composite analysis of anomalous stationary wave flux activity (after Plumb in J Atmos Sci 42:217-229, 1985) strongly indicate that non-orographic effects (diabatic heating and/or interaction with transient eddies) of the Tibetan Plateau contribute to the generation of an anomalous cyclone (anti-cyclone) over the western TP. (ii) Anomalous TPSM generation shows that strong TPSM years are related to the positive surface sensible heating anomalies over the eastern TP favoring the strong diabatic heating in summer. While negative TPSM years are associated with the atmospheric circulation anomalies during the preceding spring, enhancing northerly dry-cold air intrusions into TP, which may weaken the condensational heat release in the middle and upper troposphere, leading to a weaker than normal summer monsoon over the TP in summer.

  17. Observation and calculation of the solar radiation on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiandong; Liu Jingmiao; Linderholm, Hans W.; Chen Deliang; Yu Qiang; Wu Dingrong; Haginoya, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five years of continuous solar-radiation observations on the Tibetan Plateau were analyzed. ► Eight solar models were calibrated and validated in this highland region. ► A strategy for calculating solar radiation on the Tibetan Plateau was presented. - Abstract: Distribution of solar radiation is vital to locate the most suitable regions for harvesting solar energy, but solar radiation is only observed at few stations due to high costs and difficult maintenance. From 2001 to 2005, a set of pyranometer instruments were set up in Gaize, on the Tibetan Plateau, to test the hypothesis of high solar-radiation levels in this region, and find a suitable method for estimating the radiation. Over the 5-year observation period, the average daily radiation was 21 MJ m −2 day −1 with maximum daily values of 27 MJ m −2 day −1 occurring in June and minimum values of 14 MJ m −2 day −1 in December, which is much higher than those measured in other regions at similar latitudes. The observational data were used to validate a set of radiation models: five sunshine based and three temperature based. The results showed that of the five sunshine-based models, a newly developed “comprehensive” model performed the best, but that the “vapor revised Angstrom model” was recommended to use for its simplicity and easy operation. The temperature-based models performed worse than the sunshine-based ones, where the Wu model is to be preferred if a temperature-based model is the only option. Moreover, it was shown that when estimating the solar radiation based on time-dependent coefficients, consideration of the seasonal variation of the coefficients has little predictive value and is thus unnecessary. Based on the results of this study, a strategy for the calculation of solar radiation on the Tibetan Plateau was made for potential users.

  18. Nasal variation in relation to high-altitude adaptations among Tibetans and Andeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaric, Lauren N; Klocke, Ross P

    2018-05-01

    High-altitude (>2500 m) populations face several pressures, including hypoxia and cold-dry air, resulting in greater respiratory demand to obtain more oxygen and condition inspired air. While cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptations to high-altitude hypoxia have been extensively studied, adaptations of upper-respiratory structures, e.g., nasal cavity, remain untested. This study investigates whether nasal morphology presents adaptations to hypoxic (larger noses) and/or cold-dry (tall/narrow noses) conditions among high-altitude samples. CT scans of two high- and four low-altitude samples from diverse climates were collected (n = 130): high-altitude Tibetans and Peruvians; low-altitude Peruvians, Southern Chinese (temperate), Mongolian-Buriats (cold-dry), and Southeast Asians (hot-wet). Facial and nasal distances were calculated from 3D landmarks placed on digitally-modeled crania. Temperature, precipitation, and barometric pressure data were also obtained. Principal components analysis and analyses of variance primarily indicate size-related differences among the cold-dry (Mongolian-Buriats) and hot-wet (Southeast Asians) adapted groups. Two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis show weak relationships between size-standardized nasal dimensions and environmental variables. However, among PLS1 (85.90% of covariance), Tibetans display relatively larger nasal cavities related to lower temperatures and barometric pressure; regression analyses also indicate high-altitude Tibetans possess relatively larger internal nasal breadths and heights for their facial size. Overall, nasal differences relate to climate among the cold-dry and hot-wet groups. Specific nasal adaptations were not identified among either Peruvian group, perhaps due to their relatively recent migration history and population structure. However, high-altitude Tibetans seem to exhibit a compromise in nasal morphology, serving in increased oxygen uptake, and air-conditioning processes. © 2018

  19. Aeolian processes during the Holocene in Gannan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Li, S.; Liang, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian desertification occurring in the Tibetan Plateau has received attention recently for it has become a severe environmental problem by accelerating the grassland degradation and eco-environment damage. The Gannan Region is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau with a mean altitude of 3500m. It is highly sensitive to global environmental change and human disturbance. Serious soil erosion and desertification and extensive land degradation have caused heavy eco-environmental impacts. To investigate the evolution of the desertification in Holocene in the Plateau is of great importance for understanding the desertification trend under the global changes in the Tibetan Plateau. Loess and aeolian sands is a key geological archive related to desertification processes and the past environment changes. In this study a typical 8.5m-thick loess-sands profile named MQQ, was selected at the Maqu city. It is situated on the first terrace (T1) of the Yellow River. Detailed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of bulk organic matter content has shown the Aeolian sediments of the MQQ section occurring since the early Holocene. the mass-specific frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd) and grainsize records show a clear upward increase in the contents of superparamagnetic grains and fine fractions in grain size, which indicates a gradual wetting trend during the Holocene.The sediment rates change from very high in the early Holocene to low values after 8.2 ka. The wetting process can be divided into three steps: 10.0-8.2 ka, 8.2-3.0 ka and 3.0-present. It indicates that the climate in the eastern Tibetan Plateau was dry during the early Holocene. After that the climate was getting wet gradually. The variations of the westerlies and the Asian monsoon may cause the environmental change in this region.

  20. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Himalayan-Tibetan Region from Historical and Instrumental Earthquake Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Moklesur; Bai, Ling; Khan, Nangyal Ghani; Li, Guohui

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan region has a long history of devastating earthquakes with wide-spread casualties and socio-economic damages. Here, we conduct the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by incorporating the incomplete historical earthquake records along with the instrumental earthquake catalogs for the Himalayan-Tibetan region. Historical earthquake records back to more than 1000 years ago and an updated, homogenized and declustered instrumental earthquake catalog since 1906 are utilized. The essential seismicity parameters, namely, the mean seismicity rate γ, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, and the maximum expected magnitude M max are estimated using the maximum likelihood algorithm assuming the incompleteness of the catalog. To compute the hazard value, three seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) and two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined by means of a logic tree on accounting the epistemic uncertainties. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) at 0.2 and 1.0 s are predicted for 2 and 10% probabilities of exceedance over 50 years assuming bedrock condition. The resulting PGA and SA maps show a significant spatio-temporal variation in the hazard values. In general, hazard value is found to be much higher than the previous studies for regions, where great earthquakes have actually occurred. The use of the historical and instrumental earthquake catalogs in combination of multiple seismogenic source models provides better seismic hazard constraints for the Himalayan-Tibetan region.

  2. From subsistence to market economy: Responses of Tibetan pastoralists to new economic realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Manderscheid

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In many regions around the world the pastoral economy shifted from subsistence-oriented to a market-oriented production. Pastoral goods acquired monetary value and became a market commodity that entailed changes in the production system and in the attitude towards livestock. On the Tibetan plateau this shift did not follow a linear way. Until the 1950s, most consumption requirements could be satisfied with animal products. Economic exchange relations were essential to provide grain requirements, at least for those households who relied exclusively on animal husbandry. During the Mao era, animal husbandry was carried out in line with state targets and the produce was delivered according to central planning. In the late 1970s the transition towards a market-oriented production began. This paper discusses the recent reactions of pastoralists to the new realities in one specific area on the eastern Tibetan plateau. This shift from pastoral products to market commodities, the commercial network established as well as the market places for pastoral produce, are examined in this paper. These facts show that the pastoralists in question successfully market their produce. The research area, Dzoge county, is located on the eastern border area of the Tibetan plateau, where different ethnic groups live in proximity to each other. Grassland predominates the landscape, used by nomads as pastures for livestock breeding (yak, sheep and horses. Mobile animal husbandry and the marketing of the livestock products are decisive to guarantee the livelihood of the majority of the population.

  3. Hor - A Sedentarisation Success for Tibetan Pastoralists in Qinghai?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáčková, Jarmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-240 ISSN 0822-7942 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Sedentarisation, resettlement, Tibetan pastoralists, grassland development, vocational training Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Tibetan mastiffs based on mitochondrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHANJUN REN

    Tibetan mastiffs have close relationship with humans in guarding ... analysis of origin of dog by sequencing mtDNA has been reported. ... However, study on evolutionary relation- ..... tral test and mismatch distribution were explained by rapid.

  5. Phylogenetic Analysis of Tibetan Mastiffs Based on Mitochondrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi. 712100 ... and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being first identified. ... At present, how to maintain and increase the genetic diversity of.

  6. The role of the teacher in the Tibetan education system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ning

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated the role of the teacher in the current Tibetan Education System. It was a comparatively qualitative study of the role of the teacher in order to interpret the Tibetan education system s past, current situations and development trend with source supporting quantitative data. The paper examines the current condition of the role of the teacher in Tibet and the factors which hinder the education development in detail.

  7. Earthquake Clusters and Spatio-temporal Migration of earthquakes in Northeastern Tibetan Plateau: a Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Luo, G.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in a region is usually characterized by earthquake clusters and earthquake migration along its major fault zones. However, we do not fully understand why and how earthquake clusters and spatio-temporal migration of earthquakes occur. The northeastern Tibetan Plateau is a good example for us to investigate these problems. In this study, we construct and use a three-dimensional viscoelastoplastic finite-element model to simulate earthquake cycles and spatio-temporal migration of earthquakes along major fault zones in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We calculate stress evolution and fault interactions, and explore effects of topographic loading and viscosity of middle-lower crust and upper mantle on model results. Model results show that earthquakes and fault interactions increase Coulomb stress on the neighboring faults or segments, accelerating the future earthquakes in this region. Thus, earthquakes occur sequentially in a short time, leading to regional earthquake clusters. Through long-term evolution, stresses on some seismogenic faults, which are far apart, may almost simultaneously reach the critical state of fault failure, probably also leading to regional earthquake clusters and earthquake migration. Based on our model synthetic seismic catalog and paleoseismic data, we analyze probability of earthquake migration between major faults in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. We find that following the 1920 M 8.5 Haiyuan earthquake and the 1927 M 8.0 Gulang earthquake, the next big event (M≥7) in northeastern Tibetan Plateau would be most likely to occur on the Haiyuan fault.

  8. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Xiao, Zhixiang

    2015-09-02

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998-2013 (0.25 °C decade(-1)), compared with that during 1980-1997 (0.21 °C decade(-1)). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud-radiation feedback. The increased nocturnal cloud over the northern Tibetan Plateau would warm the nighttime temperature via enhanced atmospheric back-radiation, while the decreased daytime cloud over the southern Tibetan Plateau would induce the daytime sunshine duration to increase, resulting in surface air temperature warming. Meanwhile, the in situ surface wind speed has recovered gradually since 1998, and thus the energy concentration cannot explain the accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau after the 1990s. It is suggested that cloud-radiation feedback may play an important role in modulating the recent accelerated warming trend over the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Studies of Advanced Stages of Meditation in the Tibetan Buddhist and Vedic Traditions. I: A Comparison of General Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hankey, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This article is the first of two comparing findings of studies of advanced practitioners of Tibetan Buddhist meditation in remote regions of the Himalayas, with established results on long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation programs. Many parallel levels of improvement were found, in sensory acuity, perceptual style and cognitive function, indicating stabilization of aspects of attentional awareness. Together with observed increases in EEG coherence and aspects of brain fun...

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Bluetongue Virus Infection in Tibetan Sheep and Yaks in Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is an arthropod-borne viral disease in ruminants. However, information about BTV infection in yaks in China is limited. Moreover, no such data concerning BTV in Tibetan sheep is available. Therefore, 3771 serum samples were collected from 2187 Tibetan sheep and 1584 yaks between April 2013 and March 2014 from Tibetan Plateau, western China, and tested for BTV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall seroprevalence of BTV was 17.34% (654/3771), with 20.3% (443/2187) in Tibetan sheep and 13.3% (211/1584) in yaks. In the Tibetan sheep group, the seroprevalence of BTV in Luqu, Maqu, Tianzhu, and Nyingchi Prefecture was 20.3%, 20.8%, 20.5%, and 19.1%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BTV in different season groups varied from 16.5% to 23.4%. In the yak group, BTV seroprevalence was 12.6%, 15.5%, and 11.0% in Tianzhu, Maqu, and Luqu counties, respectively. The seroprevalence in different seasons was 12.6%, 15.5%, 15.4%, and 9.0% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The season was the major risk factor concerning BTV infection in yaks ( P Tibetan sheep and yaks provides baseline information for controlling BT in ruminants in western China.

  11. The Development in modeling Tibetan Plateau Land/Climate Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; Liu, Ye; li, qian; Maheswor Shrestha, Maheswor; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Cox, Peter; Sun, shufen; Koike, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an important role in influencing the continental and planetary scale climate, including East Asian and South Asian monsoon, circulation and precipitation over West Pacific and Indian Oceans. The numerical study has identified TP as the area with strongest land/atmosphere interactions over the midlatitude land. The land degradation there has also affected the monsoon precipitation in TP along the monsoon pathway. The water cycle there affects water sources for major Asian river systems, which include the Tarim, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yellow, and Yangtze Rivers. Despite the importance of TP land process in the climate system, the TP land surface processes are poorly modeled due to lack of data available for model validation. To better understand, simulate, and project the role of Tibetan Plateau land surface processes, better parameterization of the Tibetan Land surface processes have been developed and evaluated. The recently available field measurement there and satellite observation have greatly helped this development. This paper presents these new developments and preliminary results using the newly developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, frozen soil model, and glacier model. In recent CMIP5 simulation, the CMIP5 models with dynamic vegetation model show poor performance in simulating the TP vegetation and climate. To better simulate the TP vegetation condition and its interaction with climate, we have developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4/Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), based on water, carbon, and energy balance. The simulated vegetation variables are updates, driven by carbon assimilation, allocation, and accumulation, as well as competition between plant functional types. The model has been validated with the station data, including those measured over the TP

  12. An EPAS1 haplotype is associated with high altitude polycythemia in male Han Chinese at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2014-12-01

    Hemoglobin concentration at high altitude is considered an important marker of high altitude adaptation, and native Tibetans in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau show lower hemoglobin concentrations than Han people who have emigrated from plains areas. Genetic studies revealed that EPAS1 plays a key role in high altitude adaptation and is associated with the low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetans. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13419896, rs4953354, rs1868092) of noncoding regions in EPAS1 exhibited significantly different allele frequencies in the Tibetan and Han populations and were associated with low hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetans. To explore the hereditary basis of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and investigate the association between EPAS1 and HAPC in the Han population, these 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed in 318 male Han Chinese HAPC patients and 316 control subjects. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting curve analysis. The G-G-G haplotype of rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092 was significantly more frequent in HAPC patients than in control subjects, whereas no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found between HAPC patients and control subjects. Moreover, genotypes of rs1868092 (AA) and rs4953354 (GG) that were not observed in the Chinese Han in the Beijing population were found at frequencies of 1.6% and 0.9%, respectively, in our study population of HAPC patients and control subjects. Carriers of this EPAS1 haplotype (G-G-G, rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092) may have a higher risk for HAPC. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HAPC in the Han population. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Cryosphere Hydrological Changes on the River Runoff in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is the headwaters of many major rivers in Asia, the change in streamflow is significant for social and economic development and natural ecology in the middle and lower reaches. Located in the alpine region, streamflow in the plateau is mainly affected by the cryosphere hydrological processes. Due to global warming in recent decades, the Tibetan Plateau is experiencing glaciers shrinking and permafrost degradation. Accelerated glacier melt led to the increasing meltwater, thus affecting the streamflow. Permafrost is an important factor in stabilizing the water cycle and streamflow, the ecological degradation and the significant changes of rivers, lakes, swamps, wetlands and other hydrological environment in recent decades in the Tibetan plateau is closely related to permafrost degradation. Therefore, it is important to explore the impact of cryosphere hydrological changes on the streamflow for the future water management. This study uses a method of base flow separation and a stepwise multiple regression model to investigate the reasons for the runoff changes in different regions of the Tibetan Plateau during 1960-2000. The contribution of glacier melt to annual runoff is particularly estimated to explore the possible influences of soil freezing and thawing on annual runoff changes. The results show an increasing trend of the annual runoff in the upstream of Nujiang River, Lancang River and Qilian Mountains, dominated by the increasing of base flow; and a decreasing trend of the runoff in the upper reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, dominated by the reduction of quick flow. Change in the amount of runoff was mainly due to change in precipitation. Rising temperature accelerates the melting of glaciers and increases the summer quick flow. In addition, rising temperature may reduce the quick flow and increase the base flow due to change of the active permafrost layers, which leads to the increase of soil water storage

  14. AHP 44: THE VITALITY OF KHAMS TIBETAN VARIETIES IN WEIXI COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the multilingual situation of Weixi County, Yunnan Province, in the southeastern Tibetosphere, and discusses the vitality of several Tibetan varieties currently used by Tibetans in Weixi who live alongside Naxi, Lisu, Bai, Yi, and Pumi people. In this borderland area, most Tibetans are multilingual, speaking Lisu and/or Naxi in addition to Yunnanese, a dialect of Mandarin. I focus on two local Tibetan varieties: Gagatang and Tacheng. The former has become ...

  15. Alfa analysis of genetic diversity in populus cathayana rehd originating from south eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Peng, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The wide geographical and climatic distribution of Populus cathayana Rehd indicates that there is a large amount of genetic diversity available, which can be exploited for conservation, breeding programs and afforestation schemes. In our study, genetic diversity was evaluated in the natural populations of P. cathayana originating from southern and eastern areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China by means of AFLP markers. For four primer combinations, a total of 175 bands were obtained of which 173 (98.9%) were polymorphic. Six natural populations of P. cathayana possessed different levels of genetic diversity, high level of genetic differentiation existed among the populations (G/sub st) =0.489) of P. cathayana. Individuals cluster and PCO analysis based on Jaccards's similarity coefficient also showed evident population genetic structure with high level of population genetic differentiation. The long evolutionary process coupled with genetic drift within populations, rather than contemporary gene flow, are the major forces shaping genetic structure of P. cathayana populations. Moreover, there was no correspondence between geographical and genetic distances in the populations of P. cathayana, seldom gene exchange among the populations and different selection pressures may be the causes. Our findings of different levels of genetic diversity within populations and high level of genetic differentiation among the populations provided promising condition for further breeding and conservation programs. (author)

  16. AHP 5: A Tibetan Girl's Hair Changing Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshe dpal rdo rje ཚེ་དཔལ་རྡོ་རྗེ།

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a remarkably careful study of a little known Tibetan coming-of-age ritual as still practiced in rural Amdo, Qinghai Province, China. Structural analysis is complemented by a case study based on observations, interviews, recordings, and authentic folklore material in the original language. Pictures, tables, and a glossary complete the work. This is field anthropology at its best. Juha Janhunen, Professor of East Asian Languages and Cultures, University of Helsinki The achievements of this book are many: it is analytically rigorous, rich in contextualized detail, and fascinating in subject matter. The authors' diverse backgrounds and strengths are manifested throughout this truly collaborative work which follows a major rite of passage in the life of a thirteen year-old Tibetan girl. For all scholars of Tibetan culture and society, and for any student of ethnography interested in learning how to thoroughly document a ritual, this book will be of great interest and lasting use. Mark Turin Director, Digital Himalaya Project & World Oral Literature Project, University of Cambridge This is an important contribution to Tibetan ethnography. The study is based on careful fieldwork, analysis, introduction, and translation of relevant myths and literary compositions, and comprehensive description of core components of Tibetan community life. The value of the work is that the study of a distinctively Tibetan women's ritual is accurately and fully presented in its own context. It is a unique record of an endangered tradition. Paul K Nietupski, John Carroll University This study has great value in examining in detail the coming-of-age ritual of girls in a single Tibetan village, thus providing a window through which to better view and understand community-based life, which is soon to change in the face of China-wide modernization. Huadan Zhaxi, Humbolt University

  17. A Brief Survey of English Education of Tibetan Primary School in Ganzi County

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Lazo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The current social backgrounds have made English learning become an important part in every Chinese student's life. Tibetan students begin to study Tibetan, Chinese and English from primary school. However, in many Chinese ethnic-minorities areas like Tibetan areas, English education is facing many problems and challenges, especially the English…

  18. Evaluation and comparison of the processing methods of airborne gravimetry concerning the errors effects on downward continuation results: Case studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method...... in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA......) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic...

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on Tibetan Lakes: Patterns and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Mao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude inland-drainage lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP, the earth’s third pole, are very sensitive to climate change. Tibetan lakes are important natural resources with important religious, historical, and cultural significance. However, the spatial patterns and processes controlling the impacts of climate and associated changes on Tibetan lakes are largely unknown. This study used long time series and multi-temporal Landsat imagery to map the patterns of Tibetan lakes and glaciers in 1977, 1990, 2000, and 2014, and further to assess the spatiotemporal changes of lakes and glaciers in 17 TP watersheds between 1977 and 2014. Spatially variable changes in lake and glacier area as well as climatic factors were analyzed. We identified four modes of lake change in response to climate and associated changes. Lake expansion was predominantly attributed to increased precipitation and glacier melting, whereas lake shrinkage was a main consequence of a drier climate or permafrost degradation. These findings shed new light on the impacts of recent environmental changes on Tibetan lakes. They suggest that protecting these high-altitude lakes in the face of further environmental change will require spatially variable policies and management measures.

  20. A study of cloud microphysics and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau by radar observations and cloud-resolving model simulations: Cloud Microphysics over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenhua [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sui, Chung-Hsiung [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei Taiwan; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hu, Zhiqun [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China; Zhong, Lingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing China

    2016-11-27

    Cloud microphysical properties and precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique because of the high terrains, clean atmosphere, and sufficient water vapor. With dual-polarization precipitation radar and cloud radar measurements during the Third Tibetan Plateau Atmospheric Scientific Experiment (TIPEX-III), the simulated microphysics and precipitation by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) microphysics and other microphysical schemes are investigated through a typical plateau rainfall event on 22 July 2014. Results show that the WRF-CAMS simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-h accumulated precipitation, but has limitations in simulating time evolution of precipitation rates. The model-calculated polarimetric radar variables have biases as well, suggesting bias in modeled hydrometeor types. The raindrop sizes in convective region are larger than those in stratiform region indicated by the small intercept of raindrop size distribution in the former. The sensitivity experiments show that precipitation processes are sensitive to the changes of warm rain processes in condensation and nucleated droplet size (but less sensitive to evaporation process). Increasing droplet condensation produces the best area-averaged rain rate during weak convection period compared with the observation, suggesting a considerable bias in thermodynamics in the baseline simulation. Increasing the initial cloud droplet size causes the rain rate reduced by half, an opposite effect to that of increasing droplet condensation.

  1. Specific detection of Echinococcus spp. from the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and the red fox (V. vulpes) using copro-DNA PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibin; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Gaotian; Renqing, Pengcuo; Xie, Fei; Li, Tiaoying; Wang, Zhenghuan; Wang, Xiaoming

    2012-10-01

    There are three Echinococcus species, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. shiquicus, which are distributed on the vast area of pastureland on the eastern Tibetan plateau in China. Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) have been determined to be the main wild definitive host of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, but little information is available on the prevalence of these two parasites in Tibetan foxes. Consequently, the copro-prevalence of these parasites in foxes from the eastern Tibetan plateau was evaluated in this study. For each copro-DNA sample extracted from fox feces, a 133-bp segment of EgG1 Hae III was used to screen for infection with E. granulosus. Multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to target an 874-bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene to distinguish E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Among 184 fecal samples, 120 were from Tibetan foxes and six from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Of the fecal samples from Tibetan foxes, 74 (giving a copro-prevalence of 62%) showed the presence of Echinococcus spp.: 23 (19%) were found to contain E. multilocularis, 32 (27%) E. shiquicus, and 19 (16%) showed mixed infection with both E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Two fecal samples from red foxes were found to be infected with E. multilocularis. No fox feces were found to be infected with E. granulosus. Tests on zinc finger protein genes and a 105-bp fragment of the Sry gene found no significant difference in the prevalence of the two parasites between sexes. The efficiency of our multiplex nested PCR methods were compared with previous polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods and some problems associated with the copro-PCR were discussed.

  2. Modeling sensitivity study of the possible impact of snow and glaciers developing over Tibetan Plateau on Holocene African-Asian summer monsoon climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of various scenarios of a gradual snow and glaciers developing over the Tibetan Plateau on climate change in Afro-Asian monsoon region and other regions during the Holocene (9 kyr BP–0 kyr BP are studied by using the Earth system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. The simulations show that the imposed snow and glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau in the mid-Holocene induce global summer temperature decreases over most of Eurasia but in the Southern Asia temperature response is opposite. With the imposed snow and glaciers, summer precipitation decreases strongly in North Africa and South Asia as well as northeastern China, while it increases in Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean. For the whole period of Holocene (9 kyr BP–0 kyr BP, the response of vegetation cover to the imposed snow and glaciers cover over the Tibetan Plateau is not synchronous in South Asia and in North Africa, showing an earlier and a more rapid decrease in vegetation cover in North Africa from 9 kyr BP to 6 kyr BP while it has only minor influence on that in South Asia until 5 kyr BP. The precipitation decreases rapidly in North Africa and South Asia while it decreases slowly or unchanged during 6 kyr BP to 0 kyr BP with imposed snow and glacier cover over the Tibetan Plateau. The different scenarios of snow and glacier developing over the Tibetan Plateau would result in differences in variation of temperature, precipitation and vegetation cover in North Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia. The model results suggest that the development of snow and ice cover over Tibetan Plateau represents an additional important climate feedback, which amplify orbital forcing and produces a significant synergy with the positive vegetation feedback.

  3. On Classification, Development and Protection of Tibetan Traditional Sports in Gansu%甘肃藏族传统体育项群分类及开发与保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高继科; 张正玲

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料、田野实证等方法,对甘肃藏族传统体育进行调查。研究结果显示,甘肃藏族传统文化孕育出了以舞蹈、角力、竞速、合中、体能、武艺、智能和游戏八大类民族体育项群。这些藏族传统体育就是藏族人民智慧的结晶,是藏族传统体育文化的精髓,反映了甘肃藏族历史发展轨迹和文化的变迁过程。%This paper is, by using documentation and field demonstration, to investigate the Tibetan traditional sports in Gansu Province. The results show that traditional Tibetan culture has given birth to eight categories of national sports, such as dancing, wrestling, racing, combining, physical fitness, skill, intelligence, and games. These Tibetan traditional sports are the essence of the wisdom of the Tibetan people, which are also the essence of Tibetan traditional sports culture, reflecting the developmental track of Tibetan history and culture in transformation process.

  4. Satellite precipitation estimation over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, F.; Gjoka, U.

    2012-04-01

    Precipitation characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau are very little known, given the scarcity of reliable and widely distributed ground observation, thus the satellite approach is a valuable choice for large scale precipitation analysis and hydrological cycle studies. However,the satellite perspective undergoes various shortcomings at the different wavelengths used in atmospheric remote sensing. In the microwave spectrum often the high soil emissivity masks or hides the atmospheric signal upwelling from light-moderate precipitation layers, while low and relatively thin precipitating clouds are not well detected in the visible-infrared, because of their low contrast with cold and bright (if snow covered) background. In this work an IR-based, statistical rainfall estimation technique is trained and applied over the Tibetan Plateau hydrological basin to retrive precipitation intensity at different spatial and temporal scales. The technique is based on a simple artificial neural network scheme trained with two supervised training sets assembled for monsoon season and for the rest of the year. For the monsoon season (estimated from June to September), the ground radar precipitation data for few case studies are used to build the training set: four days in summer 2009 are considered. For the rest of the year, CloudSat-CPR derived snowfall rate has been used as reference precipitation data, following the Kulie and Bennartz (2009) algorithm. METEOSAT-7 infrared channels radiance (at 6.7 and 11 micometers) and derived local variability features (such as local standard deviation and local average) are used as input and the actual rainrate is obtained as output for each satellite slot, every 30 minutes on the satellite grid. The satellite rainrate maps for three years (2008-2010) are computed and compared with available global precipitation products (such as C-MORPH and TMPA products) and with other techniques applied to the Plateau area: similarities and differences are

  5. Warming slowdown over the Tibetan plateau in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaojie; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhu, Juntao; Huang, Ke; Zu, Jiaxing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Nan; Stegehuis, Annemiek Irene

    2018-03-01

    As the recent global warming hiatus and the warming on high elevations are attracting worldwide attention, this study examined the robustness of the warming slowdown over the Tibetan plateau (TP) and its related driving forces. By integrating multiple-source data from 1982 to 2015 and using trend analysis, we found that the mean temperature (T mean), maximum temperature (T max) and minimum temperature (T min) showed a slowdown of the warming trend around 1998, during the period of the global warming hiatus. This was found over both the growing season (GS) and non-growing season (NGS) and suggested a robust warming hiatus over the TP. Due to the differences in trends of T max and T min, the trend of diurnal temperature range (DTR) also shifted after 1998, especially during the GS temperature. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) in all seasons from 1982 to 1998, while the pattern was reversed in the period from 1998 to 2015. Water vapour was found to be the main driving force for the trend in T mean and T min by influencing downward long wave radiation. Sunshine duration was the main driving force behind the trend in T max and DTR through a change in downward shortwave radiation that altered the energy source of daytime temperature. Water vapour was the major driving force for temperature change over the NTP, while over the STP, sunshine duration dominated the temperature trend.

  6. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations show a winter (November-February) high (413.2ngm -3 ) and spring (March-June) low (139.1ngm -3 ) at Ranwu, but in contrast a winter low and spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6ngm -3 , respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that the monthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. The winter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwu sampling site showed a significant diurnal cycle with a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REVIEW: ORAL AND LITERARY CONTINUITIES IN MODERN TIBETAN LITERATURE: THE INESCAPABLE NATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Séagh Kehoe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral and Literary Continuities in Modern Tibet: The Inescapable Nation, Lama Jabb's contribution to Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture series, is the first book-length study in English to center the literary, cultural, and political roots of modern Tibetan literature. Written by Lama Jabb, born and raised in a herding community in Amdo and now a junior research fellow in Tibetan and Himalayan Studies at the University of Oxford, this ambitious landmark study offers an in-depth and meticulously researched examination of the persistence of Tibet's artistic and oral traditions in the literary creativity of the present. Spanning a wide-range of oral and literary texts, the book also draws attention to the deep and untiring concern for the Tibetan nation across modern Tibetan writing. The book is neatly organized into seven chapters, along with acknowledgements, an extensive bibliography, index, and short biography of Lama Jabb himself. In 277 pages, it moves gracefully across a diverse and skillfully interwoven set of discussions of Tibetan music, the Tibetan tradition of social criticism, cultural traumas, the Third Generation of Tibetan poets, and contemporary Tibetan erotic poetry, all the while spotlighting literary legacies and the persistent preoccupation for with the Tibetan nation in modern Tibetan literature. ...

  8. Tibetan medicine "RNSP" in treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-Ming; He, Xue; Lian, Hui-Juan; Yuan, Dong-Ya; Hu, Qun-Ying; Sun, Zheng-Qi; Li, Yan-Song; Zeng, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (Alzheimer Disease, AD) is one of the most common type in senile dementia. Its main pathological features were that a large number of senile plaques gathered in brain extracellular and tangles fibrosis appeared in nerve cells. Currently, the pathogenesis of AD is still uncertain, and scale investigation and combined brain CT, MRI data were analyzed mainly for clinical diagnosis. Mitigation and improvement of the nervous system activity to interfere with the subsequent behavior of the patients are the main methods for treatment. In clinical no drug can really prevent and cure AD. From the view point of Tibetan medicine studies, Tibetan medicine RNSP has effect on improving memory and repairing the neurons in the brain. In this study, we combined the characteristics of AD pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods to explore the feasibility of Tibetan medicine RNSP for the treatment of AD to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  9. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  10. AHP 6: Review: Modern Tibetan Literature and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Thurston

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiction, as understood in the West, was not a strong part of the Tibetan literary tradition (Stein 1972, 251-2. Although Newman (1996, 411 has argued that certain literary works existed as early as the eighteenth century, most fictional texts in Tibet belonged to folklore and oral tradition. Beginning in the twentieth century, however, modern fiction and poetry has gradually emerged and even thrives in spite of continuing issues of literacy and education. As relative newcomers to the study of Tibetan writing, western scholars, many of whom approach Tibet from disciplines that emphasize religion or philosophy, tend to overlook modern fiction. This work, edited by Hartley and Schiaffini-Vedani, aims to fill this void and provide scholars with an introduction to the complexities of modern Tibetan literature and how it reflects and impacts the unique transnational and cross-cultural social context it is written in... ...

  11. A one base pair deletion in the canine ATP13A2 gene causes exon skipping and late-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in the Tibetan terrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wöhlke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain and retinal atrophy and the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies resembling lipofuscin in neurons and other cells. Tibetan terriers show a late-onset lethal form of NCL manifesting first visible signs at 5-7 years of age. Genome-wide association analyses for 12 Tibetan-terrier-NCL-cases and 7 Tibetan-terrier controls using the 127K canine Affymetrix SNP chip and mixed model analysis mapped NCL to dog chromosome (CFA 2 at 83.71-84.72 Mb. Multipoint linkage and association analyses in 376 Tibetan terriers confirmed this genomic region on CFA2. A mutation analysis for 14 positional candidate genes in two NCL-cases and one control revealed a strongly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the MAPK PM20/PM21 gene and a perfectly with NCL associated single base pair deletion (c.1620delG within exon 16 of the ATP13A2 gene. The c.1620delG mutation in ATP13A2 causes skipping of exon 16 presumably due to a broken exonic splicing enhancer motif. As a result of this mutation, ATP13A2 lacks 69 amino acids. All known 24 NCL cases were homozygous for this deletion and all obligate 35 NCL-carriers were heterozygous. In a sample of 144 dogs from eleven other breeds, the c.1620delG mutation could not be found. Knowledge of the causative mutation for late-onset NCL in Tibetan terrier allows genetic testing of these dogs to avoid matings of carrier animals. ATP13A2 mutations have been described in familial Parkinson syndrome (PARK9. Tibetan terriers with these mutations provide a valuable model for a PARK9-linked disease and possibly for manganese toxicity in synucleinopathies.

  12. Individual particles of cryoconite deposited on the mountain glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau: Insights into chemical composition and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yajun; Li, Yang; Huang, Jie; Qin, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Cryoconite deposited on mountain glacier surfaces is significant for understanding regional atmospheric environments, which could influence the albedo and energy balance of the glacier basins, and maintain the glacial microbiology system. Field observations were conducted on the glaciers of western China, including Laohugou Glacier No.12 (LHG), Tanggula Dongkemadi Glacier (TGL), Zhadang Glacier (ZD), and Baishui Glacier No.1 in the Yulong Mountains (YL), as well as Urumqi Glacier No.1 in the Tianshan Mountains (TS) for comparison with locations in the Tibetan Plateau, in addition to laboratory TEM-EDX analysis of the individual cryoconite particles filtered on lacey carbon (LC) and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids. This work provided information on the morphology and chemical composition, as well as a unique record of the particle's physical state, of cryoconite deposition on the Tibetan Plateau. The result showed that there is a large difference in the cryoconite particle composition between various locations on the Tibetan Plateau. In total, mineral dust particles were dominant (>50%) in the cryoconite at all locations. However, more anthropogenic particles (e.g., black carbon (BC) and fly ash) were found in YL (38%) and ZD (22%) in the Ca-C grids in the southern locations. In TGL, many NaCl and MCS particles (>10%), as well as few BC and biological particles (<5%), were found in cryoconite in addition to mineral dust. In TS, the cryoconite is composed primarily of mineral dust, as well as BC (<5%). Compared with other sites, the LHG cryoconite shows a more complex composition of atmospheric deposition with sufficient NaCl, BC, fly ash and biological particles (6% in LC grid). The higher ratio of anthropogenic particles in the southern Tibetan Plateau is likely caused by atmospheric pollutant transport from the south Asia to the Tibetan Plateau. Cryoconite in the northern locations (e.g., TGL, LHG, and TS) with higher dust and salt particle ratio are

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes vulpes montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes Vulpes montana) was sequenced for the first time using blood samples obtained from a wild female red fox captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai--Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with an average elevation above 3500 m. Sequence analysis showed it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (CR). The variable tandem repeats in CR is the main reason of the length variability of mitochondrial genome among canide animals.

  14. The Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Diurnal Cloud Activity over the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Hatsuki, Fujinami; Tetsuzo, Yasunari; Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba; Institute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal variation of diurnal cloud activity(abbreviated DCA)over the Tibetan Plateau throughout the year is examined using 3-hourly geostationary meteorological satellite(GMS)data for 6-years(1989-1994). The DCA shows two distinct variance maxima in the seasonal cycle. One is in spring(pre-monsoon season), and the other is in the summer monsoon season. The DCA begins in late January, and reaches its maximum from March through April. The active DCA extends over almost the whole of the plateau...

  15. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations showawinter (November–February) high (413.2 ng m$-$3) and spring (March–June) low(139.1 ng m$-$3) at Ranwu, but in contrast awinter lowand spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6 ng m$-$3, respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that themonthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. Thewinter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwusampling site showed a significant diurnal cyclewith a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct.

  16. Simulating hydrological processes of a typical small mountainous catchment in Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Bai, Z.; Fu, Q.; Pan, S.; Zhu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Water cycle of small watersheds with seasonal/permanent frozen soil and snow pack in Tibetan Plateau is seriously affected by climate change. The objective of this study is to find out how much and in what way the frozen soil and snow pack will influence the hydrology of small mountainous catchments in cold regions and how can the performance of simulation by a distributed hydrological model be improved. The Dong catchment, a small catchment located in Tibetan Plateau, is used as a case study. Two measurement stations are set up to collect basic meteorological and hydrological data for the modeling purpose. Annual and interannual variations of runoff indices are first analyzed based on historic data series. The sources of runoff in dry periods and wet periods are analyzed respectively. Then, a distributed hydrology soil vegetation model (DHSVM) is adopted to simulate the hydrological process of Dong catchment based on limited data set. Global sensitivity analysis is applied to help determine the important processes of the catchment. Based on sensitivity analysis results, the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII) is finally added into the hydrological model to calibrate the hydrological model in a multi-objective way and analyze the performance of DHSVM model. The performance of simulation is evaluated with several evaluation indices. The final results show that frozen soil and snow pack do play an important role in hydrological processes in cold mountainous region, in particular in dry periods without precipitation, while in wet periods precipitation is often the main source of runoff. The results also show that although the DHSVM hydrological model has the potential to model the hydrology well in small mountainous catchments with very limited data in Tibetan Plateau, the simulation of hydrology in dry periods is not very satisfactory due to the model's insufficiency in simulating seasonal frozen soil.

  17. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    OpenAIRE

    Anmin Duan; Zhixiang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–ra...

  18. Prevalence of Circulating Antibodies to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 in Yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoqing; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Ding; Li, Jiakui; Liu, Zhengfei

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) causes infections with many clinical signs, including rhinotracheitis, encephalitis, and genital lesions. The virus occurs worldwide in bovines, and in recent years, it has been reported in yaks (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau in China. However, there is little epidemiologic data describing BoHV-1 infections in China's yak herds. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China July 2011-July 2012 to estimate the prevalence of BoHV-1 antibody in yak herds. We collected 1,840 serum samples from yaks on the QTP, in Tibet (988 yaks), Qinghai (475 yaks), and Sichuan (377 yaks) Provinces. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that 381 (38.6%) of the Tibetan samples, 212 (44.6%) of the Qinghai samples, and 105 (27.9%) of the Sichuan samples had detectable antibodies to BoHV-1. Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed.

  19. Toward Quantitative Understanding of the Atmospheric Heating over the Tibetan Plateau (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, T.; Tamura, T.; Rasmy, M.; Seto, R.

    2010-12-01

    There are different ideas on the atmospheric heating over the Tibetan Plateau. Yanai et al. (1992) and Yanai and Li (1994) concluded this sensible heat flux from the surface is the major source of heating on the plateau before the summer rain commences. On the other hand, Ueda et al. (2003) also showed the importance of condensation heating in the heat balance during the pre-onset-phase of the summer monsoon over the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. The first intensive in situ observation in early spring was implemented on the plateau in April 2004 under the framework of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) (Koike, 2004). Taniguchi and Koike (2007) revealed the importance of cumulus activity in atmospheric temperature increases in the upper troposphere even in April by in situ and satellite observations and numerical simulations. They concluded that sensible heat transfer by dry convection is insufficient to warm the upper layer over the plateau and that the development of cloud convection is indispensable for atmospheric heating in the upper troposphere over the plateau during early spring. Then, Taniguchi and Koike (2008) investigated the seasonal variation in the cloud activity over the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, and the vertical profile of the atmosphere and moist condition causing the cloud. They showed cumulus convections easily occur under the adiabatically neutral condition of the first phase of the active convections in April. During a resting phase before the second active phase, the atmosphere is conditionally unstable but an unsaturated condition restrains cloud activity, while during second phase, the atmosphere is inclined to be saturated and cloud activity begins again. From early May to mid June, there is a resting period of cumulus convective activity. However, the tropospheric temperature at 200 hPa increases rapidly from late April. Such rapid tropospheric warming without significant cumulus convective activity is

  20. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan

  1. Four new Gammarus species from Tibetan Plateau with a key to Tibetan freshwater gammarids (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonge Hou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the genus Gammarus are described and illustrated from Tibetan Plateau. Gammarus altus sp. n. and G. limosus sp. n. are characterized by pereopods III–IV with a few short setae and uropod III with marginal spines accompanied by short setae. Gammarus kangdingensis sp. n. and G. gonggaensis sp. n. are characterized by pereopods III–IV with long straight setae on posterior margins and inner ramus of uropod III 0.4 times as long as outer ramus. Detailed morphological comparisons with related species are discussed. A key to 15 Gammarus species from the Tibetan Plateau and a map of their distributions are provided.

  2. The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelong; Añel, Juan A.; Su, Zhongbo; de la Torre, Laura; Kelder, Hennie; van Peet, Jacob; Ma, Yaoming

    2013-01-01

    In this study the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over the Tibetan Plateau was measured during a regional radiosonde observation campaign in 2008 and found to be deeper than indicated by previously measurements. Results indicate that during fair weather conditions on winter days, the top of the mixed layers can be up to 5 km above the ground (9.4 km above sea level). Measurements also show that the depth of the ABL is quite distinct for three different periods (winter, monsoon-onset, and monsoon seasons). Turbulence at the top of a deep mixing layer can rise up to the upper troposphere. As a consequence, as confirmed by trajectory analysis, interaction occurs between deep ABLs and the low tropopause during winter over the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:23451108

  3. Audio-Visual Tibetan Speech Recognition Based on a Deep Dynamic Bayesian Network for Natural Human Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Audio-visual speech recognition is a natural and robust approach to improving human-robot interaction in noisy environments. Although multi-stream Dynamic Bayesian Network and coupled HMM are widely used for audio-visual speech recognition, they fail to learn the shared features between modalities and ignore the dependency of features among the frames within each discrete state. In this paper, we propose a Deep Dynamic Bayesian Network (DDBN to perform unsupervised extraction of spatial-temporal multimodal features from Tibetan audio-visual speech data and build an accurate audio-visual speech recognition model under a no frame-independency assumption. The experiment results on Tibetan speech data from some real-world environments showed the proposed DDBN outperforms the state-of-art methods in word recognition accuracy.

  4. Relationships between climate and growth of Gymnocypris selincuoensis in the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; Chen, Yifeng; He, Dekui; Ding, Chengzhi

    2015-04-01

    The consequences of climate change are becoming increasingly evident in the Tibetan Plateau, represented by glaciers retreating and lakes expanding, but the biological response to climate change by plateau-lake ecosystems is poorly known. In this study, we applied dendrochronology methods to develop a growth index chronology with otolith increment widths of Selincuo naked carp (Gymnocypris selincuoensis), which is an endemic species in Lake Selincuo (4530 m), and investigated the relationships between fish growth and climate variables (regional and global) in the last three decades. A correlation analysis and principle component regression analysis between regional climate factors and the growth index chronology indicated that the growth of G. selincuoensis was significantly and positively correlated with length of the growing season and temperature-related variables, particularly during the growing season. Most of global climate variables, which are relevant to the Asian monsoon and the midlatitude westerlies, such as El Nino Southern Oscillation Index, the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and North America Pattern, showed negative but not significant correlations with the annual growth of Selincuo naked carp. This may have resulted from the high elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and the high mountains surrounding this area. In comparison, the Pacific Decade Oscillation (PDO) negatively affected the growth of G. selincuoensis. The reason maybe that enhancement of the PDO can lead to cold conditions in this area. Taken together, the results indicate that the Tibetan Plateau fish has been affected by global climate change, particularly during the growing season, and global climate change likely has important effects on productivity of aquatic ecosystems in this area.

  5. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  6. Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Beljaars, A.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Lin, C.; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations with different selections of subgrid orographic drag over the Tibetan Plateau have been evaluated with observation and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that the subgrid orographic drag schemes, especially the turbulent orographic form drag (TOFD) scheme, efficiently reduce the 10 m wind speed bias and RMS error with respect to station measurements. With the combination of gravity wave, flow blocking and TOFD schemes, wind speed is simulated more realistically than with the individual schemes only. Improvements are also seen in the 2 m air temperature and surface pressure. The gravity wave drag, flow blocking drag, and TOFD schemes combined have the smallest station mean bias (-2.05°C in 2 m air temperature and 1.27 hPa in surface pressure) and RMS error (3.59°C in 2 m air temperature and 2.37 hPa in surface pressure). Meanwhile, the TOFD scheme contributes more to the improvements than the gravity wave drag and flow blocking schemes. The improvements are more pronounced at low levels of the atmosphere than at high levels due to the stronger drag enhancement on the low-level flow. The reduced near-surface cold bias and high-pressure bias over the Tibetan Plateau are the result of changes in the low-level wind components associated with the geostrophic balance. The enhanced drag directly leads to weakened westerlies but also enhances the a-geostrophic flow in this case reducing (enhancing) the northerlies (southerlies), which bring more warm air across the Himalaya Mountain ranges from South Asia (bring less cold air from the north) to the interior Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Varying responses of vegetation activity to climate changes on the Tibetan Plateau grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Nan; Shen, Miaogen; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Gengxin; Piao, Shilong

    2017-08-01

    Vegetation activity on the Tibetan Plateau grassland has been substantially enhanced as a result of climate change, as revealed by satellite observations of vegetation greenness (i.e., the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI). However, little is known about the temporal variations in the relationships between NDVI and temperature and precipitation, and understanding this is essential for predicting how future climate change would affect vegetation activity. Using NDVI data and meteorological records from 1982 to 2011, we found that the inter-annual partial correlation coefficient between growing season (May-September) NDVI and temperature (R NDVI-T ) in a 15-year moving window for alpine meadow showed little change, likely caused by the increasing R NDVI-T in spring (May-June) and autumn (September) and decreasing R NDVI-T in summer (July-August). Growing season R NDVI-T for alpine steppe increased slightly, mainly due to increasing R NDVI-T in spring and autumn. The partial correlation coefficient between growing season NDVI and precipitation (R NDVI-P ) for alpine meadow increased slightly, mainly in spring and summer, and R NDVI-P for alpine steppe increased, mainly in spring. Moreover, R NDVI-T for the growing season was significantly higher in those 15-year windows with more precipitation for alpine steppe. R NDVI-P for the growing season was significantly higher in those 15-year windows with higher temperature, and this tendency was stronger for alpine meadow than for alpine steppe. These results indicate that the impact of warming on vegetation activity of Tibetan Plateau grassland is more positive (or less negative) during periods with more precipitation and that the impact of increasing precipitation is more positive (or less negative) during periods with higher temperature. Such positive effects of the interactions between temperature and precipitation indicate that the projected warmer and wetter future climate will enhance vegetation activity

  8. Present-day crustal deformation and strain transfer in northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional present-day crustal deformation and strain partitioning in northeastern Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using available GPS and precise leveling data. We used the multi-scale wavelet method to analyze strain rates, and the elastic block model to estimate slip rates on the major faults and internal strain within each block. Our results show that shear strain is strongly localized along major strike-slip faults, as expected in the tectonic extrusion model. However, extrusion ends and transfers to crustal contraction near the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The strain transfer is abrupt along the Haiyuan Fault and diffusive along the East Kunlun Fault. Crustal contraction is spatially correlated with active uplifting. The present-day strain is concentrated along major fault zones; however, within many terranes bounded by these faults, intra-block strain is detectable. Terranes having high intra-block strain rates also show strong seismicity. On average the Ordos and Sichuan blocks show no intra-block strain, but localized strain on the southwestern corner of the Ordos block indicates tectonic encroachment.

  9. Phenological characteristics of the main vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau based on vegetation and water indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D L; Huang, W J; Zhou, B; Li, C J; Wu, Y P; Yang, X H

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenology is considered one of the most sensitive and easily observable natural indicators of climate change, though few studies have focused on the heterogeneities of phenology across the different vegetation types. In this study, we tried to find the phenological characteristics of the main vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau. MCD12Q1 images over the Tibetan Plateau from 2001 to 2010 were used to extract the main vegetation types. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) were calculated using surface reflectance values from the blue, red, near-infrared, short-wave infrared (SWIR) 6 (for LSIW6), and SWIR7 (for LSIW7) bands derived from MOD09A1 and used to explore the phenological characteristics of the main vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that there were eight constant vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau from 2001 to 2010 demonstrating multiple phenological characteristics. Evergreen needleleaf forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, and permanent wetland had the minimum NDVI values during the summer season, while open shrubland and grassland had the maximum NDVI/EVI values during this period. NDVI and EVI of cropland/natural vegetation had two peaks for their seasonal variations. EVI showed a more significant correlation with LSWI6/LSWI7 than NDVI. Compared to LSWI7, larger EVI values occurred in evergreen needleleaf forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, mixed forest, and permanent wetland, while smaller values occurred in shrubland and barren or sparsely vegetated cover, and nearly equal values occurred in grassland and cropland

  10. [Comparisons of prevalence and clinical and environmental characteristics between Tibetan and Han Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, K L; Zhuo, G; Chi, H B; Lan, Z

    2017-10-10

    Objective: By the preliminary comparison study on the constituent ratio and clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Tibetan and Han women in Tibetan Plateau, we aimed to find the relevance of its pathogenic factors, and to guide the treatment of PCOS in the plateau region and improve the prognosis. Methods: The general situation and clinical data of 165 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS from December 1, 2015 to November 30, 2016 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region were analyzed retrospectively. The prevalence of PCOS among Tibetan and Han women in Tibetan Plateau were compared. Results: (1) A total of 1 520 patients were treated in the Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital gynecological endocrinology clinics in one year (Tibetan 865 cases, Han 617 cases, other ethnic groups 38 cases), of which patients with PCOS accounted for 10.9% (165/1520). (2) The incidence of Tibetan PCOS patients with oligomenorrhea, infertility, amenorrhea, acne, hairy, LH/FSH inverted, overweight (BMI≥24), and waist circumference >80 cm were 21.2% (35/165), 20.6% (34/165), 16.4% (27/165), 28.5% (47/165), 17% (28/165), 38.2% (63/165), 23.6% (39/165), and 36.4% (60/165), respectively. The incidence of Han PCOS patients with oligomenorrhea, infertility, amenorrhea, acne, hairy, LH/FSH inverted, overweight (BMI≥24), and waist circumference >80 cm were 7.9% (13/165), 10.3% (17/165), 9.1% (15/165), 15.2% (25/165), 9.7% (16/165), 14.5% (24/165), 10.9% (18/165) and 19.4% (32/165), respectively. The proportion of high testosterone in Tibetan PCOS patients was higher than that in Han PCOS patients with statistically significant. (3) The chief complaint of Tibetan PCOS patients were oligomenorrhea and infertility, and the chief complaint of Han PCOS patients were infertility and amenorrhea. (4) The constituent ratio of outpatient clinics in Nyingchi who were with PCOS at an average elevation of about 3

  11. Functional Analyses of a Novel CITED2 Nonsynonymous Mutation in Chinese Tibetan Patients with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiming; Su, Zhaobing; Tan, Sainan; Ni, Bin; Pan, Hong; Liu, Beihong; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jianmin; Chen, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    CITED2 gene is an important cardiac transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in the formation and development of embryonic cardiovascular. Previous studies have showed that knock-out of CITED2 in mice might result in various cardiac malformations. However, the mechanisms of CITED2 mutation on congenital heart disease (CHD) in Chinese Tibetan population are still poorly understood. In the present study, 187 unrelated Tibetan patients with CHD and 200 unrelated Tibetan healthy controls were screened for variants in the CITED2 gene; we subsequently identified one potential disease-causing mutation p.G143A in a 6-year-old girl with PDA and functional analyses of the mutation were carried out. Our study showed that the novel mutation of CITED2 significantly enhanced the expression activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under the role of co-receptor hypoxia inducible factor 1-aipha (HIF-1A), which is closely related with embryonic cardiac development. As a result, CITED2 gene mutation may play a significant role in the development of pediatric congenital heart disease.

  12. Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuebin; Cui, Chaoying; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Xiang, Kun; Cao, Xiangyu; Wang, Yi; Ouzhuluobu; Basang; Ciwangsangbu; Bianba; Gonggalanzi; Wu, Tianyi; Chen, Hua; Shi, Hong; Su, Bing

    2013-08-01

    Tibetans live on the highest plateau in the world, their current population size is approximately 5 million, and most of them live at an altitude exceeding 3,500 m. Therefore, the Tibetan Plateau is a remarkable area for cultural and biological studies of human population history. However, the chronological profile of the Tibetan Plateau's colonization remains an unsolved question of human prehistory. To reconstruct the prehistoric colonization and demographic history of modern humans on the Tibetan Plateau, we systematically sampled 6,109 Tibetan individuals from 41 geographic populations across the entire region of the Tibetan Plateau and analyzed the phylogeographic patterns of both paternal (n = 2,354) and maternal (n = 6,109) lineages as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers (n = 50) in Tibetan populations. We found that there have been two distinct, major prehistoric migrations of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau. The first migration was marked by ancient Tibetan genetic signatures dated to approximately 30,000 years ago, indicating that the initial peopling of the Tibetan Plateau by modern humans occurred during the Upper Paleolithic rather than Neolithic. We also found evidences for relatively young (only 7-10 thousand years old) shared Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes between Tibetans and Han Chinese, suggesting a second wave of migration during the early Neolithic. Collectively, the genetic data indicate that Tibetans have been adapted to a high altitude environment since initial colonization of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Upper Paleolithic, before the last glacial maximum, followed by a rapid population expansion that coincided with the establishment of farming and yak pastoralism on the Plateau in the early Neolithic.

  13. Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  14. The Startling Phenomenon of the Western Tibetan Buddhist Nun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author concludes that despite the difficulty of adopting an ancient Asian religious tradition and transplanting its monastic institution to the West, these nuns have contributed significantly in transforming gender prejudice within the ranks of Tibetan Buddhism, and furthermore render a diversity of services in the lay and ...

  15. Buddhism, science, and market: The globalisation of Tibetan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Craig R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the processes by which Tibetan medicine has become globalised, and the ways in which these have come to determine, constrain, and, ultimately, transform local practices of healing in both Tibet and the West. I examine the degree to which globalisation, in particular international market capitalism, operating in this case through the Chinese state, structures the content of primary medical resources, confers legitimacy to certain technologies, and sets the ground rules by which the healers in charge of deploying such technologies are set into conversation with one another. I also argue that the cultural dimensions of globalisation enter the local context through the multiple-stranded flows of people, images, and ideas, and contribute to redefinitions of identity, suffering, and body praxis among patients/consumers in diverse local contexts. I proceed within two registers of analysis. In the first, I analyse these movements in the context of Tibetan medicine as it has been transformed, practised, and used, in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. In the second, the analytic lens shifts to a focus on Tibetan medicine as a 'global' alternative medicine in North America and Europe. The focus throughout is on the global-local dialectic: how Tibetan medicine is both produced as global commodity and consumed as 'local' tradition.

  16. Vocational Discernment among Tibetan Buddhist Monks in Dharamsala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alvin; Kellom, Gar E.

    2009-01-01

    A major historical shift is taking place in Tibetan Buddhism with the relocation of large numbers of monks from Tibet and the establishment of monasteries in Dharamsala, India and other parts of South Asia. This has created a shift in the way that young men are joining these monasteries and leading this age old religious tradition. Fifteen college…

  17. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  18. No Consistent Evidence for Advancing or Delaying Trends in Spring Phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; Xiao, Jingfeng; Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Ma, Mingguo; Che, Tao; Dai, Liyun; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Jinkui

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of climate change and has significant effects on the exchange of carbon, water, and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. The Tibetan Plateau, the Earth's "third pole," is a unique region for studying the long-term trends in vegetation phenology in response to climate change because of the sensitivity of its alpine ecosystems to climate and its low-level human disturbance. There has been a debate whether the trends in spring phenology over the Tibetan Plateau have been continuously advancing over the last two to three decades. In this study, we examine the trends in the start of growing season (SOS) for alpine meadow and steppe using the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS)3g normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data set (1982-2014), the GIMMS NDVI data set (1982-2006), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI data set (2001-2014), the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT-VEG) NDVI data set (1999-2013), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) NDVI data set (1998-2007). Both logistic and polynomial fitting methods are used to retrieve the SOS dates from the NDVI data sets. Our results show that the trends in spring phenology over the Tibetan Plateau depend on both the NDVI data set used and the method for retrieving the SOS date. There are large discrepancies in the SOS trends among the different NDVI data sets and between the two different retrieval methods. There is no consistent evidence that spring phenology ("green-up" dates) has been advancing or delaying over the Tibetan Plateau during the last two to three decades. Ground-based budburst data also indicate no consistent trends in spring phenology. The responses of SOS to environmental factors (air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature, and snow depth) also vary among NDVI data sets and phenology retrieval methods. The increases in winter and spring

  19. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing

  20. Distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in Tibetan hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs from the Gulu hot springs (23–83.6 °C, pH > 7 and Yangbajing hot springs (80–128 °C, pH > 7 were analyzed in order to investigate the distribution of archaeal lipids among different hot springs in Tibet. A soil sample from Gulu was incubated at different temperatures and analyzed for changes in iGDGTs to help evaluate whether surrounding soil may contribute to the iGDGTs in hot springs. The sources of bacterial GDGTs (bGDGTs in these hot springs were also investigated. The results revealed different profiles of iGDGTs between Gulu and Yangbajing hot springs. Core iGDGTs and polar iGDGTs also presented different patterns in each hot spring. The PCA analysis showed that the structure of polar iGDGTs can be explained by three factors and suggested multiple sources of these compounds. Bivariate correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between polar and core bGDGTs, suggesting the in situ production of bGDGTs in the hot springs. Furthermore, in the soil incubation experiment, temperature had the most significant influence on concentration of bGDGTs rather than iGDGTs, and polar bGDGTs had greater variability than core bGDGTs with changing temperature. Our results indicated that soil input had little influence on the composition of GDGTs in Tibetan hot springs. On the other hand, ring index and TEX86 values were both positively correlated with incubation temperature, suggesting that the structure of archaeal lipids changed in response to varying temperature during incubation.

  1. Integrated geophysical study of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Meng, X.; Guo, L.

    2011-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau, the so-called "Roof of the World", is a direct consequence of collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate starting in the early Cenozoic time. The continent-continent collision is still going on. The northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau is the front part of the Tibetan Plateau extends to mainland and favorable area for studying uplift and deformation of the Tibetan Plateau. In the past decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geodynamics and geological tectonics of this region. We assembled satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies with a resolution of one arc-minute from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and reduced them to obtain Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies. Then we gridded Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies on a regular grid, and subsequently processed them with the preferential continuation method to attenuate high-frequency noise and analyzed regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated tilt-angle derivative of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth distribution of the Moho discontinuity surface in this area by 3D density interface inversion. From the results of preliminary processing, we analyzed the main deep faults and geological tectonics in this region. We extracted seven important profiles' data of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this area, and then did forward modeling and inversion on each profile with constraints of geological information and other geophysical data. In the future, we will perform 3D constrained inversion of Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomalies in this region for better understanding deep structure and tectonics of the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the SinoProbe project (201011039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2010ZY26 2011PY0184), and the National Natural Science Foundation

  2. The Biogeographic Pattern of Microbial Functional Genes along an Altitudinal Gradient of the Tibetan Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Qi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the highest place of the world, the Tibetan plateau is a fragile ecosystem. Given the importance of microbial communities in driving soil nutrient cycling, it is of interest to document the microbial biogeographic pattern here. We adopted a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 to investigate grassland microbial functional genes along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 3800 m above sea level open to free grazing by local herdsmen and wild animals. Interestingly, microbial functional diversities increase with elevation, so does the relative abundances of genes associated with carbon degradation, nitrogen cycling, methane production, cold shock and oxygen limitation. The range of Shannon diversities (10.27–10.58 showed considerably smaller variation than what was previously observed at ungrazed sites nearby (9.95–10.65, suggesting the important role of livestock grazing on microbial diversities. Closer examination showed that the dissimilarity of microbial community at our study sites increased with elevations, revealing an elevation-decay relationship of microbial functional genes. Both microbial functional diversity and the number of unique genes increased with elevations. Furthermore, we detected a tight linkage of greenhouse gas (CO2 and relative abundances of carbon cycling genes. Our biogeographic study provides insights on microbial functional diversity and soil biogeochemical cycling in Tibetan pastures.

  3. Erosion patterns produced by the paleo Haizishan ice cap, SE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P.; Stroeven, A. P.; Harbor, J.; Hättestrand, C.; Heyman, J.; Caffee, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Erosion is a primary driver of landscape evolution, topographic relief production, geochemical cycles, and climate change. Combining in situ 10Be and 26Al exposure age dating, geomorphological mapping, and field investigations, we examine glacial erosion patterns of the almost 4,000 km2 paleo Haizishan ice cap on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our results show that ice caps on the low relief Haizishan Plateau produced a zonal pattern of landscape modification. In locations where apparent exposure ages on bedrock are consistent with the last deglaciation, complete resetting of the cosmogenic exposure age clock indicates glacial erosion of at least a few meters. However, older apparent exposure ages on bedrock in areas known to have been covered by the paleo ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum indicate inheritance and thus limited glacial erosion. Inferred surface exposure ages from cosmogenic depth profiles through two saprolites vary from resetting and thus saprolite profile truncation to nuclide inheritance indicating limited erosion. Finally, significant nuclide inheritance in river sand samples from basins on the scoured plateau surface also indicate limited glacial erosion during the last glaciation. Hence, for the first time, our study shows clear evidence of preservation under non-erosive ice on the Tibetan Plateau. As patterns of glacial erosion intensity are largely driven by the basal thermal regime, our results confirm earlier inferences from geomorphology for a concentric basal thermal pattern for the paleo Haizishan ice cap during the LGM.

  4. The Biogeographic Pattern of Microbial Functional Genes along an Altitudinal Gradient of the Tibetan Pasture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Qi; Zhao, Mengxin; Wang, Shiping; Ma, Xingyu; Wang, Yuxuan; Gao, Ying; Lin, Qiaoyan; Li, Xiangzhen; Gu, Baohua; Li, Guoxue; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-06-13

    As the highest place of the world, the Tibetan plateau is a fragile ecosystem. Given the importance of microbial communities in driving soil nutrient cycling, it is of interest to document the microbial biogeographic pattern here. We adopted a microarray-based tool named GeoChip 4.0 to investigate grassland microbial functional genes along an elevation gradient from 3200 to 3800 m above sea level open to free grazing by local herdsmen and wild animals. Interestingly, microbial functional diversities increase with elevation, so does the relative abundances of genes associated with carbon degradation, nitrogen cycling, methane production, cold shock and oxygen limitation. The range of Shannon diversities (10.27–10.58) showed considerably smaller variation than what was previously observed at ungrazed sites nearby (9.95–10.65), suggesting the important role of livestock grazing on microbial diversities. Closer examination showed that the dissimilarity of microbial community at our study sites increased with elevations, revealing an elevation-decay relationship of microbial functional genes. Both microbial functional diversity and the number of unique genes increased with elevations. Furthermore, we detected a tight linkage of greenhouse gas (CO2) and relative abundances of carbon cycling genes. Our biogeographic study provides insights on microbial functional diversity and soil biogeochemical cycling in Tibetan pastures.

  5. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cen; Yang, Hongxia; Du, Yuzhi; Xiao, Yuancan; Zhandui; Sanglao; Wang, Zhang; Ladan, Duojie; Bi, Hongtao; Wei, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Zuotai ( gTso thal ) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100-800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1-30  μ m loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β -HgS, S 8 , and α -HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai , and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug.

  6. Polymorphisms of genes in neurotransmitter systems were associated with alcohol use disorders in a Tibetan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available Studies of linkage and association in various ethnic populations have revealed many predisposing genes of multiple neurotransmitter systems for alcohol use disorders (AUD. However, evidence often is contradictory regarding the contribution of most candidate genes to the susceptibility of AUD. We, therefore, performed a case-control study to investigate the possible associations of genes selected from multiple neurotransmitter systems with AUD in a homogeneous Tibetan community population in China. AUD cases (N = 281 with an alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT score ≥10, as well as healthy controls (N = 277 with an AUDIT score ≤5, were recruited. All participants were genotyped for 366 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of 34 genes selected from those involved in neurotransmitter systems. Association analyses were performed using PLINK version 1.07 software. Allelic analyses before adjustment for multiple tests showed that 15 polymorphisms within seven genes were associated with AUD (p<0.05. After adjustment for the number of SNPs genotyped within each gene, only the association of a single marker (rs10044881 in HTR4 remained statistically significant. Haplotype analysis for two SNPs in HTR4 (rs17777298 and rs10044881 showed that the haplotype AG was significantly associated with the protective effect for AUD. In conclusion, the present study discovered that the HTR4 gene may play a marked role in the pathogenesis of AUD. In addition, this Tibetan population sample marginally replicated previous evidence regarding the associations of six genes in AUD.

  7. The effect of the Asian Monsoon to the atmospheric boundary layer over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoshan; Su, Zhongbo; Chen, Xuelong; Zheng, Donghai; Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Modulation of the diurnal variations in the convective activities associated with day-by-day changes of surface flux and soil moisture was observed in the beginning of the monsoon season on the central Tibetan plateau (Sugimoto et al., 2008) which indicates the importance of land-atmosphere interactions in determining convective activities over the Tibetan plateau. Detailed interaction processes need to be studied by experiments designed to evaluate a set of hypotheses on mechanisms and linkages of these interactions. A possible function of vegetation to increase precipitation in cases of Tibetan High type was suggested by Yamada and Uyeda (2006). Use of satellite derived plateau scale soil moisture (Wen et al., 2003) enables the verification of these hypotheses (e.g. Trier et al. 2004). To evaluate these feedbacks, the mesoscale WRF model will be used because several numerical experiments are being conducted to improve the soil physical parameterization in the Noah land surface scheme in WRF so that the extreme conditions on the Tibetan plateau could be adequately represented (Van der Velde et al., 2009) such that the impacts on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer can be assessed and improved. The Tibetan Observational Research Platform (TORP) operated by the Institute of Tibetan Plateau (Ma et al., 2008) will be fully utilized to study the characteristics of the plateau climate and different aspects of the WRF model will be evaluated using this extensive observation platform (e.g. Su et al., 2012). Recently, advanced studies on energy budget have been done by combining field and satellite measurements over the Tibetan Plateau (e.g. Ma et al., 2005). Such studies, however, were based on a single satellite observation and for a few days over an annual cycle, which are insufficient to reveal the relation between the land surface energy budget and the Asian monsoon over the Tibetan plateau. Time series analysis of satellite observations will provide the

  8. Freshwater Biogeography and Limnological Evolution of the Tibetan Plateau - Insights from a Plateau-Wide Distributed Gastropod Taxon (Radix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Parm Viktor; Albrecht, Christian; Riedel, Frank; Du, Lina; Yang, Junxing; Aldridge, David C.; Bößneck, Ulrich; Zhang, Hucai; Wilke, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic origin, dispersal and

  9. Salinity Affects the Composition of the Aerobic Methanotroph Community in Alkaline Lake Sediments from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongcui; Liu, Yongqin; Dumont, Marc; Conrad, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Tibetan Plateau, which plays an important role in natural methane emission. Aerobic methanotrophs in lake sediments reduce the amount of methane released into the atmosphere. However, no study to date has analyzed the methanotroph community composition and their driving factors in sediments of these high-altitude lakes (>4000 m). To provide new insights on this aspect, the abundance and composition in the sediments of six high-altitude alkaline lakes (including both freshwater and saline lakes) on the Tibetan Plateau were studied. The quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 454-pyrosequencing methods were used to target the pmoA genes. The pmoA gene copies ranged 10 4 -10 6 per gram fresh sediment. Type I methanotrophs predominated in Tibetan lake sediments, with Methylobacter and uncultivated type Ib methanotrophs being dominant in freshwater lakes and Methylomicrobium in saline lakes. Combining the pmoA-pyrosequencing data from Tibetan lakes with other published pmoA-sequencing data from lake sediments of other regions, a significant salinity and alkalinity effect (P = 0.001) was detected, especially salinity, which explained ∼25% of methanotroph community variability. The main effect was Methylomicrobium being dominant (up to 100%) in saline lakes only. In freshwater lakes, however, methanotroph composition was relatively diverse, including Methylobacter, Methylocystis, and uncultured type Ib clusters. This study provides the first methanotroph data for high-altitude lake sediments (>4000 m) and shows that salinity is a driving factor for the community composition of aerobic methanotrophs.

  10. Prevalence, Associated Risk Factors, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxocara vitulorum Infection in Yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Lan, Yanfang; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Dongyu; Zhang, Lihong; Gui, Rui; Wang, Lei; Shahzad, Muhammad; Sizhu, Suolang; Li, Jiakui; Chamba, Yangzom

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.

  11. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kyu-Myong, Kim; Yasunari, Teppei; Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation ( 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height ( 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain, and thermal forcing of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) an snow albedo-temperature feedback initiated by a transfer of latent and sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere over the HKHT to the underlying snow surface. Results from ongoing modeling work to assess the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will also be discussed.

  12. Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants at two remote locations: The Canadian High Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hang; Shen Li; Su, Yushan; Barresi, Enzo; DeJong, Maryl; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying-Duan; Wania, Frank; Reiner, Eric J.; Sverko, Ed; Kang, Shi-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of halogenated flame retardants (FRs) were monitored for approximately one year at two remote stations, namely Nam Co on the Tibetan Plateau and Alert in the Canadian High Arctic. BDE-47 and 99 were the dominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners at both sites. Atmospheric PBDE concentrations in Nam Co were generally lower than those at Alert. While significant seasonal variations were observed for PBDEs at Alert, the FR concentrations at Nam Co showed no significant seasonality, even though air masses originated from distinctly different regions during different seasons. This suggests that FRs in Tibet do not have regional sources, but are reflective of truly global background contamination. Three new FRs, namely 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 2-ethyl-1-hexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTeBB) and bis(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) were detected at relatively high concentrations at both sites. This is the first report of these FRs in the remote global atmosphere and suggests significant potential for long-range atmospheric transport. - Highlights: ► First year-round measurements of FRs in the atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau. ► PBDEs in Tibet are reflective of truly global background levels. ► Orographic precipitation limits the transport of particle-bound chemicals. ► First study of BTBPE, EHTeBB and TBPH in the Arctic and Tibetan air. ► These new FRs may have significant long-range atmospheric transport potential. - Several brominated flame retardants (BTBPE, EHTeBB, TBPH) were present in the atmosphere of the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau at levels similar to those of the PBDEs.

  13. [Correlation between HLA-DB1 genes and susceptibility to echinococcosis in Tibetan population in Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Feng, Gao; Xiu-Min, Han; Xue-Fei, Zhang; Yong-Shun, Wang; Wei, Wang; Ya-Min, Guo; Yong-Shou, Li

    2017-10-23

    To determine the susceptibility genes and resistance genes in HLA-DRB1 alleles in Tibetan patients with cystic and alveolar hydatid diseases, so as to provide the references for the research of the genetic characteristics and infection mechanism of Tibetan hydatid diseases. The case control method was applied. The Tibetan patients with cystic and alveolar hydatid diseases (63 and 73 cases respectively) in Yushu and Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and unrelated healthy people (60 cases) in this area were selected as the study subjects. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence based typing (PCR-SBT) technique was applied for genotyping of HLA-DRB1, and the comparison of the gene frequency. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in the alveolar/cystic echinococcosis group was lower than that in the control group ( χ 2 = 4.71, 4.31, both P < 0.05). HLA-DRB1*04 genotypes may be associated with the resistance of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis and its resistance genes.

  14. Quartz OSL Dating of the loess deposit in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and its environment implications since the Last Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Liu, W.; Fang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Loess deposit is widespread in the Chuanxi Plateau, the eastern Tibetan Plateau, which is a critical archive for understanding the aeolian process, the evolution of the westerly and the environment changes on the Plateau. Previous studies have shown its aeolian origin, and mainly transported by wind from the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the aeolian processes of the loess and its environment implications are not well understood mainly due to lack of detailed age controls. We carry out a combined quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating (AMS 14-C) for the loess deposits in Garzê and Jinchuan. The results indicate that the quartz OSL dating can provide reliable age controls for the loess-paleosol sequences from the Chuanxi Plateau, showing the potential of OSL to date loess in the high altitude region. The results indicate that the OSL ages are in agreement with the observed stratigraphy in the field. The constructed OSL and AMS 14-C chronology of the Garzê loess reveals that the widespread loess in Ganzi Region deposited since the Last Glacial. The dust accumulation is rapid during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 and 2, and a relative low accumulation rate in the Holocene, which may related with the desertification processes of the inner Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Evolutionary history of enigmatic bears in the Tibetan Plateau–Himalaya region and the identity of the yeti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianying; Gill, Stephanie; Bellemain, Eva; Bischof, Richard; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Although anecdotally associated with local bears (Ursus arctos and U. thibetanus), the exact identity of ‘hominid’-like creatures important to folklore and mythology in the Tibetan Plateau–Himalaya region is still surrounded by mystery. Recently, two purported yeti samples from the Himalayas showed genetic affinity with an ancient polar bear, suggesting they may be from previously unrecognized, possibly hybrid, bear species, but this preliminary finding has been under question. We conducted a comprehensive genetic survey of field-collected and museum specimens to explore their identity and ultimately infer the evolutionary history of bears in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences determined clade affinities of the purported yeti samples in this study, strongly supporting the biological basis of the yeti legend to be local, extant bears. Complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled for Himalayan brown bear (U. a. isabellinus) and black bear (U. t. laniger) for the first time. Our results demonstrate that the Himalayan brown bear is one of the first-branching clades within the brown bear lineage, while Tibetan brown bears diverged much later. The estimated times of divergence of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan bear lineages overlap with Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciation events, suggesting that extant bears in the region are likely descendants of populations that survived in local refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:29187630

  16. Evolutionary history of enigmatic bears in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalaya region and the identity of the yeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianying; Gill, Stephanie; Bellemain, Eva; Bischof, Richard; Nawaz, Muhammad Ali; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2017-12-13

    Although anecdotally associated with local bears ( Ursus arctos and U. thibetanus ), the exact identity of 'hominid'-like creatures important to folklore and mythology in the Tibetan Plateau-Himalaya region is still surrounded by mystery. Recently, two purported yeti samples from the Himalayas showed genetic affinity with an ancient polar bear, suggesting they may be from previously unrecognized, possibly hybrid, bear species, but this preliminary finding has been under question. We conducted a comprehensive genetic survey of field-collected and museum specimens to explore their identity and ultimately infer the evolutionary history of bears in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences determined clade affinities of the purported yeti samples in this study, strongly supporting the biological basis of the yeti legend to be local, extant bears. Complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled for Himalayan brown bear ( U. a. isabellinus ) and black bear ( U. t. laniger ) for the first time. Our results demonstrate that the Himalayan brown bear is one of the first-branching clades within the brown bear lineage, while Tibetan brown bears diverged much later. The estimated times of divergence of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan bear lineages overlap with Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciation events, suggesting that extant bears in the region are likely descendants of populations that survived in local refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  18. Influences of climate change on area variation of Qinghai Lake on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau since 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lingyi; Duan, Xiaofang; Kong, Fanjin; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Yangfan; Li, Zhen; Mei, Yi; Zhao, Yanwen; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-05-09

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the most sensitive region to global warming on Earth. Qinghai Lake, the largest lake on the plateau, has experienced evident area variation during the past several decades. To quantify the area changes of Qinghai Lake, a satellite-based survey based on Landsat images from the 1980s to 2010s has been performed. In addition, meteorological data from all the seven available stations on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been analyzed. Area of Qinghai Lake shrank ~2% during 1987-2005, and then increased ~3% from 2005-2016. Meanwhile, the average annual temperature increased 0.319 °C/10 y in the past 50 years, where the value is 0.415 °C/10 y from 2005-2016. The structural equation modeling (SEM) shows that precipitation is the primary factor influencing the area of Qinghai Lake. Moreover, temperature might be tightly correlated with precipitation, snow line, and evaporation, thereby indirectly causes alternations of the lake area. This study elucidated the significant area variation of water body on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau under global warming since 1980s.

  19. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianwei; Ruby Leung, L.; Chen, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of increasing climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P/PET) as an aridity index, we used observed meteorological records at 83 stations in the TP to calculate PET using the Penman–Monteith algorithm and the ratio. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979–2011 were analyzed. Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter, and half of the stations in the semi-humid eastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with the change patterns of precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range. Temporal correlations between the annual P/PET ratio and other meteorological variables confirm the significant correlation between aridity and the three variables, with precipitation being the dominant driver of P/PET changes at the interannual time scale. Annual PET are insignificantly but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, the correlation between PET and P/PET is significant at the confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere near the surface melts. Significant correlation between annual wind speed and aridity occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring. (letter)

  20. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  1. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system. PMID:26170316

  2. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N W; Berjak, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than -180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g(-1) dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s(-1) or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s(-1). Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s(-1)) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following cryo-exposure and formation of small

  3. Relationship between chemical composition of native forage and nutrient digestibility by Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuntao; Gao, Peng; Hou, Fujiang; Yan, Tianhai; Chang, Shenghua; Chen, Xianjiang; Wang, Zhaofeng

    2018-04-02

    To better utilize native pasture at the high altitude region, three-consecutive-year feeding experiments and a total of seven metabolism trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of three forage stages of maturity on the chemical composition, nutrient digestibility, and energy metabolism of native forage in Tibetan sheep on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Forages were harvested from June to July, August to October, and November to December of 2011 to 2013, corresponding to the vegetative, bloom, and senescent stages of the annual forages. Twenty male Tibetan sheep were selected for each study and fed native forage ad libitum. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, DE, DE/GE, and ME/GE were greatest (P digestibility and energy parameters correlated positively (linear, 0.422 to 0.778; quadratic, 0.568 to 0.815; P digestibility. Contrary to previous studies, in this study, ADF content had a greater linear relationship (0.766 vs. 0.563 to 0.732) with OM digestibility than the other parameters of nutrient digestibility. The quadratic relationship between forage CP content and CP digestibility indicates that when forage CP content exceeds the peak point (9.7% DM in the present study), increasing forage CP content could decrease CP digestibility when Tibetan sheep were offered native forage alone on the QTP. Additionally, using the forage CP, EE, NDF, and ADF content to predict DMI (g/kg BW·d) yielded the best fit equation for Tibetan sheep living in the northeast portion of the QTP.

  4. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Guia Para El Maestro (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Teacher's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…

  5. [Literature survey on botanical origin and clinical application of traditional Tibetan medicine "Shengdeng"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Dao; Meng, Xian-Hua; Zhang, Ying-Shan; Chen, Gen-Ping; Huang, Yu-Lan

    2012-10-01

    "Shengdeng" is its Tibetan transliteration referring to many medicines. Tibetan doctors and pharmacists in different areas use different drugs in formulation and clinical application, which are easily confused. In order to grasp the formula and clinical application accurately, we conduct a literature survey on history and current state of botanical origin and clinical application of "Shengdeng", making clear the application of various herbs named "Shengdeng" and providing reference to all Tibetan researchers and clinical workers in formulation and clinical application.

  6. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  7. Wish-fulfilling jewel pills: Tibetan medicines from exclusivity to ubiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Calum

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent growth of social science literature concerning the traditional medicine industry in Asia, insights into the contemporary dynamics of so-called 'classical formulae' remain relatively scant, as do studies of small-scale, less capitally intensive and technologically advanced modes of production. This paper seeks to address these gaps by considering a single Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan medicine) formula known as Samphel Norbu, or 'wish-fulfilling jewel', which appears in numerous texts and is today among the most popular Tibetan medicines in the world. Drawing primarily upon long-term fieldwork in Himalayan India, the paper follows Samphel Norbu's rise from exclusivity to popularity and examines the ways it has been transformed in the process, both materially and in its economic, social and clinical significance. The paper shows how Samphel Norbu acts as a marker of inequality between different groups of healers, and examines the role the medicine played in the development of commercial pharmacy and the proliferation of complex medicines. Tracing out wide variations in the medicine's formulation, composition, mode of production and pattern of circulation places the issue of multiplicity at the centre of analysis, and leads to a questioning of the assumptions that underpin the category 'classical formula'. The paper reflects upon the repositioning of such formulae within emergent configurations of knowledge, power, industry and market, and on their transformations and transformative effects both over time and in the present moment.

  8. Snow effects on alpine vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yubao; Ji, Lei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Cuizhen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between snow and vegetation is important for interpretation of the responses of alpine ecosystems to climate changes. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as an ideal area due to its undisturbed features with low population and relatively high snow cover. We used 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets during 2001–2010 to examine the snow–vegetation relationships, specifically, (1) the influence of snow melting date on vegetation green-up date and (2) the effects of snow cover duration on vegetation greenness. The results showed that the alpine vegetation responded strongly to snow phenology (i.e., snow melting date and snow cover duration) over large areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Snow melting date and vegetation green-up date were significantly correlated (p growth was influenced by different seasonal snow cover durations (SCDs) in different regions. Generally, the December–February and March–May SCDs played a significantly role in vegetation growth, both positively and negatively, depending on different water source regions. Snow's positive impact on vegetation was larger than the negative impact.

  9. Analyzing the Velocity of Vegetation Phenology Over the Tibetan Plateau Using Gimms NDVI3g Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. K.

    2018-05-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, and phenology is a classic proxy to detect the response of vegetation to the changes. On the Tibetan Plateau, the earlier spring and delayed autumn vegetation phenology is widely reported. Remotely sensed NDVI can serve as a good data source for vegetation phenology study. Here GIMMS NDVI3g data was used to detect vegetation phenology status on the Tibetan Plateau. The spatial and temporal gradients are combined to depict the velocity of vegetation expanding process. This velocity index represents the instantaneous local velocity along the Earth's surface needed to maintain constant vegetation condition. This study found that NDVI velocity show a complex spatial pattern. A considerable number of regions display a later starting of growing season (SOS) and earlier end of growing season (EOS) reflected by the velocity change, particularly in the central part of the plateau. Nearly 74 % vegetation experienced a shortened growing season length. Totally, the magnitude of the phenology velocity is at a small level that reveals there is not a significant variation of vegetation phenology under the climate change context.

  10. Spatial-Temporal Patterns and Controls of Evapotranspiration across the Tibetan Plateau (2000–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is a key factor to further our understanding of climate change processes, especially on the Tibetan Plateau, which is sensitive to global change. Herein, the spatial patterns of ET are examined, and the effects of environmental factors on ET at different scales are explored from the years 2000 to 2012. The results indicated that a steady trend in ET was detected over the past decade. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution shows an increase of ET from the northwest to the southeast, and the rate of change in ET is lower in the middle part of the Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the positive effect of radiation on ET existed mainly in the southwest. Based on the environment gradient transects, the ET had positive correlations with temperature (R>0.85, p 0.89, p 0.75, p < 0.0001, but a negative correlation between ET and radiation (R = 0.76, p < 0.0001 was observed. We also found that the relationships between environmental factors and ET differed in the different grassland ecosystems, which indicated that vegetation type is one factor that can affect ET. Generally, the results indicate that ET can serve as a valuable ecological indicator.

  11. Snowmelt Pattern and Lake Ice Phenology around Tibetan Plateau Estimated from Enhanced Resolution Passive Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C.; Shi, J.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Snow and ice is very sensitive to the climate change. Rising air temperature will cause the snowmelt time change. In contrast, the change in snow state will have feedback on climate through snow albedo. The snow melt timing is also correlated with the associated runoff. Ice phenology describes the seasonal cycle of lake ice cover and includes freeze-up and breakup periods and ice cover duration, which is an important weather and climate indicator. It is also important for lake-atmosphere interactions and hydrological and ecological processes. The enhanced resolution (up to 3.125 km) passive microwave data is used to estimate the snowmelt pattern and lake ice phenology on and around Tibetan Plateau. The enhanced resolution makes the estimation of snowmelt and lake ice phenology in more spatial detail compared to previous 25 km gridded passive microwave data. New algorithm based on smooth filters and change point detection was developed to estimate the snowmelt and lake ice freeze-up and break-up timing. Spatial and temporal pattern of snowmelt and lake ice phonology are estimated. This study provides an objective evidence of climate change impact on the cryospheric system on Tibetan Plateau. The results show significant earlier snowmelt and lake ice break-up in some regions.

  12. Deuterium excess record in a southern Tibetan ice core and its potential climatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huabiao; Xu, Baiqing; Yao, Tandong; Wu, Guangjian; Lin, Shubiao; Gao, Jing; Wang, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    A 55-m long ice core, drilled close to bedrock from Mt. Noijin Kangsang on the southern Tibetan Plateau in summer 2007, was annually dated covering the period of 1864-2006 AD. The stable isotope ratios ({delta} {sup 18}O and {delta}D) of the ice core were measured and thereby the deuterium excess (d) was calculated by d = {delta}D - 8*{delta} {sup 18}O for the individual ice samples. Results show that the d values of the ice samples were predominantly controlled by the moisture sources. The significant increasing trend of annual mean d values along the ice core is mainly related to the rapid warming of the tropical Indian Ocean, although the tendency is subjected to the modulation by the western-derived moisture. The decreasing Indian monsoon precipitation on the southern Tibetan Plateau, physically linked with the increasing tropical Indian Ocean SST, reduced the share of monsoon precipitation in the annual total accumulation, making an additional contribution to the significant increase of annual mean d in the Noijin Kangsang ice core with high values during the past 143 years. (orig.)

  13. Salinity drives archaeal distribution patterns in high altitude lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Priscu, John C; Xiong, Jinbo; Conrad, Ralf; Vick-Majors, Trista; Chu, Haiyan; Hou, Juzhi

    2016-03-01

    Archaeal communities and the factors regulating their diversity in high altitude lakes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first high-throughput sequencing study of Archaea from Tibetan Plateau lake sediments. We analyzed twenty lake sediments from the world's highest and largest plateau and found diverse archaeal assemblages that clustered into groups dominated by methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Halobacteria/mixed euryarchaeal phylotypes. Statistical analysis inferred that salinity was the major driver of community composition, and that archaeal diversity increased with salinity. Sediments with the highest salinities were mostly dominated by Halobacteria. Crenarchaeota dominated at intermediate salinities, and methanogens were present in all lake sediments, albeit most abundant at low salinities. The distribution patterns of the three functional types of methanogens (hydrogenotrophic, acetotrophic and methylotrophic) were also related to changes in salinity. Our results show that salinity is a key factor controlling archaeal community diversity and composition in lake sediments on a spatial scale that spans nearly 2000 km on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain over the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yabin; Ma, Yingzhao; Chen, Haonan; Wen, Yixin

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is one of the important applications of weather radars. However, in complex terrain such as Tibetan Plateau, it is a challenging task to obtain an optimal Z-R relation due to the complex spatial and temporal variability in precipitation microphysics. This paper develops two radar QPE schemes respectively based on Reflectivity Threshold (RT) and Storm Cell Identification and Tracking (SCIT) algorithms using observations from 11 Doppler weather radars and 3264 rain gauges over the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP). These two QPE methodologies are evaluated extensively using four precipitation events that are characterized by different meteorological features. Precipitation characteristics of independent storm cells associated with these four events, as well as the storm-scale differences, are investigated using short-term vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) clusters. Evaluation results show that the SCIT-based rainfall approach performs better than the simple RT-based method for all precipitation events in terms of score comparison using validation gauge measurements as references. It is also found that the SCIT-based approach can effectively mitigate the local error of radar QPE and represent the precipitation spatiotemporal variability better than the RT-based scheme.

  15. Identification and expression patterns of adipokine genes during adipocyte differentiation in the Tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2018-02-15

    Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats. In this study, we cloned the resistin (RETN), apelin (APLN), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and visfatin (NAMPT) genes from non-pregnant female Tibetan goat adipose tissue. APLN and NAMPT were predominantly expressed in the kidney, and FGF21 was expressed at the highest levels in the liver in vivo. In fat tissues, the highest expression levels of FGF21 and RETN were detected in omental fat, whereas their expression in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was extremely weak. APLN and NAMPT were abundantly expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat in vivo. In addition, the four adipokines had different expression profiles during goat adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Oil red O staining showed that rosiglitazone could promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet formation. In addition, rosiglitazone significantly increased the expression of FGF21 and RETN (pgoat adipocyte differentiation. And PPARγ could regulate the expression of the four adipokines, but the detailed regulatory mechanism still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  17. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  18. [Research progress on resources and quality evaluation of Tibetan medicine in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan-Hao; Zhao, Cai-Yun; Liu, Yue; Wan, Li; Jia, Min-Ru; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Zhang, Yi

    2016-02-01

    With the development of Tibetan medicine industry, the demands for Tibetan medicine were rising sharply. In addition, with the eco-environment vulnerability of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region and the phenomenon of synonymies and homonymies in Tibetan medicine, there were a lack of resources and varieties in the clinical application of Tibetan medicine. At present, the shortage of Tibetan medicine and the inadequacy of its quality standard have become the two major problems that seriously restricted the sustainable development of Tibetan medicine industry. Therefore, it is important to develop the resources investigation and quality evaluation for Tibetan medicine, which were contribute to its resources protection and sustainable utilization. In this paper, current status of resources investigation, quality standardization, artificial breeding and germplasm resources of Tibetan medicine were presented by the integrated application of the new technologies, such as DNA barcoding and 1H-NMR, which provided a reference information for resources protection, sustainable utilization, variety identification and quality standardization of Tibetan medicine resources in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Bacterial community in the rumen of Tibetan sheep and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Luo, Yuzhu

    2017-05-12

    The rumen microbiome plays a vital role in ruminant nutrition and health, and its community is affected by environmental factors. However, little is known about the rumen bacterial community of ruminants living in the special ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rumen bacterial community of the typical plateau sheep (Tibetan sheep, TS, and Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, GS) grazing on the QTP, using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the QTP environment. A total of 116 sequences (201 clones) were examined and divided into 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the TS library and 46 OTUs in the GS library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences that belonged to the Firmicutes were the most predominant bacteria in both TS and GS libraries, representing 79.4% and 62.8% of the total clones, respectively. The remaining sequences belonged to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, or were unclassified bacteria. Sequence analysis revealed that the TS and GS rumens harbored many novel sequences associated with uncultured bacteria that accounted for 63.6% and 46.8% of the total clones, respectively. Comparison of the composition and diversity of the TS and GS rumen bacteria revealed few overlapping known bacteria between the two breeds, and a higher diversity in TS. The rumen bacteria of the plateau sheep showed higher percentages of bacteria that belonged to Firmicutes and novel species compared with the low-elevation sheep. The unique bacterial community in the plateau sheep rumens is perhaps one of the major reasons that they can adapt to the harsh plateau environment. These results can help identify the rumen bacterial community of the ruminants in the QTP, and provide bacteria resources and basic data to improve ruminant productivity.

  20. Evidence for Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Tibetan Loach Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yanping; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-10-09

    Triplophysa fishes are the primary component of the fish fauna on the Tibetan Plateau and are well adapted to the high-altitude environment. Despite the importance of Triplophysa fishes on the plateau, the genetic mechanisms of the adaptations of these fishes to this high-altitude environment remain poorly understood. In this study, we generated the transcriptome sequences for three Triplophysa fishes, that is, Triplophysa siluroides, Triplophysa scleroptera, and Triplophysa dalaica, and used these and the previously available transcriptome and genome sequences from fishes living at low altitudes to identify potential genetic mechanisms for the high-altitude adaptations in Triplophysa fishes. An analysis of 2,269 orthologous genes among cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), and Triplophysa fishes revealed that each of the terminal branches of the Triplophysa fishes had a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than that of the branches of the fishes from low altitudes, which provided consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in the Triplophysa genus. Many of the GO (Gene Ontology) categories associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia response exhibited accelerated evolution in the Triplophysa fishes compared with the large-scale loach. The genes that exhibited signs of positive selection and rapid evolution in the Triplophysa fishes were also significantly enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories. Our analysis identified widespread Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the fast evolving genes and positively selected genes. Moreover, we detected significant evidence of positive selection in the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1A and HIF-2B genes in Triplophysa fishes and found that the Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the HIF-1A and HIF-2B genes were associated with functional changes. Overall, our study provides

  1. Climate change and its impacts on vegetation distribution and net primary productivity of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Guo, Yaqi; Xu, Hongmei; Ganjurjav, Hasbagen; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Liu, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Changes in climate have caused impacts on ecosystems on all continents scale, and climate change is also projected to be a stressor on most ecosystems even at the rate of low- to medium-range warming scenarios. Alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is vulnerable to climate change. To quantify the climate change impacts on alpine ecosystems, we simulated the vegetation distribution and net primary production in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for three future periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ model) was parameter and test to make it applicable to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Climate projections that were applied to LPJ model in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. Results based on climate projections indicated changes from 1.3°C to 4.2°C in annual temperature and changes from 2% to 5% in annual precipitation. The main impacts on vegetation distribution was increase in the area of forests and shrubs, decrease in alpine meadows which mainly replaced by shrubs which dominated the eastern plateau, and expanding in alpine steppes to the northwest dominated the western and northern plateau. The NPP was projected to increase by 79% and 134% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The projected NPP generally increased about 200gC·m(-2)·yr(-1) in most parts of the plateau with a gradual increase from the eastern to the western region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at the end of this century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating the daily global solar radiation spatial distribution from diurnal temperature ranges over the Tibetan Plateau in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shaohong; Dai, Erfu; Liu, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bristow–Campbell model was calibrated and validated over the Tibetan Plateau. ► Develop a simple method to rasterise the daily global solar radiation and get gridded information. ► The daily global solar radiation spatial distribution over the Tibetan Plateau was estimated. - Abstract: Daily global solar radiation is fundamental to most ecological and biophysical processes because it plays a key role in the local and global energy budget. However, gridded information about the spatial distribution of solar radiation is limited. This study aims to parameterise the Bristow–Campbell model for the daily global solar radiation estimation in the Tibetan Plateau and propose a method to rasterise the daily global solar radiation. Observed daily solar radiation and diurnal temperature data from eleven stations over the Tibetan Plateau during 1971–2010 were used to calibrate and validate the Bristow–Campbell radiation model. The extra-terrestrial radiation and clear sky atmospheric transmittance were calculated on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. Results show that the Bristow–Campbell model performs well after adjusting the parameters, the average Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r), Nash–Sutcliffe equation (NSE), ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR), and root mean-square error (RMSE) of 11 stations are 0.85, 2.81 MJ m −2 day −1 , 0.3 and 0.77 respectively. Gridded maximum and minimum average temperature data were obtained using Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) and validated by the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) stations’ data. The spatial daily global solar radiation distribution pattern was estimated and analysed by combining the solar radiation model (Bristow–Campbell model) and meteorological interpolation model (PRISM). Based on the overall results, it can be concluded that a calibrated Bristow–Campbell performs well

  3. The Evolution of Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, T.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Hua, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Indian plate has been colliding with Eurasian plate since 50Ma years ago, resulting in the Tethys extinction, crust shortening and Tibetan plateau uplift. But it is still a debate how the Tibetan Plateau material escaped. This study tries to invert the distributions of dispersion phase velocity and anisotropy in Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) based on the seismic data. We focused on the seven sub-blocks around EHS region. Sub-block "EHS" represents EHS corner with high velocity anomalies, significantly compressed in the axle and strike directions. Sub-blocks "LSD", "QTB" and "SP-GZB" are located at its northern areas with compressions also, and connected with low-velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Sub-block "ICB" is located at its southern area with low velocity anomaly, and connected with Tengchong volcano. Sub-blocks "SYDB" and "YZB" are located at its eastern areas with high velocity anomalies in both crustal and upper mantle rocks. Our results demonstrated that significant azimuthal anisotropy of crust (t£30s) and upper mantle (30s£t£60s). Crustal anisotropy indicates the orogenic belt matched well with the direction of fast propagation, and upper mantle anisotropy represents the lattic-preferred orientation (LPO) of mantle minerals (e.g. olivine and basalt), indicating the features of subducting Indian plate. Besides, Red River fault is a dextral strike fault, controlling the crustal and mantle migration. There is a narrow zone to be the channel flow of Tibetan crustal materials escaping toward Yunnan area. The evolution of EHS seems constrained by gravity isostatic mechanism. Keywords: Tibetan Plateau; Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis; Red River fault; crustal flow; surface wave; anisotropy

  4. China's Namuyi Tibetans: Life, Language, and Folklore Volume Two

    OpenAIRE

    Libu Lakhi; Tsering Bum; Charles Kevin Stuart; James A Matisoff (Introduction)

    2010-01-01

    This remarkable book is the product of a fruitful collaboration among a native speaker of the Namuyi language, Tibetan and Chinese consultants, and a dedicated group of Westerners resident in China. It affords the reader an intimate glimpse into traditional Namuyi, now well on its way to disappearing along with hundreds of similar minority cultures in the world. The authors of this book are to be congratulated for putting Namuyi language and culture 'on the map' in such a clear and respectful...

  5. Pasture degradation modifies soil organic matter properties and biochemical functioning in Tibetan grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Sandra; Steingräber, Laura; Schleuß, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Guggenberger, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Kobresia pastures of the Tibetan Plateau represent the world's largest alpine ecosystem. Moderate husbandry on Kobresia pastures is beneficial for the storage of soil organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N) and other nutrients and prevents erosion by establishment of sedge-turf root mats with high OC allocation rates below ground. However, undisturbed root mats are affected by freezing and thawing processes, which cause initial ice cracks. As a consequence decomposition of root mat layers will be accelerated and current sedentarization programs with concomitant increased grazing intensity may additionally enhance root mat degradation. Finally, cracks are enlarged by water and wind erosion as well as pika activities until bare soil surface areas without root mat horizons occur. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of the root mat layer on soil organic carbon stabilization and microbial functioning depending on soil depths and to predict future changes (OC, N and nutrient losses, soil microbial functioning in SOM transformation) by overgrazing and climate change. We investigated the mineral soil below Kobresia root mats along a false time degradation sequence ranging from stage 1 (intact root mat) to stage 4 (mats with large cracks and bare soil patches). Vertical gradients of δ13C values, neutral sugar, cutin and suberin contents as well as microbial biomass estimated by total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), microbial community composition (PLFA profiles) and activities of six extracellular enzymes involved in the C, N, and P cycle were assessed. Soil OC and N contents as well as C/N ratios indicate an increasing illuviation of topsoil material into the subsoil with advancing root mat degradation. This was confirmed by more negative δ13C values as well as significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increasing contributions of cutin derived hydroxy fatty acids to OC in the subsoils from degradation stages 1 to 4. PLFA profiles were surprisingly similar in the subsoils of

  6. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  7. [Identification of Tibetan medicine "Dida" of Gentianaceae using DNA barcoding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Liu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Long; Fan, Gang; Xiang, Li; Xu, Jiang; Zhang, Yi

    2016-02-01

    The ITS2 barcode was used toidentify Tibetan medicine "Dida", and tosecure its quality and safety in medication. A total of 13 species, 151 experimental samples for the study from the Tibetan Plateau, including Gentianaceae Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Comastoma, Lomatogonium ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner V3.7.1. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using MEGA 6.0. The neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed. There are 31 haplotypes among 231 bp after alignment of all ITS2 sequence haplotypes, and the average G±C content of 61.40%. The NJ tree strongly supported that every species clustered into their own clade and high identification success rate, except that Swertia bifolia and Swertia wolfangiana could not be distinguished from each other based on the sequence divergences. DNA barcoding could be used as a fast and accurate identification method to distinguish Tibetan medicine "Dida" to ensure its safe use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen Zheng

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05 increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for

  9. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and

  10. Cross-Cultural Socialization at Tibetan Classes (Schools) in the Interior: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longyan

    2010-01-01

    Education by means of the Tibetan Classes (schools) in "neidi," or China's interior regions (or the Tibet Class), was a creative measure in the history of China's ethnic minority education, and the cross-cultural growth and experiences of the Tibetan students as they went to school in China's interior regions was of special significance…

  11. AHP 17: A Zorgay Tibetan Childhood/ Min Tibetanska barndom i Zorgay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondro Tsering མཁའ་འགྲོ་ཚེ་རིང་། (Mkha' 'gro tshe ring

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This autobiographical work describes the author's life growing up on the northeast Tibetan Plateau, in a farming community in Zorgay (Mdzod dge County, Rnga ba Tibetan and QIang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. The original English text and a Swedish translation are provided.

  12. Tibetan Buddhist Nuns in Exile: Creating A Sacred Space to be at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looks at the activities of the Tibetan Nuns Project in North India and the experience of Tibetan Buddhist nuns at Dolma Ling Nunnery and Institute for Higher Learning and Shugsep Nunnery in the district of Dharamsala. It is argued that although these women are now in exile from Tibet, their home, they were in ...

  13. Expression profiles and associations of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors with intramuscular fat in Tibetan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Lin, Y; Zhi, L; Liao, H; Zuo, L; Li, Z; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined. 2. Quantitative real-time PCR detected chicken adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA transcripts in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. 3. Adipose tissue contained the highest amount of adiponectin mRNA followed by the kidney and liver. The expression levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA were significantly higher in adipose tissue, lung and spleen, and adipose tissue exhibited significantly higher levels of ADIPOR2 mRNA followed by the spleen and lung compared with other tissues. 4. Temporal expression profiles of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA showed gender differences in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle at certain ages. In adipose tissue, adiponectin mRNA was higher in 154-d-old females and ADIPOR1 mRNA was higher in 154-d-old males: Adiponectin and ADIPOR2 mRNA were higher, and ADIPOR1 mRNA was lower, in thigh muscle in female compared with male chickens. 5. The correlation data showed that, except for adiponectin mRNA, the levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA in thigh muscle of males were significantly positively correlated with IMF (r = 0.206 for the ADIPOR1 gene and r = 0.676 for the ADIPOR2 gene). 6. Taken together, it was concluded that adiponectin and the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of Tibetan chicken and the expression of the adiponectin system is gender-dependant at certain ages

  14. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. RESULTS: A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%, ampicillin (27.9%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%, nalidixic acid (19.4%, streptomycin (16.2% and ceftiofur (10.9%, and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%, gentamicin (6.9%, and spectinomycin (2.3% were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%, clindamycin (82.1%, tetracycline (64.3%, and erythromycin (48.8%. Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%, penicillin (6.0%, ciprofloxacin (3.6%, levofloxacin (1.2%, and ampicillin (1.2% were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are

  15. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  16. AHP 21: Tibetans and Muslims in Northwest China: Economic and Political Aspects of a Complex Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horlemann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past and today, Tibetan-Muslim relations in Qinghai and Gansu are often associated with violent conflicts sparked by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred'. A more nuanced study of the history of Tibetan-Muslim relations, however, reveals complexity as well as considerable local difference with regard to how and when contacts were established, maintained, and broken off. Tibetan Muslim encounters were manifold and varied, including interethnic marriages, close business relations, political alliances, and armed conflicts. To illustrate this wide range of encounters, examples chosen for this paper, i.e., the relations between Amdo Tibetans and the Muslim Baoan nationality, the Muslim Ma warlords, and the Chinese xiejia institution, span different eras and localities. This study suggests that Tibetan-Muslim relations were predominantly shaped by socio-economic and political factors rather than by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred' as is often assumed.

  17. AHP 42: GUARDIANS OF NATURE: TIBETAN PASTORALISTS AND THE NATURAL WORLD

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    ཀླུ་ཚང་ཚེ་རིང་འབུམ། Tsering Bum (Tshe ring 'bum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guardians of Nature is a clearly written and very insightful view of the political economic, environmental, and social-cultural transformations reshaping lives and livelihoods on the Tibetan Plateau. Written as a first-hand narrative account of his work over several years with Yulshul villagers, Tsering Bum’s perceptive book discusses key issues of contemporary Tibetan pastoralism: mining, the importance of the caterpillar fungus economy, resettlement, co-ops, education policy, human-wildlife conflict, and sacred mountains. It also explores quite new phenomena, such as Tibetan pastoralists hiring Han Chinese as herding laborers while living off of caterpillar fungus income, and the rise of feral dogs as a result of the sharp drop in Tibetan mastiff prices. Tsering Bum’s analysis is informed by critiques of nature-culture binaries and illustrates the many effects of perverse policy incentives. Strongly recommended for anyone interested in understanding Tibetan pastoral areas today.

  18. Tibetan Microblog Emotional Analysis Based on Sequential Model in Online Social Platforms

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    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microblogs, selling and buying appear in online social platforms such as Sina Weibo and Wechat. Besides Mandarin, Tibetan language is also used to describe products and customers’ opinions. In this paper, we are interested in analyzing the emotions of Tibetan microblogs, which are helpful to understand opinions and product reviews for Tibetan customers. It is challenging since existing studies paid little attention to Tibetan language. Our key idea is to express Tibetan microblogs as vectors and then classify them. To express microblogs more fully, we select two kinds of features, which are sequential features and semantic features. In addition, our experimental results on the Sina Weibo dataset clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of feature selection and the efficiency of our classification method.

  19. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. An assessment of the impact of ATMS and CrIS data assimilation on precipitation prediction over the Tibetan Plateau

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    T. Xue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation system and the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW regional model, the impact of assimilating Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS satellite data on precipitation prediction over the Tibetan Plateau in July 2015 was evaluated. Four experiments were designed: a control experiment and three data assimilation experiments with different data sets injected: conventional data only, a combination of conventional and ATMS satellite data, and a combination of conventional and CrIS satellite data. The results showed that the monthly mean of precipitation is shifted northward in the simulations and showed an orographic bias described as an overestimation upwind of the mountains and an underestimation in the south of the rain belt. The rain shadow mainly influenced prediction of the quantity of precipitation, although the main rainfall pattern was well simulated. For the first 24 h and last 24 h of accumulated daily precipitation, the model generally overestimated the amount of precipitation, but it was underestimated in the heavy-rainfall periods of 3–5, 13–16, and 22–25 July. The observed water vapor conveyance from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau was larger than in the model simulations, which induced inaccuracies in the forecast of heavy rain on 3–5 July. The data assimilation experiments, particularly the ATMS assimilation, were closer to the observations for the heavy-rainfall process than the control. Overall, based on the experiments in July 2015, the satellite data assimilation improved to some extent the prediction of the precipitation pattern over the Tibetan Plateau, although the simulation of the rain belt without data assimilation shows the regional shifting.

  1. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Tibetan Tea and Its Phenolic Components

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    Hong Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan tea (Kangzhuan is an essential beverage of the Tibetan people. In this study, a lyophilized aqueous extract of Tibetan tea (LATT was prepared and analyzed by HPLC. The results suggested that there were at least five phenolic components, including gallic acid, and four catechins (i.e., (+-catechin, (−-catechin gallate (CG, (−-epicatechin gallate (ECG, and (−-epigallocatechin gallate. Gallic acid, the four catechins, and LATT were then comparatively investigated by four antioxidant assays: ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radical (PTIO• scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical scavenging, and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging assays. In these assays, LATT, along with the five phenolic components, increased their antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the half maximal scavenging concentrations of ECG were always lower than those of CG. Gallic acid and the four catechins were also suggested to chelate Fe2+ based on UV-visible spectral analysis. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC−ESI−Q−TOF−MS/MS analysis suggested that, when mixed with PTIO•, the five phenolic components could yield two types of radical adduct formation (RAF products (i.e., tea phenolic dimers and tea phenolic-PTIO• adducts. In a flow cytometry assay, (+-catechin and LATT was observed to have a cytoprotective effect towards oxidative-stressed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this evidence, we concluded that LATT possesses antioxidative or cytoprotective properties. These effects may mainly be attributed to the presence of phenolic components, including gallic acid and the four catechins. These phenolic components may undergo electron transfer, H+-transfer, and Fe2+-chelating pathways to exhibit

  2. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Effects of Tibetan Tea and Its Phenolic Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Li, Xican; Ren, Zhenxing; Qiu, Weimin; Chen, Jianlan; Jiang, Qian; Chen, Ban; Chen, Dongfeng

    2018-01-24

    Tibetan tea (Kangzhuan) is an essential beverage of the Tibetan people. In this study, a lyophilized aqueous extract of Tibetan tea ( LATT ) was prepared and analyzed by HPLC. The results suggested that there were at least five phenolic components, including gallic acid, and four catechins (i.e., (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin gallate ( CG ), (-)-epicatechin gallate ( ECG ), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate). Gallic acid, the four catechins, and LATT were then comparatively investigated by four antioxidant assays: ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radical (PTIO•) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical scavenging, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. In these assays, LATT, along with the five phenolic components, increased their antioxidant effects in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the half maximal scavenging concentrations of ECG were always lower than those of CG . Gallic acid and the four catechins were also suggested to chelate Fe 2+ based on UV-visible spectral analysis. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis suggested that, when mixed with PTIO•, the five phenolic components could yield two types of radical adduct formation (RAF) products (i.e., tea phenolic dimers and tea phenolic-PTIO• adducts). In a flow cytometry assay, (+)-catechin and LATT was observed to have a cytoprotective effect towards oxidative-stressed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this evidence, we concluded that LATT possesses antioxidative or cytoprotective properties. These effects may mainly be attributed to the presence of phenolic components, including gallic acid and the four catechins. These phenolic components may undergo electron transfer, H⁺-transfer, and Fe 2+ -chelating pathways to exhibit antioxidative or

  3. Heavy metal enrichment in roadside soils in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

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    Guan, Zhen-Huan; Li, Xiao Gang; Wang, Lin

    2018-03-01

    The effects of human activities on heavy metal pollution in soil have been less investigated on the Tibetan Plateau. The present study was designed to assess the effects of highway traffic on Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd enrichments in the 0-60-cm soil profile in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Soils were sampled at four transects (with an altitude range of 2643-2911 m) across the G212 highway and five transects (3163-3563 m) across the G213 highway. Background concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd to the 60-cm soil depth (measured at each transect 400 m away from highways) varied greatly among transects and between highways. However, this spatial variation in the heavy metal concentrations was not related to the altitude of the investigated areas. On each the left and right sides of G212 or G213, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations to the 60-cm depth, at 5, 10, 20, and 50 m away from the highway, were all generally greater than the respective metal background concentrations. Cd concentrations to the 20 cm on G212 or 60-cm soil depth on G213 increased prominently within a distance of 20 m away from the highways, compared to background values in different depths. From the curb to 400 m away from highways, concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were generally higher in the upper than in the lower soil layers. This may suggest that other factors such as atmospheric deposition were also contributable to the accumulation of heavy metals in soil. The contamination factor (C f ) calculation showed that roadside soils to the 60-cm depth, within a distance of 50 m from the curbs of both G212 and G213, were moderately (1 ≤ C f  Tibetan Plateau. For assessment of heavy metal pollutions in soil in mountainous areas, it is necessary to in situ identify the background values.

  4. Diurnal variation of summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. A cloud-resolving simulation

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    Xu, Jianyu; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Minghuan [China Meteorological Administration, Wuhan (China). Wuhan Inst. of Heavy Rain; Wang, Huijuan [Weather Modification Office of Hubei Province, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the diurnal variation in summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) at a cloudresolving scale. Compared with the TRMM, precipitation data shows that the model can well simulate the diurnal rainfall cycle with an overall late-afternoon maximum precipitation in the central TP and a nighttime maximum in the southern edge. The simulated diurnal variations in regional circulation and thermodynamics are in good correspondence with the precipitation diurnal cycles in the central and southern edge of TP, respectively. A possible mechanism responsible for the nocturnal precipitation maximum in the southern edge has been proposed, indicating the importance of the TP in regulating the regional circulation and precipitation. (orig.)

  5. Responses of Hail and Storm Days to Climate Change in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tian; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Wenhong; Li, Jihong

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing concern that local severe storm occurrence may be changing as a result of climate change. The Tibetan Plateau (TP), one of the world's most sensitive areas to climate change, became significantly warmer during recent decades. Since 1960 (1980), storm (hail) days have been decreasing by 6.2%/decade (18.3%/decade) in the region. However, what caused the frequency changes of storm and hail in the TP is largely unknown. Based on 53-year continuous weather records at 48 TP stations and reanalysis data, we show here for the first time that the consistent decline of storm days is strongly related to a drier midtroposphere since 1960. Further analysis demonstrated that fewer hail days are driven by an elevation of the melting level (thermodynamically) and a weaker wind shear (dynamically) in a warming climate. These results imply that less storm and hail may occur over TP when climate warms.

  6. Co-seismic strain changes of Wenchuan Mw7. 9 earthquake recorded by borehole strainmeters on Tibetan plateau

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    Fu Guangyu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic strain changes of the Wenchuan Mw7. 9 earthquake recorded with three four-component borehole strainmeters showed NW-SE and roughly EW extensions, respectively, at two locations in the interior and northern part of Tibetan plateau, and NS shortening at a location south of the epicenter, in agreement with the tectonic stress field of this region. The observed values of as much as 10−7 are, however, larger than theoretical values obtained with half-space and spherical-earth dislocation theories, implying the existence of other effects, such as local crustal structure and initial stress.

  7. Genetic characterization of an isolate of canine distemper virus from a Tibetan Mastiff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weike; Li, Tiansong; Liu, Yuxiu; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Feng, Na; Sun, Heting; Wang, Shengle; Wang, Lei; Bu, Zhigao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2014-08-01

    Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious, often fatal, multisystemic, and incurable disease in dogs and other carnivores, which is caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). Although vaccines have been used as the principal means of controlling the disease, CD has been reported in vaccinated animals. The hemoagglutinin (H) protein is one of the most important antigens for inducing protective immunity against CD, and antigenic variation of recent CDV strains may explain vaccination failure. In this study, a new CDV isolate (TM-CC) was obtained from a Tibetan Mastiff that died of distemper, and its genome was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the H gene revealed that the CDV-TM-CC strain is unique among 20 other CDV strains and can be classified into the Asia-1 group with the Chinese strains, Hebei and HLJ1-06, and the Japanese strain, CYN07-hV. The H gene of CDV-TM-CC shows low identity (90.4 % nt and 88.9 % aa) with the H gene of the classical Onderstepoort vaccine strain, which may explain the inability of the Tibetan Mastiff to mount a protective immune response. We also performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the N, P, and F protein sequences, as well as potential N-glycosylation sites and cysteine residues. This analysis shows that an N-glycosylation site at aa 108-110 within the F protein of CDV-TM-CC is specific for the wild-type strains (5804P, A75/17, and 164071) and the Asia-1 group strains, and may be another important factor for the poor immune response. These results provide important information for the design of CD vaccines in the China region and elsewhere.

  8. Genetic diversity of bitter taste receptor gene family in Sichuan domestic and Tibetan chicken populations.

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    Su, Yuan; Li, Diyan; Gaur, Uma; Wang, Yan; Wu, Nan; Chen, Binlong; Xu, Zhongxian; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m.359G>C, m.503C>A and m.583A>G) were detected in Tas2r1 (m. is the abbreviation for mutation); three SNPs were detected in Tas2r2, but none of them were missense mutation; eight SNPs were detected in Tas2r7 including six nonsynonymous substitutions (m.178G>A, m.421A>C, m.787C>T, m.832G>T, m.907A>T and m.943G>A). Tajima's D neutral test indicates that there is no population expansion in both populations, and the size of the population is relatively stable. All the three networks indicate that red jungle fowls share haplotypes with domestic chickens. In addition, we found that haplotypes H1 and HE1 were positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, whereas haplotypes H4 and HE4 showed a negative correlation with high-altitude adaptation in Tas2rs. Although, chicken has only three Tas2rs, our results showed that both Sichuan domestic chickens and Tibetan chickens have abundant haplotypes in Tas2rs, especially in Tas2r7, which might help chickens to recognize a wide variety of bitter-tasting compounds.

  9. Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairments Show Less Driving Errors after a Multiple Sessions Simulator Training Program but Do Not Exhibit Long Term Retention.

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    Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Hudon, Lisa; Germain Robitaille, Mathieu; Moszkowicz, Thierry; Laurendeau, Denis; Bherer, Louis; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The driving performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is suboptimal when compared to healthy older adults. It is expected that the driving will worsen with the progression of the cognitive decline and thus, whether or not these individuals should continue to drive is a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to provide support to the claim that individuals with MCI can benefit from a training program and improve their overall driving performance in a driving simulator. Fifteen older drivers with MCI participated in five training sessions in a simulator (over a 21-day period) and in a 6-month recall session. During training, they received automated auditory feedback on their performance when an error was noted about various maneuvers known to be suboptimal in MCI individuals (for instance, weaving, omitting to indicate a lane change, to verify a blind spot, or to engage in a visual search before crossing an intersection). The number of errors was compiled for eight different maneuvers for all sessions. For the initial five sessions, a gradual and significant decrease in the number of errors was observed, indicating learning and safer driving. The level of performance, however, was not maintained at the 6-month recall session. Nevertheless, the initial learning observed opens up possibilities to undertake more regular interventions to maintain driving skills and safe driving in MCI individuals.

  10. Ventilation and hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness in Chinese-Tibetan residents at 3,658 m.

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    Curran, L S; Zhuang, J; Sun, S F; Moore, L G

    1997-12-01

    When breathing ambient air at rest at 3,658 m altitude, Tibetan lifelong residents of 3,658 m ventilate as much as newcomers acclimatized to high altitude; they also ventilate more and have greater hypoxic ventilatory responses (HVRs) than do Han ("Chinese") long-term residents at 3,658 m. This suggests that Tibetan ancestry is advantageous in protecting resting ventilation levels during years of hypoxic exposure and is of interest in light of the permissive role of hypoventilation in the development of chronic mountain sickness, which is nearly absent among Tibetans. The existence of individuals with mixed Tibetan-Chinese ancestry (Han-Tibetans) residing at 3,658 m affords an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Eighteen men born in Lhasa, Tibet, China (3,658 m) to Tibetan mothers and Han fathers were compared with 27 Tibetan men and 30 Han men residing at 3,658 m who were previously studied. We used the same study procedures (minute ventilation was measured with a dry-gas flowmeter during room air breathing and hyperoxia and with a 13-liter spirometer-rebreathing system during the hypoxic and hypercapnic tests). During room air breathing at 3,658 m (inspired O2 pressure = 93 Torr), Han-Tibetans resembled Tibetans in ventilation (12.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 11.5+/- 0.5 l/min BTPS, respectively) but had HVR that were blunted (63 +/- 16 vs. 121 +/- 13, respectively, for HVR shape parameter A) and declined with increasing duration of high-altitude residence. During administered hyperoxia (inspired O2 pressure = 310 Torr) at 3,658 m, the paradoxical hyperventilation previously seen in Tibetan but not Han residents at 3,658 m (11.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 10.1 +/- 0.5 l/min BTPS) was absent in these Han-Tibetans (9.8 +/- 0.6 l/min BTPS). Thus, although longer duration of high-altitude residence appears to progressively blunt HVR among Han-Tibetans born and residing at 3, 658 m, their Tibetan ancestry appears protective in their maintenance of high resting ventilation levels despite

  11. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia

    2015-03-01

    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  12. Dental Caries Experience and Utilization of Oral Health Services Among Tibetan Refugee-Background Children in Paonta Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sumeet; Gaur, Ambika

    2018-06-04

    The study was done to describe the dental caries experience and dental care utilization among Tibetan refugee-background children in Paonta Sahib, India. The study was conducted on 254 school children in a Tibetan settlement in Paonta Sahib. Examination was done as per World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment criteria (2013). Data on dental services utilization was obtained from the parents of children using a structured questionnaire. Oral examination of 254 school children aged 6-18 years revealed an overall dental caries prevalence of 79.5%. The dental caries experience was greater in the mixed dentition (84%) than secondary dentition (77.3%). The mean DMFT was associated with sex and dental visiting patterns. About 60% children had never visited a dentist before. The main reason for dental visit was tooth removal (43%). The prevalence of dental caries among Tibetan refugee-background school children was high and utilization of dental care was low. A comprehensive oral health program focusing on preventive care and oral health education is recommended.

  13. Greenhouse gases emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Aho, Kelly Sue; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Sillanpää, Mika; Yan, Fangping; Raymond, Peter A

    2017-11-29

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from streams are important to regional biogeochemical budgets. This study is one of the first to incorporate stream GHGs (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) concentrations and emissions in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. With one-time sampling from 32 sites in rivers of the plateau, we found that most of the rivers were supersaturated with CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O during the study period. Medians of partial pressures of CO 2 (pCO 2 ), pCH 4 and pN 2 O were presented 864 μatm, 6.3 μatm, and 0.25 μatm respectively. Based on a scaling model of the flux of gas, the calculated fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O (3,452 mg-C m 2 d -1 , 26.7 mg-C m 2 d -1 and 0.18 mg-N m 2 d -1 , respectively) in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau were found comparable with most other rivers in the world; and it was revealed that the evasion rates of CO 2 and CH 4 in tributaries of the rivers of the plateau were higher than those in the mainstream despite its high altitude. Furthermore, concentrations of GHGs in the studied rivers were related to dissolved carbon and nitrogen, indicating that riverine dissolved components could be used to scale GHGs envision in rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Bacterial community structure in two permafrost wetlands on the Tibetan Plateau and Sanjiang Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Ju, Yiwen; Deng, Yongcui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-08-01

    Permafrost wetlands are important methane emission sources and fragile ecosystems sensitive to climate change. Presently, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding bacterial communities, especially methanotrophs in vast areas of permafrost on the Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China and the Sanjiang Plain (SJ) in Northeast China. In this study, 16S rRNA-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing were used to identify bacterial communities in soils sampled from a littoral wetland of Lake Namco on the Tibetan Plateau (NMC) and an alluvial wetland on the SJ. Additionally, methanotroph-specific primers targeting particulate methane monooxygenase subunit A gene (pmoA) were used for qPCR and pyrosequencing analysis of methanotrophic community structure in NMC soils. qPCR analysis revealed the presence of 10(10) 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of wet soil in both wetlands, with 10(8) pmoA copies per gram of wet soil in NMC. The two permafrost wetlands showed similar bacterial community compositions, which differed from those reported in other cold environments. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria , and Chloroflexi were the most abundant phyla in both wetlands, whereas Acidobacteria was prevalent in the acidic wetland SJ only. These four phyla constituted more than 80 % of total bacterial community diversity in permafrost wetland soils, and Methylobacter of type I methanotrophs was overwhelmingly dominant in NMC soils. This study is the first major bacterial sequencing effort of permafrost in the NMC and SJ wetlands, which provides fundamental data for further studies of microbial function in extreme ecosystems under climate change scenarios.

  15. The Karakoram/Western Tibetan vortex: seasonal and year-to-year variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fowler, Hayley J.; Forsythe, Nathan; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Pritchard, David

    2018-02-01

    The "Karakoram Vortex" (KV), hereafter also referred to as the "Western Tibetan Vortex" (WTV), has recently been recognized as a large-scale atmospheric circulation system related to warmer (cooler) near-surface and mid-lower troposphere temperatures above the Karakoram in the western Tibetan Plateau (TP). It is characterized by a deep, anti-cyclonic (cyclonic) wind anomaly associated with higher (lower) geopotential height in the troposphere, during winter and summer seasons. In this study, we further investigate the seasonality and basic features of the WTV in all four seasons, and explore its year-to-year variability and influence on regional climate. We find the WTV accounts for the majority of year-to-year circulation variability over the WTP as it can explain over 50% ({R^2} ≥slant 0.5 ) variance of the WTP circulation on multiple levels throughout the troposphere, which declines towards the eastern side of the TP in most seasons. The WTV is not only more (less) active but also has a bigger (smaller) domain area, with a deeper (shallower) structure, in winter and spring (summer and autumn). We find that the WTV is sensitive to both the location and intensity of the Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), but the relationship is highly dependent on the climatological mean location of SWJ axes relative to the TP in different seasons. We also show that the WTV significantly modulates surface and stratospheric air temperatures, north-south precipitation patterns and total column ozone surrounding the western TP. As such, the WTV has important implications for the understanding of atmospheric, hydrological and glaciological variability over the TP.

  16. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  17. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  18. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  19. South-Tibetan partially molten batholiths: geophysical characterization and petrological assessment of their origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.; Pistone, M.; Nabelek, P. I.; Baumgartner, L. P.

    2017-12-01

    Zones of partial melt in the middle crust of Lhasa Block, Southern Tibet, have been geophysically observed as seismically reflective "bright spots" in the past 20 years. These batholiths bear important relevance for geodynamics as they serve as the principal observation at depth supporting channel-flow models in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen. Here we assess the spatial abundance of and partial melt volume fraction within these crustal batholiths, and establish lower and upper estimate bounds using a joint geophysical-petrological approach.Geophysical imaging constrains the abundance of partial melt zones to 5.6 km3 per surface-km2 on average (minimum: 3.1 km3/km2, maximum: 7.6 km3/km2 over the mapped area). Physical properties detected by field geophysics and interpreted by laboratory measurements constrain the amount of partial melt to be between 5 and 26 percent.We evaluate the compatibility of these estimates with petrological modeling based on geotherms, crustal bulk rock compositions and water contents consistent with the Lhasa Block. These simulations determine: (a) the physico-chemical conditions of melt generation at the base of the Tibetan crust and its transport and emplacement in the middle crust; (b) the melt percentage produced at the source, transported and emplaced to form the observed "bright spots". Two main mechanisms are considered: (1) melting induced by fluids produced during mineral dehydration reactions in the underthrusting Indian lower crust; (2) dehydration-melting reactions caused by heating within the Tibetan crust. We find that both mechanisms demonstrate first-order match in explaining the formation of the partially molten "bright spots". Thermal modelling shows that the Lhasa Block batholiths have only small amounts of melt and only for geologically short times (features of the geodynamic evolution. Their transience excludes both long-distance and long-lasting channel flow transport in Tibet.

  20. Seasonal Dynamics of Water Use Strategy of Two Salix Shrubs in Alpine Sandy Land, Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Guojie; Li, Renqiang

    2016-01-01

    Water is a limiting factor for plant growth and vegetation dynamics in alpine sandy land of the Tibetan Plateau, especially with the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation events and drought caused by climate change. Therefore, a relatively stable water source from either deeper soil profiles or ground water is necessary for plant growth. Understanding the water use strategy of dominant species in the alpine sandy land ecosystem is important for vegetative rehabilitation and ecological restoration. The stable isotope methodology of δD, δ18O, and δ13C was used to determine main water source and long-term water use efficiency of Salix psammophila and S. cheilophila, two dominant shrubs on interdune of alpine sandy land in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The root systems of two Salix shrubs were investigated to determine their distribution pattern. The results showed that S. psammophila and S. cheilophila absorbed soil water at different soil depths or ground water in different seasons, depending on water availability and water use strategy. Salix psammophila used ground water during the growing season and relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in summer. Salix cheilophila used ground water in spring and summer, but relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in spring and deep soil water recharged by ground water in fall. The two shrubs had dimorphic root systems, which is coincident with their water use strategy. Higher biomass of fine roots in S. psammophila and longer fine roots in S. cheilophila facilitated to absorb water in deeper soil layers. The long-term water use efficiency of two Salix shrubs increased during the dry season in spring. The long-term water use efficiency was higher in S. psammophila than in S. cheilophila, as the former species is better adapted to semiarid climate of alpine sandy land.

  1. A preliminary study of the heating effect of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Yao

    Full Text Available The immense and towering Tibetan Plateau acts as a heating source and, thus, deeply shapes the climate of the Eurasian continent and even the whole world. However, due to the scarcity of meteorological observation stations and very limited climatic data, little is quantitatively known about the heating effect of the plateau and its implications. This paper firstly collects climate data (2001-2007 from 109 observation stations and MODIS-based estimated monthly mean temperature data in the plateau and the neighboring Sichuan Basin, and conducts correlation and simple linear regression to reveal the altitudinal pattern of temperature. Then, according to the linear relationships of temperature and altitude for each month, it compares air temperature differences on the same elevation between the main plateau and surrounding mountains and the Sichuan Basin so as to quantify the heating effect and discuss its implication on timberline of the plateau. The results show that: 1 the heating effect of the plateau is significant. The temperature of the main plateau area was higher than that of free air on the same elevation above the neighboring areas; on the elevation of 4500 m (the main plateau, temperature is 1-6°C higher in the main Plateau than over the Sichuan Basin for different months and 5.9-10.7°C higher than in the Qilian Mountains in the northeastern corner of the plateau. 2 Even at altitudes of 5000-6000 m in the main Plateau, there are 4 months with a mean temperature above 0°C. The mean temperature of the warmest month (July can reach 10°C at about 4600-4700 m. This may help explain why the highest timberline in the northern hemisphere is on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Lithospheric electrical structure of the middle Lhasa terrane in the south Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongda; Jin, Sheng; Wei, Wenbo; Gao, Rui; Ye, Gaofeng; Zhang, Letian; Yin, Yaotian; Lu, Zhanwu

    2018-04-01

    The Lhasa terrane in southern Tibetan plateau is a huge tectono-magmatic belt and an important metallogenic belt. Its formation evolution process and mineralization are affected by the subduction of oceanic plate and subsequent continental collision. However, the evolution of Lhasa terrane has been a subject of much debate for a long time. The Lithospheric structure records the deep processes of the subduction of oceanic plate and continental collision. The magnetotelluric (MT) method can probe the sub-surface electrical conductivity, newly dense broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected along a south-north trending profile that across the Lhasa terrane at 88°-89°E. Dimensionality analyses demonstrated that the MT data can be interpreted using two-dimensional approaches, and the regional strike direction was determined as N110°E.Based on data analysis results, a two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model of crust and upper mantle was derived from inversion of the transverse electric mode, transverse magnetic mode and vertical magnetic field data. Inversion model shows a large north-dipping resistor that extended from the upper crust to upper mantle beneath the Himalaya and the south of Lhasa Terrane, which may represent the subducting Indian continental lithosphere. The 31°N may be an important boundary in the Lhasa Terrane, the south performs a prominent high-conductivity anomaly from the lower crust to upper mantle which indicates the existence of asthenosphere upwelling, while the north performs a higher resistivity and may have a reworking ancient basement. The formation of the ore deposits in the study area may be related to the upwelling of the mantle material triggered by slab tearing and/or breaking off of the Indian lithosphere, and the mantle material input also contributed the total thickness of the present-day Tibetan crust. The results provide helpful constrains to understand the mechanism of the continent-continent collision and

  3. Natural Medicines Used in the Traditional Tibetan Medical System for the Treatment of Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Li, Hai-Jiao; Xu, Tong; Du, Huan; Huan Gang, Chen-Lei; Fan, Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the most risk factors threatening human health. It is of great significance to find drugs that can treat liver diseases, especially for acute and chronic hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cancer. The search for drugs with good efficacy from traditional natural medicines has attracted more and more attention. Tibetan medicine, one of the China's traditional medical systems, has been widely used by the Tibetan people for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases for hundreds of years. The present paper summarized the natural Tibetan medicines that have been used in Tibetan traditional system of medicine to treat liver diseases by bibliographic investigation of 22 Tibetan medicine monographs and drug standards. One hundred and ninety three species including 181 plants, 7 animals, and 5 minerals were found to treat liver diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine system. The most frequently used species are Carthamus tinctorius, Brag-zhun, Swertia chirayita, Swertia mussotii, Halenia elliptica, Herpetospermum pedunculosum, and Phyllanthus emblica. Their names, families, medicinal parts, traditional uses, phytochemicals information, and pharmacological activities were described in detail. These natural medicines might be a valuable gift from the old Tibetan medicine to the world, and would be potential drug candidates for the treatment of liver diseases. Further studies are needed to prove their medicinal values in liver diseases treatment, identify bioactive compounds, elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, and clarify their side effects or toxicity with the help of modern phytochemical, pharmacological, metabonomics, and/or clinical trial methods. PMID:29441019

  4. Natural Medicines Used in the Traditional Tibetan Medical System for the Treatment of Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Li, Hai-Jiao; Xu, Tong; Du, Huan; Huan Gang, Chen-Lei; Fan, Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the most risk factors threatening human health. It is of great significance to find drugs that can treat liver diseases, especially for acute and chronic hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cancer. The search for drugs with good efficacy from traditional natural medicines has attracted more and more attention. Tibetan medicine, one of the China's traditional medical systems, has been widely used by the Tibetan people for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases for hundreds of years. The present paper summarized the natural Tibetan medicines that have been used in Tibetan traditional system of medicine to treat liver diseases by bibliographic investigation of 22 Tibetan medicine monographs and drug standards. One hundred and ninety three species including 181 plants, 7 animals, and 5 minerals were found to treat liver diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine system. The most frequently used species are Carthamus tinctorius , Brag-zhun, Swertia chirayita, Swertia mussotii, Halenia elliptica, Herpetospermum pedunculosum , and Phyllanthus emblica . Their names, families, medicinal parts, traditional uses, phytochemicals information, and pharmacological activities were described in detail. These natural medicines might be a valuable gift from the old Tibetan medicine to the world, and would be potential drug candidates for the treatment of liver diseases. Further studies are needed to prove their medicinal values in liver diseases treatment, identify bioactive compounds, elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, and clarify their side effects or toxicity with the help of modern phytochemical, pharmacological, metabonomics, and/or clinical trial methods.

  5. The Coupling of Treeline Elevation and Temperature is Mediated by Non-Thermal Factors on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between treeline elevation and climate at regional and local scales. It is compelling to fill this research gap with data from the Tibetan Plateau where some of the highest alpine treelines in the world are found. This research question partially results from the lack of in situ temperature data at treeline sites. Herein, treeline variables (e.g., elevation, topography, tree species and temperature data were collected from published investigations performed during this decade on the Tibetan Plateau. Temperature conditions near treeline sites were estimated using global databases and these estimates were corrected by using in situ air temperature measurements. Correlation analyses and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the effects of different variables on treeline elevation including thermal (growing-season air temperatures and non-thermal (latitude, longitude, elevation, tree species, precipitation, radiation factors. The commonality analysis model was applied to explore how several variables (July mean temperature, elevation of mountain peak, latitude were related to treeline elevation. July mean temperature was the most significant predictor of treeline elevation, explaining 55% of the variance in treeline elevation across the Tibetan Plateau, whereas latitude, tree species, and mountain elevation (mass-elevation effect explained 30% of the variance in treeline elevation. After considering the multicollinearity among predictors, July mean temperature (largely due to the influence of minimum temperature still showed the strongest association with treeline elevation. We conclude that the coupling of treeline elevation and July temperature at a regional scale is modulated by non-thermal factors probably acting at local scales. Our results contribute towards explaining the decoupling between climate warming and treeline dynamics.

  6. Diets and environments of late Cenozoic mammals in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Deng, Tao; Tseng, Zhijie J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Xie, Gangpu; Xu, Yingfeng

    2012-06-01

    The timing history and driving mechanisms of C4 expansion and Tibetan uplift are hotly debated issues. Paleoenvironmental evidence from within the Tibetan Plateau is essential to help resolve these issues. Here we report results of stable C and O isotope analyses of tooth enamel samples from a variety of late Cenozoic mammals, including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant, from the Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The enamel-δ13C values are diets and only a few individuals (besides the exceptional rhino CD0722) may have consumed some C4 plants. Based on geological evidence, however, the Qaidam Basin was probably warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene than today. Thus, these δ13C values likely indicate that many individuals had significant dietary intakes of C4 plants, and the Qaidam Basin had more C4 plants in the late Miocene and early Pliocene than today. Moreover, the Qaidam Basin likely had much denser vegetation at those times in order to support such large mammals as rhinos and elephants. While the δ18O values did not increase monotonously with time, the range of variation seems to have increased considerably since the early Pliocene, indicating increased aridification in the basin. The mean δ18O values of large mammals and those reconstructed for local meteoric waters display a significant negative shift in the late Miocene, consistent with the marine δ18O record which shows a cooling trend in the same period. Taken together, the isotope data suggest a warmer, wetter, and perhaps lower Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Increased aridification after the early Pliocene is likely due to a combined effect of regional tectonism, which resulted in a more effective barrier preventing moisture from the Indian Ocean or Bay of Bengal from reaching the basin, and global cooling.

  7. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these

  9. From medical tradition to traditional medicine: A Tibetan formula in the European framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Herbert; Vennos, Cécile

    2015-06-05

    The increasing prevalence of complex multi-factorial chronic diseases and multimorbidity reveals the need for an enlargement of the therapeutic options. Potent multicompound herbal formulations from traditional medicine systems such as Tibetan Medicine might meet the requirements. With its practice over the centuries Tibetan Medicine is one of the important medical heritages of the world. In the 20th century Tibetan formulas came to Switzerland, where the formula Gabur-25 was then registered as medicine in 1977 (Padma 28, Swissmedic No 35872). The new European directive 2004/24/EC opened the avenue for traditional herbal medicinal products and registrations followed in Austria (HERB-00037) and the UK (39568/0001). The aim of this review was to analyse not only the critical points and hazards but also chances that occur in the endeavour of bringing a ethnopharmacological based preparation to the market within a modern Western medical and regulatory framework and to discuss the necessary transformation steps from a traditional herbal formula towards a modern pharmaceutical product with the example of the Tibetan formula Gabur-25. The historic transformation process from the 19th to the 21st century is analysed, using the registration documents and other material from the library of Padma AG, Hinwil, Switzerland. The transformation of a traditional formula into a modern traditional herbal medicinal product according to the present EU regulations is a multi faceted process. The modern indication represents only a small part of the possible traditional indications. Quality and product labelling has to be adopted to modern standards. The formula, once registered, is a fixed combination of herbal and mineral ingredients. Contrary to this the concept of Asian medical tradition allows a certain flexibility in the composition of an herbal formula. The ingredients are constantly adapted to local conditions, availability of raw material and therapeutic situation. The example

  10. Responses of alpine grassland on Qinghai–Tibetan plateau to climate warming and permafrost degradation: a modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuhua; Wang, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yu; Ding, Yongjian; Xiang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost plays a critical role in soil hydrology. Thus, the degradation of permafrost under warming climate conditions may affect the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Previous space-for-time studies using plot and basin scales have reached contradictory conclusions. In this study, we applied a process-based ecosystem model (DOS-TEM) with a state-of-the-art permafrost hydrology scheme to examine this issue. Our results showed that 1) the DOS-TEM model could properly simulate the responses of soil thermal and hydrological dynamics and of ecosystem dynamics to climate warming and spatial differences in precipitation; 2) the simulated results were consistent with plot-scale studies showing that warming caused an increase in maximum unfrozen thickness, a reduction in vegetation and soil carbon pools as a whole, and decreases in soil water content, net primary production, and heterotrophic respiration; and 3) the simulated results were also consistent with basin-scale studies showing that the ecosystem responses to warming were different in regions with different combinations of water and energy constraints. Permafrost prevents water from draining into water reservoirs. However, the degradation of permafrost in response to warming is a long-term process that also enhances evapotranspiration. Thus, the degradation of the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (releasing carbon) cannot be mainly attributed to the disappearing waterproofing function of permafrost. (letter)

  11. Characteristics of Water Vapor in the UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau Based on AURA/MLS Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor (WV has a vital effect on global climate change. Using satellite data observed by AURA/MLS and ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets, the spatial distributions and temporal variations of WV were analyzed. It was found that high WV content in the UTLS over the southern Tibetan Plateau is more apparent in summer, due to monsoon-induced strong upward motions. The WV content showed the opposite distribution at 100 hPa, though, during spring and winter. And a different distribution at 121 hPa indicated that the difference in WV content between the northern and southern plateau occurs between 121 and 100 hPa in spring and between 147 and 121 hPa in winter. In the UTLS, it diminishes rapidly with increase in altitude in these two seasons, and it shows a “V” structure in winter. There has been a weak increasing trend in WV at 100 hPa, but a downtrend at 147 and 215 hPa, during the past 12 years. At the latter two heights, the WV content in summer has been much higher than in other seasons. Furthermore, WV variation showed a rough wave structure in spring and autumn at 215 hPa. The variation of WV over the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE and climate change.

  12. Identifying the Relative Contributions of Climate and Grazing to Both Direction and Magnitude of Alpine Grassland Productivity Dynamics from 1993 to 2011 on the Northern Tibetan Plateau

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    Yunfei Feng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau are claimed to be sensitive and vulnerable to climate change and human disturbance. The mechanism, direction and magnitude of climatic and anthropogenic influences on net primary productivity (NPP of various alpine pastures remain under debate. Here, we simulated the potential productivity (with only climate variables being considered as drivers; NPPP and actual productivity (based on remote sensing dataset including both climate and anthropogenic drivers; NPPA from 1993 to 2011. We denoted the difference between NPPP and NPPA as NPPpc to quantify how much forage can be potentially consumed by livestock. The actually consumed productivity (NPPac by livestock were estimated based on meat production and daily forage consumption per standardized sheep unit. We hypothesized that the gap between NPPpc and NPPac (NPPgap indicates the direction of vegetation dynamics, restoration or degradation. Our results show that growing season precipitation rather than temperature significantly relates with NPPgap, although warming was significant for the entire study region while precipitation only significantly increased in the northeastern places. On the Northern Tibetan Plateau, 69.05% of available alpine pastures showed a restoration trend with positive NPPgap, and for 58.74% of alpine pastures, stocking rate is suggested to increase in the future because of the positive mean NPPgap and its increasing trend. This study provides a potential framework for regionally regulating grazing management with aims to restore the degraded pastures and sustainable management of the healthy pastures on the Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

  15. The effects of Southeast Asia fire activities on tropospheric ozone, trace gases and aerosols at a remote site over the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.Y.; Wong, K.H.; Li, Y.S.; Chan, L.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), total reactive nitrogen (NO y ) and aerosols (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were measured on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau at Tengchong (25.01 deg N, 98.3 deg E, 1960 m a.s.l.) in Southwest China, where observational data is scarce, during a field campaign of the TAPTO-China (Transport of Air Pollutants and Tropospheric O 3 over China) in the spring of 2004. Fire maps derived from satellite data and backward air trajectories were used to trace the source regions and transport pathways of pollution. Ozone, CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 had average concentrations of 26 ± 8 ppb, 179 ± 91 ppb, 2.7 ± 1.2 ppb and 34 ± 23 and 28 ± 19 μg/m 3 , respectively. The measured O 3 level is low when compared with those reported for similar longitudinal sites in Southeast (SE) Asia and northeastern Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China suggesting that there exist complex O 3 variations in the Tibetan Plateau and its neighbouring SE Asian region. High levels of pollution with hourly averages of O 3 , CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations up to 59, 678 and 7.7 ppb and 158 and 137 μg/m 3 , respectively, were observed. The increase of pollutants in the lower troposphere was caused by regional built-up and transport of pollution from active fire regions of the SE Asia subcontinent and from northern South Asia. Our results showed that pollution transport from SE Asia and South Asia had relatively stronger impacts than that from Central and South China on the abundance of O 3 , trace gases and aerosols in the background atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

  16. Spatial distribution of the persistent organic pollutants across the Tibetan Plateau and its linkage with the climate systems: a 5-year air monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs through atmospheric transport. The exact source regions, transport pathways and time trends of POPs to the TP are not well understood. Here polystyrene–divinylbenzene copolymer resin (XAD-based passive air samplers (PASs were deployed at 16 Tibetan background sites from 2007 to 2012 to gain further insight into spatial patterns and temporal trends of OCPs and PCBs. The southeastern TP was characterized by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT-related chemicals delivered by Indian monsoon air masses. The northern and northwestern TP displayed the greatest absolute concentration and relative abundance of hexachlorobenzene (HCB in the atmosphere, caused by the westerly-driven European air masses. The interactions between the DDT polluted Indian monsoon air and the clean westerly winds formed a transition zone in central Tibet, where both DDT and HCB were the dominant chemicals. Based on 5 years of continuous sampling, our data indicated declining concentrations of HCB and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs across the Tibetan region. Inter-annual trends of DDT class chemicals, however, showed less variation during this 5-year sampling period, which may be due to the ongoing usage of DDT in India. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using POP fingerprints to investigate the climate interactions and the validity of using PAS to derive inter-annual atmospheric POP time trends.

  17. Statistical analysis of acoustic characteristics of Tibetan Lhasa dialect speech emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a quantitative analysis and comparison on the continuous speech emotion of Lhasa Tibetan in the four basic emotional patterns (happy, surprise, sad, neutral pitch, energy and time length by experimental phonetics and the linear statistical research methods, found that there is a positive correlation between the Lhasa Tibetan emotional speech and pitch, energy and duration, etc. And the pitch, energy and duration of negative emotion acoustic parameters are bigger than positive emotion, on this basis, drawing the Lhasa Tibetan speech emotion acoustic feature patterns. Compared with the Chinese language and the Tibetan, even though both have the tone prosodic features, they also have significant differences in the acoustic characteristics of the speech emotion.

  18. A longitudinal cline characterizes the genetic structure of human populations in the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Benjamin M.; Basnyat, Buddha; Neupane, Maniraj; Beall, Cynthia M.; Childs, Geoff; Craig, Sienna R.; Novembre, John; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous populations of the Tibetan plateau have attracted much attention for their good performance at extreme high altitude. Most genetic studies of Tibetan adaptations have used genetic variation data at the genome scale, while genetic inferences about their demography and population structure are largely based on uniparental markers. To provide genome-wide information on population structure, we analyzed new and published data of 338 individuals from indigenous populations across the plateau in conjunction with worldwide genetic variation data. We found a clear signal of genetic stratification across the east-west axis within Tibetan samples. Samples from more eastern locations tend to have higher genetic affinity with lowland East Asians, which can be explained by more gene flow from lowland East Asia onto the plateau. Our findings corroborate a previous report of admixture signals in Tibetans, which were based on a subset of the samples analyzed here, but add evidence for isolation by distance in a broader geospatial context. PMID:28448508

  19. AHP 37: AN INTRODUCTION TO AMDO TIBETAN LOVE SONGS, OR LA GZHAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skal bzang nor bu སྐལ་བཟང་ནོར་བུ།

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La gzhas , or Amdo Tibetan love songs, are sung between young men and women to express their love to each other. Several terms are available for this type of love song in Amdo Tibetan. La gzhas is the most common term for such songs in written Tibetan, la meaning 'mountain pass' and gzhas 'song'. In oral Amdo Tibetan, it is la-ye , a homophone of the literary term. Ri glu literally means mountain song, and this term matches the Chinese term for love songs, shan'ge. These two terms indicate where this song is often sung, in the mountains, far away from houses, villages and tents, in places where there are few people around. Rogs 'then has a more romantic connotation, rogs meaning friend or lover, and 'then meaning to pull, or hookup. ...

  20. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. The article argues that migration to Tibet from other regions in China has been concentrated in urban areas and has been counterbalanced by more rapid rates of natural increase in the...

  1. TIBETAN WOMEN'S DAILY LIFE: FIRE, FUEL, WATER COLLECTION, COOKING, AND CHILDCARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje don 'grub རྡོ་རྗེ་དོན་འགྲུབ། Duojieduanzhi 多杰端智

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The daily lives of Lha mtsho skyid, Klu mo, and Tshe thar skyid, Tibetan women living in impoverished A bo rgyud (Awubuju Tibetan Village, Gser gzhung (Jinyuan Township, Dpal lung (Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Mtsho shar (Haidong City, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province in May 2011 are described. Aspects of fuel collection, family relationships, food preparation, child care, schooling, water collection, and day-to-day anxieties are described, illustrating the reality of their daily existence.

  2. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BM...

  3. Research on Time Selection of Mass Sports in Tibetan Areas Plateau of Gansu Province Based on Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jike

    2018-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review, instrument measuring, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, this paper analyzed the current situation in Mass Sports of Tibetan Areas Plateau in Gansu Province. Through experimental test access to Tibetan areas in gansu province of air pollutants and meteorological index data as the foundation, control related national standard and exercise science, statistical analysis of data, the Tibetan plateau, gansu province people participate in physical exercise is dedicated to providing you with scientific methods and appropriate time.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  5. Comparison of maternal and newborn outcomes of Tibetan and Han Chinese delivering in Lhasa, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suellen; Tudor, Carrie; Thorsten, Vanessa; Nyima; Sonam; Droyoung; Wright, Linda; Varner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of Tibetan and Han Chinese women delivering vaginally at high altitude (3650 meters) in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China. Method Comparative analysis of data from a prospective observational study of Tibetan (n = 938) and Han Chinese (n = 146) women delivering at three hospitals between January 2004 and May 2005. Results Han Chinese women had higher rates of pre-eclampsia/gestational hypertension than Tibetan women, (10.3% vs 5.9%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in rates of postpartum hemorrhage between Tibetan and Han women (12.8% vs 17.1%, P = 0.15). Han newborns weighed significantly less than Tibetan newborns (P < 0.01), and were twice as likely to be small for gestational age, (24.5% vs 11.6%, P < 0.01). Tibetan newborns were less likely to have poor neonatal outcomes than Han newborns (P < 0.01). Conclusion In high altitude deliveries in Tibet, adverse outcomes were significantly more common among Han Chinese. PMID:19012697

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65% samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05. Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

  7. Distributional patterns of anemophilous tree pollen indicating the pathways of Indian monsoon through Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution pattern of vegetation on Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is fundamentally influenced by the plateau climate, which is mainly controlled by Indian monsoon during summer. The long distance transportation of pollen (mostly anemophilous taxa produced by trees on the plateau has been recorded by modern pollen samples in previous studies, and hypothesized to be a good indicator of monsoon dynamics. Here we use 270 surface pollen samples from Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau to test the distribution patterns of the anemophilous tree pollen. Meanwhile factors related to Indian monsoon affecting pollen transportation are simulated and analyzed. Results show that depositional patterns of anemophilous tree pollen, especially Abies, Pinus, Quercus and Betula are completely controlled by the pathways of Indian monsoon. This is reflected by climatic indicators of the atmospheric pressure pattern over June–July–August, by the precipitation pattern over June–July–August and by the topographic feature of the plateau. The spatial interpolation of thin plate spline results also display two depositional centers (ca. 30°N, 95°E and 30°N, 105°E of the anemophilous tree pollen. In contrast to previous conclusion that pollen distributional pattern is determined by mean annual precipitation, we argue that Indian monsoon is the essential controller because of the synchronization between timing of monsoon wind and timing of plants flowering. Our finding strongly suggests that distributional pattern of anemophilous tree pollen on the plateau is a good proxy of Indian monsoon.

  8. Numerical Study of a Southwest Vortex Rainstorm Process Influenced by the Eastward Movement of Tibetan Plateau Vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies revealed the possible eastward movement of the Tibetan Plateau low-pressure system in summer and indicated the enhancement effect of this process on the southwest vortex in the Sichuan Basin, which can induce strong convective precipitation and flood events in China. In this study, a numerical simulation of a southwest vortex rainstorm process was performed. The results show that the low-pressure system originated from the Tibetan Plateau affects the southwest vortex mainly at the middle level, causing the strength increase of southwest vortex (SWV, and acts as a connection between the positive vorticity centers at the upper and lower layers. For the microscopic cloud structure, the vertical updraft of the cloud cluster embedded in the SWV increases as the low-pressure system from the plateau arrives at the Sichuan Basin. Vapor and liquid cloud water at the lower level are transported upward, based on which the ice cloud at the upper level and the warm cloud at the lower level are joined to create favorable conditions for the growth of ice crystals. As the ice crystals grow up, snow and graupel particles form, which substantially elevates the precipitation. This effect leads to the rapid development of SWV rainstorm clouds and the occurrence of precipitation. In addition to the effect of the plateau vortex, the subsequent merging of the convective clouds is another important factor for heavy rainfall because it also leads to development of convective clouds, causing heavy rainfall.

  9. Effect of degradation intensity on grassland ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wen

    Full Text Available The deterioration of alpine grassland has great impact on ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of grassland degradation on ecosystem services and the consequence of grassland deterioration on economic loss still remains a mystery. So, in this study, we assessed four types of ecosystem services following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classification, along a degradation gradient. Five sites of alpine grassland at different levels of degradation were investigated in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. The species composition, aboveground biomass, soil total organic carbon (TOC, and soil total nitrogen (TN were tested to evaluate major ecological services of the alpine grassland. We estimated the value of primary production, carbon storage, nitrogen recycling, and plant diversity. The results show the ecosystem services of alpine grassland varied along the degradation gradient. The ecosystem services of degraded grassland (moderate, heavy and severe were all significantly lower than non-degraded grassland. Interestingly, the lightly degraded grassland provided more economic benefit from carbon maintenance and nutrient sequestration compared to non-degraded. Due to the destruction of the alpine grassland, the economic loss associated with decrease of biomass in 2008 was $198/ha. Until 2008, the economic loss caused by carbon emissions and nitrogen loss on severely degraded grassland was up to $8 033/ha and $13 315/ha, respectively. Urgent actions are required to maintain or promote the ecosystem services of alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  10. Effect of degradation intensity on grassland ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Dong, Shikui; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jianjun; Wang, Yanlong; Liu, Demei; Ma, Yushou

    2013-01-01

    The deterioration of alpine grassland has great impact on ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of grassland degradation on ecosystem services and the consequence of grassland deterioration on economic loss still remains a mystery. So, in this study, we assessed four types of ecosystem services following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classification, along a degradation gradient. Five sites of alpine grassland at different levels of degradation were investigated in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. The species composition, aboveground biomass, soil total organic carbon (TOC), and soil total nitrogen (TN) were tested to evaluate major ecological services of the alpine grassland. We estimated the value of primary production, carbon storage, nitrogen recycling, and plant diversity. The results show the ecosystem services of alpine grassland varied along the degradation gradient. The ecosystem services of degraded grassland (moderate, heavy and severe) were all significantly lower than non-degraded grassland. Interestingly, the lightly degraded grassland provided more economic benefit from carbon maintenance and nutrient sequestration compared to non-degraded. Due to the destruction of the alpine grassland, the economic loss associated with decrease of biomass in 2008 was $198/ha. Until 2008, the economic loss caused by carbon emissions and nitrogen loss on severely degraded grassland was up to $8 033/ha and $13 315/ha, respectively. Urgent actions are required to maintain or promote the ecosystem services of alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  11. Signals of pollution revealed by trace elements in recent snow from mountain glaciers at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefang; Li, Zhen; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Clara; Barbante, Carlo; Huang, Ju; Xiong, Longfei

    2018-06-01

    In order to extract pollution signal of trace elements (TEs) in glacier snow at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of China by human activities, concentrations of 18 TEs (Al, Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr, Ba, V, Cr, Mn, Li, Cu, Co, Mo, Cs, Sb, Pb, Tl, and U), 14 rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu), Y and Th in digested snow samples from five glaciers in April-May 2013 before monsoon season were measured. Results shown that higher TEs concentrations were found in glaciers at the northern plateau while lower concentrations in glaciers at the central and southern plateau. Discussion revealed that EF values calculated from elements with mass fraction TEs such as Sb, Sr, As, Cu and Pb etc. Analysis indicated that most TEs mainly originated from dust sources, whereas Pb, Cu, Mo and Sb showed occasionally significant contributions from polluted sources in three snow pits and the GRHK surface snow samples. The pollution probably originated from mining and smelting, road transport emissions on the plateau and some regions outside of the plateau. Dust provenance tracing results based on REEs indicated that Taklimakan Desert, Qaidam Basin, and Tibetan surface soil were the potential dust sources for the studied glaciers, while the Indian Thar Desert was an occasional dust sources for YZF,XDKMD and GRHK snow samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  13. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  14. A mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shu Qing; Yang, Ying Zhong; Zhou, Jun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate genetic mechanisms of high altitude adaptations of native mammals on the Tibetan Plateau, we compared mitochondrial sequences of the endangered Pantholops hodgsonii with its lowland distant relatives Ovis aries and Capra hircus, as well as other mammals. The complete mitochondrial...... genome of P. hodgsonii (16,498 bp) revealed a similar gene order as of other mammals. Because of tandem duplications, the control region of P. hodgsonii mitochondrial genome is shorter than those of O. aries and C. hircus, but longer than those of Bos species. Phylogenetic analysis based on alignments...... of the entire cytochrome b genes suggested that P. hodgsonii is more closely related to O. aries and C. hircus, rather than to species of the Antilopinae subfamily. The estimated divergence time between P. hodgsonii and O. aries is about 2.25 million years ago. Further analysis on natural selection indicated...

  15. ESR Dating Research of Glacial Tills in Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, W.; Yi, C.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, Quaternary Glacial-chronology has been made remarkable progress in the Tibetan Platean(TP) with the development of several numeric dating techniques, such as cosmogenic nuclides(NC), optically stimulated luminescence(OSL) and 14C. In constrast, the dating of Quaternary glacial tills in 100,000 years even more than million-year has been a challenge, just because the techniques has defects themselves and the sediments were stransformed during the geological and geomorphology progress later. Electron Spin Resonance(ESR) has been becoming one of the key methods of Quaternary Glacial-chronology with wide range of dating, expecially for the sample older than 100,000 years up to million-year scale. The accurate measurement of equivalent dose significantly impacts on accuracy and reliability of ESR dating method. Therefore, the study of the mechanisms of resetting processes is fundamental for accurate and reliable ESR dating. To understand the mechanism and characteristics of quartz ESR signal resetting of different samples, a series of laboratory simulation and field observation studies were carried out, which made lots of important breakthrough. But the research in quartz ESR signal of moraines is less and the test of ESR dating method is still in the qualitative investigation. Therefor, we use ESR dating and study on the mechanism and characteristics of quartz ESR signals in tills in the Tibetan Platean. In the adjust method of Modern, the quartz ESR signals in Modern glacial tills represent residual values which can be adjusted signals in the older glacial tills. As a consequence, ESR dating of the quartz in moraines needs to be explored in deep with building models to adjust ages which are measured by ESR dating. Therefore, ESR dating will become the trusted one of the cross dating methods in Quaternary Glacial-chronology with the adjust mothod improving the accuracy of ESR dating ages.

  16. Tibetan Plateau glacier and hydrological change under stratospheric aerosol injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, D.

    2017-12-01

    As an important inland freshwater resource, mountain glaciers are highly related to human life, they provide water for many large rivers and play a very important role in regional water cycles. The response of mountain glaciers to future climate change is a topic of concern especially to the many people who rely on glacier-fed rivers for purposes such as irrigation. Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection is a method of offsetting the global temperature rise from greenhouse gases. How the geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection affects the mass balance of mountain glaciers and adjacent river discharge is little understood. In this study, we use regional climate model WRF and catchment-based river model CaMa-Flood to study the impacts of stratospheric aerosol injection to Tibetan Plateau glacier mass balance and adjacent river discharge. To facilitate mountain glacier mass balance study, we improve the description of mountain glacier in the land surface scheme of WRF. The improvements include: (1) a fine mesh nested in WRF horizontal grid to match the highly non-uniform spatial distribution of the mountain glaciers, (2) revising the radiation flux at the glacier surface considering the surrounding terrain. We use the projections of five Earth system models for CMIP5 rcp45 and GeoMIP G4 scenarios to drive the WRF and CaMa-Flood models. The G4 scenario, which uses stratospheric aerosols to reduce the incoming shortwave while applying the rcp4.5 greenhouse gas forcing, starts stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection at a rate of 5 Tg per year over the period 2020-2069. The ensemble projections suggest relatively slower glacier mass loss rates and reduced river discharge at Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions under geoengineering scenario by stratospheric aerosol injection.

  17. The chromium in timberline forests in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; She, Jia; Chen, Youchao; Gong, Yiwen; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Dong

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the regional distribution, trait and possible source of chromium in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we collected samples of xylem, bark, leaves and twigs in two parallel northwest-southeast belt transects (TA and TB) from the Hengduan Mountains. According to the Cr mean concentration, organ/tissue was split into two groups: the high-level organ/tissue (twigs: 1.476 mg kg(-1)) and the low-level organ/tissue (bark: 0.413 mg kg(-1), leaves: 0.340 mg kg(-1) and xylem: 0.194 mg kg(-1)). The mean Cr concentrations of twigs and leaves in TB samples were higher than those in the TA samples, and the mean Cr concentration in both sites gradually reduced from southeast to northwest. Both the southeasterly and southwesterly monsoons could be significant, influential factors in this connection. The top three mean Cr concentrations were S7, S1 and S8, which were closer to the developed city. Mean Cr concentrations in S3, S4 and S5, (remote, high mountains) were relatively low. The high mountains acting as a barrier to the monsoon and the distance from the big city may play important roles in the distribution of Chromium. Furthermore, the relationship between the mean Cr concentration and precipitation, timberline trees as bio-monitors of chromium pollution in polluted areas and the possible source of Cr in the eastern Tibetan Plateau are also discussed. This study may provide reliable proof of Cr contamination processes, and so help in future to prevent further Cr pollution, and also be helpful in understanding the important function of forest ecosystems in relation to atmospheric pollution and global change. To better understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of Cr concentration, we found that tree ring, fine roots and soil samples are good choices.

  18. Phylogeography of Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae) in Northwest Tibetan Plateau area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanghe, Kunyuan; Tang, Yongtao; Tian, Fei; Feng, Chenguang; Zhang, Renyi; Li, Guogang; Liu, Sijia; Zhao, Kai

    2017-11-01

    Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae, subfamily Schizothoracinae) is one of the major freshwater fishes endemic to the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, we used mitochondrial DNA markers cytochrome b (Cyt b ) and 16S rRNA (16S), as well as the nuclear marker, the second intron of the nuclear beta-actin gene (Act2), to uncover the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai . In total, we obtained 74 haplotypes from 403 mitochondrial concatenated sequences. The mtDNA markers depict the phylogenetic structures of S. stoliczkai , which consist of clade North and clade South. The split time of the two clades is dated back to 4.27 Mya (95% HPD = 1.96-8.20 Mya). The estimated split time is earlier than the beginning of the ice age of Pleistocene (2.60 Mya), suggesting that the northwestern area of the Tibetan Plateau probably contain at least two glacial refugia for S. stoliczkai . SAMOVA supports the formation of four groups: (i) the Karakash River group; (ii) The Lake Pangong group; (iii) the Shiquan River group; (iv) the Southern Basin group. Clade North included Karakash River, Lake Pangong, and Shiquan River groups, while seven populations of clade South share the haplotypes. Genetic diversity, star-like network, BSP analysis, as well as negative neutrality tests indicate recent expansions events of S. stoliczkai . Conclusively, our results illustrate the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai , implying the Shiquan River is presumably the main refuge for S. stoliczkai .

  19. Diagnostic and model dependent uncertainty of simulated Tibetan permafrost area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Rinke, A.; Moore, J. C.; Cui, X.; Ji, D.; Li, Q.; Zhang, N.; Wang, C.; Zhang, S.; Lawrence, D. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Zhang, W.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; Saito, K.; MacDougall, A.; Burke, E.; Decharme, B.

    2016-02-01

    We perform a land-surface model intercomparison to investigate how the simulation of permafrost area on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) varies among six modern stand-alone land-surface models (CLM4.5, CoLM, ISBA, JULES, LPJ-GUESS, UVic). We also examine the variability in simulated permafrost area and distribution introduced by five different methods of diagnosing permafrost (from modeled monthly ground temperature, mean annual ground and air temperatures, air and surface frost indexes). There is good agreement (99 to 135 × 104 km2) between the two diagnostic methods based on air temperature which are also consistent with the observation-based estimate of actual permafrost area (101 × 104 km2). However the uncertainty (1 to 128 × 104 km2) using the three methods that require simulation of ground temperature is much greater. Moreover simulated permafrost distribution on the TP is generally only fair to poor for these three methods (diagnosis of permafrost from monthly, and mean annual ground temperature, and surface frost index), while permafrost distribution using air-temperature-based methods is generally good. Model evaluation at field sites highlights specific problems in process simulations likely related to soil texture specification, vegetation types and snow cover. Models are particularly poor at simulating permafrost distribution using the definition that soil temperature remains at or below 0 °C for 24 consecutive months, which requires reliable simulation of both mean annual ground temperatures and seasonal cycle, and hence is relatively demanding. Although models can produce better permafrost maps using mean annual ground temperature and surface frost index, analysis of simulated soil temperature profiles reveals substantial biases. The current generation of land-surface models need to reduce biases in simulated soil temperature profiles before reliable contemporary permafrost maps and predictions of changes in future permafrost distribution can be made for

  20. AHP 21: A Space for the Possible: Globalization and English Language Learning for Tibetan Students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Clothey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With growth in China's tourist industry and international trade in recent decades, learning English has become a threshold for determining who can get what others cannot. There are many opportunities to master and become culturally competent in English in the prosperous urban and eastern coastal areas where foreign businesses and tourists are common. Disparities between east and west, urban and rural, and majority and minority areas continue to widen in China, raising the question of how to increase economic development in more remote rural communities. Meanwhile, how minority cultures might remain resilient amid the forces of globalization is a continuing concern. The tensions between globalization, development, and cultural identity as illustrated through an English language program for Tibetan speakers in one of China's poorest provinces, Qinghai, are described.

  1. Studies of advanced stages of meditation in the tibetan buddhist and vedic traditions. I: a comparison of general changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex

    2006-12-01

    This article is the first of two comparing findings of studies of advanced practitioners of Tibetan Buddhist meditation in remote regions of the Himalayas, with established results on long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation programs. Many parallel levels of improvement were found, in sensory acuity, perceptual style and cognitive function, indicating stabilization of aspects of attentional awareness. Together with observed increases in EEG coherence and aspects of brain function, such changes are consistent with growth towards a state of total brain functioning, i.e. development of full mental potential. They are usually accompanied by improved health parameters. How they may be seen to be consistent with growth of enlightenment will be the subject of a second article.

  2. Studies of Advanced Stages of Meditation in the Tibetan Buddhist and Vedic Traditions. I: A Comparison of General Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first of two comparing findings of studies of advanced practitioners of Tibetan Buddhist meditation in remote regions of the Himalayas, with established results on long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation programs. Many parallel levels of improvement were found, in sensory acuity, perceptual style and cognitive function, indicating stabilization of aspects of attentional awareness. Together with observed increases in EEG coherence and aspects of brain function, such changes are consistent with growth towards a state of total brain functioning, i.e. development of full mental potential. They are usually accompanied by improved health parameters. How they may be seen to be consistent with growth of enlightenment will be the subject of a second article.

  3. What drives the Tibetan crust to the South East Asia? Role of upper mantle density discontinuities as inferred from the continental geoid anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.

    2012-04-01

    upper mantle beneath the Himalaya-Tibet has been studied by analyzing the geoid undulation data obtained from various satellite geodetic missions along with the recent and old (EGM2008 and EGM2006) Earth Gravity models. Results show that the net geoid anomaly varies from -65 m to -20 m, which signify a density stratified upper mantle beneath the Himalaya-Tibet and the same has been confirmed from the results of regional seismic tomography studies. The density anomaly distribution beneath Tibet from 163 km depth to its upper mantle thickness of 1063 km show a strong NW-SE elliptically oriented positive geoid anomalies of magnitude around 40 meter. Asymmetric density anomaly gradient have been observed along the Himalayan arc from west to east as well as across the arc from north to south. This caused differential gravitational potential gradient and hence an elliptical flow structure of the Tibetan continental mantle along the resultant NW-SE direction, which is in concurrence with the observed present day direction of the Tibetan crustal flow. Thus the geoid anomalies distributed at various depth ranges show how the gradient in the upper mantle gravitational potential energy, especially across the deformed discontinuity surface, is significant in determining the transfer of deviatoric stresses and providing traction to the flow of crustal layers of the Tibetan Plateau. This suggests the viscous flow model could be a preferable choice, which could better accommodate the dynamics of the upper mantle, in explaining the crustal extrusion processes of the Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Diurnal variations of summer precipitation over the regions east to Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Huang, Anning; Huang, Danqing; Chen, Fei; Yang, Ben; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Dexian; Zhang, Lujun; Wen, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    Based on the hourly gauge-satellite merged precipitation product with the horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude/longitude during 2008-2014, diurnal variations of the summer precipitation amount (PA), frequency (PF), and intensity (PI) with different duration time over the regions east to Tibetan Plateau have been systematically revealed in this study. Results indicate that the eight typical precipitation diurnal patterns identified by the cluster analysis display pronounced regional features among the plateaus, basins, plains, hilly and coastal areas. The precipitation diurnal cycles are significantly affected by the sub-grid terrain fluctuations. The PA, PF and PI of the total rainfall show much more pronounced double diurnal peaks with the sub-grid topography standard deviation (SD) decreased. Meanwhile, the diurnal peaks of PA and PF (PI) strengthen (weaken) with the sub-grid topography SD enhanced. Over the elevated mountain ranges, southeastern hilly and coastal regions, the PA and PF diurnal patterns of the total rainfall generally show predominant late-afternoon peaks, which are closely associated with the short-duration (≤slant 3 h) rainfall. Along the Tibetan Plateau to its downstream, the diurnal peaks of PA, PF and PI for the total rainfall all exhibit obvious eastward phase time delay mainly due to the diurnal evolutions of long-duration (> 6 h) rainfall. However, the 4-6 h rainfall leads to the eastward phase time delay of the total rainfall along the Taihang Mountains to its downstream. Further mechanism analysis suggests that the midnight to morning diurnal evolution of the long-duration rainfall is closely associated with the diurnal variations of the upward branches of thermally driven mountain-plain solenoids and the water vapor transport associated with the accelerated nocturnal southwesterly winds. The late-afternoon peak of the short-duration PA over the southeastern hilly and coastal regions is ascribed to the strong local thermal

  5. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  6. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong

    2017-09-01

    Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau. This work may provide a

  7. Impact of Land Use Change on the Local Climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP, while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.

  8. Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Qinglong; Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; Huang Jie; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Yan Yuping

    2009-01-01

    The 'weekend effect' method (defined here as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday) has been used to identify fingerprints of anthropogenic emissions. Based on daily maximum and minimum temperature series from the China Meteorological Administration homogenized dataset, the weekend effect in diurnal temperature range (DTR) at 71 stations with elevations above 2000 m asl in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1961-2004 is examined, and principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to cluster series into four subregions with similar weekend effect variability. The DTR demonstrates a much stronger negative weekend effect in autumn and shows larger positive values in winter, which provides a strong evidence of anthropogenic activity in this region, especially in the central TP. Analysis by topographic type and degree of urbanization shows a clear weekly cycle which cannot be explained by a microclimate effect. We hypothesize that the interaction with anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and transported by atmospheric circulation may account for the weekly cycle in the TP. More caution should be paid to the driving mechanism of the weekend effect in the most remote and clear regions in the world.

  9. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4–1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. PMID:22676420

  10. Genetic variability of Echinococcus granulosus from the Tibetan plateau inferred by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Nie, Hua-Ming; Jiang, Zhong-Rong; Yang, Ai-Guo; Deng, Shi-Jin; Guo, Li; Yu, Hua; Yan, Yu-Bao; Tsering, Dawa; Kong, Wei-Shu; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jia-Hai; Xie, Yue; Fu, Yan; Yang, De-Ying; Wang, Shu-Xian; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-09-01

    To analyse genetic variability and population structure, 84 isolates of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) collected from various host species at different sites of the Tibetan plateau in China were sequenced for the whole mitochondrial nad1 (894 bp) and atp6 (513 bp) genes. The vast majority were classified as G1 genotype (n=82), and two samples from human patients in Sichuan province were identified as G3 genotype. Based on the concatenated sequences of nad1+atp6, 28 different haplotypes (NA1-NA28) were identified. A parsimonious network of the concatenated sequence haplotypes showed star-like features in the overall population, with NA1 as the major haplotype in the population networks. By AMOVA it was shown that variation of E. granulosus within the overall population was the main pattern of the total genetic variability. Neutrality indexes of the concatenated sequence (nad1+atp6) were computed by Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests and showed high negative values for E. granulosus, indicating significant deviations from neutrality. FST and Nm values suggested that the populations were not genetically differentiated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  12. Stable isotopes reveal sources of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Bu-Li; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The use of isotopic tracers is an effective approach for characterizing the moisture sources of precipitation in cold and arid regions, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), an area of sparse human habitation with few weather and hydrological stations. This study investigated stable isotope characteristics of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin, analyzed moisture sources using data sets from NCEP–NCAR, and calculated vapor contributions from lake evaporation to the precipitation in the basin using a two-component mixing model. Results showed that the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) was defined as δ 2 H = 7.86 δ 18 O + 15.01, with a slope of less than 8, indicating that some non-equilibrium evaporation processes occurred when the drops fell below the cloud base. Temperature effects controlled δ 18 O and δ 2 H in precipitation in the basin, with high values in summer season and low values in winter season. Moisture in the basin was derived predominantly from the Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) from June to August and the Westerly Circulation (WC) from September through May. Meanwhile, the transition in atmospheric circulation took place in June and September. The SEAM strengthened gradually, while the WC weakened gradually in June, and inversely in September. However, the Southwest Asian Monsoon (SWAM) did not reach the Qinghai Lake Basin due to the barrier posed by Tanggula Mountain. High d-excess (> 10‰) and significant altitude and lake effects of δ 18 O in precipitation suggested that the vapor evaporated from Qinghai Lake, strongly influenced annual precipitation, and affected the regional water cycle in the basin distinctly. The monthly contribution of lake evaporation to basin precipitation ranged from 3.03% to 37.93%, with an annual contribution of 23.42% or 90.54 mm, the majority of which occurred in the summer season. The findings demonstrate that the contribution of evaporation from lakes to atmospheric vapor is fundamental to water cycling

  13. Light absorption of biomass burning and vehicle emission-sourced carbonaceous aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaofu; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Chen, Pengfei; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yulan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau originate primarily from biomass burning and vehicle emissions (BB and VEs, respectively). The light absorption characteristics of these carbonaceous aerosols are closely correlated with the burning conditions and represent key factors that influence climate forcing. In this study, the light absorption characteristics of elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm) generated from BB and VEs were investigated over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results showed that the organic carbon (OC)/EC ratios from BB- and VE-sourced PM 2.5 were 17.62 ± 10.19 and 1.19 ± 0.36, respectively. These values were higher than the ratios in other regions, which was primarily because of the diminished amount of oxygen over the TP. The mass absorption cross section of EC (MAC EC ) at 632 nm for the BB-sourced PM 2.5 (6.10 ± 1.21 m 2 .g -1 ) was lower than that of the VE-sourced PM 2.5 (8.10 ± 0.98 m 2 .g -1 ), indicating that the EC content of the BB-sourced PM 2.5 was overestimated because of the high OC/EC ratio. The respective absorption per mass (α/ρ) values at 365 nm for the VE- and BB-sourced PM 2.5 were 0.71 ± 0.17 m 2 .g -1 and 0.91 ± 0.18 m 2 .g -1 . The α/ρ value of the VEs was loaded between that of gasoline and diesel emissions, indicating that the VE-sourced PM 2.5 originated from both types of emissions. Because OC and WSOC accounts for most of the carbonaceous aerosols at remote area of the TP, the radiative forcing contributed by the WSOC should be high, and requires further investigation.

  14. Stable isotopes reveal sources of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Bu-Li, E-mail: cuibuli@ieecas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710061 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Xiao-Yan [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-09-15

    The use of isotopic tracers is an effective approach for characterizing the moisture sources of precipitation in cold and arid regions, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), an area of sparse human habitation with few weather and hydrological stations. This study investigated stable isotope characteristics of precipitation in the Qinghai Lake Basin, analyzed moisture sources using data sets from NCEP–NCAR, and calculated vapor contributions from lake evaporation to the precipitation in the basin using a two-component mixing model. Results showed that the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) was defined as δ{sup 2}H = 7.86 δ{sup 18}O + 15.01, with a slope of less than 8, indicating that some non-equilibrium evaporation processes occurred when the drops fell below the cloud base. Temperature effects controlled δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H in precipitation in the basin, with high values in summer season and low values in winter season. Moisture in the basin was derived predominantly from the Southeast Asian Monsoon (SEAM) from June to August and the Westerly Circulation (WC) from September through May. Meanwhile, the transition in atmospheric circulation took place in June and September. The SEAM strengthened gradually, while the WC weakened gradually in June, and inversely in September. However, the Southwest Asian Monsoon (SWAM) did not reach the Qinghai Lake Basin due to the barrier posed by Tanggula Mountain. High d-excess (> 10‰) and significant altitude and lake effects of δ{sup 18}O in precipitation suggested that the vapor evaporated from Qinghai Lake, strongly influenced annual precipitation, and affected the regional water cycle in the basin distinctly. The monthly contribution of lake evaporation to basin precipitation ranged from 3.03% to 37.93%, with an annual contribution of 23.42% or 90.54 mm, the majority of which occurred in the summer season. The findings demonstrate that the contribution of evaporation from lakes to atmospheric vapor is

  15. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and

  16. The Limits to Buying Stability in Tibet: Tibetan Representation and Preferentiality in China's Contemporary Public Employment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín); A. Zenz (Adrian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBased on an entirely unexplored source of data, this paper analyses the evolution of Tibetan representation and preferentiality within public employment recruitment across all Tibetan areas from 2007 to 2015. While recruitment collapsed after the end of the job placement system (fenpei)

  17. Mercury distribution in the foliage and soil profiles of the Tibetan forest: Processes and implications for regional cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Xue, Yong-gang; Xu, Bai-qing; Yao, Tan-dong

    2014-01-01

    Remote forests are considered a pool of Mercury (Hg) in the global Hg cycle. However, notably few studies have investigated the fate of Hg in the Tibetan forest. In this study, fifty-two foliage samples and seven litter/soil profiles were collected throughout the Tibetan forest. The concentrations of total Hg (THg) in foliage were positively correlated with longitude and negatively correlated with altitude, indicating that the emission of Hg is expected to decrease with increasing distance from emission sources to the Tibetan forest. The deposition flux of THg in the Tibetan forest (with an air-to-forest ground flux of 9.2 μg/m 2 /year) is ∼2 times the flux in clearings, which is suggestive of enhanced Hg deposition by the forest. The depositional Hg is eventually stored in the forest soil, and the soil acts as a net ‘sink’ for Hg. - Highlights: • Foliage can be used as bio-indicator for monitoring the spatial Hg distribution. • The Tibetan forest can enhance the atmospheric Hg deposition to the ground. • The Tibetan forest soil is a pool of Hg that acts to delay the regional cycling of Hg. - The Tibetan forest can accumulate atmospheric Hg, which undergoes long-range transport, and the soil of Tibetan forest acts as the final Hg ‘sink’

  18. Temporal and diurnal analysis of trace elements in the Cryospheric water at remote Laohugou basin in northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Qin, Dahe; Qin, Xiang; Yan, Fangping; Du, Wentao; Wei, Ting

    2017-03-01

    An evaluation of glacial meltwater chemistry is needed under recent dramatic glacier melting when water resources might be significantly impacted. This study investigated trace elements variation in the meltwater stream, and its related aquatic environmental information, at the Laohugou (LHG) glacier basin (4260 m a.s.l.) at a remote location in northeast Tibetan Plateau. We focused on the spatial, temporal and diurnal change of trace elements during the glacier ablation period. Results showed evident elements spatial difference on the glacier surface meltwater, as most of the elements showed increased concentration at the terminus compared to higher elevations sites. Dominant elements in the meltwater were Ba, Sr and Cr, whereas elements with high enrichment factors (EFs) were Sb, Ni, Mo and Zn. Temporal change of some trace elements concentration (e.g. Sc, Cu, and Rb) indicated increasing trend with accelerated snow-ice melting, whereas others (e.g. Ni, Zn, and Pb) showed decreasing trend. We find that, trace elements showed evident diurnal change and a peak value of concentration was observed each day at about 15:00-17:00, and the diurnal change was influenced by runoff level and pH. Moreover, EFs calculations revealed that heavy metals were partially originated from regional anthropogenic sources. Overall, the accelerated diurnal and temporal snow-ice melting (with high runoff level) were correlated to increased elemental concentration, pH, EC and elemental change mode, and thus this work is of great importance for evaluating the impacts of accelerated glacier melting to meltwater chemistry and downstream ecosystem in the northeast Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AHP 44: THE VITALITY OF KHAMS TIBETAN VARIETIES IN WEIXI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the multilingual situation of Weixi County, Yunnan Province, in the southeastern Tibetosphere, and discusses the vitality of several Tibetan varieties currently used by Tibetans in Weixi who live alongside Naxi, Lisu, Bai, Yi, and Pumi people. In this borderland area, most Tibetans are multilingual, speaking Lisu and/or Naxi in addition to Yunnanese, a dialect of Mandarin. I focus on two local Tibetan varieties: Gagatang and Tacheng. The former has become endangered, while many speakers still use the latter. Intergenerational transmission of Gagatang appears to be declining, and community attitudes towards the language are increasingly negative, whereas Tacheng Tibetan appears relatively vital, speakers of this variety have strong positive attitudes towards their mother tongue, and generally consider multilingualism to be normal. I identify two factors that contribute to Gagatang's endangerment. First is the local demographic context, where none of the minority languages are supported by the majority of villagers. A second factor is the lack of strong identities attached to local languages. This research suggests that minority languages are more valued in communities that also value ethnic diversity, thus suggesting that a key to maintaining linguistic diversity in the Tibetosphere is the retention of diverse identities.

  20. Genetic analysis of drug metabolizing phase-I enzymes CYP3A4 in Tibetan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Chang, Yu; Du, Shuli; Shi, Xugang; Yang, Hua; Kang, Longli; Jin, Tianbo; Yuan, Dongya; He, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 results in broad interindividual variability in response to certain pharmacotherapies. The present study aimed to screen Tibetan volunteers for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms. Previous research has focussed on Han Chinese patients, while little is known about the genetic variation of CYP3A4 in the Tibetan populations. Here, we adopted DNA sequencing to investigate the promoter, exons and surrounding introns, and 3'-untranslated region of the CYP3A4 gene in 96 unrelated healthy Tibetan individuals.We identified 20 different CYP3A4 polymorphisms in the Tibetan population, including two novel variants (21824 A>G and 15580 G>C). In addition, we also determined the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1A and CYP3A4*1H were 82.29% and 28.13%, respectively. CYP3A4*1P and *1G were relatively rare with frequencies of only 1.04% and 0.52%, respectively. Our results provide information on CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Tibetan individuals which may help to optimize pharmacotherapy effectiveness by providing personalized medicine to this ethnic group.

  1. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills: Efficacy in Historical and Ritual Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history.

  2. Biogeography of cryoconite bacterial communities on glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Vick-Majors, Trista J; Priscu, John C; Yao, Tandong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Keshao; Cong, Ziyuang; Xiong, Jingbo; Li, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers. To further enhance our understanding of these glacial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau and to examine their role in carbon cycling as the glaciers respond to climate change, we explored the bacterial communities within cryoconite holes associated with three climatically distinct Tibetan Plateau glaciers using Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Cryoconite bacterial communities were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Cryoconite bacterial community composition varied according to their geographical locations, exhibiting significant differences among glaciers studied. Regional beta diversity was driven by the interaction between geographic distance and environmental variables; the latter contributed more than geographic distance to the variation in cryoconite microbial communities. Our study is the first to describe the regional-scale spatial variability and to identify the factors that drive regional variability of cryoconite bacterial communities on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Aged dissolved organic carbon exported from rivers of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Stubbins, Aron; Yan, Fangping; Aho, Kelly Sue; Zhou, Feng; Raymond, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon cycle is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine carbon pools, there remain large regions such as the climate-sensitive Tibetan Plateau for which no data are available. Here we provide new 14C data on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from three large Asian rivers (the Yellow, Yangtze and Yarlung Tsangpo Rivers) running on the Tibetan Plateau and present the carbon transportation pattern in rivers of the plateau versus other river system in the world. Despite higher discharge rates during the high flow season, the DOC yield of Tibetan Plateau rivers (0.41 gC m-2 yr-1) was lower than most other rivers due to lower concentrations. Radiocarbon ages of the DOC were older/more depleted (511±294 years before present, yr BP) in the Tibetan rivers than those in Arctic and tropical rivers. A positive correlation between radiocarbon age and permafrost watershed coverage was observed, indicating that 14C-deplted/old carbon is exported from permafrost regions of the Tibetan Plateau during periods of high flow. This is in sharp contrast to permafrost regions of the Arctic which export 14C-enriched carbon during high discharge periods.

  4. Shared and unique signals of high-altitude adaptation in geographically distinct Tibetan populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Wuren

    Full Text Available Recent studies have used a variety of analytical methods to identify genes targeted by selection in high-altitude populations located throughout the Tibetan Plateau. Despite differences in analytic strategies and sample location, hypoxia-related genes, including EPAS1 and EGLN1, were identified in multiple studies. By applying the same analytic methods to genome-wide SNP information used in our previous study of a Tibetan population (n = 31 from the township of Maduo, located in the northeastern corner of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (4200 m, we have identified common targets of natural selection in a second geographically and linguistically distinct Tibetan population (n = 46 in the Tuo Tuo River township (4500 m. Our analyses provide evidence for natural selection based on iHS and XP-EHH signals in both populations at the p<0.02 significance level for EPAS1, EGLN1, HMOX2, and CYP17A1 and for PKLR, HFE, and HBB and HBG2, which have also been reported in other studies. We highlight differences (i.e., stratification and admixture in the two distinct Tibetan groups examined here and report selection candidate genes common to both groups. These findings should be considered in the prioritization of selection candidate genes in future genetic studies in Tibet.

  5. Macrolide-Resistance Selection in Tibetan Pigs with a High Load of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Rui, Yapei; Zhang, Jialu; Zhang, Lihong; Huang, Shucheng; Wu, Qingxia; Li, Kun; Han, Zhaoqing; Liu, Suozhu; Li, Jiakui

    2017-12-22

    Currently, tylosin tartrate is the first-line treatment for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in China. However, the efficacy of tylosin tartrate and resistance to this treatment in M. hyopneumoniae infections of Tibetan pigs are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infection in Tibetan pigs at three intensive farms in Tibet, China. In addition, we investigated the efficacy of tylosin tartrate treatment for porcine enzootic pneumonia by monitoring M. hyopneumoniae DNA eradication dynamics and macrolide resistance (MR). Eighty-two of 450 (18.2%) Tibetan pigs tested positive for only M. hyopneumoniae, and most of these animals (85.1%) had symptoms and signs of pneumonia. The elimination of M. hyopneumoniae DNA was substantially faster in Tibetan pigs with a lower pretreatment M. hyopneumoniae load, and the total eradication rate was 97.4% (75/77). Two Tibetan pigs tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae that contained macrolide resistance-determining mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Our results indicate that the pretreatment M. hyopneumoniae load may be an effective predictor of macrolide treatment efficacy (and possibly that of other antimicrobial agents) and MR. Moreover, our results suggest that danofloxacin mesylate can be used as an alternative drug for the treatment of macrolide-resistant M. hyopneumoniae infection acquired during intensive farming.

  6. Estimates of grassland biomass and turnover time on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangzhou; Ma, Minna; Liang, Tiangang; Wu, Chaoyang; Yang, Yuanhe; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yangjian; Yuan, Wenping

    2018-01-01

    The grassland of the Tibetan Plateau forms a globally significant biome, which represents 6% of the world’s grasslands and 44% of China’s grasslands. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the vegetation carbon storage and turnover time in this biome. In this study, we quantified the pool size of both the aboveground and belowground biomass and turnover time of belowground biomass across the Tibetan Plateau by combining systematic measurements taken from a substantial number of surveys (i.e. 1689 sites for aboveground biomass, 174 sites for belowground biomass) with a machine learning technique (i.e. random forest, RF). Our study demonstrated that the RF model is effective tool for upscaling local biomass observations to the regional scale, and for producing continuous biomass estimates of the Tibetan Plateau. On average, the models estimated 46.57 Tg (1 Tg = 1012g) C of aboveground biomass and 363.71 Tg C of belowground biomass in the Tibetan grasslands covering an area of 1.32 × 106 km2. The turnover time of belowground biomass demonstrated large spatial heterogeneity, with a median turnover time of 4.25 years. Our results also demonstrated large differences in the biomass simulations among the major ecosystem models used for the Tibetan Plateau, largely because of inadequate model parameterization and validation. This study provides a spatially continuous measure of vegetation carbon storage and turnover time, and provides useful information for advancing ecosystem models and improving their performance.

  7. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Activity of the Strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Tibetan Plateau, Inferred from Tectonic Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A.; Yan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledges on the activity of the strike-slip fault zones on the Tibetan Plateau have been promoted greatly by the interpretation of remote sensing images (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977). The active strike-slip Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault System (XXFS), with the geometry of an arc projecting northeastwards, plays an important role in the crustal deformation of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Xianshuihe Fault Zone (XFZ) is located in the central segment of the XXFS and extends for 370 km, with a maximum sinistral offset of 60 km since 13‒5 Ma. In this study, we investigated the tectonic landforms and slip rate along the central segment of the left-lateral strike-slip XFZ. Field investigations and analysis of ttectonic landforms show that horizontal offset has been accumulated on the topographical markers of different scales that developed since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The central segment of the XFZ is composed of three major faults: Yalahe, Selaha, and Zheduotang faults showing a right-stepping echelon pattern, that is characterized by systematical offset of drainages, alluvial fans and terrace risers with typical scissoring structures, indicating a structural feature of left-lateral strike-slip fault. Based on the offset glacial morphology and radiocarbon dating ages, we estimate the Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate to be 10 mm/yr for the central segment of the XFZ, which is consistent with that estimated from the GPS observations and geological evidence as reported previously. Across the central segment of the XFZ, the major Selaha and Zheduotang faults participate a slip rate of 5.8 mm/yr and 3.4 mm/yr, respectively. Detailed investigations of tectonic landforms are essential for the understanding the activity of active faults. Our findings suggest that the left-lateral slipping of the XFZ partitions the deformation of eastward extrusion and northeastward

  8. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  9. Psychiatry in Tibetan Buddhism: madness and its cure seen through the lens of religious and national history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan Buddhism offers the oldest written theory of psychiatry, dating back to the 7th and 8th century C.E. In this article, aspects of Tibetan psychiatry and the Tibetan view of mental illness, including the notion of demonic possession, are examined and compared to Western descriptive psychiatric and psychoanalytic object relations perspectives on mental illness. The mythology of Palden Lhamo is also explored, including the way this Tibetan Buddhist "special protector," or "dharmapala," is associated with the cure and causation of mental illness in Tibetan Buddhist conceptions of mental illness. The myth of her life is further explored and interpreted from a social psychological perspective in terms of its similarities and differences to the life of the Buddha, and to historical figures involved in Tibet's transformation from a war-like state to a pacifist Buddhist state.

  10. Climatic Changes on Tibetan Plateau Based on Ice Core Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic changes have been reconstructed for the Tibetan Plateau based on ice core records. The Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau presents climatic changes in the past 100,000 years, thus is comparative with that from Vostok ice core in Antarctica and GISP2 record in Arctic. These three records share an important common feature, i.e., our climate is not stable. It is also evident that the major patterns of climatic changes are similar on the earth. Why does climatic change over the earth follow a same pattern? It might be attributed to solar radiation. We found that the cold periods correspond to low insolation periods, and warm periods to high insolation periods. We found abrupt climatic change in the ice core climatic records, which presented dramatic temperature variation of as much as 10 °C in 50 or 60 years. Our major challenge in the study of both climate and environment is that greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 are possibly amplifying global warming, though at what degree remains unclear. One of the ways to understand the role of greenhouse gases is to reconstruct the past greenhouse gases recorded in ice. In 1997, we drilled an ice core from 7100 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas to reconstruct methane record. Based on the record, we found seasonal cycles in methane variation. In particular, the methane concentration is high in summer, suggestiing active methane emission from wet land in summer. Based on the seasonal cycle, we can reconstruct the methane fluctuation history in the past 500 years. The most prominent feature of the methane record in the Himalayan ice core is the abrupt increase since 1850 A.D.. This is closely related to the industrial revolution worldwide. We can also observe sudden decrease in methane concentration during the World War I and World War II. It implies that the industrial revolution has dominated the atmospheric greenhouse gas emission for about 100 years. Besides, the average methane concentration in the Himalayan ice core is

  11. Diagnostic and model dependent uncertainty of simulated Tibetan permafrost area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Moore, J.C.; Cui, Xingquan; Ji, D.; Li, Q.; Zhang, N.; Wang, C.; Zhang, S.; Lawrence, D.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhang, W.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; Saito, K.; MacDougall, A.; Burke, E.; Decharme, B.

    2016-01-01

     We perform a land-surface model intercomparison to investigate how the simulation of permafrost area on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) varies among six modern stand-alone land-surface models (CLM4.5, CoLM, ISBA, JULES, LPJ-GUESS, UVic). We also examine the variability in simulated permafrost area and distribution introduced by five different methods of diagnosing permafrost (from modeled monthly ground temperature, mean annual ground and air temperatures, air and surface frost indexes). There is good agreement (99 to 135  ×  104 km2) between the two diagnostic methods based on air temperature which are also consistent with the observation-based estimate of actual permafrost area (101  × 104 km2). However the uncertainty (1 to 128  ×  104 km2) using the three methods that require simulation of ground temperature is much greater. Moreover simulated permafrost distribution on the TP is generally only fair to poor for these three methods (diagnosis of permafrost from monthly, and mean annual ground temperature, and surface frost index), while permafrost distribution using air-temperature-based methods is generally good. Model evaluation at field sites highlights specific problems in process simulations likely related to soil texture specification, vegetation types and snow cover. Models are particularly poor at simulating permafrost distribution using the definition that soil temperature remains at or below 0 °C for 24 consecutive months, which requires reliable simulation of both mean annual ground temperatures and seasonal cycle, and hence is relatively demanding. Although models can produce better permafrost maps using mean annual ground temperature and surface frost index, analysis of simulated soil temperature profiles reveals substantial biases. The current generation of land-surface models need to reduce biases in simulated soil temperature profiles before reliable contemporary permafrost maps and predictions of changes in future

  12. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  13. Impact of the snow cover scheme on snow distribution and energy budget modeling over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hu, Zeyong; Xie, Zhenghui; Jia, Binghao; Sun, Genhou; Du, Yizhen; Song, Haiqing

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the impact of two snow cover schemes (NY07 and SL12) in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) on the snow distribution and surface energy budget over the Tibetan Plateau. The simulated snow cover fraction (SCF), snow depth, and snow cover days were evaluated against in situ snow depth observations and a satellite-based snow cover product and snow depth dataset. The results show that the SL12 scheme, which considers snow accumulation and snowmelt processes separately, has a higher overall accuracy (81.8%) than the NY07 (75.8%). The newer scheme performs better in the prediction of overall accuracy compared with the NY07; however, SL12 yields a 15.1% underestimation rate while NY07 overestimated the SCF with a 15.2% overestimation rate. Both two schemes capture the distribution of the maximum snow depth well but show large positive biases in the average value through all periods (3.37, 3.15, and 1.48 cm for NY07; 3.91, 3.52, and 1.17 cm for SL12) and overestimate snow cover days compared with the satellite-based product and in situ observations. Higher altitudes show larger root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) in the simulations of snow depth and snow cover days during the snow-free period. Moreover, the surface energy flux estimations from the SL12 scheme are generally superior to the simulation from NY07 when evaluated against ground-based observations, in particular for net radiation and sensible heat flux. This study has great implications for further improvement of the subgrid-scale snow variations over the Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Impacts of northern Tibetan Plateau on East Asian summer rainfall via modulating midlatitude transient eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Shi, Ning; Zhang, Leying; Ma, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Roles of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in forming and changing the seasonal Asian climate system have been widely explored. However, little is known about modulation effects of the TP on extratropical transient eddies (TEs) and subsequent synoptic responses of the East Asian rainfall. In this study, the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with a slab ocean model is employed to highlight the important role of the TP in regulating the upper-tropospheric transient wave train. Comparison between sensitivity experiments with and without the TP shows that the northern TP excites a strong anomalous anticyclone, which shifts the upper-level East Asian westerly jet northward and helps transfer barotropic and baroclinic energy from the mean flow to the synoptic TE flow. The transient wave train is primarily shifted northward by northern TP and is forced to propagate southeastward along the eastern flank of the TP until reaching eastern China. Before the strengthening of monsoonal southerlies, the TP-modulated transient wave train cools the troposphere, which decreases the static stability over northern China. Meanwhile, the associated anomalous warm advection induces ascending motion, leading to excessive rainfall by releasing unstable energy as the southerly strengthens. Due to the southeastward propagation of the wave train, anomalous heavy rainfall subsequently appears over eastern China from north to south, which increases day-to-day rainfall variation in this region. Additionally, occurrence of this upper-tropospheric transient wave train associated with low-level southerly peak is substantially increased by northern TP.

  15. Dynamics and characteristics of soil temperature and moisture of active layer in central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Hu, G.; Wu, X.; Tian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research on the hydrothermal properties of active layer during the thawing and freezing processes was considered as a key question to revealing the heat and moisture exchanges between permafrost and atmosphere. The characteristics of freezing and thawing processes at Tanggula (TGL) site in permafrost regions on the Tibetan Plateau, the results revealed that the depth of daily soil temperature transmission was about 40 cm shallower during thawing period than that during the freezing period. Soil warming process at the depth above 140 cm was slower than the cooling process, whereas they were close below 140 cm depth. Moreover, the hydro-thermal properties differed significantly among different stages. Precipitation caused an obviously increase in soil moisture at 0-20 cm depth. The vertical distribution of soil moisture could be divided into two main zones: less than 12% in the freeze state and greater than 12% in the thaw state. In addition, coupling of moisture and heat during the freezing and thawing processes also showed that soil temperature decreased faster than soil moisture during the freezing process. At the freezing stage, soil moisture exhibited an exponential relationship with the absolute soil temperature. Energy consumed for water-ice conversion during the freezing process was 149.83 MJ/m2 and 141.22 MJ/m2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which was estimated by the soil moisture variation.

  16. Selective Leaching of Dissolved Organic Matter From Alpine Permafrost Soils on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghui; Xu, Yunping; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Zito, Phoebe; Kellerman, Anne; Podgorski, David; Xiao, Wenjie; Wei, Dandan; Rashid, Harunur; Yang, Yuanhe

    2018-03-01

    Ongoing global temperature rise has caused significant thaw and degradation of permafrost soils on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Leaching of organic matter from permafrost soils to aquatic systems is highly complex and difficult to reproduce in a laboratory setting. We collected samples from natural seeps of active and permafrost layers in an alpine swamp meadow on the QTP to shed light on the composition of mobilized dissolved organic matter (DOM) by combining optical measurements, ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, radiocarbon (14C), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our results show that even though the active layer soils contain large amounts of proteins and carbohydrates, there is a selective release of aromatic components, whereas in the deep permafrost layer, carbohydrate and protein components are preferentially leached during the thawing process. Given these different chemical characteristics of mobilized DOM, we hypothesize that photomineralization contributes significantly to the loss of DOM that is leached from the seasonally thawed surface layer. However, with continued warming, biodegradation will become more important since biolabile materials such as protein and carbohydrate are preferentially released from deep-layer permafrost soils. This transition in DOM leachate source and associated chemical composition has ramifications for downstream fluvial networks on the QTP particularly in terms of processing of carbon and associated fluxes.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the Tibetan Plateau, China: distribution and influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Ni, Hong-Gang; Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; He, Jin-Sheng; Zeng, Hui

    2013-03-01

    Thirty four sampling sites along an elevation transect in the Tibetan Plateau region were chosen. Soil cores were divided into several layers and a total of 175 horizon soil samples were collected from July to September 2011, for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measured PAHs concentration in surface soils was 56.26 ± 45.84 ng g(-1), and the low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) predominated, accounting for 48% and 35%. We analyzed the spatial (altitudinal and vertical) distribution of PAHs in soil, and explored the influence of related environmental factors. Total organic carbon (TOC) showed a controlling influence on the distribution of PAHs. PAH concentrations declined with soil depth, and the composition patterns of PAHs along soil depth indicated that the heavy PAHs tended to remain in the upper layers (0-10 cm), while the light fractions were transported downward more easily. PAHs inventories (8.77-57.92 mg m(-2)) for soil cores increased with mean annual precipitation, while the topsoil concentrations decreased with it. This implies that an increase in precipitation could transfer more PAHs from the atmosphere to the soil and further transport PAHs from the topsoil to deeper layers.

  18. Sedimentary records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote lakes across the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiqiang; Xie, Ting; Li, An; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Wu, Guangjian; Jing, Chuanyong

    2016-07-01

    Sediment cores from five lakes across the Tibetan Plateau were used as natural archives to study the time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The depositional flux of PAHs generally showed an increasing trend from the deeper layers towards the upper layer sediments. The fluxes of PAHs were low with little variability before the 1950s, and then gradually increased to the late 1980s, with a faster increasing rate after the 1990s. This temporal pattern is clearly different compared with those remote lakes across the European mountains when PAHs started to decrease during the period 1960s-1980s. The difference of the temporal trend was attributed to differences in the economic development stages and energy structure between these regions. PAHs are dominated by the lighter 2&3-ring homologues with the averaged percentage over 87%, while it is notable that the percentage of heavier 4-6 ring PAHs generally increased in recent years, which suggests the contribution of local high-temperature combustion sources becoming more predominant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Qin

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  20. Radial growth of Qilian juniper on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and potential climate associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Melvin, Thomas M; Fan, Zexin; Zhao, Yan; Briffa, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the limiting climatic factor for tree radial growth at the alpine treeline on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we collected 594 increment cores from 331 trees, grouped within four altitude belts spanning the range 3550 to 4020 m.a.s.l. on a single hillside. We have developed four equivalent ring-width chronologies and shown that there are no significant differences in their growth-climate responses during 1956 to 2011 or in their longer-term growth patterns during the period AD 1110-2011. The main climate influence on radial growth is shown to be precipitation variability. Missing ring analysis shows that tree radial growth at the uppermost treeline location is more sensitive to climate variation than that at other elevations, and poor tree radial growth is particularly linked to the occurrence of serious drought events. Hence water limitation, rather than temperature stress, plays the pivotal role in controlling the radial growth of Sabina przewalskii Kom. at the treeline in this region. This finding contradicts any generalisation that tree-ring chronologies from high-elevation treeline environments are mostly indicators of temperature changes.

  1. Salinity shapes microbial diversity and community structure in surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Li'an; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang

    2016-04-26

    Investigating microbial response to environmental variables is of great importance for understanding of microbial acclimatization and evolution in natural environments. However, little is known about how microbial communities responded to environmental factors (e.g. salinity, geographic distance) in lake surface sediments of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, microbial diversity and community structure in the surface sediments of nine lakes on the QTP were investigated by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique and the resulting microbial data were statistically analyzed in combination with environmental variables. The results showed total microbial community of the studied lakes was significantly correlated (r = 0.631, P diversity and community structure in the studied samples. In addition, the abundant and rare taxa (OTUs with relative abundance higher than 1% and lower than 0.01% within one sample, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.427 and 0.783, respectively) with salinity, suggesting rare taxa might be more sensitive to salinity than their abundant counterparts, thus cautions should be taken in future when evaluating microbial response (abundant vs. rare sub-communities) to environmental conditions.

  2. Simulated impacts of land cover change on summer climate in the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Xue Yongkang

    2010-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a key region of land-atmosphere interactions with severe eco-environment degradation. This study uses an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP GCM/SSiB, to present the major TP summer climate features for six selected ENSO years and preliminarily assess the possible impact of land cover change on the summer circulation over the TP. Compared to Reanalysis II data, the GCM using satellite derived vegetation properties generally reproduces the main 6-year-mean TP summer circulation features despite some discrepancies in intensity and geographic locations of some climate features. Two existing vegetation maps with very different land cover conditions over the TP, one with bare ground and one with vegetation cover, derived from satellite derived data, are tested and produce clearer climate signals due to land cover change. It shows that land cover change from vegetated land to bare ground decreases the radiation absorbed by the surface and results in weaker surface thermal effects, which lead to lower atmospheric temperature, as well as weaker vertical ascending motion, low-layer cyclonic, upper level anticyclonic, and summer monsoon circulation. These changes in circulation cause a decrease in the precipitation in the southeastern TP.

  3. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  4. Wetting and greening Tibetan Plateau in early summer in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Zhang, Lixia

    2017-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an essential role in the global hydrological cycle. Unlike the well-recognized surface warming, changes in precipitation over the TP and the underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous. A significant increase in the amount of precipitation over the southeastern TP in May over 1979-2014 (13.46% decade-1 of the climatology) is identified in this study, based on homogenized daily rain gauge data. Both the increased precipitation frequency and intensity have contributions. The coherent increases in soil moisture content and vegetation activities further confirm the precipitation trend, indicating a wetting and greening TP in the early summer in recent decades. The moisture budget analysis shows that this wetting trend in the past four decades is dominated by the increased water vapor convergence due to circulation changes, while increases in specific humidity play a minor role. The wetting trend over the TP in May results directly from the earlier onset of the South Asian summer monsoon (ASM) since the late 1970s associated with the phase transition of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation around the late 1990s. The earlier onset of the ASM triggers low-level southwesterly anomalies over the northern Indian Ocean, promoting moisture convergence and increased precipitation over the TP in May. Specifically, the increased amount of precipitation after the onset of the ASM explains 95% of the increase in the total amount of precipitation in May.

  5. Amphibians Testing Negative for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supen WANG; Wei ZHU; Liqing FAN; Jiaqi LI; Yiming LI

    2017-01-01

    A disease caused by the fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is responsible for recent worldwide declines and extinctions of amphibian populations.The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is aglobal biodiversity hotspot,yet little is known about the prevalence of Bd and Bsal in this region.In this study,we collected 336 non-invasive skin swabs from wild amphibians (including an exotic amphibian species) on the QTP.In addition,to assess the historical prevalence of Bd and Bsal on the QTP,we collected 117 non-invasive skin swabs from museum-archived amphibian samples (from 1964-1982) originating from the QTP.Our results showed all samples to be negative for Bd and Bsal.The government should ban the potentially harmful introduction of non-native amphibian species to the QTP and educate the public about the impacts of releasing exotic amphibians from chytrid-infected areas into native environments of the QTP.

  6. Precipitation phase separation schemes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Yan, Denghua; Qin, Tianling; Weng, Baisha; Lu, Yajing; Dong, Guoqiang; Gong, Boya

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation phase has a profound influence on the hydrological processes in the Naqu River basin, eastern Tibetan plateau. However, there are only six meteorological stations with precipitation phase (rainfall/snowfall/sleet) before 1979 within and around the basin. In order to separate snowfall from precipitation, a new separation scheme with S-shaped curve of snowfall proportion as an exponential function of daily mean temperature was developed. The determinations of critical temperatures in the single/two temperature threshold (STT/TTT2) methods were explored accordingly, and the temperature corresponding to the 50 % snowfall proportion (SP50 temperature) is an efficiently critical temperature for the STT, and two critical temperatures in TTT2 can be determined based on the exponential function and SP50 temperature. Then, different separation schemes were evaluated in separating snowfall from precipitation in the Naqu River basin. The results show that the S-shaped curve methods outperform other separation schemes. Although the STT and TTT2 slightly underestimate and overestimate the snowfall when the temperature is higher and colder than SP50 temperature respectively, the monthly and annual separation snowfalls are generally consistent with the observed snowfalls. On the whole, S-shaped curve methods, STT, and TTT2 perform well in separating snowfall from precipitation with the Pearson correlation coefficient of annual separation snowfall above 0.8 and provide possible approaches to separate the snowfall from precipitation for hydrological modelling.

  7. Evolution of surface sensible heat over the Tibetan Plateau under the recent global warming hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihua; Huang, Gang; Fan, Guangzhou; Qu, Xia; Zhao, Guijie; Hua, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Based on regular surface meteorological observations and NCEP/DOE reanalysis data, this study investigates the evolution of surface sensible heat (SH) over the central and eastern Tibetan Plateau (CE-TP) under the recent global warming hiatus. The results reveal that the SH over the CE-TP presents a recovery since the slowdown of the global warming. The restored surface wind speed together with increased difference in ground-air temperature contribute to the recovery in SH. During the global warming hiatus, the persistent weakening wind speed is alleviated due to the variation of the meridional temperature gradient. Meanwhile, the ground surface temperature and the difference in ground-air temperature show a significant increasing trend in that period caused by the increased total cloud amount, especially at night. At nighttime, the increased total cloud cover reduces the surface effective radiation via a strengthening of atmospheric counter radiation and subsequently brings about a clear upward trend in ground surface temperature and the difference in ground-air temperature. Cloud-radiation feedback plays a significant role in the evolution of the surface temperature and even SH during the global warming hiatus. Consequently, besides the surface wind speed, the difference in ground-air temperature becomes another significant factor for the variation in SH since the slowdown of global warming, particularly at night.

  8. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  9. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  11. Estimation of the Land Surface Temperature over the Tibetan Plateau by Using Chinese FY-2C Geostationary Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Lei; Ma, Yaoming; Zou, Mijun; Xu, Kepiao; Huang, Ziyu; Feng, Lu

    2018-01-28

    During the process of land-atmosphere interaction, one of the essential parameters is the land surface temperature (LST). The LST has high temporal variability, especially in its diurnal cycle, which cannot be acquired by polar-orbiting satellites. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to retrieve LST data using geostationary satellites. According to the data of FengYun 2C (FY-2C) satellite and the measurements from the Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet), a regression approach was utilized in this research to optimize the split window algorithm (SWA). The thermal infrared data obtained by the Chinese geostationary satellite FY-2C over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) was used to estimate the hourly LST time series. To decrease the effects of cloud, the 10-day composite hourly LST data were obtained through the approach of maximal value composite (MVC). The derived LST was used to compare with the product of MODIS LST and was also validated by the field observation. The results show that the LST retrieved through the optimized SWA and in situ data has a better consistency (with correlation coefficient (R), mean absolute error (MAE), mean bias (MB), and root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.987, 1.91 K, 0.83 K and 2.26 K, respectively) than that derived from Becker and Li's SWA and MODIS LST product, which means that the modified SWA can be applied to achieve plateau-scale LST. The diurnal variation of the LST and the hourly time series of the LST over the Tibetan Plateau were also obtained. The diurnal range of LST was found to be clearly affected by the influence of the thawing and freezing process of soil and the summer monsoon evolution. The comparison between the seasonal and diurnal variations of LST at four typical underlying surfaces over the TP indicate that the variation of LST is closely connected with the underlying surface types as well. The diurnal variation of LST is

  12. Paleoclimatic implications of the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrigenous n-alkanes from Lake Yamzho, southern Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Xu Baiqing; Wu Guangjian; Zhu Liping; Muegler Ines; Gleixner, Gerd; Sachse, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of leaf water used for biosynthesis of n-alkanes can be modified by climate. Therefore, the δD can be considered as potential paleolimatic proxy to explore. We compared measured δD values of alkanes (n-C 25 to n-C 31 ) extracted from a short sediment profile spanning the past 50 years with a 7-year resolution from Lake Yamzho, southern Tibetan Plateau. Climatic control was reconstructed using meteorological records of the nearby Langkazi and Lhasa weather stations. We found that the δD values of the n-alkanes correlated with the mean annular air temperature and significantly correlated with the mean growing season air temperature. On the other hand, the δD values show poor correlations with both rainfall amount and relative humidity. These results indicate that stable isotope composition of n-alkanes could be an excellent proxy for paleotemperature reconstruction. (author)

  13. Tenses, Aspects, and Categories of Evidentiality and Egocentricity in Spoken Lhasa Tibetan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Di

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses verbal aspects and their syntactic markers in Lhasa Tibetan. Since aspects in Tibetan always share markers with other important categories called evidentiality and egocentricity, the former of which assesses the evidence of speaker's statement and the latter denotes behavioral characteristics of a speaker's ego-centricity, this paper simultaneously describes all three types: aspect, evidentiality and egocentricity. There are nine types of verb aspects in Lhasa Tibetan, namely: Prospective, Imminent, Premediated, Realis, Durative, Resultative, Merely-past, Perfect, and Contextual aspects. There are four types of evidentialities, namely, Self-knowledge, Knowing-by-sight, Knowing-by-newly-found-information and Knowing-by-inference evidentialities. Categories of egocentricity demonstrate whether an action is towards the Self or the Other, whether the speaker gains or loses, and so on. Additionally,this essay also discusses the interactive relationship between syntactical verb aspects and personal pronouns, intentionality, modality, as well as temporal-spatial cognition.

  14. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  15. Importance of dynamic topography in Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region has the highest topography in the world. Various studies have been done to understand the mechanisms responsible for sustaining this high topography. However, the existence of dynamic topography in this region is still uncertain, though there have been some studies exploring the role of channel flow in lower crust leading to some topography. We investigated the role of radial mantle flow in this region by studying the relationship between geoid and topography. High geoid-to-topography ratios (GTR) were observed along the Himalayas suggesting deeper compensation mechanisms. However, further north, the geoid and topography relationship became a lot more complex as high as well as low GTR values were observed. The high GTR regions also coincided with area of high filtered free air gravity anomalies, indicating dynamic support. We also looked at the spectral components of gravity, geoid and topography, and calculated response functions to distinguish between different compensation mechanisms. We estimated the average elastic thickness of the whole region to be around 40 km from coherence and admittance studies. The GTR and admittance-coherence studies suggest deeper mass anomalies playing a role in supporting the topography along Himalayas and the area between Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults.

  16. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  17. Aerosol vertical distribution characteristics over the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Q; Han, Y X; Zhao, Q; Li, J

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products are widely used in climatic characteristic studies and stratospheric aerosol pattern research. Some SAGE II products, e.g., temperature, aerosol surface area density, 1020 nm aerosol extinction coefficient and dust storm frequency, from ground-based observations were analysed from 1984 to 2005. This analysis explored the time and spatial variations of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols on the Tibet Plateau. The stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient increased more than two orders of magnitude because of a large volcanic eruption. However, the tropospheric aerosol extinction coefficient decreased over the same period. Removing the volcanic eruption effect, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and tropospheric AOD was 0.197. Moreover, the correlation coefficient for stratospheric AOD and dust storm frequency was 0.315. The maximum stratospheric AOD was attained in January, the same month as the tropospheric AOD, when the Qaidam Basin was the centre of low tropospheric AOD and the large mountains coincided with high stratospheric AOD. The vertical structure generated by westerly jet adjustment and the high altitude of the underlying surface of the Tibetan Plateau were important factors affecting winter stratospheric aerosols

  18. Modern limnology of two lakes in the Tibetan Plateau - evidence from in-situ monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, X.; Lei, L.; He, Y.; Hou, J.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau, known as the Third Pole, receive more and more attention due to its unique geographic location and the influence of multiple climate systems. Among the paleoclimate archives, widespread lakes provide abundant information on past climate changes and have been investigated for decades. Though many high-quality paleolimnological records have been reported in the Tibetan Plateau, little is known about the modern limnological processes in most Tibetan lakes as most lakes are difficult to access and not ready for long-term monitoring. We have installed a series of temperature data logger at different water levels in two Tibetan lakes, Bangong Co and Dagze Co in July 2012 to monitor hourly variability of temperature profile. Bangong Co (33.5°N, 79.8°E, 4245 m asl) is a freshwater lake (salinity ~0.5 g/L) in the westernmost Tibetan Plateau, receiving melt water from mountain glaciers in the basin. Dagze Co (31.9°N, 87.5°E, 4470 m asl) is saline lake (salinity ~15 g/L) in the central Tibetan Plateau, mostly fed by precipitation. In combination with the climate data in the nearby weather stations, we wish to understand the modern limnological processes in the two lakes and their potential effect on the lake biology, sedimentation, and sedimentary biomarkers. Based on the data collected for the first calendar year (Jul 2012 ~ Aug 2013), we anticipate to understand: 1) the influence of climate on the hydrological processes in high elevation lakes; 2) the difference in the metalimnion in meltwater-fed lake (Bangong Co) and precipitation-fed lake (Dagze Co) and their potential effect on the lake biology; 3) the difference in the spring turnover and fall turnover and the effect of meltwater and salinity.

  19. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  20. Distribution and transport of water vapor in the UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau as inferred from the MLS satellite data and WRF model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Kar, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water vapor is an important minor constituent in the lower stratosphere as it influences the stratospheric chemistry and total radiation budget. The spatial distribution of water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite at 100 hPa level shows prominent maxima over the Tibetan Plateau during August 2015. The Asian monsoon upper level anticyclone is also known to occur over this region during this period. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and National Centre of Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) observed daily gridded rainfall data shows moderate to heavy rainfall over the Tibetan Plateau, suggesting active convection from 26 July to 10 August 2015. The atmospheric conditions are simulated over the Asian region for the 15-day period using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. The simulations are carried out using two nested domains with resolution of 12 km and 4 km. The initial and boundary conditions are taken from the NGFS (up-graded version of the NCEP GFS) data. The WRF WVMR profiles are observed to be comparatively moist than the MLS profiles in the UTLS region over the Tibetan Plateau. This may be due to the relatively higher temperatures (1-2 K) simulated in the WRF model near 100 hPa level. It is noted that the WRF model has a drying tendency at all the levels. The UTLS WVMR and temperatures show poor sensitivity to the convective schemes. The parent domain and the explicit convective scheme simulate almost same moisture over time in the inner domain. The cloud micro-physics is observed to play a rather important role in controlling the UTLS water vapor content. The WSM-6 convective scheme is observed to simulate the UTLS moisture comparatively well and therefore the processes associated with the formation of ice, snow and graupel formation may be of much more importance in controlling the UTLS WVMR in the WRF model. The 24 hr, 48 hr and 72 hr forecast averaged for the 15-day period shows that

  1. Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Bai Aijuan; Liu Changhai

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal patterns of variation of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau were first investigated using the TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis product for five summer seasons (i.e. June to August for 2002-2006). Both hourly precipitation amount and precipitation frequency exhibit pronounced daily variability with an overall late-afternoon-evening maximum and a dominant morning minimum. A notable exception is the prevalent nocturnal maximum around the periphery of the Plateau. In terms of the normalized harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the central Plateau and the weakest near the periphery. This remarkable spatial dependence in daily rainfall cycles is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Using six-hourly NCEP FNL data, we then examined the diurnal variability in the atmospheric circulation and thermodynamics in this region. The results show that the Plateau heats (cools) the overlying atmosphere during the day (night) more than the surrounding areas, and as a consequence a relatively stronger confluent circulation in this region occurs during the day than during the night, consistent with the diurnal rainfall cycles. Moreover, the regions with large low-level convergence and upper-level divergence correspond to the strong diurnal rainfall variations. The reversed daily alterations of convergence-divergence patterns in the vicinity of the Plateau edges are in agreement with the observed nighttime rainfall peak therein. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Tibetan Plateau in regulating regional circulation and precipitation.

  2. Storage, patterns, and control of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenjie; Chen Shengyun; Qin Xiang; Zhou Zhaoye; Sun Weijun; Ren Jiawen; Qin Dahe; Baumann, Frank; Scholten, Thomas; Zhang Tongzuo

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) spatial distributions show clear relationships with soil properties and vegetation composition as well as climatic conditions. Further, this study aimed to find the corresponding controlling parameters of SOC and TN storage in high-altitude ecosystems. The study was based on soil, vegetation and climate data from 42 soil pits taken from 14 plots. The plots were investigated during the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Relationships of SOC density with soil moisture, soil texture, biomass and climatic variables were analyzed. Further, storage and vertical patterns of SOC and TN of seven representative vegetation types were estimated. The results show that significant relationships of SOC density with belowground biomass (BGB) and soil moisture (SM) can be observed. BGB and SM may be the dominant factors influencing SOC density in the topsoil of the study area. The average densities of SOC and TN at a depth of 1 m were about 7.72 kg C m −2 and 0.93 kg N m −2 . Both SOC and TN densities were concentrated in the topsoil (0–20 cm) and fell exponentially as soil depth increased. Additionally, the four typical vegetation types located in the northwest of the study area were selected to examine the relationship between SOC and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation). The results indicate that SOC density has a negative relationship with temperature and a positive relationship with precipitation diminishing with soil depth. It was concluded that SOC was concentrated in the topsoil, and that SOC density correlates well with BGB. SOC was predominantly influenced by SM, and to a much lower extent by temperature and precipitation. This study provided a new insight in understanding the control of SOC and TN density in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. (letter)

  3. Post-treatment follow-up study of abdominal cystic echinococcosis in tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiaoying Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, with the liver as the most frequently affected organ, is known to be highly endemic in Tibetan communities of northwest Sichuan Province. Antiparasitic treatment with albendazole remains the primary choice for the great majority of patients in this resource-poor remote area, though surgery is the most common approach for CE therapy that has the potential to remove cysts and lead to complete cure. The current prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness of community based use of cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan CE cases, and concurrently monitor the changes of serum specific antibody levels during treatment.Ultrasonography was applied for diagnosis and follow-up of CE cases after cyclic albendazole treatment in Tibetan communities of Sichuan Province during 2006 to 2008, and serum specific IgG antibody levels against Echinococcus granulosus recombinant antigen B in ELISA was concurrently monitored in these cases. A total of 196 CE cases were identified by ultrasound, of which 37 (18.9% showed evidence of spontaneous healing/involution of hepatic cyst(s with CE4 or CE5 presentations. Of 49 enrolled CE cases for treatment follow-up, 32.7% (16 were considered to be cured based on B-ultrasound after 6 months to 30 months regular albendazole treatment, 49.0% (24 were improved, 14.3% (7 remained unchanged, and 4.1% (2 became aggravated. In general, patients with CE2 type cysts (daughter cysts present needed a longer treatment course for cure (26.4 months, compared to cases with CE1 (univesicular cysts (20.4 months or CE3 type (detached cyst membrane or partial degeneration of daughter cysts (9 months. In addition, the curative duration was longer in patients with large (>10 cm cysts (22.3 months, compared to cases with medium (5-10 cm cysts (17.3 months or patients with small (<5 cm cysts (6 months. At diagnosis, seven (53.8% of 13 cases with CE1 type

  4. Evaluation and Comparison of the Processing Methods of Airborne Gravimetry Concerning the Errors Effects on Downward Continuation Results: Case Studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng; Pan, Xiong; Xu, Xinyu

    2017-05-25

    Gravity data gaps in mountainous areas are nowadays often filled in with the data from airborne gravity surveys. Because of the errors caused by the airborne gravimeter sensors, and because of rough flight conditions, such errors cannot be completely eliminated. The precision of the gravity disturbances generated by the airborne gravimetry is around 3-5 mgal. A major obstacle in using airborne gravimetry are the errors caused by the downward continuation. In order to improve the results the external high-accuracy gravity information e.g., from the surface data can be used for high frequency correction, while satellite information can be applying for low frequency correction. Surface data may be used to reduce the systematic errors, while regularization methods can reduce the random errors in downward continuation. Airborne gravity surveys are sometimes conducted in mountainous areas and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic errors generated by the method are close to the simulated values. In addition, we study the relationship between the downward continuation altitudes and the error effect. The

  5. Evaluation and Comparison of the Processing Methods of Airborne Gravimetry Concerning the Errors Effects on Downward Continuation Results: Case Studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Gravity data gaps in mountainous areas are nowadays often filled in with the data from airborne gravity surveys. Because of the errors caused by the airborne gravimeter sensors, and because of rough flight conditions, such errors cannot be completely eliminated. The precision of the gravity disturbances generated by the airborne gravimetry is around 3-5 mgal. A major obstacle in using airborne gravimetry are the errors caused by the downward continuation. In order to improve the results the external high-accuracy gravity information e.g., from the surface data can be used for high frequency correction, while satellite information can be applying for low frequency correction. Surface data may be used to reduce the systematic errors, while regularization methods can reduce the random errors in downward continuation. Airborne gravity surveys are sometimes conducted in mountainous areas and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic errors generated by the method are close to the simulated values. In addition, we study the relationship between the downward continuation altitudes and the error effect. The

  6. Estimation of land-atmosphere energy transfer over the Tibetan Plateau by a combination use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Land-atmosphere energy transfer is of great importance in land-atmosphere interactions and atmospheric boundary layer processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The energy fluxes have high temporal variability, especially in their diurnal cycle, which cannot be acquired by polar-orbiting satellites alone because of their low temporal resolution. Therefore, it's of great practical significance to retrieve land surface heat fluxes by a combination use of geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. In this study, a time series of the hourly LST was estimated from thermal infrared data acquired by the Chinese geostationary satellite FengYun 2C (FY-2C) over the TP. The split window algorithm (SWA) was optimized using a regression method based on the observations from the Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) and Tibetan observation and research platform (TORP), the land surface emissivity (LSE) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the water vapor content from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) project. The 10-day composite hourly LST data were generated via the maximum value composite (MVC) method to reduce the cloud effects. The derived LST was validated by the field observations of CAMP/Tibet and TORP. The results show that the retrieved LST and in situ data have a very good correlation (with root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias (MB), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient (R) values of 1.99 K, 0.83 K, 1.71 K, and 0.991, respectively). Together with other characteristic parameters derived from polar-orbiting satellites and meteorological forcing data, the energy balance budgets have been retrieved finally. The validation results showed there was a good consistency between estimation results and in-situ measurements over the TP, which prove the robustness of the proposed estimation

  7. Text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li-juan; Zhang, Xi-qun; Ma, Long-long; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Text extraction is an important initial step in digitizing the historical documents. In this paper, we present a text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections. The task of text extraction is considered as text area detection and location problem. The images are divided equally into blocks and the blocks are filtered by the information of the categories of connected components and corner point density. By analyzing the filtered blocks' projections, the approximate text areas can be located, and the text regions are extracted. Experiments on the dataset of historical Tibetan documents demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Si-Yuan Qin; Ming-Yang Yin; Wei Cong; Dong-Hui Zhou; Xiao-Xuan Zhang; Quan Zhao; Xing-Quan Zhu; Ji-Zhang Zhou; Ai-Dong Qian

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regressio...

  9. Love Song of the Foreign Liberator: Teaching Tibetan History to American Students in the PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Cathcart

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its point of departure 'Love Song of Kangding '(康定情歌, ''a romantic film from fall 2010 which propagandizes the positive consequences of the liberation of Tibetan cultural areas by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA in 1950-51.  The article describes how the film fit into a semester-long course on contemporary Tibet taught to American students in Chengdu, Sichuan, and the particular sensitivities and difficulties relating to learning about Tibetan history in China.     ''

  10. Response of alpine vegetation growth dynamics to snow cover phenology on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine vegetation plays a crucial role in global energy cycles with snow cover, an essential component of alpine land cover showing high sensitivity to climate change. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has a typical alpine vegetation ecosystem and is rich of snow resources. With global warming, the snow of the TP has undergone significant changes that will inevitably affect the growth of alpine vegetation, but observed evidence of such interaction is limited. In particular, a comprehensive understanding of the responses of alpine vegetation growth to snow cover variability is still not well characterized on TP region. To investigate this, we calculated three indicators, the start (SOS) and length (LOS) of growing season, and the maximum of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImax) as proxies of vegetation growth dynamics from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2000-2015. Snow cover duration (SCD) and melt (SCM) dates were also extracted during the same time frame from the combination of MODIS and the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) data. We found that the snow cover phenology had a strong control on alpine vegetation growth dynamics. Furthermore, the responses of SOS, LOS and NDVImax to snow cover phenology varied among plant functional types, eco-geographical zones, and temperature and precipitation gradients. The alpine steppes showed a much stronger negative correlation between SOS and SCD, and also a more evidently positive relationship between LOS and SCD than other types, indicating a longer SCD would lead to an earlier SOS and longer LOS. Most areas showed positive correlation between SOS and SCM, while a contrary response was also found in the warm but drier areas. Both SCD and SCM showed positive correlations with NDVImax, but the relationship became weaker with the increase of precipitation. Our findings provided strong evidences between vegetation growth and snow cover phenology, and changes in

  11. The Microphysical Properties of Convective Precipitation Over the Tibetan Plateau by a Subkilometer Resolution Cloud-Resolving Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Liu, Liping; Li, Jian; Lu, Chunsong

    2018-03-01

    The microphysical properties of convective precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau are unique because of the extremely high topography and special atmospheric conditions. In this study, the ground-based cloud radar and disdrometer observations as well as high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences microphysics and four other microphysical schemes are used to investigate the microphysics and precipitation mechanisms of a convection event on 24 July 2014. The Weather Research and Forecasting-Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences simulation reasonably reproduces the spatial distribution of 24-hr accumulated rainfall, yet the temporal evolution of rain rate has a delay of 1-3 hr. The model reflectivity shares the common features with the cloud radar observations. The simulated raindrop size distributions demonstrate more of small- and large-size raindrops produced with the increase of rain rate, suggesting that changeable shape parameter should be used in size distribution. Results show that abundant supercooled water exists through condensation of water vapor above the freezing layer. The prevailing ice crystal microphysical processes are depositional growth and autoconversion of ice crystal to snow. The dominant source term of snow/graupel is riming of supercooled water. Sedimentation of graupel can play a vital role in the formation of precipitation, but melting of snow is rather small and quite different from that in other regions. Furthermore, water vapor budgets suggest that surface moisture flux be the principal source of water vapor and self-circulation of moisture happen at the beginning of convection, while total moisture flux convergence determine condensation and precipitation during the convective process over the Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Insight into runoff characteristics using hydrological modeling in the data-scarce southern Tibetan Plateau: Past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mingyong; Yang, Shengtian; Zhao, Changsen; Zhou, Qiuwen; Hou, Lipeng

    2017-01-01

    Regional hydrological modeling in ungauged regions has attracted growing attention in water resources research. The southern Tibetan Plateau often suffers from data scarcity in watershed hydrological simulation and water resources assessment. This hinders further research characterizing the water cycle and solving international water resource issues in the area. In this study, a multi-spatial data based Distributed Time-Variant Gain Model (MS-DTVGM) is applied to the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, an important international river basin in the southern Tibetan Plateau with limited meteorological data. This model is driven purely by spatial data from multiple sources and is independent of traditional meteorological data. Based on the methods presented in this study, daily snow cover and potential evapotranspiration data in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin in 2050 are obtained. Future (2050) climatic data (precipitation and air temperature) from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5) are used to study the hydrological response to climate change. The result shows that river runoff will increase due to precipitation and air temperature changes by 2050. Few differences are found between daily runoff simulations from different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for 2050. Historical station observations (1960-2000) at Nuxia and model simulations for two periods (2006-2009 and 2050) are combined to study inter-annual and intra-annual runoff distribution and variability. The inter-annual runoff variation is stable and the coefficient of variation (CV) varies from 0.21 to 0.27. In contrast, the intra-annual runoff varies significantly with runoff in summer and autumn accounting for more than 80% of the total amount. Compared to the historical period (1960-2000), the present period (2006-2009) has a slightly uneven intra-annual runoff temporal distribution, and becomes more balanced in

  13. [Responses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to precipitation changes on the grassland of Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Peng; Zhang, Xian Zhou; He, Yong Tao; Li, Meng; Shi, Pei Li; Zu, Jia Xing; Niu, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation change is an important factor in the inter-annual variation of grassland growth on the Tibetan Plateau. The total amount, distribution pattern and concentration time are three basic characteristics of precipitation change. The temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation change were analyzed based on climate data of 145 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau and nearby areas from 2000 to 2015. The total precipitation amount was characterized by annual precipitation, distribution pattern of precipitation during the year was characterized by improved precipitation concentration index (PCI), and precipitation centroid (PC) was defined to indicate the change in precipitation concentrated time. To better illustrate the response of grassland to precipitation change, vegetation growth status was characterized by the maximum value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI max ). Results indicated that the annual precipitation and PCI had an apparent gradient across the whole plateau and the latest PC occurred in the southern plateau. NDVI max of alpine shrub grassland was significantly correlated with the change of PCI,increased with even distribution of precipitation during growth period, and limited by the total annual precipitation. Alpine meadow did not show significantly correlations with these three indices. The inter-annual variability of NDVI max of steppe was controlled by both PCI and PC. NDVI max of alpine desert grassland was mainly controlled by annual precipitation. In addition to annual total amount of precipitation, the distribution characteristics of precipitation should be further considered when the influence of precipitation change on different types of vegetation on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was studied.

  14. Insight into runoff characteristics using hydrological modeling in the data-scarce southern Tibetan Plateau: Past, present, and future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyong Cai

    Full Text Available Regional hydrological modeling in ungauged regions has attracted growing attention in water resources research. The southern Tibetan Plateau often suffers from data scarcity in watershed hydrological simulation and water resources assessment. This hinders further research characterizing the water cycle and solving international water resource issues in the area. In this study, a multi-spatial data based Distributed Time-Variant Gain Model (MS-DTVGM is applied to the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, an important international river basin in the southern Tibetan Plateau with limited meteorological data. This model is driven purely by spatial data from multiple sources and is independent of traditional meteorological data. Based on the methods presented in this study, daily snow cover and potential evapotranspiration data in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin in 2050 are obtained. Future (2050 climatic data (precipitation and air temperature from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5 are used to study the hydrological response to climate change. The result shows that river runoff will increase due to precipitation and air temperature changes by 2050. Few differences are found between daily runoff simulations from different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 for 2050. Historical station observations (1960-2000 at Nuxia and model simulations for two periods (2006-2009 and 2050 are combined to study inter-annual and intra-annual runoff distribution and variability. The inter-annual runoff variation is stable and the coefficient of variation (CV varies from 0.21 to 0.27. In contrast, the intra-annual runoff varies significantly with runoff in summer and autumn accounting for more than 80% of the total amount. Compared to the historical period (1960-2000, the present period (2006-2009 has a slightly uneven intra-annual runoff temporal distribution, and becomes more

  15. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  16. Elevational diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea community in meadow soils on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kang; Kong, Weidong; Khan, Ajmal; Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Guangxia; Muhanmmad, Said; Zhang, Xianzhou; Dong, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    Unraveling elevational diversity patterns of plants and animals has long been attracting scientific interests. However, whether soil microorganisms exhibit similar elevational patterns remains largely less explored, especially for functional microbial communities, such as ammonia oxidizers. Here, we investigated the diversity and distribution pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in meadow soils along an elevation gradient from 4400 m to the grassline at 5100 m on the Tibetan Plateau using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing methods by targeting amoA gene. Increasing elevations led to lower soil temperature and pH, but higher nutrients and water content. The results showed that AOA diversity and evenness monotonically increased with elevation, while richness was relatively stable. The increase of diversity and evenness was attributed to the growth inhibition of warm-adapted AOA phylotypes by lower temperature and the growth facilitation of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes by richer nutrients at higher elevations. Low temperature thus played an important role in the AOA growth and niche separation. The AOA community variation was explained by the combined effect of all soil properties (32.6%), and 8.1% of the total variation was individually explained by soil pH. The total AOA abundance decreased, whereas soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) increased with increasing elevations. Soil PNR positively correlated with the abundance of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes. Our findings suggest that low temperature plays an important role in AOA elevational diversity pattern and niche separation, rising the negative effects of warming on AOA diversity and soil nitrification process in the Tibetan region.

  17. Traffic-related trace elements in soils along six highway segments on the Tibetan Plateau: Influence factors and spatial variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanxing; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yili; Scott, Christopher A; Yan, Xuedong

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements. In this study, 229 soil samples along six segments of the major transportation routes on the Tibetan Plateau (highways G214, S308, and G109), were collected for analysis of eight trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb). The results of statistical analyses showed that of the eight trace elements in soils, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were primarily derived from traffic. The relationship between the trace element accumulation levels and the distance from the roadside followed an exponential decline, with the exception of Segment 3, the only unpaved gravel road studied. In addition, the distance of influence from the roadside varied by trace element and segment, ranging from 16m to 144m. Background values for each segment were different because of soil heterogeneity, while a number of other potential influencing factors (including traffic volume, road surface material, roadside distance, land cover, terrain, and altitude) all had significant effects on trace-element concentrations. Overall, however, concentrations along most of the road segments investigated were at, or below, levels defined as low on the Nemero Synthesis index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Response of greenhouse gas emissions from three types of wetland soils to simulated temperature change on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Guihua; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands emit a large quantity of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contribute significantly to global warming. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, known as the ;Third Pole; of the earth, contains abundant and diverse wetlands. Due to increasing human-induced pressures such as reclamation, overgrazing and climate change, many plateau wetlands have been degraded or destroyed. Until now, the response of soil greenhouse gas emissions to extreme summer temperatures in the plateau wetlands remains unknown. In this study, we collected 36 soil samples from riverine, lacustrine and palustrine wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We compared the carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils incubated aerobically at 7, 12, and 19 °C. The results showed that the emissions of CH4 and N2O but not CO2 were significantly affected by the simulated temperature change. The N2O emission rate was considerably higher in palustrine wetlands compared with lacustrine and riverine wetlands. However, the CO2 and CH4 emissions did not differ significantly among the three wetland types. The ratio of CO2 to CH4 production increased with increasing incubation temperatures. The global warming potential of greenhouse gases at 19 °C was approximately 1.18 and 2.12 times greater than that at 12 and 7 °C, respectively. Our findings suggest that temperature change has a strong effect on soil greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of wetlands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, especially palustrine wetlands. Therefore, targeted strategies should be developed to mitigate the potential impacts of climate warming on the plateau.

  19. Long-term strain accommodation in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Insights from 3D thermo-kinematic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Vermeesch, P.; Carter, A.; Zhang, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic deformation of the Tibetan Plateau were dominated by the north-south collision between the Indian and Eurasian continents since Early Cenozoic time. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the plateau has expanded outward after the collision, forming a diverging stress-regime from the collisional belt to plateau margins. When and how the expansional strain had propagated to the current plateau margins has been hotly debated. This work presents results of an on-going projects for understanding the long-term strain history along the Longmen Shan, the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, where deformation is controlled by three parallel NW-dipping faults. From foreland (southeast) to hinterland (northwest), the main faults are the Guanxian-Anxian fault, Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and Wenchuan-Maowen fault. Exhumation pattern constrained by one-dimensional modelling made from a compilation of published and unpublished thermochronometry data shows a strong structural control, with highest amounts of exhumation in the hinterland region, a pattern that is characteristic of out-of-sequence reverse faulting (Tian et al., 2013, Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20043; Tian et al., 2015, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2014GL062383). Three-dimensional thermo-kinematic modelling of these data suggests that the Longmen Shan faults are listric in geometry, merging into a detachment at a depth of 20-30 km. The models require a marked decrease in slip-rate along the frontal Yingxiu-Beichuan in the late Miocene, whereas the slip-rate along the hinterland Wenchuan-Maowen fault remained relatively constant since early Miocene time. The long-term pattern of strain accommodation revealed by the three-dimensional thermo-kinematic modelling have important implications for distinguishing geodynamic models proposed for explaining the eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Human occupation and environmental change in Holocene from a case of XDW2 relic site in the Tibetan Plateau at above 4000 meters above sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, G.; Li, F.; Zhu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    XDW2 is an important microlithic cultural relics with continuous stratum that is located in the the Tibetan plateau at above 4,000 masl, wich is a window of revealing the evolution of early human activities and the response and adaptation to extreme environmental in the principal part of Tibetan plateau. So it has important research significance. The analysis on human activity indicator(stoneware, potsherds) and environmental indicators(magnetic susceptibility, color, granularity and pollen) showed: the winter wind and dust storm intensity is weak in this area during 7.0-6 cal. Ka BP, pedogenesis is strong, the climate is humid, environment is suitable relatively, when is Holocene Megathermal; the active phase of microlithic human activities occurred during 7.2-6 cal. ka BP, and quickly weakened after 6 cal. ka BP. The number of stone tools reveal that human activities are concentrated before and after 7-6.2 cal. ka BP, charcoal fragmental concentration indicates that microlithic human activity reached the peak at around 6.7 cal. ka BP. Thus relatively suitable environment during Holocene Megathermal is the important motivating factor of active hunter-gatherer activities in the principal part of Tibetan plateau. After 6 cal. ka BP, summer monsoon weakened rapidly, agricultural growers in the Loess Plateau began to expand towards the plateau, under the effect of environmental degradation and new technologies, microlithic hunter-gatherers in the principal part of plateau moved towards the river valley at low altitude, and learnt settlement and plantation, microlithic activity in the main plateau began to decline.

  1. Comparison of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau from reanalysis and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Yu, Ye; Li, Jiang-lin; Ge, Jun; Liu, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Surface sensible and latent heat fluxes (SH and LE) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been under research since 1950s, especially for recent several years, by mainly using observation, reanalysis, and satellite data. However, the spatiotemporal changes are not consistent among different studies. This paper focuses on the spatiotemporal variation of SH and LE over the TP from 1981 to 2013 using reanalysis data sets (ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and MERRA) and observations. Results show that the spatiotemporal changes from the three reanalysis data sets are significantly different and the probable causes are discussed. Averaged for the whole TP, both SH and LE from MERRA are obviously higher than the other two reanalysis data sets. ERA-Interim shows a significant downward trend for SH and JRA-55 shows a significant increase of LE during the 33 years with other data sets having no obvious changes. By comparing the heat fluxes and some climate factors from the reanalysis with observations, it is found that the differences of heat fluxes among the three reanalysis data sets are closely related to their differences in meteorological conditions as well as the different parameterizations for surface transfer coefficients. In general, the heat fluxes from the three reanalysis have a better representation in the western TP than that in the eastern TP under inter-annual scale. While in terms of monthly variation, ERA-Interim may have better applicability in the eastern TP with dense vegetation conditions, while SH of JRA-55 and LE of MERRA are probably more representative for the middle and western TP with poor vegetation conditions.

  2. Spatial Variations and Sources of Trace Elements in Recent Snow from Glaciers at the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Cozzi, G.; Turetta, C.; Barbante, C.; Xiong, L.

    2017-12-01

    Various trace element (TEs) could be long-range transported through the atmosphere and deposited onto the snow surface. Recently, with the development of economy of China and the surrounding countries, TEs such as Pb, Cd, Mo and Sb in several glaciers from the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been gradually affected by anthropogenic activities. This study presents the acid leached concentrations of TEs (e.g., Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V) and dust content sampled from Qiumianleike (QMLK), Meikuang (MK), Yuzhufeng (YZF), Xiaodongkemadi (XDKMD), Gurenhekou (GRHK) glaciers on the TP from April to May of 2013. The different concentrations of TEs in the surface snow and snow pit samples over the five glaciers show that TEs were influenced both by surrounding environment of glaciers and seasonal variations of atmospheric impurity loading. Comparison of TEs concentrations with data of other sites, elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Mo, Pb and Sb were observed in glaciers of TP, showing significant atmospheric TEs pollution. Enrichment factor(EF) analysis indicates that Rb, V, U, Cr, Ba, Cs, Li, As, Co, Mn, Tl, Sr and Cu mainly originated from crustal dust, while anthropogenic inputs such as nonferrous metals melting, coal combustion and traffic emission made an important contribution to the Mo, Pb and Sb. Evidences from air mass back trajectories show the air masses arrived at QMLK mostly came from the Taklimakan desert, the TEs from the Taklimakan desert and the western TP could be transported to the MK and YZF glaciers . The air masses derived from the western TP and the southwestern TP affected the environment of the XDKMD and GRHK glaciers. Futhermore, the air masses passed through some big cities with developed industry and large population such as Urumqi, Bishkek, Dushanbe and some countries such as Pakistan and India could also bring pollutants to the studied glaciers.

  3. Meteorological Disaster Emergency Mobilization In Tibetan Region%西藏地区气象灾害应急动员研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩晶骐

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan region is frequently subjected to meteorological disasters .In order to effectively prevent disaster , the paper presents an improved strategy for emergency mobilization based on the characteristics of the traditional mobilization for meteorological disaster emergency . In the improved strategy , new media technologies are applied and the marketing and socializing mechanisms are introduced to optimize the program of emergency mobilization .It is also suggested that the contingency plans and law s & regulations for emergency management should be perfected to promote the harmonious development of Tibetan region .%针对西藏地区气象灾害频发的实际情况,文中通过分析西藏地区气象灾害应急传统动员的基本特征,提出了气象灾害应急动员改进策略。通过应用新媒体技术,引入市场化和社会化机制的气象灾害应急动员方式和优化气象灾害应急动员环境,完善应急预案体系和应急管理法律法规,推动和谐西藏的建设。

  4. 中国城市中藏族地方的制造 [Tibetan Place-making in Urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine

    2016-01-01

    is both a real and imagined place, has evolved into a powerful symbol of the Tibetans. The article introduces two different place-making processes; first the historical process of migration and movement into this location, and secondly the continuous process of attaching meaning to the location through......This article explores the ways in which Tibetans have carved out an alternative space in downtown Chengdu and transformed it into a Tibetan place. There is a strong connection in peoples’ minds that people and places belong together, and the particular neighbourhood studied in this article, which...

  5. A Provisional list of Tibetan Commentaries on the Ratnagotravibhâga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardi, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The article presents information on Tibetan commentaries based on Ratnagotravibhâga (RGV) text, which is a major source text for interpretations of Buddha Nature. A chronological list of authors along with an account of their major works is also given. It is viewed that the study...

  6. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rachel; Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background . Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design . Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results . Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older ( P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion . Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada.

  7. [Rapid multi-elemental analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines based on LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jia, Shuai-yun; Zhao, Na; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a qualitative elementary analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines, i. e. Renqing Mangjue, Renqing Changjue, 25-herb coral pills and 25-herb pearl pills. The specific spectra of the four Tibetan medicines were established. In the experiment, Nd: YAG and 1 064 nm-baseband pulse laser were adopted to collect the spectra. A laser beam focused on the surface of the samples to generate plasma. Its spectral signal was detected by using spectrograph. Based on the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) database, LIBS spectral lines were indentified. The four Tibetan medicines mainly included Ca, Na, K, Mg and other elements and C-N molecular band. Specifically, Fe was detected in Renqing Changjue and 25-herb pearl pills; heavy mental elements Hg and Cu were shown in Renqing Mangjue and Renqing Changjue; Ag was found in Renqing Changjue. The results demonstrated that LIBS is a reliable and rapid multi-element analysis on the four Tibetan medicines. With Real-time, rapid and nondestructive advantages, LIBS has a wide application prospect in the element analysis on ethnic medicines.

  8. Guozhuang Trading Houses and Tibetan Middlemen in Dartsedo, the "Shanghai of Tibet"

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    Yudru Tsomu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of Sino-Tibetan frontier studies, there is very little in-depth scholarly discussion about commerce, trade, and the people who facilitated these activities across the Sino-Tibetan border; studies in English are particularly sparse. This article contributes to a wider and deeper understanding of the nature of trade on the Sino-Tibetan frontier and the role of women as facilitators by looking at some of the actual “dealmakers.” In the border town of Dartsedo—the “Shanghai of Tibet”—guozhuang (trading houses, Tib. achak khapa not only evolved into convenient spaces for travelers to come to rest, but also were spaces of flux. It was in these trading houses that traditional notions of gender, class, and hierarchy were called into question and played out in unexpected ways. Women came to dominate the guozhuang because the work was likened to managing a household and therefore viewed as a lower-status occupation. This notion was reinforced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when Chinese values and customs were introduced into the local society through frequent intermarriages between Han and Tibetan inhabitants in Dartsedo.

  9. Validity and reliability of the Tibetan version of s-EMBU for measuring parenting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangzong, Ciren; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan; Luobu, Ouzhu; Cui, Chaoying; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Kangzhuo, Baima; Quzong, Deji; Zhandui, Luobu; Zhen, Pu; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2017-01-01

    Parenting style experienced during childhood has profound effects on children’s futures. Scales developed in other countries have never been validated in the Tibetan context. The present study aimed to examine the construct validity and reliability of a Tibetan translation of the 23-item short form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [One’s Memories of Upbringing] (s-EMBU) and to test the correlation between the parenting styles of fathers and mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 847 students aged 12–21 years from Lhasa, Tibet, during September and October 2015 with a participation rate of 97.7%. The Tibetan translation of self-completed s-EMBU was administered. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the scale’s validity on the first half of the sample and was then cross-validated with the second half of the sample. The final model consisted of six factors: three (rejection, emotional warmth, and overprotection) for each parent, equality constrained on factor loadings, factor correlations, and error variance between father and mother. Father–mother correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.86, and the level of consistency ranged from 0.62 to 0.82. Thus, the slightly modified s-EMBU is suitable for use in the Tibetan culture where both the father and the mother have consistent parenting styles. PMID:28053560

  10. Validity and reliability of the Tibetan version of s-EMBU for measuring parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangzong, Ciren; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan; Luobu, Ouzhu; Cui, Chaoying; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Kangzhuo, Baima; Quzong, Deji; Zhandui, Luobu; Zhen, Pu; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2017-01-01

    Parenting style experienced during childhood has profound effects on children's futures. Scales developed in other countries have never been validated in the Tibetan context. The present study aimed to examine the construct validity and reliability of a Tibetan translation of the 23-item short form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran [One's Memories of Upbringing] (s-EMBU) and to test the correlation between the parenting styles of fathers and mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 847 students aged 12-21 years from Lhasa, Tibet, during September and October 2015 with a participation rate of 97.7%. The Tibetan translation of self-completed s-EMBU was administered. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the scale's validity on the first half of the sample and was then cross-validated with the second half of the sample. The final model consisted of six factors: three (rejection, emotional warmth, and overprotection) for each parent, equality constrained on factor loadings, factor correlations, and error variance between father and mother. Father-mother correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.86, and the level of consistency ranged from 0.62 to 0.82. Thus, the slightly modified s-EMBU is suitable for use in the Tibetan culture where both the father and the mother have consistent parenting styles.

  11. Below the radar innovations and emerging property right approaches in Tibetan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Harilal

    2017-11-01

    Outside the established legal framework of intellectual property rights, countries have pursued multiple pathways to protect and promote traditional medicine. As Tibetan medicine is a late entrant into commercialization, the proposals to propertize generally fall within the rationale of existing sui-generis paradigms of Intellectual property. In this context, the article enquires the state of innovations in this sector viz-a-viz the property right approaches in place especially in India and China. It argues that beyond the usual complex medical science and technology led-innovations, the pathways of cumulative processes and creative additions through informal experiential learning platforms, where the transfers of knowledge become part of livelihood and social benefits (we call them "below the radar innovations") is ubiquitous in Tibetan medicine. The trends and politics in two recent strategies of protection, that is, Tibetan medicine as economic property (emphasizing patents here among many others) and as a cultural property (intangible cultural heritage) are juxtaposed with these informal innovative attempts. The paper underlines that the productivity-based economic rationale of these protection mechanisms should not obscure sustainability alternatives of "below the radar" (BtR) innovations in Tibetan medicine.

  12. Asthma in Patients Climbing to High and Extreme Altitudes in the Tibetan Everest Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huismans, Henrike K.; Douma, W. Rob; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Renkema, Tineke E. J.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of asthma in patients traveling to high and extreme altitudes. Methods: Twenty-four Dutch patients with mild asthma did a trekking at high and extreme altitudes (up to 6410 m = 21030 ft) in the Tibetan Everest region. Asthma symptoms,

  13. In vivo and in vitro development of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii interspecific cloned embryos

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    Guanghua SU,Lei CHENG,Yu GAO,Kun LIU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Fengxia YIN,Li GAO,Guangpeng LI,Shorgan BOU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan antelope is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, China, and is now considered an endangered species. As a possible rescue strategy, the development of embryos constructed by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT was examined. Tibetan antelope fibroblast cells were transferred into enucleated bovine, ovine and caprine oocytes. These cloned embryos were then cultured in vitro or in the oviducts of intermediate animals. Less than 0.5% of the reconstructed antelope-bovine embryos cultured in vitro developed to the blastocyst stage. However, when the cloned antelope-bovine embryos were transferred to caprine oviducts, about 1.6% of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In contrast, only 0.7% of the antelope-ovine embryos developed to the morula stage and none developed to blastocysts in ovine oviducts. The treatment of donor cells and bovine oocytes with trichostatin A did not improve the embryo development even when cultured in the oviducts of ovine and caprine. When the antelope-bovine embryos, constructed from oocytes treated with roscovitine or trichostatin A, were cultured in rabbit oviducts 2.3% and 14.3% developed to blastocysts, respectively. It is concluded that although some success was achieved with the protocols used, interspecies cloning of Tibetan antelope presents difficulties still to be overcome. The mechanisms resulting in the low embryo development need investigation and progress might require a deeper understanding of cellular reprogramming.

  14. A Comparison of Rational Emotive Therapy and Tibetan Buddhism: Albert Ellis and the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Susan A; Austad, Carol Shaw

    2013-01-01

    This article explores conceptual and methodological similarities between Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Tibetan Buddhism (TB). The authors examine some of the values and concepts they share. They compare the two systems on a number of issues: philosophical underpinnings, concepts of what causes human psychopathology, techniques to…

  15. Evaluation of ECMWF's soil moisture analyses using observations on the Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; de Rosnay, P.; Wen, J.; Wang, Lichun; Zeng, Yijian

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is carried out for two hydrologically contrasting but thermodynamically similar areas on the Tibetan Plateau, to evaluate soil moisture analysis based on the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) previous optimum interpolation scheme and the current point‐wise

  16. Late summer temperature reconstruction based on tree-ring density for Sygera Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyong; Duan, Jianping; Wang, Lily; Zhu, Haifeng

    2018-04-01

    Although several tree-ring density-based summer/late summer temperature reconstructions have been developed on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the understanding of the local/regional characteristics of summer temperature fluctuations on a long-term scale in some regions is still limited. To improve our understanding in these aspects, more local or regional summer temperature reconstructions extending back over several centuries are required. In this study, a new mean latewood density (LWD) chronology from Abies georgei var. smithii from the upper tree line of Sygera Mountain on the southeastern TP was developed to reconstruct the late summer temperature variability since 1820 CE. The bootstrapped correlation analysis showed that the LWD chronology index was significantly and positively correlated with the late summer (August-September) mean temperatures (r1950-2008 = 0.63, p < 0.001) recorded at the nearest meteorological station and that this reconstruction has considerable potential to represent the late summer temperature variability at the regional scale. Our late summer temperature reconstruction revealed three obvious cold periods (i.e., 1872-1908, 1913-1937 and 1941-1966) and two relatively warm phases (i.e., 1821-1871 and 1970-2008) over the past two centuries. Comparisons of our reconstruction with other independent tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions, glacier fluctuations and historical documental records from neighboring regions showed good agreement in these relatively cold and warm intervals. Our reconstruction exhibits an overall increasing temperature trend since the 1960s, providing new evidence supporting the recent warming of the TP. Moreover, our results also indicate that the late summer temperature variability of Sygera Mountain on the southeastern TP has potential links with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  17. Complex responses of spring alpine vegetation phenology to snow cover dynamics over the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Guangsheng; Yang, Qichun; Wang, Bin; Ma, Yuanxu; Shen, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Snow cover dynamics are considered to play a key role on spring phenological shifts in the high-latitude, so investigating responses of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics is becoming an increasingly important way to identify and predict global ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we quantified the temporal trends and spatial variations of spring phenology and snow cover across the Tibetan Plateau by calibrating and analyzing time series of the NOAA AVHRR-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during 1983-2012. We also examined how snow cover dynamics affect the spatio-temporal pattern of spring alpine vegetation phenology over the plateau. Our results indicated that 52.21% of the plateau experienced a significant advancing trend in the beginning of vegetation growing season (BGS) and 34.30% exhibited a delaying trend. Accordingly, the snow cover duration days (SCD) and snow cover melt date (SCM) showed similar patterns with a decreasing trend in the west and an increasing trend in the southeast, but the start date of snow cover (SCS) showed an opposite pattern. Meanwhile, the spatial patterns of the BGS, SCD, SCS and SCM varied in accordance with the gradients of temperature, precipitation and topography across the plateau. The response relationship of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics varied within different climate, terrain and alpine plant community zones, and the spatio-temporal response patterns were primarily controlled by the long-term local heat-water conditions and topographic conditions. Moreover, temperature and precipitation played a profound impact on diverse responses of spring phenology to snow cover dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial variations and sources of trace elements in recent snow from glaciers at the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ju; Li, Yuefang; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Longfei

    2018-03-01

    Trace elements (TEs) could pose a potential threat to the environment and human health and hence they have been paid attention increasingly at present. This study presents the acid-leached concentrations of TEs (e.g., Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V) and dust content sampled from Qiumianleike (QMLK), Meikuang (MK), Yuzhufeng (YZF), Xiaodongkemadi (XDKMD), Gurenhekou (GRHK) glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) from April to May in 2013. A nonparametric Jonckheere-Terpstra Method was used to test the trend of spatial distribution of TEs. The statistical analysis indicates that TEs were the highest in the QMLK glacier, lowest in the YZF glacier, and comparable in the other three glaciers. Comparison with other glaciers of the plateau, the statistical analysis on As, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Sb shows that their concentrations had, in general, a decreasing distribution characteristic from the north to the south of TP, which indicates that the northern TP is loading more atmospheric-polluted impurity than central and southern TP. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis indicates that Rb, V, U, Cr, Ba, Cs, Li, As, Co, Mn, Tl, Sr, and Cu originated mainly from crustal dust, while anthropogenic inputs such as nonferrous metals melting, coal combustion, and traffic emission made an important contribution to the Mo, Pb, and Sb. Evidences from air mass back trajectories show that TEs in the five studied glaciers might not only come from surrounding areas of glaciers but also might be long-range transported by atmosphere from the Central Asia and South Asia and deposited on these glaciers.

  19. Patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yujing; Yang, Xian; Tang, Zhiyao

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and the underlying mechanisms regulating these patterns have long been the central issues in biogeography and macroecology. Phylogenetic community structure is a result of combined effects of contemporary ecological interactions, environmental filtering, and evolutionary history, and it links community ecology with biogeography and trait evolution. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides a good opportunity to test the influence of contemporary climate on shaping species richness because of its unique geological history, cold climate, and high biodiversity. In this study, based on high-resolution distributions of ˜9000 vascular plant species, we explored how species richness and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants correlate with climates on the highest (and species rich) plateau on the Earth. The results showed that most of the vascular plants were distributed on the eastern part of the plateau; there was a strong association between species richness and climate, even after the effects of habitat heterogeneity were controlled. However, the responses of richness to climate remarkably depended on life-forms. Richness of woody plants showed stronger climatic associations than that of herbaceous plants; energy and water availability together regulated richness pattern of woody plants; whereas water availability predominantly regulated richness pattern of herbaceous plants. The phylogenetic structure of vascular species clustered in most areas of the plateau, suggesting that rapid speciation and environment filtering dominated the assembly of communities on the plateau. We further propose that biodiversity conservation in this area should better take into account ecological features for different life-forms and phylogenetic lineages.

  20. Hydrological Response of Alpine Wetlands to Climate Warming in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

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    Wenjiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetlands in the Tibetan Plateau (TP play a crucial role in the regional hydrological cycle due to their strong influence on surface ecohydrological processes; therefore, understanding how TP wetlands respond to climate change is essential for projecting their future condition and potential vulnerability. We investigated the hydrological responses of a large TP wetland complex to recent climate change, by combining multiple satellite observations and in-situ hydro-meteorological records. We found different responses of runoff production to regional warming trends among three basins with similar climate, topography and vegetation cover but different wetland proportions. The basin with larger wetland proportion (40.1% had a lower mean runoff coefficient (0.173 ± 0.006, and also showed increasingly lower runoff level (−3.9% year−1, p = 0.002 than the two adjacent basins. The satellite-based observations showed an increasing trend of annual non-frozen period, especially in the wetland-dominated region (2.64 day·year−1, p < 0.10, and a strong extension of vegetation growing-season (0.26–0.41 day·year−1, p < 0.10. Relatively strong increasing trends in evapotranspiration (ET (~1.00 mm·year−1, p < 0.01 and the vertical temperature gradient above ground surface (0.043 °C·year−1, p < 0.05 in wetland-dominant areas were documented from satellite-based ET observations and weather station records. These results indicate recent surface drying and runoff reduction of alpine wetlands, and their potential vulnerability to degradation with continued climate warming.

  1. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

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    X. Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of  ∼ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015, which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan Plateau

  2. The role of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the evolution of Tibetan biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Adrien; Päckert, Martin; Pauls, Steffen U; Jähnig, Sonja C; Uhl, Dieter; Michalak, Ingo; Muellner-Riehl, Alexandra N

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity is unevenly distributed on Earth and hotspots of biodiversity are often associated with areas that have undergone orogenic activity during recent geological history (i.e. tens of millions of years). Understanding the underlying processes that have driven the accumulation of species in some areas and not in others may help guide prioritization in conservation and may facilitate forecasts on ecosystem services under future climate conditions. Consequently, the study of the origin and evolution of biodiversity in mountain systems has motivated growing scientific interest. Despite an increasing number of studies, the origin and evolution of diversity hotspots associated with the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) remains poorly understood. We review literature related to the diversification of organisms linked to the uplift of the QTP. To promote hypothesis-based research, we provide a geological and palaeoclimatic scenario for the region of the QTP and argue that further studies would benefit from providing a complete set of complementary analyses (molecular dating, biogeographic, and diversification rates analyses) to test for a link between organismic diversification and past geological and climatic changes in this region. In general, we found that the contribution of biological interchange between the QTP and other hotspots of biodiversity has not been sufficiently studied to date. Finally, we suggest that the biological consequences of the uplift of the QTP would be best understood using a meta-analysis approach, encompassing studies on a variety of organisms (plants and animals) from diverse habitats (forests, meadows, rivers), and thermal belts (montane, subalpine, alpine, nival). Since the species diversity in the QTP region is better documented for some organismic groups than for others, we suggest that baseline taxonomic work should be promoted. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge

  3. Three-dimensional Crustal Structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by Multi-scale Gravity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Luo, Z.; Sun, R.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the largest and highest plateau on Earth, was uplifted, shorten and thicken by the collision and continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates since 50 million years ago, the Eocene epoch. Fine three-dimensional crustal structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the tectonic development. At present, the ordinary method used for revealing crustal structure is seismic method, which is inhibited by poor seismic station coverage, especially in the central and western plateau primarily due to the rugged terrain. Fortunately, with the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity field models have demonstrated unprecedented global-scale accuracy and spatial resolution, which can subsequently be employed to study the crustal structure of the entire Tibetan Plateau. This study inverts three-dimensional crustal density and Moho topography of the Tibetan Plateau from gravity data using multi-scale gravity analysis. The inverted results are in agreement with those provided by the previous works. Besides, they can reveal rich tectonic development of the Tibetan Plateau: (1) The low-density channel flow can be observed from the inverted crustal density; (2) The Moho depth in the west is deeper than that in the east, and the deepest Moho, which is approximately 77 km, is located beneath the western Qiangtang Block; (3) The Moho fold, the directions of which are in agreement with the results of surface movement velocities estimated from Global Positioning System, exists clearly on the Moho topography.This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41504015), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M572146), and the Surveying and Mapping Basic Research Programme of the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (Grant No. 15-01-08).

  4. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

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    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg -1 dw) and HCHs (393ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg -1 ) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Glacier mass changes on the Tibetan Plateau 2003–2009 derived from ICESat laser altimetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neckel, N; Kropáček, J; Hochschild, V; Bolch, T

    2014-01-01

    Glacier mass changes are a valuable indicator of climate variability and monsoon oscillation on the underexplored Tibetan Plateau. In this study data from the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is employed to estimate elevation and mass changes of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau between 2003 and 2009. In order to get a representative sample size of ICESat measurements, glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were grouped into eight climatically homogeneous sub-regions. Most negative mass budgets of − 0.77 ± 0.35 m w.e. a −1 were found for the Qilian Mountains and eastern Kunlun Mountains while a mass gain of + 0.37 ± 0.25 m w.e. a −1 was found in the westerly-dominated north-central part of the Tibetan Plateau. A total annual mass budget of − 15.6 ± 10.1 Gt a −1 was estimated for the eight sub-regions sufficiently covered by ICESat data which represents ∼80% of the glacier area on the Tibetan Plateau. 13.9 ± 8.9 Gt a −1 (or 0.04 ± 0.02 mm a −1 sea-level equivalent) of the total mass budget contributed ‘directly’ to the global sea-level rise while 1.7 ± 1.9 Gt a −1 drained into endorheic basins on the plateau. (paper)

  7. Geometry and Kinematics of the Lopukangri Fault System: Implications for Internal Deformation of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    We present geologic mapping and structural data from the Lopukangri fault system in south-central Tibet that sheds light on the geometry, kinematics and spatial characteristics of deformation in western Tibet and the western Himalaya. The Lopukangri fault system strikes N09E and extends 150 km from the Lhasa terrane into the Tethyan fold-thrust belt at 84.5° N. Geologic mapping shows that the deformation is accommodated by a northwest dipping oblique fault system, which accommodates both right-lateral and normal dip-slip movement, consistent with right-lateral separations of Quaternary surficial deposits. The fault system juxtaposes amphibolite-grade rocks in its footwall against greenschist-grade rocks in its hanging wall. Deformation is distributed over a 4 km wide zone that predominately records right-lateral normal slip in ductile and brittle shear fabrics. The fault system right-laterally separates the Gangdese batholith, Kailas conglomerate, Great Counter thrust, and the Tethyan fold-thrust belt for 15 km. Age estimates of the Kailas conglomerate in the Kailas region implies that the Lopukangri fault system initiated after the Early Miocene( 23Ma). The observation that the Lopukangri fault system cuts the Indus-Yaly suture zone, rules out active strike-slip faulting along it at this locality. To assess the role of the Lopukangri fault system in accommodating strain within western Tibet, we compare our results with fault-slip data and structural geometries from the Karakoram and Dangardzong (Thakkhola graben) fault systems. The Dangardzong fault shares similar kinematics with the Lopukangri fault system, both display a significant component of right-slip. Although the two faults do not strike into one another, they may be linked via a transfer zone. The Karakoram fault accommodates right-lateral slip in which a portion of the total slip extends from the Tibetan plateau into the Himalayan thrust belt via right-stepover structures. Fault slip data from the

  8. AHP 21: Architecture in The Bo, 'Brug Chu, and Co Ne Counties, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chos dbyings rdo rje ཆོས་དབྱིངས་རྡོ་རྗེ།

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-nine images of architecture in The bo, 'Brug chu, and Co ne counties (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China are presented. The author also relates his experiences of travelling through the area in 2010.

  9. Deep sequencing and transcriptome analyses to identify genes involved in secoiridoid biosynthesis in Tibetan medicinal plant Sewertia mussotii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swertia mussotii Franch. is an important traditional Tibetan medicinal plant with pharmacological properties useful for the treatment of various ailments, such as hepatitis. Secoiridoids, including swertiamarin, are the major bioactive compounds in S. mussotii. The development of genomic resources ...

  10. Studying precipitation recycling over the Tibetan Plateau using evaporation-tagging and back-trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Regional precipitation recycling (i.e., the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation) is an important component of water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Two methods were used to investigate regional precipitation recycling: 1) tracking of tagged atmospheric water parcels originating from evaporation in a source region (i.e., E-tagging), and 2) back-trajectory approach to track the evaporative sources contributed to precipitation in a specific region. These two methods were applied to Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate simulations to quantify the precipitation recycling ratio in the TP for three selected years: climatologically normal, dry and wet year. The simulation region is characterized by high average elevation above 4000 m and complex terrain. The back-trajectory approach is also calculated over three sub-regions over the TP: namely western, northeastern and southeastern TP, and the E-tagging approach could provide recycling-ratio distributions over the whole TP. Three aspects are investigated to characterize the precipitation recycling: annual mean, seasonal variations and spatial distributions. Averaged over the TP, the precipitation recycling ratio estimated by the E-tagging approach is higher than that from the back-trajectory method. The back-trajectory approach uses a precipitation threshold as total precipitation in five days divided by a random number, and this number was set to 500 as a tread off between equilibrium and computational efficiency. Lower recycling ratio derived from the back-trajectory approach is related to the precipitation threshold used. The E-tagging, however, tracks every air parcel of evaporation regardless of the precipitation amount. There is no obvious seasonal variation in the recycling ratio using both methods. The E-tagging approach shows high recycling ratios in the center TP, indicating stronger land-atmospheric interactions than elsewhere.

  11. Fine Structure of Tibetan Kefir Grains and Their Yeast Distribution, Diversity, and Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Man; Wang, Xingxing; Sun, Guowei; Qin, Bing; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs), a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic associations between S

  12. Geometries of geoelectrical structures in central Tibetan Plateau from INDEPTH magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Le Pape, Florian

    2013-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data collected on N-S profiles crossing the Banggong-Nujiang Suture, which separates the Qiangtang and Lhasa Terranes in central Tibet, as a part of InterNational DEep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya project (INDEPTH) are modeled by 2D and 3D inversion codes. The 2D deep MT model of line 500 confirms previous observations concluding that the region is characterized to first-order by a resistive upper crust and a conductive, partially melted, middle to lower crust that extends from the Lhasa Terrane to the Qiangtang Terrane with varying depth. The same conductive structure setting, but in shallower depths is also present on the eastern 400 line. From deep electromagnetic sounding, supported by independent 1D integrated petro-physical investigation, we can estimate the next upper-mantle conductive layer at depths from 200 km to 250 km below the Lhasa Terrane and less resistive Tibetan lithosphere below the Qiangtang Terrane with conductive upper-mantle in depths about 120 km. The anisotropic 2D modeling reveals lower crustal anisotropy in Lhasa Terrane, which can interpreted as crustal channel flow. The 3D inversion models of all MT data from central Tibet show dominant 2D regional strike of mid and lower crustal structures equal N110E. This orientation is parallel to Shuanghu suture, BengCo Jiali strike-slip fault system and perpendicular to convergence direction. The lower crust conductor in central Lhasa Terrane can be interpreted more likely as 3D lower Indian crust structure, located to the east from line 500, than geoelectrical anisotropic crustal flow.

  13. Probiotic Properties and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; He, Zengguo; Pan, Fen; Pan, Shuo; Wang, Yanping

    2017-11-20

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from traditional Chinese Tibetan kefir grains. Its antioxidant properties had been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo previously. In the present study, the probiotic characteristics of this strain were further evaluated by investigating its acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity, and autoaggregation, respectively. In addition, the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was applied to test the antioxidant capacity of the isolate in different growth phases. Same method was also used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of its fermentation supernatant, cell-free extract, and intact cell quantitatively. The results of probiotic characteristic tests showed that MA2 could survive at pH 2.5 and 0.3% bile salt. Meanwhile, the measurements of cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation were 45.29 ± 2.15 and 6.30 ± 0.34%, respectively. The results of cellular antioxidant activity tests indicated that MA2 had high antioxidant potential. The CAA value of logarithmic phase cell-free extract of MA2 (39,450.00 ± 424.05 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g sample) was significantly higher than that in stationary phase cell-free extract (3395.98 ± 126.06 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g sample) and that of fermentation supernatant in logarithmic phase (2174.41 ± 224.47 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g sample) (p < 0.05). The CAA method was successively applied to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of MA2 in this study, which suggests that it could be used as a useful method for lactic acid bacteria antioxidant potential evaluation.

  14. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lu

    Full Text Available Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs, a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic

  15. The relation of vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau to rainfall in China during the boreal summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zhiyan; Zhang, Renhe [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Beijing (China); Zhao, Ping [National Meteorological Information Centre, Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    The relationship between vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and summer (June-August) rainfall in China is investigated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Earth Resources Observation System and observed rainfall data from surface 616 stations in China for the period 1982-2001. The leading mode of empirical orthogonal functions analysis for summer rainfall variability in China shows a negative anomaly in the area from the Yangtze River valley to the Yellow River valley (YYR) and most of western China, and positive anomalies in southern China and North China. This mode is significantly correlated with summer NDVI around the southern TP. This finding indicates that vegetation around the southern TP has a positive correlation with summer rainfall in southern China and North China, but a negative correlation with summer rainfall in YYR and western China. We investigate the physical process by which vegetation change affects summer rainfall in China. Increased vegetation around the southern TP is associated with a descending motion anomaly on the TP and the neighboring area to the east, resulting in reduced surface heating and a lower Bowen ratio, accompanied by weaker divergence in the upper troposphere and convergence in the lower troposphere on the TP. In turn, these changes result in the weakening of and a westward shift in the southern Asian High in the upper troposphere and thereby the weakening of and an eastward withdrawal in the western Pacific subtropical high. These features result in weak circulation in the East Asian summer monsoon. Consequently, enhanced summer rainfall occurs in southern China and North China, but reduced rainfall in YYR. (orig.)

  16. Fungi regulate response of N2O production to warming and grazing in a Tibetan grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lei; Wang, Shiping; Xu, Xingliang; Wang, Yanfen; Rui, Yichao; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Shen, Qinhua; Wang, Jinzhi; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Caiyun; Gu, Tianbao; Ma, Wenchao; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-03-01

    Lack of understanding of the effects of warming and winter grazing on soil fungal contribution to nitrous oxide (N2O) production has limited our ability to predict N2O fluxes under changes in climate and land use management, because soil fungi play an important role in driving terrestrial N cycling. Here, we examined the effects of 10 years' warming and winter grazing on soil N2O emissions potential in an alpine meadow. Our results showed that soil bacteria and fungi contributed 46 % and 54 % to nitrification, and 37 % and 63 % to denitrification, respectively. Neither warming nor winter grazing affected the activity of enzymes responsible for overall nitrification and denitrification. However, warming significantly increased the enzyme activity of bacterial nitrification and denitrification to 53 % and 55 %, respectively. Warming significantly decreased enzyme activity of fungal nitrification and denitrification to 47 % and 45 %, respectively, while winter grazing had no such effect. We conclude that soil fungi could be the main source for N2O production potential in the Tibetan alpine grasslands. Warming and winter grazing may not affect the potential for soil N2O production potential, but climate warming can alter biotic pathways responsible for N2O production. These findings indicate that characterizing how fungal nitrification/denitrification contributes to N2O production, as well as how it responds to environmental and land use changes, can advance our understanding of N cycling. Therefore, our results provide some new insights about ecological controls on N2O production and lead to refine greenhouse gas flux models.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of the tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis in the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M; Li, T; Yu, Z J; Qiu, Z X; Yan, P; Li, Y; Liu, J

    2017-12-01

    The tick Haemaphysalis tibetensis (Acari: Ixodidae) Hoogstraal is an important arthropod vector widespread in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and knowledge of its seasonal dynamics is still poor. The current study investigated the seasonal dynamics of the parasitic and non-parasitic H. tibetensis over a 2-year period from March 2014 to February 2016 in the Tibetan Plateau, China. During this timeframe, non-parasitic ticks were collected weekly by flag-dragging in grassland and shrubland areas, and parasitic ticks were removed weekly from selected sheep. Plateau pikas were captured using traps and examined for immature ticks between May to September 2014. Results suggest that non-parasitic H. tibetensis were mainly distributed in the grassland, and the parasitic adults and nymphs were found mostly on sheep. Larvae were usually found on Plateau pikas and the prevalence of infestation and mean parasitic intensity were 72.1 and 1.81%, respectively. Adults were observed from March to July with the major peak occurring in mid-April. Nymphs were found from March to August and reached a peak in late June. Larvae were collected from April to September, and their numbers peaked in late May. In the parasitic and non-parasitic period, the overall sex ratio of males to females was 1.62 and 1.30, respectively. Results show that H. tibetensis can complete one generation per year, with a population overlap between stages over the spring-summer months. These findings provide additional information on the biology and ecology of H. tibetensis as well as insights on its control in the environment and on sheep. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Rates and style of Cenozoic deformation around the Gonghe Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Kirby, Eric; Zhang, Huiping; Clark, Marin K.; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Yuan, Daoyang

    2014-01-01

    The northeastern Tibetan Plateau constitutes a transitional region between the low-relief physiographic plateau to the south and the high-relief ranges of the Qilian Shan to the north. Cenozoic deformation across this margin of the plateau is associated with localized growth of fault-cored mountain ranges and associated basins. Herein, we combine detailed structural analysis of the geometry of range-bounding faults and deformation of foreland basin strata with geomorphic and exhumational records of erosion in hanging-wall ranges in order to investigate the magnitude, timing, and style of deformation along the two primary fault systems, the Qinghai Nan Shan and the Gonghe Nan Shan. Structural mapping shows that both ranges have developed above imbricate fans of listric thrust faults, which sole into décollements in the middle crust. Restoration of shortening along balanced cross sections suggests a minimum of 0.8–2.2 km and 5.1–6.9 km of shortening, respectively. Growth strata in the associated foreland basin record the onset of deformation on the two fault systems at ca. 6–10 Ma and ca. 7–10 Ma, respectively, and thus our analysis suggests late Cenozoic shortening rates of 0.2 +0.2/–0.1 km/m.y. and 0.7 +0.3/–0.2 km/m.y. along the north and south sides of Gonghe Basin. Along the Qinghai Nan Shan, these rates are similar to late Pleistocene slip rates of ∼0.10 ± 0.04 mm/yr, derived from restoration and dating of a deformed alluvial-fan surface. Collectively, our results imply that deformation along both flanks of the doubly vergent Qilian Shan–Nan Shan initiated by ca. 10 Ma and that subsequent shortening has been relatively steady since that time.

  19. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing

    2017-10-01

    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  20. Light-absorbing impurities enhance glacier albedo reduction in the southeastern Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Schmale, Julia; Sprenger, Michael; Li, Chaoliu; Yang, Wei; Gao, Tanguang; Sillanpää, Mika; Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Yajun; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Xuelei

    2017-07-01

    Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) in snow of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their climatic impacts are of interest not only because this region borders areas affected by the South Asian atmospheric brown clouds but also because the seasonal snow and glacier melt from this region form important headwaters of large rivers. In this study, we collected surface snow and snowpit samples from four glaciers in the southeastern TP in June 2015 to investigate the comprehensive observational data set of LAIs. Results showed that the LAI concentrations were much higher in the aged snow and granular ice than in the fresh snow and snowpits due to postdepositional processes. Impurity concentrations fluctuated across snowpits, with maximum LAI concentrations frequently occurring toward the bottom of snowpits. Based on the SNow ICe Aerosol Radiative model, the albedo simulation indicated that black carbon and dust account for approximately 20% of the albedo reduction relative to clean snow. The radiative forcing caused by black carbon and dust deposition on the glaciers were between 1.0-141 W m-2 and 1.5-120 W m-2, respectively. Black carbon (BC) played a larger role in albedo reduction and radiative forcing than dust in the study area, enhancing approximately 15% of glacier melt. Analysis based on the Fire INventory from NCAR indicated that nonbiomass-burning sources of BC played an important role in the total BC deposition, especially during the monsoon season. This study suggests that eliminating anthropogenic BC could mitigate glacier melt in the future of the southeastern TP.

  1. Historical reconstruction of mercury pollution across the Tibetan Plateau using lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Battarbee, Richard W; Turner, Simon D; Rose, Neil L; Derwent, Richard G; Wu, Guangjian; Yang, Ruiqiang

    2010-04-15

    The Tibetan Plateau is described as the "Roof of the World" averaging over 4000 m above sea level; it is remote, isolated, and presumed to be a pristine region. In order to study the history of atmospheric mercury (Hg) pollution and its spatial variation across the Plateau, lakes were chosen from three areas forming a north to south transect. Sediment cores were taken from three sites in each area and dated using the radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs. Analysis of the cores yielded the first comprehensive Hg reconstructions for the Plateau, showing clear Hg pollution at all sites. The first indication of Hg pollution is much earlier than the onset of the industrial revolution in Europe, but the most significant pollution increase is from the 1970s, followed by a further marked increase from the 1990s. The mean post-2000 atmospheric pollution Hg accumulation rates for the sampling sites were estimated at between 5.1 and 7.9 microg m(-2) yr(-1). The increase in Hg pollution over the last few decades is synchronous with the recent economic development in Asia (especially China and India), and pollution Hg levels continue to increase. Furthermore, contemporary sediment Hg accumulation rate data are in broad agreement with Hg deposition values derived from global models that attribute pollution to sources mainly within southeast Asia. As most of the sites are exceptionally remote and situated above the atmospheric boundary layer, these results underline the need to understand the local Hg cycle in both regional and global context.

  2. Genomic scan reveals loci under altitude adaptation in Tibetan and Dahe pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunzhe Dong

    Full Text Available High altitude environments are of particular interest in the studies of local adaptation as well as their implications in physiology and clinical medicine in human. Some Chinese pig breeds, such as Tibetan pig (TBP that is well adapted to the high altitude and Dahe pig (DHP that dwells at the moderate altitude, provide ideal materials to study local adaptation to altitudes. Yet, it is still short of in-depth analysis and understanding of the genetic adaptation to high altitude in the two pig populations. In this study we conducted a genomic scan for selective sweeps using FST to identify genes showing evidence of local adaptations in TBP and DHP, with Wuzhishan pig (WZSP as the low-altitude reference. Totally, we identified 12 specific selective genes (CCBE1, F2RL1, AGGF1, ZFPM2, IL2, FGF5, PLA2G4A, ADAMTS9, NRBF2, JMJD1C, VEGFC and ADAM19 for TBP and six (OGG1, FOXM, FLT3, RTEL1, CRELD1 and RHOG for DHP. In addition, six selective genes (VPS13A, GNA14, GDAP1, PARP8, FGF10 and ADAMTS16 were shared by the two pig breeds. Among these selective genes, three (VEGFC, FGF10 and ADAMTS9 were previously reported to be linked to the local adaptation to high altitudes in pigs, while many others were newly identified by this study. Further bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that majority of these selective signatures have some biological functions relevant to the altitude adaptation, for examples, response to hypoxia, development of blood vessels, DNA repair and several hematological involvements. These results suggest that the local adaptation to high altitude environments is sophisticated, involving numerous genes and multiple biological processes, and the shared selective signatures by the two pig breeds may provide an effective avenue to identify the common adaptive mechanisms to different altitudes.

  3. Cloud vertical structure, precipitation, and cloud radiative effects over Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yan, Y.; Lu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical structure of clouds and its connection with precipitation and cloud radiative effects (CRE) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are analyzed and compared with its neighboring land and tropical oceans based on CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) products and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data. Unique characteristics of cloud vertical structure and CRE over the TP are found. The cloud amount shows seasonal variation over the TP, which presents a single peak (located in 7-11 km) during January to April and two peaks (located in 5-8 km and 11-17 km separately) after mid-June, and then resumes to one peak (located in 5-10 km) after mid-August. Topography-induced restriction on moisture supply leads to a compression effect on clouds, i.e., the reduction in both cloud thickness and number of cloud layers, over the TP. The topography-induced compression effect is also shown in the range in the variation of cloud thickness and cloud-top height corresponding to different precipitation intensity, which is much smaller over the TP than its neighboring regions. In summer, cloud ice particles over the TP are mostly located at lower altitude (5-10 km) with richer variety of sizes and aggregation in no rain conditions compared to other regions. Ice water content becomes abundant and the number concentration tends to be dense at higher levels when precipitation is enhanced. The longwave CRE in the atmosphere over the TP is a net cooling effect. The vertical structure of CRE over the TP is unique compared to other regions: there exists a strong cooling layer of net CRE at the altitude of 8 km, from June to the beginning of October; the net radiative heating layer above the surface is shallower but stronger underneath 7 km and with a stronger seasonal variation over the TP.

  4. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  5. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  6. Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; You Qinglong; Yao Tandong; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Pepin, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), with an average elevation of over 4000 m asl and an area of approximately 2.5 x 10 6 km 2 , is the highest and most extensive highland in the world and has been called the 'Third Pole'. The TP exerts a huge influence on regional and global climate through thermal and mechanical forcing mechanisms. Because the TP has the largest cryospheric extent outside the polar region and is the source region of all the large rivers in Asia, it is widely recognized to be the driving force for both regional environmental change and amplification of environmental changes on a global scale. Within China it is recognized as the 'Asian water tower'. In this letter, we summarize the recent changes observed in climate elements and cryospheric indicators on the plateau before discussing current unresolved issues concerning climate change in the TP, including the temporal and spatial components of this change, and the consistency of change as represented by different data sources. Based on meteorological station data, reanalyses and remote sensing, the TP has shown significant warming during the last decades and will continue to warm in the future. While the warming is predominantly caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions, changes in cloud amount, snow-albedo feedback, the Asian brown clouds and land use changes also partly contribute. The cryosphere in the TP is undergoing rapid change, including glacier retreat, inconsistent snow cover change, increasing permafrost temperatures and degradation, and thickening of the active layer. Hydrological processes impacted by glacial retreat have received much attention in recent years. Future attention should be paid to additional perspectives on climate change in the TP, such as the variations of climate extremes, the reliability of reanalyses and more detailed comparisons of reanalyses with surface observations. Spatial issues include the identification of whether an elevational dependency and weekend effect exist

  7. AHP 10: "I, Ya ri a bsod, Am a Dog": The Life and Music of a Tibetan Mendicant Singer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skal dbang skyid སྐལ་དབང་སྐྱིད།

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The life and music of Ya ri A bsod, a Tibetan composer and singer who lived in the early twentieth century, is described. Ya ri A bsod wandered through Tibetan nomad areas where contemporary Qinghai, Gansu, and Sichuan provinces meet in China. Texts and transcribed melodies of Ya ri A bsod songs are presented. These songs are contextualized in terms of their contemporary transmission, and the historical and autobiographical circumstances of their composition.

  8. The Rock Art of Upper Tibet and Ladakh: Inner Asian cultural adaptation, regional differentiation and the Western Tibetan Plateau Style

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau , Laurianne; Bellezza , John V.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper examines common thematic and esthetic features discernable in the rock art of the western portion of the Tibetan plateau. This rock art is international in scope; it includes Ladakh (La-dwags) (under Indian jurisdiction), Tö (Stod) and the Changthang (Byang-thang) (under Chinese administration) hereinafter called Upper Tibet. This work sets out the relationship of this art to other regions of Inner Asia and defines what we call the 'Western Tibetan Plateau S...

  9. The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya: Visual Expressions of a Tibetan Teacher's Path and Lineage in the Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Glowski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the Tibetan diaspora in the late 1950s, Tibetan Buddhism spread to nearly every continent on the globe and has begun transforming western landscapes through the construction of 'stūpas', Buddhism’s principal architectural form.  'The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya Which Liberates Upon Seeing', located at Shambhala Mountain Center in Red Feather Lakes, Colorado and dedicated to the meditation master Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, is an especially rich example of Tibetan Buddhist visual culture in the diaspora.  An iconographic analysis of the monuments exterior and interior architectural elements, sculptures and paintings, when contextualized within their historical context, reveals an intimate biography of Trungpa Rinpoche’s life.  Specifically, the visual narrative conveys two main Tibetan Buddhist themes:  the teacher’s progressive path of meditation and his lineage affiliations within Vajrayāna Buddhism.  In this way, the 'stūpa'' 'acts as a visual 'namtar '('rNam-thar', a traditional Tibetan biography that emphasizes a teacher’s personal journey to liberation and the masters who guided the way.  Although located far from the Himalayas and its Tibetan heritage, 'The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya’s' affinity to traditional Tibetan Buddhist architectural and religious modalities provides a window into Tibet Buddhism's history prior to 1959.  At the same time, the monument serves as coherent, visual documentation of Tibetan art during the diaspora’s early period and will, no doubt, become an increasingly important part of the tradition’s historical record.''

  10. Background aerosol over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau: observed characteristics of aerosol mass loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Xin, Jinyuan; Wan, Xin; Pan, Yuepeng; Liu, Zirui; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Guoshuai; Wang, Zhongyan; Wang, Yongjie; Kang, Shichang

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), an observation network was established within the region's various ecosystems, including at the Ngari, Qomolangma (QOMS), Nam Co, and Southeastern Tibetan (SET) stations. In this paper we illustrate aerosol mass loadings by integrating in situ measurements with satellite and ground-based remote sensing datasets for the 2011-2013 period, on both local and large scales. Mass concentrations of these surface atmospheric aerosols were relatively low and varied with land cover, showing a general tendency of Ngari and QOMS (barren sites) > Nam Co (grassland site) > SET (forest site). Daily averages of online PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 µm) at these sites were sequentially 18.2 ± 8.9, 14.5 ± 7.4, 11.9 ± 4.9 and 11.7 ± 4.7 µg m-3. Correspondingly, the ratios of PM2.5 to total suspended particles (TSP) were 27.4 ± 6.65, 22.3 ± 10.9, 37.3 ± 11.1 and 54.4 ± 6.72 %. Bimodal mass distributions of size-segregated particles were found at all sites, with a relatively small peak in accumulation mode and a more notable peak in coarse mode. Diurnal variations in fine-aerosol masses generally displayed a bi-peak pattern at the QOMS, Nam Co and SET stations and a single-peak pattern at the Ngari station, controlled by the effects of local geomorphology, mountain-valley breeze circulation and aerosol emissions. Dust aerosol content in PM2.1 samples gave fractions of 26 % at the Ngari station and 29 % at the QOMS station, or ˜ 2-3 times that of reported results at human-influenced sites. Furthermore, observed evidence confirmed the existence of the aerodynamic conditions necessary for the uplift of fine particles from a barren land surface. Combining surface aerosol data and atmospheric-column aerosol optical properties, the TSP mass and aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) generally decreased as land cover changed from

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in 18 autosomal STR loci in the Tibetan population living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) play a vitally important role in forensics. Population data is needed to improve the field. There is currently no large population data-based data set in Chamdo Tibetan. In our study, the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 18 autosomal STR loci (D5S818, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, VWA, D8S1179, D16S539, PentaE, TPOX, TH01, D19S433, D18S51, FGA, D6S1043, D13S317, and D12S391) included in the DNATyper™19 kit were investigated in 2249 healthy, unrelated Tibetan subjects living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion of all 18 loci were 0.9999999999999999999998174 and 0.99999994704, respectively. Furthermore, the genetic relationship between our Tibetan group and 33 previously published populations was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Chamdo Tibetan population is more closely related genetically with the Lhasa Tibetan group. Our results suggest that these autosomal STR loci are highly polymorphic in the Tibetan population living in Tibet Chamdo and can be used as a powerful tool in forensics, linguistics, and population genetic analyses.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in the Tibetan surface soil: Spatial distribution, air–soil exchange and implications for global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoping; Sheng Jiujiang; Gong Ping; Xue Yonggang; Yao Tandong; Jones, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. This paper presents data from a survey of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 40 background surface (0–5 cm) soils of the Tibetan Plateau. Soil concentrations (pg/g, dw) ranged as follows: DDTs, 13-7700; HCHs, 64-847; HCB, 24-564; sum of 15 PCBs, 75-1021; and sum of 9 PBDEs, below detection limit −27. Soil DDT, HCB, PCB and PBDE concentrations were strongly influenced by soil organic carbon content. HCH concentrations were clearly associated with the proximity to source regions in south Asia. The air–soil equilibrium status of POPs suggested the Tibetan soils may be partial “secondary sources” of HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs and will likely continue to be “sinks” for the less volatile DDE and DDT. - Highlights: ► Soil organic carbon content influence the spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants. ► The Tibetan soil acts as “secondary sources” for HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs. ► The Tibetan soil will continue to be “sinks” for DDE and DDT. - Tibetan soils may be potential “secondary sources” of the HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs that are observed in air.

  13. On the relationship between the early spring Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) and the Tibetan Plateau atmospheric heat source in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tingchen; San Liang, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of springtime Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) on the Tibetan Plateau's role as atmospheric heat source (AHS) in summer. The SST data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set (HadISST) and the reanalysis data of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for 33 years (from 1979 to 2011) were used to analyze the relationship between the Indian Ocean SST and the Tibetan Plateau's AHS in summer, using the approaches that include correlation analysis, and lead-lag analysis. Our results show that some certain strong oceanic SSTs affect the summer plateau heat, specially finding that the early spring SSTs of the Indian Ocean significantly affect the plateau's ability to serve as a heat source in summer. Moreover, the anomalous atmospheric circulation and transport of water vapor are related to the Plateau heat variation.

  14. Rapid warming forces contrasting growth trends of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri ) at higher- and lower-elevations in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jia, Min; Wang, Genxu; Zhu, Wanze; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-10-01

    Tree radial growth is expected to increase at higher elevations under climate warming, while lower elevation tree growth is expected to decline. However, numerous studies have found tree radial growth responds consistently to climate along elevational gradients. Here, we sampled five plots across the subalpine Abies fabri forest belt on Gongga Mountain in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to determine tree radial growth trends and responses to climate. Three commonly used detrending methods all consistently showed that tree radial growth at high elevation (> 3100 m) increased, while tree growth declined at the lower elevations (2700 m–2900 m) over the last three decades. Increasing late-growing season temperature positively (p < 0.05) correlated to tree radial growth at higher elevations, but the sign of this relationship reversed to become negative at lower elevations. Moving-window correlation analyses indicated the difference between high and low elevations response to temperature variation increased strongly with warming. Placing our result into the global context, 62% of 39 published studies found that trees along elevation gradients respond divergently to warming, and that these are located in warmer and wetter regions of the Earth. Notably, 28% of studies found non-significant responses to temperature at both high and low elevations. Our findings in the subalpine mountain forest in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were consistent with the majority of published datasets, and imply increasing temperature benefit for tree populations at higher elevation, while warming dampens growth at lower elevations.

  15. Cesium accumulation by bacterium Thermus sp.TibetanG7: hints for biomineralization of cesiumbearing geyserite in hot springs in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7, isolated from hot springs in Tibet, China, was examined for the ability to accumulate cesium from solutions. Environmental conditions were simulated and the effects of pH, K+, Na+ and K+-regimes were then studied to determine the possible role of the bacterium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite around these hot springs. In despite of the inhibition of K+ and Na+, the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7 revealed noticeable accumulation of cesium from solutions, with maximum accumulations of 53.49 and 40.41 μmol Cesium/g cell dry weight in Na+ and K+ inhibition experiments, respectively. The accumulation of cesium by this microorganism is rapid, with 40%―50% accumulated within the first 5 min. K+-deficient cells showed a much higher capacity of cesium accumulation compared with K+-sufficient cells. It is evident that the bacteria within the genus thermus play a significant role in the cesium assembly. The formation of cesium-bearing geyserite is also considered.

  16. Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products and Their Potential Influence on Hydrological Modeling over the Ganzi River Basin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Alden Alazzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, satellite-based precipitation datasets are believed to be a potential source for forcing inputs in driving hydrological models, which are important especially in complex terrain areas or ungauged basins where ground gauges are generally sparse or nonexistent. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the satellite precipitation products, CMORPH-CRT, PERSIANN-CDR, 3B42RT, and 3B42 against gauge-based datasets and to infer their relative potential impacts on hydrological processes simulation using the HEC-HMS model in the Ganzi River Basin (GRB of the Tibetan Plateau. Results from a quantitative statistical comparison reveal that, at annual and seasonal scales, both CMORPH-CRT and 3B42 perform better than PERSIANN-CDR and 3B42RT. The CMORPH-CRT and 3B42 tend to underestimate values at the medium and high precipitation intensities ranges, whereas the opposite tendency is found for PERSIANN-CDR and 3B42RT. Overall, 3B42 exhibits the best performance for streamflow simulations over GRB and even outperforms simulation driven by gauge data during the validation period. PERSIANN-CDR shows the worst overall performance. After recalibrating with input-specific precipitation data, the performance of all satellite precipitation forced simulations is substantially improved, except for PERSIANN-CDR. Furthermore, 3B42 is more suitable to drive hydrological models and can be a potential alternative source of sparse data in Tibetan Plateau basins.

  17. Molecular evolution of myoglobin in the Tibetan Plateau endemic schizothoracine fish (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) and tissue-specific expression changes under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Delin; Chao, Yan; Zhao, Yongli; Xia, Mingzhe; Wu, Rongrong

    2018-04-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen-binding hemoprotein that was once thought to be exclusively expressed in oxidative myocytes of skeletal and cardiac muscle where it serves in oxygen storage and facilitates intracellular oxygen diffusion. In this study, we cloned the coding sequence of the Mb gene from four species, representing three groups, of the schizothoracine fish endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), then conducted molecular evolution analyses. We also investigated tissue expression patterns of Mb and the expression response to moderate and severe hypoxia at the mRNA and protein levels in a representative of the highly specialized schizothoracine fish species, Schizopygopsis pylzovi. Molecular evolution analyses showed that Mb from the highly specialized schizothoracine fish have undergone positive selection and one positively selected residue (81L) was identified, which is located in the F helix, close to or in contact with the heme. We present tentative evidence that the Mb duplication event occurred in the ancestor of the schizothoracine and Cyprininae fish (common carp and goldfish), and that the Mb2 paralog was subsequently lost in the schizothoracine fish. In S. pylzovi, Mb mRNA is expressed in various tissues with the exception of the intestine and gill, but all such tissues, including the liver, muscle, kidney, brain, eye, and skin, expressed very low levels of Mb mRNA (Tibetan Plateau fish.

  18. First Isolation of New Canine Parvovirus 2a from Tibetan Mastiff and Global Analysis of the Full-Length VP2 Gene of Canine Parvoviruses 2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2 was first identified in 1978, and is responsible for classic parvoviral enteritis. Despite the widespread vaccination of domestic carnivores, CPVs have remained important pathogens of domestic and wild carnivores. In this study, we isolated CPV-2 from Tibetan mastiffs and performed a global analysis of the complete VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 strains in China. Six isolates were typed as new CPV-2a, according to key amino acid positions. On a phylogenetic tree, these six sequences formed a distinct clade. Five isolates occurred on the same branch as KF785794 from China and GQ379049 from Thailand; CPV-LS-ZA1 formed a separate subgroup with FJ435347 from China. One hundred ninety-eight sequences from various parts of China and the six sequences isolated here formed seven distinct clusters, indicating the high diversity of CPVs in China. Of 204 VP2 sequences, 183 (91.04% encoded the mutation Ser297Ala, regardless of the antigenic type, implying that most Chinese CPV-2 strains contain the VP2 mutation Ser297Ala. However, the biological significance of this change from prototype CPV-2a/2b to new CPV-2a/2b types remains unclear. This study is the first to isolate new CPV-2a from the Tibetan mastiff. Our data show that new CPV-2a/2b variants are now circulating in China.

  19. First Isolation of New Canine Parvovirus 2a from Tibetan Mastiff and Global Analysis of the Full-Length VP2 Gene of Canine Parvoviruses 2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhijun; Liang, Luqi; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xuefeng; Liu, Xuehan; Zhou, Ziyao; Ren, Zhihua; Shen, Liuhong; Geng, Yi; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Guangneng

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in 1978, and is responsible for classic parvoviral enteritis. Despite the widespread vaccination of domestic carnivores, CPVs have remained important pathogens of domestic and wild carnivores. In this study, we isolated CPV-2 from Tibetan mastiffs and performed a global analysis of the complete VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 strains in China. Six isolates were typed as new CPV-2a, according to key amino acid positions. On a phylogenetic tree, these six sequences formed a distinct clade. Five isolates occurred on the same branch as KF785794 from China and GQ379049 from Thailand; CPV-LS-ZA1 formed a separate subgroup with FJ435347 from China. One hundred ninety-eight sequences from various parts of China and the six sequences isolated here formed seven distinct clusters, indicating the high diversity of CPVs in China. Of 204 VP2 sequences, 183 (91.04%) encoded the mutation Ser297Ala, regardless of the antigenic type, implying that most Chinese CPV-2 strains contain the VP2 mutation Ser297Ala. However, the biological significance of this change from prototype CPV-2a/2b to new CPV-2a/2b types remains unclear. This study is the first to isolate new CPV-2a from the Tibetan mastiff. Our data show that new CPV-2a/2b variants are now circulating in China. PMID:25007818

  20. Into the Himalayan Exile: The Phylogeography of the Ground Beetle Ethira clade Supports the Tibetan Origin of Forest-Dwelling Himalayan Species Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joachim; Opgenoorth, Lars; Höll, Steffen; Bastrop, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan mountain arc is one of the hotspots of biodiversity on earth, and species diversity is expected to be especially high among insects in this region. Little is known about the origin of the Himalayan insect fauna. With respect to the fauna of high altitude cloud forests, it has generally been accepted that Himalayan lineages are derived from ancestors that immigrated from Western Asia and from adjacent mountainous regions of East and Southeast Asia (immigration hypothesis). In this study, we sought to test a Tibetan Origin as an alternative hypothesis for groups with a poor dispersal ability through a phylogeographic analysis of the Ethira clade of the genus Pterostichus. We sequenced COI mtDNA and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes in 168 Pterostichini specimens, including 46 species and subspecies of the Ethira clade. In our analysis, we were able to show that the Ethira clade is monophyletic and, thus, represents a Himalayan endemic clade, supporting endemism of two of the basal lineages to the Central Himalaya and documenting large distributional gaps within the phylogeographic structure of the Ethira clade. Furthermore, the molecular data strongly indicate very limited dispersal abilities of species and subspecies of these primary wingless ground beetles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a Tibetan Origin, which explains the evolution, diversity and distribution of the Himalayan ground beetle Ethira clade much more parsimoniously than the original immigration hypothesis. PMID:23049805

  1. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  2. Predicting the distribution of Stipa purpurea across the Tibetan Plateau via the MaxEnt model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baibing; Sun, Jian

    2018-02-21

    The ecosystems across Tibetan Plateau are changing rapidly under the influence of climate warming, which has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. Stipa purpurea, as a dominant herbsage resource in alpine steppe, has a great influence on animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau. Global warming has been forecasted to continue in the future (2050s, 2070s), questioning the future distribution of S. purpurea and its response to climate change. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, due to its multiple advantages (e.g. uses presence-only data, performs well with incomplete data, and requires small sample sizes and gaps), has been used to understand species environment relationships and predict species distributions across locations that have not been sampled. Annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, temperature seasonality, altitude, and precipitation during the driest month, significantly affected the distribution of S. purpurea. Only 0.70% of the Tibetan Plateau area included a very highly suitable habitat (habitat suitability [HS] = 0.8-1.0). Highly suitable habitat (HS = 0.6-0.8), moderately suitable habitat (HS = 0.4-0.6), and unsuitable habitat (HS = 0.2-0.4) occupied 6.20, 14.30 and 22.40% of the Tibetan Plateau area, respectively, and the majority (56.40%) of the Tibetan Plateau area constituted a highly unsuitable habitat (HS = 0-0.2). In addition, the response curves of species ecological suitability simulated by generalized additive model nearly corresponded with the response curves generated by the MaxEnt model. At a temporal scale, the habitat suitability of S. purpurea tends to increase from the 1990s to 2050s, but decline from the 2050s to 2070s. At a spatial scale, the future distribution of S. purpurea will not exhibit sweeping changes and will remain in the central and southeastern regions of the Tibetan Plateau. These results benefit the local animal husbandry and provide evidence for establishing

  3. A world-class target for ICDP drilling at Lake Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau, China: progresses and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Wang, J.; Daut, G.; Spiess, V.; Haberzettl, T.; Schulze, N.; Ju, J.; Lü, X.; Bergmann, F.; Haberkern, J.; Schwalb, A.; Mäusbacher, R.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Nam Co (ca. 2000 km2, 4718 m a.s.l., maximum depth: 100 m) is located at the interaction zone of the Westerlies and the Indian monsoon on the central Tibetan Plateau. It was part of a mega-lake during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 before the Last Glacial Maximum. A long term sedimentary record from Nam Co could therefore provide an excellent paleo-environmental sequence for regional and global comparative studies. This will to deepen our understanding of large scale atmospheric circulation shifts and the environmental links between the Tibetan Plateau at low latitudes and the North Atlantic region at high latitudes. A Nam Co deep drilling will fill the gap in two large scale ICDP/IODP drilling transects (N-S: Lake Baikal, Lake Qinghai, Bay of Bengal; W-E: Lake Van, Lake Issyk-Kul, South China Sea, Lake Towuti), which will show the great significance of monsoon dynamics on a long-term scale. Multidisciplinary researches have been conducted since 2005 by a Sino-German cooperative team. The progresses during the last decade are: 1) Detailed bathymetric surveying, including a shallow sediment profiler investigation (Innomar SES 2000 light, ca. 30 m sediment penetration); 2) Paleo-environmental reconstructions covering the past 24 ka; 3) Modern sediment distribution covering the entire lake; 4) Monitoring including water temperature profiles, sediment traps, seasonal airborne pollen collection; 5) Deep seismic survey penetrating up to 800 meters of lake sediments. Based on sediment rates from reference core NC08/01, seismic results show that an age of 500 ka may be reached at 500 m, and >1 Ma at the observed base. Faulting can be clearly detected in the seismic profiles, especially from MIS 5 to early Holocene, and shows the characteristics of normal faults or strike-slip faults. Both rotation of the layers and the close spacing, along with negative and positive offsets of the faults make a transtensional origin of the basin likely. An ICDP workshop proposal was

  4. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  5. AHP 44: DEVELOPMENT OF DAOHUA: SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF A CHINESE-TIBETAN CREOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litong Chen 陳利砼

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Daohua is a recently-discovered Chinese-Tibetan creole spoken in Yajiang County, Sichuan Province, China. While its lexicon is predominantly Chinese, its grammar is basically Tibetan. This study investigates the social contexts of the development of Daohua in the past three centuries, which is divided into two stages. The watershed is the early 1950s, when Chinese language classes started to be consistently taught in Yajiang. In each stage, Daohua presents specific characteristics and is compared with other well-known creoles. In the first stage, the formation process of Daohua resembles natural second language acquisition (SLA. Due to constant input of the superstrate language by continuous Chinese immigrants, Daohua in this stage developed as an intermediate creole without processes of radical restructuring. In the second stage, the formation of Daohua changed to a combination of both natural SLA and monitored SLA. Demographic evidence from historical records, especially local annals, supports this argument.

  6. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoliu; Kang Shichang; Zhang Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical 'pollution' elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles <20 μm are transportable as long distances, elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP. - High concentrations of some elements of the Tibetan soils can cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements during aerosol related study.

  7. Thickening the outer margins of the Tibetan Plateau: The role of crustal shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, R. O.; Burbank, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most direct consequences of the collision of two buoyant continents is large-scale crustal thickening that results in the upward and outward growth of high terrain. As the stronger Indian continent has collided with weaker Asia over at least the past 50 Myr, widespread crustal thickening has occurred over an area that is approximately 2.5 million km^2 at present. The resultant Tibetan crust is the thickest observed on Earth today with an average thickness of 65 km and a maximum that may reach 90 km in places. The mechanisms by which Tibetan crust has thickened, however, as well as the timing and distribution of these mechanisms across the plateau, remain debatable. Two of the most popular mechanisms for thickening the crust beneath the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are: 1) pure shear with faulting and folding in the upper crust and horizontal shortening below; and 2) flow and inflation of lower or middle crust without significant shortening of the upper crust. To help discriminate between the relative contributions of these two mechanisms, well-constrained estimates of upper crustal shortening are needed. Here we document the Cenozoic shortening budget across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau margin near 36°N 102.5°E with several 100- to 145-km-long balanced cross sections. Thermochronological and magnetostratigraphic data indicate that modest NNE-SSW shortening began in middle Eocene time, shortly after initial India-Asia collision. Accelerated east-west shortening, however, did not commence until ~35 Myr later. A five-fold acceleration in shortening rates in middle Miocene-to-Recent time accounts for more than half of the total Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening in this region. Overall, the balanced cross sections indicate 11 ± 2 % east-west shortening since middle Miocene time, and ~9 ± 2 % NNE-SSW shortening between middle Eocene and middle Miocene times. Given the present-day crustal thickness of 56 ± 4 km in northeastern Tibet, crustal

  8. Change in frozen soils and its effect on regional hydrology, upper Heihe basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bing; Yang, Dawen; Qin, Yue; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Hongyi; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Tingjun

    2018-02-01

    Frozen ground has an important role in regional hydrological cycles and ecosystems, particularly on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which is characterized by high elevations and a dry climate. This study modified a distributed, physically based hydrological model and applied it to simulate long-term (1971-2013) changes in frozen ground its the effects on hydrology in the upper Heihe basin, northeastern QTP. The model was validated against data obtained from multiple ground-based observations. Based on model simulations, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in frozen soils and their effects on hydrology. Our results show that the area with permafrost shrank by 8.8 % (approximately 500 km2), predominantly in areas with elevations between 3500 and 3900 m. The maximum depth of seasonally frozen ground decreased at a rate of approximately 0.032 m decade-1, and the active layer thickness over the permafrost increased by approximately 0.043 m decade-1. Runoff increased significantly during the cold season (November-March) due to an increase in liquid soil moisture caused by rising soil temperatures. Areas in which permafrost changed into seasonally frozen ground at high elevations showed especially large increases in runoff. Annual runoff increased due to increased precipitation, the base flow increased due to changes in frozen soils, and the actual evapotranspiration increased significantly due to increased precipitation and soil warming. The groundwater storage showed an increasing trend, indicating that a reduction in permafrost extent enhanced the groundwater recharge.

  9. Deformation of Tibetan Crust and Mantle and the Uplift of the Plateau: Insights from Broadband Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, M. R.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-12-01

    results show that the prominent high-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle are most consistent with the presence of subducted Indian lithosphere beneath large portions of Tibet. Estimated thermal anomalies within the high-velocity features match those expected for subducted India. The morphology of India's subduction beneath Tibet is complex and shows pronounced west-east variations. Beneath eastern and northeastern Tibet, in particular, the subducted Indian lithosphere appears to have subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of km NNE-wards. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet is distributed in multiple layers with different fast-propagations directions, which accounts for the complexity of published shear-wave splitting observations. The fast directions within the mid-lower crust are parallel to the extensional components of the current strain rate field at the surface, consistent with similar deformation through the entire crust, rather than channel flow. Anisotropy within the asthenosphere beneath northeastern Tibet (sandwiched between the Tibetan lithosphere above and the subducted Indian lithosphere below) indicates SSW-NNE flow, parallel to the direction of motion of the Indian Plate, including its subducted leading edge.

  10. The History and the Technological Study of Traditional Tibetan Painting Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanbaRabden; Ngawang; SonamRechen; ChimeDorje; ZhuHong

    2003-01-01

    Like all societies whose origins predate the invention of the written word, many aspects of prehistoric Tibet are lost in a blur of mystery. Yet archeologists are digging into the ruins left by Tibet's earliest human inhabitants to help carve away the lack of knowledge,just as art historians are examining ancient paintings left inside Tibetan caves to sketch out the contours of prehistoric life and art on the Roof of the World.

  11. Dendrochronological potential of the alpine shrub Rhododendron nivale on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Eckstein, Dieter

    2009-09-01

    Shrubs and dwarf shrubs are wider spread on the Tibetan Plateau than trees and hence offer a unique opportunity to expand the present dendrochronological network into extreme environments beyond the survival limit of trees. Alpine shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by rhododendron species. The dendrochronological potential of one alpine rhododendron species and its growth response to the extreme environment on the south-east Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Twenty stem discs of the alpine snowy rhododendron (Rhododendron nivale) were collected close to the tongue of the Zuoqiupu Glacier in south-east Tibet, China. The skeleton plot technique was used for inter-comparison between samples to detect the growth pattern of each stem section. The ring-width chronology was developed by fitting a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope. Bootstrapping correlations were calculated between the standard chronology and monthly climate data. The wood of snowy rhododendron is diffuse-porous with evenly distributed small-diameter vessels. It has well-defined growth rings. Most stem sections can be visually and statistically cross-dated. The resulting 75-year-long standard ring-width chronology is highly correlated with a timberline fir chronology about 200 km apart, providing a high degree of confidence in the cross-dating. The climate/growth association of alpine snowy rhododendron and of this timberline fir is similar, reflecting an impact of monthly mean minimum temperatures in November of the previous year and in July during the year of ring formation. The alpine snowy rhododendron offers new research directions to investigate the environmental history of the Tibetan Plateau in those regions where up to now there was no chance of applying dendrochronology.

  12. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  13. The first fossil brown lacewing from the Miocene of the Tibetan Plateau (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Hemerobiidae, Wesmaelius makarkini Yang, Pang & Ren, sp. n. is described from the Lower Miocene, Garang Formation of Zeku County, Qinghai Province (northeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The species is assigned to the widely distributed extant genus Wesmaelius Krüger (Hemerobiinae. The species represents the first named fossil of this family from China, which sheds light on the historical distribution of Wesmaelius and early divergences within Hemerobiinae.

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  15. Soil Nitrogen Storage, Distribution, and Associated Controlling Factors in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau Shrublands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Nie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the soils in the Tibetan Plateau shrublands store large amounts of total nitrogen (N, the estimated values remain uncertain because of spatial heterogeneity and a lack of field observations. In this study, we quantified the regional soil N storage, spatial and vertical density distributions, and related climatic controls using 183 soil profiles sampled from 61 sites across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau shrublands during the period of 2011–2013. Our analysis revealed a soil N storage value of 132.40 Tg at a depth of 100 cm, with an average density of 1.21 kg m−2. Soil N density was distributed at greater levels in alpine shrublands, compared with desert shrublands. Spatially, soil N densities decreased from south to north and from east to west, and, vertically, the soil N in the upper 30 and 50 cm accounted for 42% and 64% of the total soil N stocks in the Tibetan Plateau. However, compared with desert shrublands, the surface layers in alpine shrublands exhibited a larger distribution of soil N stocks. Overall, the soil N density in the top 30 cm increased significantly with the mean annual precipitation (MAP and tended to decrease with the mean annual temperature (MAT, although the dominant climatic controls differed among shrubland types. Specifically, MAP in alpine shrublands, and MAT in desert shrubland, had a weak effect on N density. Soil pH can significant affect soil N density in the Tibetan Plateau shrublands. In conclusion, changes in soil N density should be monitored over the long term to provide accurate information about the effects of climatic factors.

  16. Investigation of junior school student myopia in high-altitude Tibetan areas in Qinghai Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Han; Hai-Ling Miao; Dan Huang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To know the rate of students' myopia in junior school and factors affecting its occurrence in high altitude Tibetan areas in Qinghai, and provide basis for the prevention of myopia. METHODS: Totally 2 209 junior school students were extracted as respondent with stratified cluster sampling method. The gender, age, ethnicity, grade, eye behavior, physical activity and parental visual conditions were collected by self-made questionnaire, and the curvature of the cornea, anterior chamber dep...

  17. Some characteristics about marriage and childbearing of Tibetan population in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J

    1992-02-01

    The Tibetans are a major ethnic group in China. Tibet lies in the southwestern section of China at an altitude of 4000 m above sea level. Between 1951-90, its population grew from 1.15 to 2.19 million. Tibetans make up 95% of the population in Tibet. 33.02% of Tibetans =or 15 years old are not married. Males are more likely to be unmarried than females (36.08% vs. 29.98%). The high percentage of unmarrieds in Tibet is 5.3%, 4.7%, and 5.8% higher than the Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Qinghai, and Guizhou, respectively. When the Population Research Institute (PRI) standardized data according to the age structure, the differences between Tibet and Guizhou widened (33.54% vs. 26.8%). The proportion of the married population in Tibet is quite low especially for females. The PRI attributes this lower proportion of married females to the high ratio of spontaneous abortions, high maternal mortality, and high infant and child mortality. Since many young and adult Tibetans become lamas who cannot marry, Buddhism contributes to the high rate of unmarried in Tibet. In 1951, 9.5% (110,000) of the population were lamas. Women can have 1 husband. Tibet has a high mean age at 1st marriage (24.6 years for males and 23.1 years for females). It also has a low sex ratio (97.84, 1982) and age specific sex ratios compared with other major ethnic groups in China. The sex ratio is growing, however (100.13, 1990).

  18. AHP 2A: China's na53 mʑi 53 Tibetans: Life, Language and Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libu Lakhi (Li Jianfu 李建富, Dawa Tenzin ཟླ་བ་བསྟན་འཛིན།

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This remarkable book is the product of a fruitful collaboration among a native speaker of na53 mʑi53 kha11 tho11, Tibetan and Chinese consultants, and a dedicated group of Westerners resident in China. It affords the reader an intimate glimpse into traditional na53 mʑi53 life, now well on its way to disappearing along with hundreds of similar minority cultures in the world.

  19. AHP 2B: China's na53 mʑi 53 Tibetans: Life, Language and Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libu Lakhi (Li Jianfu 李建富, Dawa Tenzin ཟླ་བ་བསྟན་འཛིན།

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This remarkable book is the product of a fruitful collaboration among a native speaker of na53 mʑi53 kha11 tho11, Tibetan and Chinese consultants, and a dedicated group of Westerners resident in China. It affords the reader an intimate glimpse into traditional na53 mʑi53 life, now well on its way to disappearing along with hundreds of similar minority cultures in the world.

  20. A new species of Metaeuchromius (Lepidoptera, Crambidae from the Tibetan glacier area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaeuchromius glacialis Li, sp. n. is described from the Tibetan glacier area of China. The new species is similar to M. circe Bleszynski by the distal projection of costa exceeding the apex of valva, and the phallus with strong spine-like cornuti in the male genitalia. Images of male adult, tympanal and scent organs as well as genitalia of the new species are provided.

  1. Frequency of Polycythemia and Other Abnormalities in a Tibetan Herdsmen Population Residing in the Kham Area of Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Lin; Chen, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Cao, Mei; Yie, Shang-Mian; Yang, Hua; Yao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Yi; Yang, Yong-Chang; Xie, Chun-Bao; Zhao, Tai-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    The Kham Tibetans are one of several Tibetan ethnic subgroups living in the Kham area of China. Because studies on the high-altitude adaptation of the Kham people are scant, the main aim of this study is to investigate whether the response to hypoxia, especially polycythemia status, in the Kham Tibetans is different from other Tibetan ethnic subgroups. The primary investigation was conducted on 346 native Kham Tibetan adults (268 men and 78 women) from 3 herdsmen villages located in Hongyuan County situated at an altitude of greater than 3600 m. The participants were aged 46.2±14.1 (21-82; mean±SD with range) years. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, body mass index, and blood pressure, as well as laboratory blood tests such as glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and uric acid were analyzed. The concentrations of hemoglobin were 171.3±12.9 (66-229) mg·L -1 and 151.4±16.4 (86-190) mg·L -1 in men and women, respectively. The frequency of polycythemia was found to be 25.5 and 21.8% in men and women, respectively. Polycythemia was found to be significantly associated with glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations, hypertension, and hyperuricemia (P=0.002, 0.023, and 0.009, respectively). There is a higher frequency of polycythemia in the Kham Tibetans when compared with reported studies from other Tibetan ethnic subgroups living on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perfluorinated carboxylic and sulphonic acids in surface water media from the regions of Tibetan Plateau: Indirect evidence on photochemical degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Falandysz, Jerzy; Taniyasu, Sachi; Hui, Ge; Jurkiewicz, Gabriela; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants and repellents are synthetic substances that have found numerous industrial and customer applications. Due to their persistence, at least two groups of these substances-perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs)-are diffused widely in the environment. It is hypothesized that the Tibetan Plateau, is one of few unique places on the Earth, due to its topography, specifically the vast space and high elevation above sea level, geographic location, climate, high solar radiation, lack of industry, little urbanization and general lack of significant direct sources of pollution. There it is believed possible to gain an insight into atmospheric fate (possible photochemical degradation of higher molecular mass and formation of lower molecular mass PFCAs and PFSAs) of PFASs under un-disturbed environmental conditions. Ultratrace analytical method for PFCAs and PFSAs and use of transportation and field blanks, laboratory blanks and isotopically labelled surrogates for recovery control has allowed the determination of nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids and six perfluorinated sulfonic acids at ultra-trace levels in water based samples from the alpine dimension regions of the Tibetan Plateau, the eastern slope of Minya Konka peak at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and also from the city of Chengdu from the lowland of the Sichuan Province in China. The specific compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs and low levels of pollution with those compounds were observed in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The fingerprint of the compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs in water samples in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the alpine region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau may be explained by the result of photochemical degradation with dealkylation of longer chain

  3. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Tibetan monks from Gansu Province, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghui; Cai, Hui; He, Jin; Ramachandran, Devasundaram; Xie, Ping; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hongjing; Liu, Yan; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan monks are a special group in life style and diet customs. We have little information of hypertension about them. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the information on the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in these populations. A cross-sectional study of hypertension was carried out in 984 monks and 1042 Tibetan residents' controls in the same area. All the subjects were selected for interview, and physical examination involved blood pressure (BP) measurement. The overall prevalence of hypertension in monks was significantly lower than those in local residents (19.3% versus 34.1%; p monks were also lower than those in local residents (9.5% versus 16.9%, 4.2% versus 13.2% and 1.6% versus 4.5%; p monks aged 18 years and over in Gannan Tibetan autonomous district of Gansu province in China. We concluded that the relatively healthy diet and ways of life in monks were the major contributing factors to the lower prevalence of hypertension. However, the awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were also low. The possible reasons were most likely due to the difficult access to quality medical care and poor health education.

  4. Impacts of the active layer on runoff in an upland permafrost basin, northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tanguang; Zhang, Tingjun; Guo, Hong; Hu, Yuantao; Shang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yulan

    2018-01-01

    The paucity of studies on permafrost runoff generation processes, especially in mountain permafrost, constrains the understanding of permafrost hydrology and prediction of hydrological responses to permafrost degradation. This study investigated runoff generation processes, in addition to the contribution of summer thaw depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation to streamflow in a small upland permafrost basin in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Results indicated that the thawing period and the duration of the zero-curtain were longer in permafrost of the northern Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic. Limited snowmelt delayed the initiation of surface runoff in the peat permafrost in the study area. The runoff displayed intermittent generation, with the duration of most runoff events lasting less than 24 h. Precipitation without runoff generation was generally correlated with lower soil moisture conditions. Combined analysis suggested runoff generation in this region was controlled by soil temperature, thaw depth, precipitation frequency and amount, and antecedent soil moisture. This study serves as an important baseline to evaluate future environmental changes on the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Grow