WorldWideScience

Sample records for program investigating species

  1. Aquatic Species Program review: proceedings of principal investigators meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species Program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant culture technologies. The emphasis of the program is on developing a mass culture technology for cultivating oil-yielding microalgae in the American southwest. A technical and economic analysis indicated that such a concept would be feasible if (1) lipid yields from microalgae are improved, (2) there is sufficient saline water for large-scale development, and (3) microalgal lipids can be economically converted to conventional fuels. It was determined that fuels from microalgal lipids presented better options than converting the microalgal biomass to either alcohols or methane. All lipids can potentially be catalytically converted to gasoline, or the fatty acids can be converted to substitute diesel fuels. The Southwest has the necessary low, flat, underutilized lands, and carbon dioxide is available from either natural deposits or flue gas from industrial plants. The amount of saline water available will probably determine how much fuel can be produced from aquatic species, and this question should be answered during 1985. The largest constraint of this technology is the economical production of an oil-rich microalgal feedstock. The agenda for the review was divided into four sections: species selection and characterization, applied physiological studies, outdoor mass cultivation, and systems design and analysis. Papers from these presentations are included in these proceedings. Program advances were reported in the areas of species collection and selection, modulated light physiology, mass culture yields, harvesting of microalgae, mass culture facility design and analysis, and assessments on fuel options from microalgae. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  2. Aquatic Species Program Review: Proceedings of the March 1983 Principal Investigators Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  3. Proceedings of the SERI Biomass Program Principal Investigators' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program Reports; 23-25 June 1982, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) is concerned with how plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas is utilized. Processes are being developed in this program to make use of those aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as on their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  4. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-30

    1 V TILE COPY q Laboratory N Report No. 23 CLINICAL INVESTIGATION PROGRAM ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT DTIC 30 September 1987 TLE CTE JAN 2 8 IM Approved...1987. Kucera RF, Blue PW, Thomas HM, Bowden WD: Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Left Sinus of Valsalva - A Case Report. Cath...University of New York at Buffalo . Civilian Hospital Savitz DA, Hamman RF, Grace C, and Stroo K: Respondents’ At- titudes Regarding Participation in

  5. Clinical Investigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-30

    awarded IND. May be continued on a separate sheet, and designated as "(14)e". NONE 3M, ALCON, IOLAB (PRECISION- COSMET ), COBURN , CILCO, IOPEX, COPELAND...lens now, but also authorized to implant Precision Cosmet , 3M, Alcon, and IOLAB. (17) Progress: Cataract surgery with the intraocular lens implantation...Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI - Isoenzymes of adenosine deaminase (40.000 and 100.000 Dalton species) were isolated from

  6. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    fish responsible for clinical scombroid poisoning. This will be attempted by correlating known patients, fish, specimens, and suspected outbreaks ...by parents, special program, and TAHC staff to evaluate the level of psychotic behavior. After one month, the procedure will be reversed, in that

  7. Clinical Investigation Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    BENNING, GA 1980 Intraocular Lens Study. (T) 183 78-14 USA MEDDAC, FT CAMPBELL, KY 1981 Intraocular Lens Study. (0) 184 78-14 1990 Pediatric ...Tympanic Thermometry to Rectal Thermometry 191 91-83 in an Ambulatory Pediatric Clinic. (C) USA MEDDAC. FT RUCKER. AL 1990 Comparison of Cefpodoxime...oral macrolide therapy. Technical Approach: Randomized, investigator blind, multicenter trial. Subjects enrolled to date: 0 Progress: Prepared for

  8. Clinical Investigation Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Expense 6,019.00 Military Pay 160,982.00 TOTAL $ 618,369.00 E. Dispotion of Protocols- FY 1983 -.97 Ongoing 5-..: 29 C o m pleted 15 Terminated 1...Spring, MD LAMC D ept/Svc: Associate Investigators: Radiology T McDonald, MD K Kumar, MD CPT W Marx , DO Key Words: retroperitoneal gas, CT...135, 50 M MANSOUR, RP, 91, 93, 95 MARX , W, 125 M ASSIE, B, 34 * - McDONALD, PT, 125, 143 MELLICK, P, 53 MITCHELL, M, 113 MOORE, T, 145 MOORES, WY, 137

  9. Field Verification Program (Aquatic Disposal). Use of Bioenergetics to Investigate the Impact of Dredged Material on Benthic Species: A Laboratory Study with Polychaetes and Black Rock Harbor Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Vol 179. McKinney, C.L., Jr. 1982. "Interrelationships Between Energy Metabolism, Growth Dynamics, and Reproduction During the Life Cycle of Mysidopsis...ANIMAL’S LIFE STAGE: JUVENILE SIZE: 1.40 +/- 0.33 MG DRY WI CONTROLS: 100 PERCENT REF FOOD: PRAWN FLA.E SUSPENSION ANIMAL SOURCE: SOUTH REFERENCE, LONG...dredged material. Evaluations were to be based on technology existing within the two agencies or developed during the six-year life of the program. 3. The

  10. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  11. FY 1987 Aquatic Species Program: Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-09-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy/Solar Energy Research Institute Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology base to produce liquid fuels from microalagae at prices competitive with conventional alternatives. Microalgae are unusual plants that can accumulate large quantities of oil and can thrive in high-salinity water, which currently has no competing uses. The algal oils, in turn, are readily converted into gasoline and diesel fuels. The best site for successful microalgae production was determined to be the US desert Southwest, with potential applications to other warm areas. Aggressive research is needed, but the improvements required are attainable. The four prime research areas in the development of this technology are growth and production, engineering design, harvesting, and conversion. Algae are selected for three criteria: tolerance to environmental fluctuations, high growth rates, and high lipid production. From 1982 to 1986, the program collected more than 3000 strains of microalgae that are more than twice as tolerant to temperature and salinity fluctuation than the initial strains. Productivity has been increased by a factor of two in outdoor culture systems since 1982, and lipid content has also been increased from 20% of body weight in 1982 to greater than 66% of body weight in 1987. Research programs are ongoing in lipid biochemistry and genetic engineering so that ultimately strains can be modified and improved to combine their best characteristics. An outdoor test facility is being built in Roswell, New Mexico.

  12. ANATOMIC INVESTIGATION OF HUNGARY'S COMMON SHRUB SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter ANTALFI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary a huge part of wooden plants are shrubs. Flora of hungarian forests is among the richest in Europe. Many plants can be classified as shrubs or trees as well, circumstances during their development define what they will become. The diverse world of shrubs and weeds delights the eye under 20-30 meter high trees. From these there are some well known which basically everybody recognises is lilac (Syringa vulgaris, elderberry (Sambucus nigra, dog-rose (Rosa canina, single-seeded hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica. To get these species better known – and occasionally foreshadowing their wood industry usage in some way – it is expendient to familiarize ourselves with their microscopic structure and characteristics. Nowadays there are several imaging methods known, however for examining floral tissue the optical microscope is still the most common one to be used.

  13. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  14. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  15. Investigation of biological condition of fish species in lower Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the biological condition of fish species in lower Ogun River wetlands. A total of 175 individual fish belonging to 10 species were collected from artisanal fishermen using different types of fishing gears. Two biological indices; condition factor “K” and growth exponent “b” obtained from ...

  16. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  17. 75 FR 7448 - Species Recovery Grants to Tribes Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Pacific salmon or steelhead will not be considered under this grant program; conservation efforts for these species may be supported through the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund. The full text of the... that directly benefit threatened or endangered species, recently de- listed species, or candidate...

  18. Spectroscopic investigation of species separation in opening switch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S. L.; Phipps, D. G.; Richardson, A. S.; Commisso, R. J.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Murphy, D. P.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Boyer, C. N.; Doron, R.; Biswas, S.; Maron, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between magnetic fields and current-carrying plasmas that lead to the separation of plasma species in multi-species plasmas are being studied in a plasma opening switch geometry. Several Marshall guns are used to inject single or multi-species plasmas between coaxial conductors connected to the output of the Naval Research Laboratory's Hawk pulsed-power generator. Following injection of the plasma, the generator is used at roughly half power to apply an electrical pulse with a peak current of 450 kA, a peak voltage of 400 kV, and a rise time of 1.2 μs. The resulting magnetic field interacts with the plasma through a combination of field penetration and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pushing that is not well understood but can lead to the separation of plasma species in multi-species plasmas. An ICCD-coupled spectrometer has been used in combination with magnetic probes, a ribbon-beam interferometer, and particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling to diagnose and understand conditions in the plasma from the time it is injected until the end of the conduction phase of the opening switch. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program and the Office of Naval Research.

  19. Investigation of uranium molecular species using laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curreli, Davide [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering

    2017-07-12

    The goal of this project is to investigate the dynamic evolution of uranium oxide (UOx) molecular species in a rapidly cooling low-temperature plasma using a coupled experimental and modeling approach. Our purpose is to develop quantitative constraints on the UOx phase chemistry under physical conditions similar to that of a nuclear fireball at the time of debris condensation. This work is motivated by a need to better understand the factors controlling uranium chemical fractionation in post-detonation nuclear debris.

  20. Investigating Integer Restrictions in Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Chelst, Kenneth R.; Principato, Angela M.; Wilhelm, Thad L.

    2015-01-01

    Linear programming (LP) is an application of graphing linear systems that appears in many Algebra 2 textbooks. Although not explicitly mentioned in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, linear programming blends seamlessly into modeling with mathematics, the fourth Standard for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010, p. 7). In solving a…

  1. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    Artemisia Species: Evaluation by ELISA Inhibition. Presented: Harold S. Nelson Allergy-Immunology Symposium, January 1989. (C) Lin FL, Larsen LV, Vaughan...Georgitis WJ, Kidd GS: Reversible Hypogonadotropic Azoospermia in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH). Presented: American Fertility Society - 44th...American Fertility Society, 44th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, October 1988. Merenich JA,’McDermott MT, Kidd GS: Gonadal Function in Men with

  2. 5TH BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OCEAN MARGINS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. ARTURO MASSOL, PROGRAM CHAIR; DR. ROSA BUXEDA, PROGRAM CO-CHAIR

    2004-01-08

    BI-OMP supports DOE's mission in Climate Change Research. The program provides the fundamental understanding of the linkages between carbon and nitrogen cycles in ocean margins. Researchers are providing a mechanistic understanding of these cycles, using the tools of modern molecular biology. The models that will allow policy makers to determine safe levels of greenhouse gases for the Earth System.

  3. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of Acacia and Santalum species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger

    in Central Australia also had knowledge that eating from this food would “make your hair fall out”. Different tissue parts from the three species were used to prepare crude extracts for an initial screening study using antibacterial, cell cytotoxicity and α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assays......Humans have through thousands of years used plants as a source for medicines. Today, many drugs are still based on natural products or natural product derivatives despite the technological advancement and development of synthetic medicines during the last 25 years. Moreover, the many unique natural...... where several promising activities were observed. The mature pod extract from A. ligulata was found to be the most potent in the cell cytotoxicity assays and was thus further investigated by activity-guided fractionation. This led to the isolation of two novel triterpenoid saponins elucidated using 1D...

  4. Chemical generation of volatile species of copper - Optimization, efficiency and investigation of volatile species nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoukal, Jakub; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2017-07-18

    This work is a comprehensive study on chemical generation of volatile species (VSG) of copper for analytical atomic spectrometry. VSG was carried out in a flow injection mode in a special arrangement of the generator. Atomization in a diffusion flame atomizer (DF) with atomic absorption spectrometry detection was mostly used for VSG optimization. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was utilized to investigate generation efficiencies and feasibility of VSG system for ultratrace analysis. Concentration of individual reagents, namely of nitric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and various reaction modifiers, was optimized with respect to generation efficiency. Triton X-100 and Antifoam B were chosen as the best combination of the modifiers owing to sixfold increase in sensitivity, decrease of tailing of measured signals and long-term repeatability. The addition of 500 μg L(-1) of Ag was found crucial to maintain identical generation efficiency at low concentrations of Cu. This phenomenon was ascribed to the change in the size of generated species. The release and generation efficiency were accurately determined as 56-58 and 31-32%, respectively. The contribution of co-generated aerosol to release and generation efficiency measured by means of Cs and Ba was found negligible, only 0.40 and 0.13%, respectively, which underlines highly efficient VSG of Cu. The nature of volatile species was investigated by various approaches. The results cannot provide the decisive evidence. However, experiments with the DF, ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the generated species are not volatile in the true sense but that they are strongly associated with fine aerosol co-generated during VSG. Cu clusters or nanoparticles of very small size (< 10 nm) are presumed but the formation of metastable copper hydride cannot be conclusively excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Investigation of Teaching and Learning Programs in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Aimee F; Baia, Patricia

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members.

  6. An Investigation of Teaching and Learning Programs in Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baia, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate published, peer-reviewed literature on pharmacy teaching and learning development programs and to synthesize existing data, examine reported efficacy and identify future areas for research. Methods. Medline and ERIC databases were searched for studies on teaching development programs published between 2001 and 2015. Results. Nineteen publications were included, representing 21 programs. Twenty programs were resident teaching programs, one program described faculty development. The majority of programs spanned one year and delivered instruction on teaching methodologies and assessment measures. All except one program included experiential components. Thirteen publications presented outcomes data; most measured satisfaction and self-perceived improvement. Conclusion. Published literature on teacher development in pharmacy is focused more on training residents than on developing faculty members. Although programs are considered important and highly valued by program directors and participants, little data substantiates that these programs improve teaching. Future research could focus on measurement of program outcomes and documentation of teaching development for existing faculty members. PMID:27293226

  7. Clinical Investigation Program Report FY90

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    reserve. Technical Approach: Patients admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy , dildted cardiomyopathy , left...Gooden SM: Complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Submitted to Am Surg. 7 PRESENTATIUNS DEPARTMENT CF uLINICAL INVESTIGATION Runner RR... Complications of surgery for ulcer disease. Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, Nov 1989. Martindale RG: Nutrition in the chronic care facility

  8. Clinical Investigation Program. Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    Kingston, DVM (9) Dept/Sec: _ (10) Assoc Investigators: (11) Key Words: canine parvovirus John W. Harbe.l, Ph.D.,CPTMSC cerebellar hypoplasia SP5 Leslie ...Words: Acupuncture MAJ Ernie Lin, M.D. Trigger Point Stimulation ILT Joan Beebe , Physical Therapist (12) Accumulative MEDCASE: 1(13) Est Accumulative (14...050 Bailey, S.R.------------------------053,113 Barber, J.A.------------------------088,216,217 Beebe , J

  9. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-30

    TmDact of Decisional Control on Patient Satisfaction and Selected Health Care Outcome (T).. 278 FAMC TENANT 83/800 The Health Evaluation Project (of the...Lenses (5) Start Date. ]qgg (6) Est Compi Date: UNKNOWN (7) Principal Investigator: (8) Facility: FAMC TOMAS CORONADO, M.D. ENERAL LEONARD WOOD ARMY...85/702 (3) Status: Terminated (4) Title: The Impact of Decisional Controi on Patient Satisfaction and Selected Health Care Outcomes (5) Start Date

  10. Clinical Investigation Program Annual Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    Bornemann, M. and Hofeldt, F.D.: Insulin Induced Hypoglycemia in Type I Diabetics. (In Press, Diabetes Educator , 1984). Bornemann, M., Kidd, G.S. and...physician experience in research and investigative procedures by furnishing a highly educated and trained staff of specialists, laboratory facilities...Mechanics During Frequency Jet Ventilation with CPAP . (Abst) Syllabus of the Postgraduate Course on High Frequency Ventilation. p 81-82 1983, Memorial

  11. Investigations of body scales in twelve Heterocapsa species (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae), including a new species H. pseudotriquetra sp. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwataki, M.; Hansen, Gert; Sawaguchi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The body scales of 12 Heterocapsa species including a new species, H. pseudotriquetra Iwataki, Gert Hansen & Fukuyo, sp. nov. were investigated by transmission electron microscopy to clarify ultrastructural differences. All species had scales with a body-scale structure consisting of a triradiate...

  12. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  13. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  14. Investigation of the plant species diversity, density, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant species play very important role as they are not just planted to make the streets look beautiful but are a vital part of the ecosystem. They are a major source of the oxygen, help control, stabilise the climate and feed animals. The choice of planting alien trees instead of indigenous trees on the street was a big ...

  15. 45 CFR 681.4 - Who investigates program fraud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who investigates program fraud? 681.4 Section 681.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Leading to Issuance of A Complaint § 681.4 Who...

  16. Ferryl and Ferrate Species: Mössbauer Spectroscopy Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender K. Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High-valent iron species of oxidation states +4, +5, and +6, have been involved as intermediates in enzymatic reactions, in green organic synthesis, and in purification and disinfection of water. Many of these species have been synthesized to understand their role in different systems, which include ferryl complexes (oxoiron(IV (FeIV=O, oxoiron(V (FeV=O, iron(IV / V / VI-nitride complexes, and ferrates ((FeVIO42–, Fe(VI, FeVO43–, Fe(V, and FeIVO44–, Fe(IV. Ferryl and iron-nitride complexes have organic ligands surrounded at the iron center and are soluble in non-aqueous solvent. Comparatively, ferrate species are tetraoxyanions and are soluble in water. This paper presents Mössbauer spectroscopy as a tool to distinguish different oxidation states of iron and to gain information on the geometry and structure of high-valent iron complexes. Examples are given to demonstrate the application of Mössbauer spectroscopy in learning mechanisms of thermal decomposition of ferrates, encapsulation of heavy metals by ferrates, and oxidation of thiols by ferrates.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison and...

  18. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapulkin Wadim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics.

  19. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Westgate

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  20. WFIRST: Science from the Guest Investigator and Parallel Observation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Marc; Nataf, David; Furlanetto, Steve; Milam, Stephanie; Robertson, Brant; Williams, Ben; Teplitz, Harry; Moustakas, Leonidas; Geha, Marla; Gilbert, Karoline; Dickinson, Mark; Scolnic, Daniel; Ravindranath, Swara; Strolger, Louis; Peek, Joshua; Marc Postman

    2018-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission will provide an extremely rich archival dataset that will enable a broad range of scientific investigations beyond the initial objectives of the proposed key survey programs. The scientific impact of WFIRST will thus be significantly expanded by a robust Guest Investigator (GI) archival research program. We will present examples of GI research opportunities ranging from studies of the properties of a variety of Solar System objects, surveys of the outer Milky Way halo, comprehensive studies of cluster galaxies, to unique and new constraints on the epoch of cosmic re-ionization and the assembly of galaxies in the early universe.WFIRST will also support the acquisition of deep wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopic data obtained in parallel during campaigns with the coronagraphic instrument (CGI). These parallel wide-field imager (WFI) datasets can provide deep imaging data covering several square degrees at no impact to the scheduling of the CGI program. A competitively selected program of well-designed parallel WFI observation programs will, like the GI science above, maximize the overall scientific impact of WFIRST. We will give two examples of parallel observations that could be conducted during a proposed CGI program centered on a dozen nearby stars.

  1. 21 CFR 516.125 - Investigational use of minor species new animal drugs to support indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... drugs to support indexing. 516.125 Section 516.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Species § 516.125 Investigational use of minor species new animal drugs to support indexing. (a) The... Investigational Exemption for a New Animal Drug for Index Listing” and each request for indexing shall be examined...

  2. Program SimAssem: software for simulating species assemblages and estimating species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon C. Reese; Kenneth R. Wilson; Curtis H. Flather

    2013-01-01

    1. Species richness, the number of species in a defined area, is the most frequently used biodiversity measure. Despite its intuitive appeal and conceptual simplicity, species richness is often difficult to quantify, even in well surveyed areas, because of sampling limitations such as survey effort and species detection probability....

  3. The Swedish Small Satellite Program for Space Plasma Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Göran; André, Mats; Lundin, Rickard; Grahn, Sven

    2004-04-01

    The success of the Swedish small satellite program, in combination with an active participation by Swedish research groups in major international missions, has placed Sweden in the frontline of experimental space research. The program started with the development of the research satellite Viking which was launched in 1986, for detailed investigations of the aurora. To date, Sweden has developed and launched a total of six research satellites; five for space plasma investigations; and the most recent satellite Odin, for research in astronomy and aeronomy. These fall into three main categories according to their physical dimension, financial cost and level of ambition: nano-satellites, micro-satellites, and mid-size satellites with ambitious scientific goals. In this brief review we focus on five space plasma missions, for which operations have ended and a comprehensive scientific data analysis has been conducted, which allows for a judgement of their role and impact on the progress in auroral research. Viking and Freja, the two most well-known missions of this program, were pioneers in the exploration of the aurora. The more recent satellites, Munin, Astrid, and Astrid-2 (category 1 and 2), proved to be powerful tools, both for testing new technologies and for carrying out advanced science missions. The Swedish small satellite program has been internationally recognized as cost efficient and scientifically very successful.

  4. Proceedings of the Subcontractors' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  5. Proposal - Investigation of possible new crayfish species from the Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal is to investigate the morphological and genetic information about vernal crawfish from Dahomey NWR and other source within the species range of Procambarus...

  6. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  7. An overview to the investigative approach to species testing in wildlife forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The extent of wildlife crime is unknown but it is on the increase and has observable effects with the dramatic decline in many species of flora and fauna. The growing awareness of this area of criminal activity is reflected in the increase in research papers on animal DNA testing, either for the identification of species or for the genetic linkage of a sample to a particular organism. This review focuses on the use of species testing in wildlife crime investigations. Species identification relies primarily on genetic loci within the mitochondrial genome; focusing on the cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase 1 genes. The use of cytochrome b gained early prominence in species identification through its use in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, while the gene sequence for cytochrome oxidase was adopted by the Barcode for Life research group. This review compares how these two loci are used in species identification with respect to wildlife crime investigations. As more forensic science laboratories undertake work in the wildlife area, it is important that the quality of work is of the highest standard and that the conclusions reached are based on scientific principles. A key issue in reporting on the identification of a particular species is a knowledge of both the intraspecies variation and the possible overlap of sequence variation from one species to that of a closely related species. Recent data showing this degree of genetic separation in mammalian species will allow greater confidence when preparing a report on an alleged event where the identification of the species is of prime importance. The aim of this review is to illustrate aspects of species testing in wildlife forensic science and to explain how a knowledge of genetic variation at the genus and species level can aid in the reporting of results. PMID:21232099

  8. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusuf Adam

    include grasslands, thicket and forest vegetation. This region receives an ..... IAPs removal has been done, but on a national scale and was biome specific (van Wilgen et al., 2012) whereas this study .... 'Indirect remote sensing of a cryptic forest understorey invasive species', Forest Ecology and. Management, vol. 225, no.

  9. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occupation of natural environments by invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are a growing threat to ecosystems. This has resulted in the creation of government-based initiatives to mitigate invasion, however, there has been little progress towards assessing these initiatives. Remote sensing is a commonly used tool in the ...

  10. Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive changes in captivity, (ii) factors affecting the extent of genetic adaptation to captivity, and (iii) means for minimizing its deleterious impacts. Genetic adaptation to captivity is primarily due to rare alleles that in the wild were deleterious and partially recessive. The extent of adaptation to captivity depends upon selection intensity, genetic diversity, effective population size and number of generation in captivity, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory. Minimizing generations in captivity provides a highly effective means for minimizing genetic adaptation to captivity, but is not a practical option for most animal species. Population fragmentation and crossing replicate captive populations provide practical means for minimizing the deleterious effects of genetic adaptation to captivity upon populations reintroduced into the wild. Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations. Genetic adaptation to captivity is expected to have major effects on reintroduction success for species that have spent many generations in captivity. This issue deserves a much higher priority than it is currently receiving.

  11. Molecular identification of python species: development and validation of a novel assay for forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavaglia, Sherryn A; Tobe, Shanan S; Donnellan, Stephen C; Henry, Julianne M; Linacre, Adrian M T

    2015-05-01

    Python snake species are often encountered in illegal activities and the question of species identity can be pertinent to such criminal investigations. Morphological identification of species of pythons can be confounded by many issues and molecular examination by DNA analysis can provide an alternative and objective means of identification. Our paper reports on the development and validation of a PCR primer pair that amplifies a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that has been suggested previously as a good candidate locus for differentiating python species. We used this DNA region to perform species identification of pythons, even when the template DNA was of poor quality, as might be the case with forensic evidentiary items. Validation tests are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of the assay. Tests involved the cross-species amplification of this marker in non-target species, minimum amount of DNA template required, effects of degradation on product amplification and a blind trial to simulate a casework scenario that provided 100% correct identity. Our results demonstrate that this assay performs reliably and robustly on pythons and can be applied directly to forensic investigations where the presence of a species of python is in question. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 50 CFR 679.26 - Prohibited Species Donation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claims against the United States and its agents and employees for any liability for personal injury... locations to hunger relief agencies, food bank networks, or food bank distributors, including arrangements... ensure that fish donated under this program will be distributed to hunger relief agencies, food bank...

  13. [Investigation on Wild Original Plant Species of Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu-zhen; Zou, Xiu-hong

    2014-12-01

    To explore the original plants of wild medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province and find out the species of these plants. Based on the field investigation, specimen collection and literature reference, inductive analysis of the wild original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City had been carried out. After investigation, it was discovered that there were 84 families 155 genera 184 species of original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, of which 6 families 7 genera 9 species belonged to pteridophytes; 2 families 2 genera 2 species belonged to gymnosperms; and the rest were angio-sperms. Among the angiosperms, dicotyledons accounted for 62 families 117 genera 139 species; monocotyledons took up 14 families 29 genera 34 species. The plants mentioned above were the original plants of the 186 Chinese medicinal herbs and decoction pieces in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). This paper has explored the wild original plant species of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province to provide not only the basis for the local government's development and utilization of wild Chinese medicinal herbs but also the data for the fourth national survey of Chinese medicinal herb resources.

  14. Teaching Citizen Science Skills Online: Implications for Invasive Species Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Greg; Crall, Alycia; Laituri, Melinda; Graham, Jim; Stohlgren, Tom; Moore, John C.; Kodrich, Kris; Holfelder, Kirstin A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills…

  15. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  16. Significance of different animal species in experimental models for in vivo investigations of hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Filipović Milica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous discoveries in medicine are results of experiments on different animal species. The most frequently used animals in hematopoiesis investigations are laboratory mice and rats, but so-called big animals, such as pigs, sheep, cats, dogs, and monkeys, evolution-wise closer to humans have a place in experimental hematology as well. The specific problematics of a certain animal specie can lead to fundamental knowledge on certain aspects of the process of hematopoiesis end the biology of stem cells in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, comparative investigations of certain phenomena in different species help in the recognition of the general rules in the living world. In the area f preclinicalinvesti- gations, animal models are an inevitable step in studies of transplantation biology of stem cells in hematopoiesis, as well as in studies of biologically active molecules which have an effect on the hematopoietic system. Knowledge acquired on animal models is applied in both human and veterinary medicine.

  17. An Interactive Graphics Program for Investigating Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Billy K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of an interactive computer graphics program for use in teaching digital signal processing. The program allows students to interactively configure digital systems on a monitor display and observe their system's performance by means of digital plots on the system's outputs. A sample program run is included. (JN)

  18. SP-100 Program: space reactor system and subsystem investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, R.B.

    1983-09-30

    For a space reactor power system, a comprehensive safety program will be required to assure that no undue risk is present. This report summarizes the nuclear safety review/approval process that will be required for a space reactor system. The documentation requirements are presented along with a summary of the required contents of key documents. Finally, the aerospace safety program conducted for the SNAP-10A reactor system is summarized. The results of this program are presented to show the type of program that can be expected and to provide information that could be usable in future programs.

  19. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Computer Program Development Approaches and Computer Programming Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Approved for plbi elaSO; 81 1ibutio u0lim t 03 /1 Technical Report TR-853 December 1979 An Experimental Investigation of Computer Program Development...this Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of rhe ah.tr.ct entled i f [31-k 20, ! dil(enot fo, ).R...55t -3 O 2 a. tL loco o.uaZ 4 1 0 0 - .. a .CO acca 4 * ao -- c- - .an za-e~a- 2.5 aa34z98ba a- CHAPTER VII coipletely differentiated outcome is

  1. Investigation of scavenging activities and distribution of paramagnetic species in Zanthoxylum limonella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Promjareet, Apichet; Priprem, Aroonsri; Netweera, Vassana; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the scavenging activities of methanol-extracted oil and the distribution of paramagnetic species in Zanthoxylum limonella (ZL) seeds using noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and continuous wave EPR. EPR detected three different stable paramagnetic species that were assigned to stable organic radicals, Mn 2+ , and other paramagnetic metal complexes. Two-dimensional EPR imaging showed that the stable paramagnetic species were located in the pigmented seed region with a strong intensity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometric (GC-MS) analyses were then performed to identify the compound possibly related to the scavenging activity. The DPPH scavenging activities of ZL were slightly higher than those of Piper nigrum and Coriandrum sativum. Based on the results of EPR, GC-MS, and other methods, limonene in ZL is one of the major compounds that can be related to the scavenging activities.

  2. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Webb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal forensic investigation were compared with different sets of random episodes. The results showed that although there were an equivalent number of running words in each set of episodes, the episodes from programs within the same subgenre contained fewer word families than random programs. The findings also showed that low frequency word families (4000-14,000 levels reoccur more often in programs within the same subgenre. Together the results indicate that watching programs within the same subgenre may be an effective approach to language learning with television because it reduces the lexical demands of viewing and increases the potential for vocabulary learning.Los guiones de 288 episodios televisivos se analizaron para determinar el alcance de la recursividad del vocabulario en programas de televisión del mismo subgénero y en programas no relacionados de géneros diferentes. Se compararon episodios de tres subgéneros del drama americano: médico, de espías/acción y de investigación forense, con varios grupos de episodios elegidos al azar. Los resultados muestran que, aunque el número de palabras en cada grupo de episodios era equivalente, los episodios del mismo subgénero contienen menos familias de palabras que aquellos elegidos al azar. Los hallazgos mostraron que las familias de baja frecuencia (niveles de 4.000-14.000 se repiten con más frecuencia en los programas del mismo subgénero. En conjunto, los resultados indican que el visionado de programas del mismo subgénero puede ser un método efectivo para aprender el lenguaje por medio de la televisión porque reduce la demanda léxica de la

  3. Using a new, free spectrograph program to critically investigate acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Edward; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an online spectrograph program with a bank of over 30 audio clips to visualise a variety of sounds. Our audio library includes everyday sounds such as speech, singing, musical instruments, birds, a baby, cat, dog, sirens, a jet, thunder, and screaming. We provide a link to a video of the sound sources superimposed with their respective spectrograms in real time. Readers can use our spectrograph program to view our library, open their own desktop audio files, and use the program in real time with a computer microphone.

  4. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  5. A multilocus phylogeny of the genus Sarcohyla (Anura: Hylidae), and an investigation of species boundaries using statistical species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes-Solis, Itzue W; Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrián

    2018-01-01

    The genus Sarcohyla is composed by 24 species endemic to México. Despite the large number of phylogenetic studies focusing on the family Hylidae, the relationships among the species of Sarcohyla are still poorly known, and the scarce numbers of specimens and tissue samples available for some of the species has hampered an appropriate phylogenetic analysis. We present the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study of Sarcohyla to date. We included 17 species of the genus Sarcohyla using data from two mitochondrial (ND1 and 12S) and three nuclear genes (Rag-1, Rhod, and POMc). We performed phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference, and the absence of conflicts with strong support between the separate gene trees indicates that incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgressive hybridization are negligible. A coalescent-based species-tree analysis of the four independent loci (three nuclear genes+mtDNA) mostly supports the same species-level relationships as the analysis of the concatenated data. By including new samples from additional species and localities, we find that: (1) the widely distributed species S. bistincta is a complex of at least three species, (2) another undescribed species exists in the group, (3) the species S. ephemera is not valid and it corresponds to a junior synonym of S. calthula. In addition, we conducted marginal likelihood estimation and used Bayes factors to test alternative species delimitation models for S. bistincta, the most widespread nominal species in the group. Our findings support three independent lineages of S. bistincta group, which are paraphyletic with respect to S. pentheter and S. calthula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Temperature Dependence of Phytoplankton Stoichiometry: Investigating the Roles of Species Sorting and Local Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yvon-Durocher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry. We found that experimental warming increased seston C:P and N:P ratios, while the C:N ratio was unaffected by warming. Temperature was also the dominant driver of seasonal variation in seston stoichiometry, correlating positively with both C:P and N:P ratios. The taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community differed substantially between the warmed and ambient treatments indicating that warming resulted in differential sorting of species from the regional pool. Furthermore, taxonomic composition also changed markedly over the year within each of the warmed and ambient treatments, highlighting substantial temporal turnover in species. To investigate whether local adaptation also played an important role in shaping the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry, we isolated multiple strains of the cosmopolitan alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from across the warmed and ambient mesocosms. We found that warmed isolates had higher C:P and N:P ratios, shifts that were comparable in direction and magnitude to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry. Our results suggest that both species sorting and local adaptation are likely to play important roles in shaping the effects of warming on bulk phytoplankton

  7. The Temperature Dependence of Phytoplankton Stoichiometry: Investigating the Roles of Species Sorting and Local Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Schaum, Charlotte-Elisa; Trimmer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry) is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry. We found that experimental warming increased seston C:P and N:P ratios, while the C:N ratio was unaffected by warming. Temperature was also the dominant driver of seasonal variation in seston stoichiometry, correlating positively with both C:P and N:P ratios. The taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community differed substantially between the warmed and ambient treatments indicating that warming resulted in differential sorting of species from the regional pool. Furthermore, taxonomic composition also changed markedly over the year within each of the warmed and ambient treatments, highlighting substantial temporal turnover in species. To investigate whether local adaptation also played an important role in shaping the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry, we isolated multiple strains of the cosmopolitan alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from across the warmed and ambient mesocosms. We found that warmed isolates had higher C:P and N:P ratios, shifts that were comparable in direction and magnitude to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry. Our results suggest that both species sorting and local adaptation are likely to play important roles in shaping the effects of warming on bulk phytoplankton stoichiometry and indicate

  8. The Temperature Dependence of Phytoplankton Stoichiometry: Investigating the Roles of Species Sorting and Local Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Schaum, Charlotte-Elisa; Trimmer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry) is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry. We found that experimental warming increased seston C:P and N:P ratios, while the C:N ratio was unaffected by warming. Temperature was also the dominant driver of seasonal variation in seston stoichiometry, correlating positively with both C:P and N:P ratios. The taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton community differed substantially between the warmed and ambient treatments indicating that warming resulted in differential sorting of species from the regional pool. Furthermore, taxonomic composition also changed markedly over the year within each of the warmed and ambient treatments, highlighting substantial temporal turnover in species. To investigate whether local adaptation also played an important role in shaping the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry, we isolated multiple strains of the cosmopolitan alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from across the warmed and ambient mesocosms. We found that warmed isolates had higher C:P and N:P ratios, shifts that were comparable in direction and magnitude to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry. Our results suggest that both species sorting and local adaptation are likely to play important roles in shaping the effects of warming on bulk phytoplankton stoichiometry and indicate

  9. The GEOTREF program, a new approach for geothermal investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Frédéric; Viard, Simon; Garcia, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF is an R&D program supported by the ADEME, French environmental agency and by the «Investissement d'Avenir », a French government program to found innovative projects. The GEOTREF program aims to develop an integrated analysis of high temperature geothermal reservoir in volcanic context. It is a collaborative program between nine research laboratories and two industrial partners. This program is supported for four years and funds 12 PhDs and 5 post-doctoral grants in various fields: geology, petrography, petrophysics, geophysics, geochemistry, reservoir modelling. The first three years are dedicated to the exploration phases that will lead to the drilling implantation. The project has two main objectives. 1.- Developing innovative and interactive methods and workflows leading to develop prospection and exploration in per volcanic geothermal target. This objective implicates: Optimization of the targeting to mitigate financial risks Adapting oil and gas exploration methods to geothermal energy, especially in peri-volcanic context. 2.- Applying this concept to different prospects in the Caribbean and South America The first target zone is located in Guadeloupe, an island of the active arc of the subduction zone where the Atlantic plate subducts under the Caribbean one. The GEOTREF prospect zone is on the Basse Terre Island in its south part closed to the Soufriere volcano, the active volcanic system. On the same island a geothermal field is exploited in Bouillante, just northward from the GEOTREF targeting area.

  10. Investigation of in vitro Opioid Receptor Binding Activities of Some Turkish Salvia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Gündüz Çınar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappa Opioid Peptide Receptor (KOPr activation produces analgesic, psychotomimetic, diuretic and antipruritic effects. KOPr ligands are investigated for their potential roles in the treatment of addiction, depression, feeding behavior, psychosis and schizophrenia. In this study the methanolic extracts of a number of Salvia species which are native to Turkey (S. tomentosa, S. tchihatcheffii , S. rosifolia, S. dichroantha and S. sclarea were tested for their potential binding to opioid receptors in rat brain membranes and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells expressing human KOPr (CHO-KOPh. [ 3H]Diprenorphine, an unselective opioid antagonist, was utilized in the radioligand receptor binding assays. All extracts (0.11 mg/ml inhibited the [ 3H]Diprenorphine binding with ranging KOPr binding affinities. More than 50% inhibition of diprenorphine binding was shown only with Salvia dichroantha and Salvia sclarea both in rat brain membranes and CHO-KOPh membranes.Among them Salvia sclarea deserves further investigation for its active component(s and its pharmacological characterization. This study clearly demonstrates the potential opioid receptor binding activities of several Turkish Salvia species. This work constitutes the first study on in vitro opioid receptor binding activities of Salvia species from the Turkish flora.

  11. Investigating Views of Teachers on Classroom Guidance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyez, Digdem M.; Kaya, Alim; Uz Bas, Asli

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Comprehensive, developmental guidance and counseling programs are vital to the achievement of excellence in education for all students. The purpose of the guidance curriculum is to help all students develop basic life skills in the areas of personal/social, career planning, and academic development. Although the counselors'…

  12. Abstracts of Presentation: Aquatic Species Program Annual Review Meeting, Golden, Colorado, 24-25 September 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The goal of the aquatic species program is to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae grown in saline waters of the desert southwest. Microalgae are known to accumulate lipids in large quantities and can thrive in high salinity water which currently has no other use.

  13. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... purpose, to finance 100 percent of the reduction cost. The original principal amount of the reduction loan... Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801), (2) Prohibitions. Concurrently with NMFS' tender...

  14. Oxidation of glycosaminoglycans by free radicals and reactive oxidative species: A review of investigative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, B J

    2015-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans, in particular hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycans are components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM plays a key role in the regulation of cellular behaviour and alterations to it can modulate both the development of human diseases as well as controlling normal biochemical processes such as cell signalling and pro-inflammatory responses. For these reasons, in vitro fragmentation studies of glycosaminoglycans by free radicals and oxidative species are seen to be relevant to the understanding of in vivo studies of damage to the ECM. A wide range of investigative techniques have therefore been applied to gain insights into the relative fragmentation effects of several reactive oxidative species with the ultimate goal of determining mechanisms of fragmentation at the molecular level. These methods are reviewed here.

  15. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Two Diplotaxis Species Growing in Tunisia: D. virgata & D. erucoides

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar Ben Salah; Hervé Casabianca; Hichem Ben Jannet; Sophie Chenavas; Corinne Sanglar; Aurélie Fildier; Nabiha Bouzouita

    2015-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Diplotaxis virgata D.C. and D. erucoides (L.) D.C. (Brassicaceae) offered to the isolation of two new flavonoids isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-glucopyranoside (1) and rhamnetin-3,3ʹ-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), respectively. Their structures have been elucidated from the extended spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV and mass spectrometry analysis and by comparison with literature data. The fatty acid composition of the hexane extracts of the two specie...

  16. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XII. Some species from the Pyrenean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of column and thin-layer chromatography, the authors investigated the presence of various carotenoids in thalli of 12 species of lichens from the Pyrenean Peninsula. The following carotenoids were found: lycophyll, lycoxanthin, β-carotene, α-, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, canthaxanthin, phoenicoxanthin, adonixanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, mutatochrome, mutatoxanthin and rhodoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 2.299 (Cetraria cucullata to 39.402 mg•g-1 dry weight (Pseudoevernia furfuraceae.

  17. Biota Remedial Investigation and Comprehensive Monitoring Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of the Army's wildlife tissue sampling collected as part of the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Comprehensive Monitoring...

  18. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of Three Sedge (Cyperaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade Adeyemi ADENIYI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the medicinal value of notorious sedge weeds, three species:Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four fungi species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans, and three bacteria species: Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used to produce the extracts and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the extracts against pathogens was carried out at 100 mg/ml concentration by Disc Diffusion method for fungi, Disc Diffusion and Agar Well Diffusion methods for bacteria. Observed activities were related to standard antibiotics, antifungal and antibacterial, which served as controls. Phytochemically, the plant extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, ketose sugars, steroids, reducing sugars and tannins. The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus exhibited the highest activity against A. niger, E. coli and S. aureus. No extract was active against C. albicans. From these findings, it was concluded that C. rotundus is a potential source of bioactive compounds for new drugs upon isolation and purification for treating infections caused by these pathogens.

  19. Phytochemical investigation of crude methanol extracts of different species of Swertia from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Supreet; Shakya, Niroj; Thapa, Krishna; Pant, Deepak Raj

    2015-12-26

    The genus Swertia is reported to contain potent bitter compounds like iridoids, xanthones and c-glucoflavones that are known to heal many human disorders. In contrast to high ethnomedicinally valued Swertia chirayita, its other species have not been studied extensively, in spite of their common use in traditional medicinal system in Nepalese communities. So, the present study attempts to investigate the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and estimate the rough content of amarogentin, swertiamarin and mangiferin from different species of Swertia from Nepalese Himalayas. Whole plant parts of S. chirayita (SCH), S. angustifolia (SAN), S. paniculata (SPA), S. racemosa (SRA), S. nervosa (SNE), S. ciliata (SCI) and S. dilatata (SDI) were collected; total phenolic and flavonoid contents were quantified spectrophotometrically and in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging assay was measured. Thin layer chromatography was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel for identification of swertiamarin, amarogentin and mangiferin from those species and semi quantitative estimation was done using GelQuant.NET software using their standard compounds. The phenolic content was highest in the methanol extract of SCH (67.49 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g) followed by SDI, SRA, SNE, SCI, SPA and SAN. The contents of flavonoids were found in the order of SCH, SPA, SRA, SNE, SDI, SCI and SAN. Promising concentration of phenolics and flavonoids produced promising DPPH free radical scavenging values. The IC50 values for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test was lowest in SCH (23.35 ± 0.6 μg/ml), even lower than the standard ascorbic acid among the seven studied species. A significant correlation of 0.977 was observed between the polyphenol content and antioxidant values. The TLC profile showed the presence of all three major phytochemicals; amarogentin, swertiamarin and mangiferin in all of the plant samples. Among the seven studied

  20. Comparative investigations of Klebsiella species of clinical origin: plasmid patterns, biochemical reactions, antibiotic resistances and serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, R; Heineken, P; Ullmann, U; Sonntag, H G

    1986-09-01

    A total of 124 K. pneumoniae and 52 K. oxytoca isolates obtained from clinical specimens was investigated for plasmid patterns, biochemical reactions, antibiotic resistances and serotypes regarding to the distribution and relationships of these characters. A great diversity of plasmid patterns, bio/serotypes and resistance patterns was revealed. About 90% of strains contained plasmid DNA and up to seven plasmid bands per isolate could be shown. For K. pneumoniae, serotype 7 and for K. oxytoca, type 55 were most common. In general, little difference between both species was found and characters were similarly distributed. With respect to the site of isolation, serotype 7 was predominating in K. pneumoniae strains from the respiratory tract. Highly multiple-resistant organism were found in the largest number in specimens from the urogenital tract, in the lowest in specimens from wounds. Extensive statistical analyses did not detect any relationship among the characters investigated.

  1. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  2. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Two Diplotaxis Species Growing in Tunisia: D. virgata & D. erucoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Nizar Ben; Casabianca, Hervé; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Chenavas, Sophie; Sanglar, Corinne; Fildier, Aurélie; Bouzouita, Nabiha

    2015-10-05

    A phytochemical investigation of Diplotaxis virgata D.C. and D. erucoides (L.) D.C. (Brassicaceae) offered to the isolation of two new flavonoids isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-glucopyranoside (1) and rhamnetin-3,3'-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), respectively. Their structures have been elucidated from the extended spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV and mass spectrometry analysis and by comparison with literature data. The fatty acid composition of the hexane extracts of the two species was also investigated by using GC-MS. The antioxidant activity of ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol extracts and the isolated compounds from the two species was evaluated using DPPH and ABTS⁺ scavenging assays. All the tested samples showed an efficient radical scavenging ability, with IC50 values ranging from 16-40 µg/mL for the DPPH and from 17-44 µg/mL for the ABTS⁺ assays. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the prepared extracts and compounds 1 and 2, determined by well diffusion agar method against two Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria, was evaluated and the results showed significant effects against all strains used.

  3. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Two Diplotaxis Species Growing in Tunisia: D. virgata & D. erucoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Ben Salah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation of Diplotaxis virgata D.C. and D. erucoides (L. D.C. (Brassicaceae offered to the isolation of two new flavonoids isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-glucopyranoside (1 and rhamnetin-3,3ʹ-di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, respectively. Their structures have been elucidated from the extended spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV and mass spectrometry analysis and by comparison with literature data. The fatty acid composition of the hexane extracts of the two species was also investigated by using GC-MS. The antioxidant activity of ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol extracts and the isolated compounds from the two species was evaluated using DPPH and ABTS+ scavenging assays. All the tested samples showed an efficient radical scavenging ability, with IC50 values ranging from 16–40 µg/mL for the DPPH and from 17–44 µg/mL for the ABTS+ assays. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the prepared extracts and compounds 1 and 2, determined by well diffusion agar method against two Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria, was evaluated and the results showed significant effects against all strains used.

  4. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).

  5. Teaching citizen science skills online: Implications for invasive species training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, G.; Crall, A.; Laituri, M.; Graham, J.; Stohlgren, T.; Moore, J.C.; Kodrich, K.; Holfelder, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen science programs are emerging as an efficient way to increase data collection and help monitor invasive species. Effective invasive species monitoring requires rigid data quality assurances if expensive control efforts are to be guided by volunteer data. To achieve data quality, effective online training is needed to improve field skills and reach large numbers of remote sentinel volunteers critical to early detection and rapid response. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of online static and multimedia tutorials to teach citizen science volunteers (n = 54) how to identify invasive plants; establish monitoring plots; measure percent cover; and use Global Positioning System (GPS) units. Participants trained using static and multimedia tutorials provided less (p <.001) correct species identifications (63% and 67%) than did professionals (83%) across all species, but they did not differ (p =.125) between each other. However, their ability to identify conspicuous species was comparable to that of professionals. The variability in percent plant cover estimates between static (??10%) and multimedia (??13%) participants did not differ (p =.86 and.08, respectively) from those of professionals (??9%). Trained volunteers struggled with plot setup and GPS skills. Overall, the online approach used did not influence conferred field skills and abilities. Traditional or multimedia online training augmented with more rigorous, repeated, and hands-on, in-person training in specialized skills required for more difficult tasks will likely improve volunteer abilities, data quality, and overall program effectiveness. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Suncor south tailings pond research program : geotechnical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, A. [Suncor Energy Inc. Oil Sands, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the geochemical impact of seepage from an oil sands tailings impoundment on sediments and groundwater resources at Suncor Energy's south tailings pond. The study examined the potential for attenuation of inorganic contaminants and trace metal releases. Binding capacity was investigated in relation to seepage interactions with native sediments. Cations displaced through interactions with ingressing process water were characterized. The study hypothesized that ion sorption affinity was governed by ion charge; size; properties of the solid exchanger; the quantity and ratios of the various solutes; and the total solution concentration. Batch sorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of adsorptive and ion exchange reactions on the mitigation and mobilization of major cations and trace metals. Models were designed to simulated the capture system behaviour of most major cations. The study demonstrated that the sodium (Na) will replace calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and precipitate out as CO{sub 3} salts. It was concluded that the ion exchange theory offers a suitable explanation of Ca and Mg system behaviour. tabs., figs.

  7. An algorithm and program for finding sequence specific oligo-nucleotide probes for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautz Diethard

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of species or species groups with specific oligo-nucleotides as molecular signatures is becoming increasingly popular for bacterial samples. However, it shows also great promise for other small organisms that are taxonomically difficult to tract. Results We have devised here an algorithm that aims to find the optimal probes for any given set of sequences. The program requires only a crude alignment of these sequences as input and is optimized for performance to deal also with very large datasets. The algorithm is designed such that the position of mismatches in the probes influences the selection and makes provision of single nucleotide outloops. Program implementations are available for Linux and Windows.

  8. Cross-talk of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant programed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Yiqin eWang; Loake, Gary J.; Chengcai eChu

    2013-01-01

    In plants, programed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism to regulate multiple aspects of growth and development, as well as to remove damaged or infected cells during responses to environmental stresses and pathogen attacks. Under biotic and abiotic stresses, plant cells exhibit a rapid synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and a parallel accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Frequently, these responses trigger a PCD process leading to an intrinsic execution of plant cells. The accum...

  9. Bacterial Species and Biochemical Characteristic Investigations of Nostoc flagelliforme Concentrates during its Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lifang; Lv, Hexin; Zhen, Jing; Jiang, Shengping; Jia, Shiru; Shen, Shigang; Gao, Lu; Dai, Yujie

    2016-04-28

    Preservation of fresh algae plays an important role in algae seed subculture and aquaculture. The determination and examination of the changes of cell viability, composition, and bacterial species during storage would help to take suitable preservation methods to prolong the preservation time of fresh algae. Nostoc flagelliforme is a kind of edible cyanobacterium with important herbal and dietary values. This article investigated the changes of bacterial species and biochemical characteristics of fresh N. flagelliforme concentrate during natural storage. It was found that the viability of cells decreased along with the storage time. Fourteen bacteria strains in the algae concentrate were identified by PCR-DGGE and were grouped into four phyla, including Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Among them, Enterococcus viikkiensis may be a concern in the preservation. Eleven volatile organic compounds were identified from N. flagelliforme cells, in which geosmin could be treated as an indicator of the freshness of N. flagelliforme. The occurrence of indole compound may be an indicator of the degradation of cells.

  10. Epidemiological investigation of Candida species causing bloodstream infection in paediatric small bowel transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Mallory J; Gomes-Neto, João Carlos; Banjara, Nabaraj; Florescu, Diana F; Mercer, David F; Iwen, Peter C; Hallen-Adams, Heather E

    2017-06-01

    Small bowel transplantation (SBT) can be a life-saving medical procedure. However, these recipients experience high risk of bloodstream infections caused by Candida. This research aims to characterise the SBT recipient gut microbiota over time following transplantation and investigate the epidemiology of candidaemia in seven paediatric patients. Candida species from the recipients' ileum and bloodstream were identified by internal transcribed spacer sequence and distinguished to strain by multilocus sequence typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream isolates was determined against nine antifungals. Twenty-two ileostomy samples harboured at least one Candida species. Fungaemia were caused by Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida pelliculosa. All but three bloodstream isolates showed susceptibility to all the antifungals tested. One C. glabrata isolate showed multidrug resistance to itraconazole, amphotericin B and posaconazole and intermediate resistance to caspofungin. Results are congruent with both endogenous (C. albicans, C. glabrata) and exogenous (C. parapsilosis) infections; results also suggest two patients were infected by the same strain of C. parapsilosis. Continuing to work towards a better understanding of sources of infection-particularly the exogenous sources-would lead to targeted prevention strategies. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Investigating the potential of thermophilic species for ethanol production from industrial spent sulfite liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic microorganisms hold a great potential for bioethanol production on waste biomass, due to their ability to utilize pentoses and hexoses alike. However, to date hardly any data on thermophiles growing directly on industrial substrates like spent sulfite liquor (SSL are available. This contribution investigates the ability of Thermoanaerobacter species to utilize the main sugars in the used SSL (mannose, glucose and xylose and the effect of process parameters (pH, temperature and sugar concentration on their growth. Based on these results the strain T. mathranii was chosen for further studies. The ability of T. mathranii to grow directly on SSL was investigated and the effect of several inhibiting substances on growth was elucidated. Furthermore it was tested whether pretreatment with activated charcoal can increase the fermentability of SSL. The fermentations were evaluated based on yields and specific rates. It could be shown that T. mathranii was able to ferment all sugars in the investigated softwood SSL and fermented diluted, untreated SSL (up to 2.7% (w/w dry matter. Pretreatment with activated charcoal could slightly reduce the amount of phenols in the substrate and thus facilitate growth and ethanol production on higher SSL concentrations (up to 4.7% (w/v dry matter. Ethanol yields of 0.29-0.44 Cmmol of ethanol per Cmmol sugar were obtained on untreated and pretreated spent sulfite liquor, respectively. These results on an industrial substrate strengthen the claim that thermophilic microorganisms might be the optimal candidates for forest biorefinery.

  12. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant activity and phytochemical investigation into aqueous extracts from five species of Agrimonia genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, Renata; Švajdlenka, Emil; Jankovská, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of aerial flowering parts of five Agrimonia species (Rosaceae): Agrimonia coreana Nakai, Agrimonia japonica (Miq.) Koidz, Agrimonia procera Wallr., Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Agrimonia leucantha Kunze were investigated on their antioxidant activity, measured using five different methods; the best was the extract from A. procera with IC50 values from 6 to 29 μg/mL. All the extracts displayed inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) at the tested concentration of 100 μg/mL. We found the highest inhibition of cholinesterase in the extract of A. japonica with inhibition 70.4% for AChE and 79.8% for BuChE. These findings are statistically significant in comparison with those of other extracts (p antioxidant activity of Agrimonia extracts can be affected especially by hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-glucose and quercetin glycosides, and inhibition of cholinesterases by apigenin, luteolin and quercetin glycosides.

  13. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  14. Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) and frame representations: An investigation of programming paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The project was initiated to research Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) and frame representation systems, their significance and applicability, and their implementation in or relationship to Ada. Object orientated is currently a very popular conceptual adjective. Object oriented programming, in particular, is promoted as a particularly productive approach to programming; an approach which maximizes opportunities for code reuse and lends itself to the definition of convenient and well-developed units. Such units are thus expected to be usable in a variety of situations, beyond the typical highly specific unit development of other approaches. Frame represenation systems share a common heritage and similar conceptual foundations. Together they represent a quickly emerging alternative approach to programming. The approach is to first define the terms, starting with relevant concepts and using these to put bounds on what is meant by OOPS and Frames. From this the possibilities were pursued to merge OOPS with Ada which will further elucidate the significant characteristics which make up this programming approach. Finally, some of the merits and demerits of OOPS were briefly considered as a way of addressing the applicability of OOPS to various programming tasks.

  15. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Nutritional programming and the impact on mare and foal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, J A; Hammer, C J; Walter, K W

    2015-07-01

    Many environmental factors can alter the phenotype of offspring when applied during critical periods of early development. In most domestic species, maternal nutrition influences fetal development and the fetus is sensitive to the nutrition of the dam during pregnancy. Many experimental models have been explored including both under- and overnutrition of the dam. Both nutritional strategies have yielded potential consequences including altered glucose tolerance, pancreatic endocrine function, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and colostrum quality. Although the impact of maternal nutrition on fetal development in the equine has not been thoroughly investigated, overnutrition is a common occurrence in the industry. Work in our laboratory has focused on effects of maternal overnutrition on mare and foal performance, mare DMI, foaling parameters, colostrum quality and passive transfer of immunity, and glucose and insulin dynamics. Over several trials, mares were fed either 100 or 140% of NRC requirements for DE, and supplemental Se and arginine were added to diets in an attempt to mitigate potential intrauterine growth retardation resulting from dams overfed during the last third of pregnancy. As expected, when mares were overfed, BW, BCS, and rump fat values increased. Foal growth over 150 d was also not influenced. Maternal nutrition did not alter colostrum volume but influenced colostrum quality. Maternal overnutrition resulted in lower colostrum IgG concentrations but did not cause failure of passive transfer in foals. Supplemental Se and arginine were unable to mitigate this reduction in colostrum IgG. Additionally, mare and foal glucose and insulin dynamics were influenced by maternal nutrition. Mare glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) increased with increased concentrate supplementation. Foal insulin AUC and peak insulin concentrations were increased when mares were fed concentrate and, in a later trial, foal peak glucose values were reduced

  16. INVESTIGATION OF LEGIONELLA SPECIES IN TEHRAN’S HOSPITAL WATER SUPPLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD RAFIEE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed to investigate the presence of Legionella spp. and its common species in hospital water supplies. Considering the drawback of culture method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays were developed to detect the gene 16S rRNA regardless of the bacterial serotype. Four well-established DNA extraction protocols (freeze & thaw and phenol-chloroform as two manual protocols and two commercial kits were examined and critiqued to release DNA from bacterial cells. A total of 45 samples were collected from seven distinct hospitals’ sites during a period of 10 months. The PCR assay was exploited to amplify a 654-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Legionella were detected in 13 samples (28.9% by all of the methods applied for DNA extraction. Considerable differences were noted in the yield of extracted nucleic acids. Legionella were not detected in any of the samples when DNA extraction by freeze & thaw was used. Omitting this method and comparing manual protocol with commercial kits, Kappa coefficient was calculated as 0.619 with p < 0.05. Although no meaningful differences were found between the kits, DNA extraction with Bioneer kit displayed a higher sensitivity than classical Qiagen. Showerheads and cold-water taps were the most and least contaminated sources with 55.5 and 9 percent positive samples, respectively. Moreover two positive samples were identified for species by DNA sequencing and submitted to the Gene Bank database with accession Nos. FJ480932 and FJ480933.

  17. Facilitating programming comprehension for novice learners with multimedia approach: A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Subashini; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul

    2017-10-01

    This research paper presents the preliminary investigation on the use of an interactive multimedia courseware named MAFPro, to facilitate C Programming lessons for novice learners. The courseware utilizes the elements of multimedia that focus on enhancing learners' programming comprehension. Among the aspects that were examined were the students' programming comprehension and their perceived motivation of MAFPro. This study was carried out in a survey design method with the participation of 30 undergraduates who are novice learners. The data analysis indicates that the multimedia courseware, MAFPro that has been used in the C programming classroom has a significant difference on the undergraduates' programming comprehension. The students also perceived MAFPro as motivating and engaging.

  18. Investigation of atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxidative species (ROS): Their sources, characterization, and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Prasanna

    it possible for these species to bind onto particles forming fine particulate organic peroxides that concentrate on the particles and could deliver concentrated doses of ROS in vivo to tissue. The lack of a suitable method to measure ROS on a routine basis has resulted in no work being undertaken to assess the effects of particle-bound ROS on health effects. In order to fill this need, an automated monitor for the sampling of ambient aerosol and the measurement of concentrations of ROS on the sampled aerosol was developed. Potential methods to quantify ROS were compared in order to arrive at a suitable method to automate. The Dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) fluorescence method was found to be the most non-specific, and hence the best suited method for the automated monitor. An integrated sampling-analysis system was designed and constructed based on collection of atmospheric particles in an aqueous slurry, and subsequent detection of the ROS concentration of the slurry using the DCFH fluorescence method. The results of the lab-scale investigation of the ROS sampling-analysis system suggested that the prototype continuous system was capable of detecting particle-bound ROS, and accounting for short-term variabilitie

  19. Mechanistic investigation of Fe(III) oxide reduction by low molecular weight organic sulfur species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Eryn M.; Taillefert, Martial

    2017-10-01

    Low molecular weight organic sulfur species, often referred to as thiols, are known to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments and represent important chemical reductants of Fe(III) oxides. Thiols are excellent electron shuttles used during dissimilatory iron reduction, and in this capacity could indirectly affect the redox state of sediments, release adsorbed contaminants via reductive dissolution, and influence the carbon cycle through alteration of bacterial respiration processes. Interestingly, the reduction of Fe(III) oxides by thiols has not been previously investigated in environmentally relevant conditions, likely due to analytical limitations associated with the detection of thiols and their oxidized products. In this study, a novel electrochemical method was developed to simultaneously determine thiol/disulfide pair concentrations in situ during the reduction of ferrihydrite in batch reactors. First order rate laws with respect to initial thiol concentration were confirmed for Fe(III) oxyhydroxide reduction by four common thiols: cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, and glutathione. Zero order was determined for both Fe(III) oxyhydroxide and proton concentration at circumneutral pH. A kinetic model detailing the molecular mechanism of the reaction was optimized with proposed intermediate surface structures. Although metal oxide overall reduction rate constants were inversely proportional to the complexity of the thiol structure, the extent of metal reduction increased with structure complexity, indicating that surface complexes play a significant role in the ability of these thiols to reduce iron. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of considering the molecular reaction mechanism at the iron oxide surface when investigating the potential for thiols to act as electron shuttles during dissimilatory iron reduction in natural environments.

  20. Investigation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in avian species in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, S A; Samanta, I; Bhat, M A; Nishikawa, Y

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the presence or absence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in avian species in India. Faecal samples originating from 500 chicken and 25 free flying pigeons were screened for the presence of E. coli. A total of 426 (chicken, 401; pigeons, 25) E. coli strains were isolated. Of 426 E. coli strains, 387 were grouped into 77 serogroups, while 70 and 59 strains were untypable and rough, respectively. All isolates were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) for the detection of stx(1), stx(2), eaeA, hlyA and saa genes. None of the E. coli strains studied showed the presence of stx(1), stx(2) or their variants and saa genes. Overall 11 (2.74%) and seven (1.74%) strains from chickens possessed eaeA and hlyA genes, respectively, while as only six (1.49%) strains from chickens possessed both eaeA and hlyA genes. O9, O8, O60 and O25 serogroups were most predominant of which there were 24 (5.63%), 23 (5.39%), 23 (5.39%) and 20 (4.69%) strains, respectively. None of the isolates from pigeons showed the presence of any of the virulence genes studied. STEC are absent in chickens and pigeons. However, further studies are required in this direction to confirm or contradict our findings. E. coli strains originating from birds are carrying a low percentage eaeA or hlyA genes. The present study is the first attempt to investigate STEC in chickens and free flying pigeons in India. The chickens and pigeons cannot be considered as important carrier of STEC in India.

  1. Investigation of essential oil extracts from four native Jamaican species of Bursera for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junor, G O; Porter, R B R; Facey, P C; Yee, T H

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial infection with organisms resistant to antibiotics have increased during the last few decades worldwide. Because of this increase, the authors decided to subject the essential oils from the stem, leaves and fruits of the four native Jamaica species of Bursera to microbial studies. Steam distillate extracts from different parts of four native Jamaican spp of Bursera simaruba (Red Birch), Bursera lunanii (Black Birch), Bursera hollickii and Bursera aromatica (Siboney) were tested for their antibacterial activity against six common pathogens: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylocococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A (BHSA) using a disk diffusion assay. The investigation revealed that extracts from two of the four plants tested were active against all the pathogens. These were extracts from the fruits and stems of B. simaruba and those from the fruit of B. lunanii. This study gives credence to the ongoing search for locally available plants whose extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity. This may be useful in the development of naturally derived pharmaceuticals.

  2. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO42, Ca3(AsO42, and Na2HAsO4.

  3. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  4. San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Rare Plant Monitoring Review and Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlik, Bruce M.; Rebman, Jon; Sutter, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the south part of San Diego County, under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 (California Department of Fish and Game) and the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S. Code 1531-1544.) The Program is on the leading edge of conservation, as it seeks to both guide development and conserve at-risk species with the oversight of both State and Federal agencies. Lands were identified for inclusion in the MSCP based on their value as habitat for at-risk plants or plant communities (Natural Community Conservation Planning, 2005). Since its inception in the mid-1990s the Program has protected over 100,000 acres, involving 15 jurisdictions and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) in the conservation of 87 taxa. Surveys for covered species have been conducted, and management and monitoring have been implemented at some high priority sites. Each jurisdiction or agency manages and monitors their conservation areas independently, while collaborating regionally for long-term protection. The San Diego MSCP is on the forefront of conservation, in one of the most rapidly growing urban areas of the country. The planning effort that developed the MSCP was state-of-the-art, using expert knowledge, spatial habitat modeling, and principles of preserve design to identify and prioritize areas for protection. Land acquisition and protection are ahead of schedule for most jurisdictions. Surveys have verified the locations of many rare plant populations known from earlier collections, and they provide general information on population size and health useful for further conservation planning. Management plans have been written or are in development for most MSCP parcels under jurisdictional control. Several agencies are developing databases for implementation

  5. An Investigation into the Faculty Development Practices in Chiropractic Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringe, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive case study design using a cross-sectional quantitative survey method was used to investigate the impact of faculty development programs on teaching effectiveness perceived by faculty teaching at chiropractic colleges in the United States. The availability of faculty development programs related to teaching and student learning was…

  6. A Self-Ethnographic Investigation of Continuing Education Program in Engineering Arising from Economic Structural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihlavirta, Auri; Isomöttönen, Ville; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a self-ethnographic investigation of a continuing education program in engineering in Central Finland. The program was initiated as a response to local economic structural change, in order to offer re-education possibilities for a higher educated workforce currently under unemployment threat. We encountered considerable…

  7. "I Am Not a Big Man": Evaluation of the Issue Investigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincera, Jan; Simonova, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The article evaluates a Czech environmental education program focused on developing competence in issue investigation. In the evaluation, a simple quasi-experimental design with experimental (N = 200) and control groups was used. The results suggest that the program had a greater impact on girls than on boys, and that it increased their internal…

  8. Investigating the relative influences of molecular dimensions and binding energies on diffusivities of guest species inside nanoporous crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to investigate the relative influences of molecular dimensions and adsorption binding energies on unary diffusivities of guest species inside nanoporous crystalline materials such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The investigations are based

  9. Monitoring multiple species: Estimating state variables and exploring the efficacy of a monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeldt, S.D.; Bailey, L.L.; Grant, E.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring programs have the potential to identify population declines and differentiate among the possible cause(s) of these declines. Recent criticisms regarding the design of monitoring programs have highlighted a failure to clearly state objectives and to address detectability and spatial sampling issues. Here, we incorporate these criticisms to design an efficient monitoring program whose goals are to determine environmental factors which influence the current distribution and measure change in distributions over time for a suite of amphibians. In designing the study we (1) specified a priori factors that may relate to occupancy, extinction, and colonization probabilities and (2) used the data collected (incorporating detectability) to address our scientific questions and adjust our sampling protocols. Our results highlight the role of wetland hydroperiod and other local covariates in the probability of amphibian occupancy. There was a change in overall occupancy probabilities for most species over the first three years of monitoring. Most colonization and extinction estimates were constant over time (years) and space (among wetlands), with one notable exception: local extinction probabilities for Rana clamitans were lower for wetlands with longer hydroperiods. We used information from the target system to generate scenarios of population change and gauge the ability of the current sampling to meet monitoring goals. Our results highlight the limitations of the current sampling design, emphasizing the need for long-term efforts, with periodic re-evaluation of the program in a framework that can inform management decisions.

  10. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  11. Investigation of weed species diversity and community structure in saffron fields of Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khorramdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Weedy flora of agroecosystems is composed of many species that have evolved in response to cropping system practices by occupying the niches left available in agroecosystems. In order to study weed species diversity and community structure in the saffron fields of Khorasan province, a survey trial was carried out in seven counties (including Mashhad, Neyshabur, Birjandn, Ghaen, Gonabad, Torbat-e Jam and Torbat-e Heydari during 2014 and 2015 from vegetative growth, dormant to flowering stages of saffron randomly dropped 1×1 m2 quadrates in 50 fields based on a systematic method as W pattern. The counties were clustered by the hierarchical complete linkage method based on Euclidean. Biodiversity indices such as stability coefficient, Simpson, Shannon–Wiener, Margalef and Menhinick were computed. The results indicated that the dominant weeds in saffron fields belong to 19 families and 50 species. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 11, 9, 8 and 6 species, respectively. The majority of weed species were dicotyledonous, C3, noxious and annual plants. The highest stability coefficients in the stages of growth of saffron were calculated in Alhagi camelorum, Avena fatua and Achillea millefolium to be 30.81, 24.11 and 12.14, respectively. All weed species except for Alhagi camelorum (sustainable species and Avena fatua (temporary species were recognized as causal species. The maximum diversity indices for weed species were recorded at the vegetative phase of saffron. Correlation coefficient between weed density and yield loss of saffron was computed as R2=0.98. Based on diversity indices for weed species, different counties were clustered in three groups at 75% similarity level.

  12. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  13. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  14. A preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of a sleep apnea education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S S; Lang, C P; Sullivan, K A; Warren, J

    2004-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a standardised sleep apnea patient education program and develop a study design that may be used to evaluate other such education programs. Thirty-four adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) underwent a standard sleep apnea education program and completed measures of knowledge of and beliefs about sleep apnea before, after, and 3 months following education. Two outcome measures were used: the Apnea Knowledge Test (AKT) and the Apnea Beliefs Scale (ABS). AKT results showed significant knowledge gains posteducation, which were maintained at follow-up. Patients also reported more positive beliefs about their ability to change their behaviour and comply with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment recommendations after education. Findings from this preliminary investigation suggest that the education program used in this study may improve patients' knowledge of CPAP and promote functional beliefs about OSAHS treatment. This program clearly warrants further research, and ultimately such programs may prove important in improving CPAP compliance.

  15. Investigation of susceptibility of Staphylococcus species to some antibacterial drugs by disk diffusion and broth microdilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify isolated Staphylococcus species and to investigate their sensitivity to some antibacterial drugs. The material used for these investigations were Staphylococcus isolates originating from milk samples. A total of 25 strains of Staphylococcus isolates were examined, including 24 from milk samples from cows with mastitis, and one strain was isolated from a milk sample from a cow following treatment for mastitis. For primary identification, catalase and oxidase tests were used, as well as the free coagulase test. Following the preliminary tests, the isolated strains were identified using commercial systems ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, France and the BBL Crystal Gram-Positive ID Kit (Becton Dickinson, USA according to the enclosed instructions. The Staphylococcus isolates were examined for sensitivity to the following: oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, and vacomycin using the disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Strandards Institute - CLSI(2003, and the results were interpreted according to CLSI recommendations from 2008 and 2010. Antibiogram disks manufactured by Becton Dickinson (USA were used, and the broth microdilution method was applied using pure antibiotic substances from different manufacturers: erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline (Sigma Aldrich, USA, sulfametoxazol (Fluka, USA, penicillin (Calbiochem, Germany, vancomycin (Abbott laboratories, USA, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim (Zdravlje A.D., Serbia. All 25 strains were catalase positive and oxidase negative. Of the 25 strains, 19 were coagulase positive and 6 were coagulase negative.With the implementation of the disk diffusion method on 19 strains of S. aureus, 17 were established to be resistant to penicillin (89.5%, and 2 strains to gentamicin

  16. Microscopic investigations of palynological features of convolvulaceous species from arid zone of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Shomaila; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Bahadur, Siraj; Khan, Adeel; Shah, Amin

    2017-11-21

    The pollen morphology of some species of glamorous family Convolvulaceae from arid zones of Pakistan has been evaluated. The pollen grains were acetolyzed, measured, described qualitatively, and illustrated using Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The examined species have differences in shape, size, polarity and exine ornamentation, confirming the eurypalynous character. The pollen types varies from psilate to echinate and colpi to tricolporate, tetracolporate and pantocolporate. Exine ornamentation was exposed as perforate, reticulate and echinate. Spine morphology and exine sculpture are vital for the distinction of species. Pollen fertility shows that selected plants species are well-known in the Arid Zone. A taxonomic key is prepared to use these variations in the identification of species. Statistical analysis by using the Software XLSTAT exhibited that some morphological features is the main characters in identification of the taxa. These studied taxa were separated from each other using cluster Analysis. Our results constructed on MVSP ver. 3.22 software analyses that show morphological explanation; thus, the results highlight the importance of pollen morphology in the identification and characterization of species of the family convolvulacae in arid zone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Final Report, Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens Jr., Wayne W.; Fickes, Michael J.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Burns, Carol J.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Shuh, David K.

    2000-12-23

    The purpose is to increase the basic scientific understanding of technetium chemistry to better understand the behavior of technetium in chemical environments relevant to DOE. Two important areas in need of study are the behavior of technetium in highly alkaline solutions similar to high-level nuclear waste, and its behavior in different waste forms. This research program addressed these two needs. Two separate approaches were used in this program. The first focus was to understand the basic solution chemistry of technetium, which underlies its behavior in the highly alkaline environment of the nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The specific problems at these sites are related to the anomalous oxidation state of technetium (Schroeder 1995). Although, at high pH, technetium should exist in its highest oxidation state as TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, soluble, lower-valent technetium species have been observed in certain wastes. The specific unknowns that this program sought to answer are the nature of lower valent technetium species that can be formed in highly alkaline solution and whether pertechnetate undergoes radiolytic reduction in highly alkaline solution when nitrate is present in excess. The second focus area is the behavior of technetium immobilized in various waste forms. The behavior of technetium in cement wastes was examined to gain information about its long-term stability. Specifically, this research examined the oxidation of reduced technetium species by components present in high-level waste that are incorporated into cement waste along with technetium.

  18. Inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone in human, dog and horse liver microsomes to investigate species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jana; Mevissen, Meike

    2015-04-01

    Testosterone hydroxylation was investigated in human, canine and equine liver microsomes and in human and canine single CYPs. The contribution of the CYP families 1, 2 and 3 was studied using chemical inhibitors. Testosterone metabolites were analyzed by HPLC. The metabolites androstenedione, 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone were found in microsomes of all species, but the pattern of metabolites varied within species. Androstenedione was more prominent in the animal species, and an increase over time was seen in equines. Testosterone hydroxylation was predominantly catalyzed by the CYP3A subfamily in all three species. While CYP2C9 did not metabolise testosterone, the canine ortholog CYP2C21 produced androstenedione. Quercetin significantly inhibited 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in all species investigated, suggesting that CYP2C8 is involved in testosterone metabolism, whereas sulfaphenazole significantly inhibited the formation of 6β- and 11β-hydroxytestosterone in human microsomes, at 60 min in equine microsomes, but not in canine microsomes. A contribution of CYP2B6 in testosterone metabolism was only found in human and equine microsomes. Inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 indicated its involvement in androstenedione formation in humans, increased androstenedione formation was found in equines and no involvement in canines. These findings provide improved understanding of differences in testosterone biotransformation in animal species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal investigation program 1978 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D D; Bernhardt, D E; Giles, K R

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1978. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring Potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of short-lived radionuclides found in samples from animals collected soon after March 14 (the date of a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were consistent with those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from recent years. However, cattle tissue sampled in the fall were higher than those collected in the spring. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 13 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation.

  1. Long-term investigation of constructed wetland wastewater treatment and reuse: Selection of adapted plant species for metaremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaï, Mohamed Mounir; Ainouche, Abdelkader; Nelson, Mark; Cattin, Florence; El Amrani, Abdelhak

    2017-10-01

    A highly diverse plant community in a constructed wetland was used to investigate an ecological treatment system for human wastewater in an arid climate. The eight-year operation of the system has allowed the identification of a highly adapted and effective plant consortium that is convenient for plant-assisted metaremediation of wastewater. This constructed wetland pilot station demonstrated effective performance over this extended period. Originally, there were twenty-five plant species. However, because of environmental constraints and pressure from interspecific competition, only seven species persisted. Interestingly, the molecular phylogenetic analyses and an investigation of the photosynthetic physiology showed that the naturally selected plants are predominately monocot species with C4 or C4-like photosynthetic pathways. Despite the loss of 72% of initially used species in the constructed wetland, the removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, TSS, total phosphorus, ammonia and nitrate were maintained at high levels, approximately 90%, 80%, 94%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Concomitantly, the microbiological water tests showed an extremely high reduction of total coliform bacteria and streptococci, about 99%, even without a specific disinfection step. Hence, the constructed wetland system produced water of high quality that can be used for agricultural purposes. In the present investigation, we provide a comprehensive set of plant species that might be used for long-term and large-scale wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-talk of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant programed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin eWang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In plants, programed cell death (PCD is an important mechanism to regulate multiple aspects of growth and development, as well as to remove damaged or infected cells during responses to environmental stresses and pathogen attacks. Under biotic and abiotic stresses, plant cells exhibit a rapid synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and a parallel accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Frequently, these responses trigger a PCD process leading to an intrinsic execution of plant cells. The accumulating evidence suggests that both NO and ROS play key roles in PCD. These redox active small molecules can trigger cell death either independently or synergistically. Here we summarize the recent progress on the cross-talk of NO and ROS signals in the hypersensitive response (HR, leaf senescence and other kinds of plant PCD caused by diverse cues.

  3. Cross-talk of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant programed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqin; Loake, Gary J; Chu, Chengcai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, programed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism to regulate multiple aspects of growth and development, as well as to remove damaged or infected cells during responses to environmental stresses and pathogen attacks. Under biotic and abiotic stresses, plant cells exhibit a rapid synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and a parallel accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Frequently, these responses trigger a PCD process leading to an intrinsic execution of plant cells. The accumulating evidence suggests that both NO and ROS play key roles in PCD. These redox active small molecules can trigger cell death either independently or synergistically. Here we summarize the recent progress on the cross-talk of NO and ROS signals in the hypersensitive response, leaf senescence, and other kinds of plant PCD caused by diverse cues.

  4. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  5. Autophagy, programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species in sexual reproduction in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Autophagy is one of the major cellular processes of recycling of proteins, metabolites and intracellular organelles, and plays crucial roles in the regulation of innate immunity, stress responses and programmed cell death (PCD) in many eukaryotes. It is also essential in development and sexual reproduction in many animals. In plants, although autophagy-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana show phenotypes in abiotic and biotic stress responses, their life cycle seems normal and thus little had been known until recently about the roles of autophagy in development and reproduction. Rice mutants defective in autophagy show sporophytic male sterility and immature pollens, indicating crucial roles of autophagy during pollen maturation. Enzymatic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by respiratory burst oxidase homologues (Rbohs) play multiple roles in regulating anther development, pollen tube elongation and fertilization. Significance of autophagy and ROS in the regulation of PCD of transient cells during plant sexual reproduction is discussed in comparison with animals.

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics investigation of structural, dynamic and spectroscopic aspects of Se(vi) species in the aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Sangkha; Padma Kumar, P

    2016-06-07

    Microscopic investigation of solvation of selenic acid (H2SeO4) in the aqueous environment has been carried out using the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation technique. The species deprotonates to HSeO4(-) in a few picoseconds owing to its low pKa1 value of -3.0. A dynamic equilibrium between HSeO4(-) and SeO4(2-), is observed in qualitative agreement with the reported pKa2 value of 1.70. The governing deprotonation mechanism and the structural and dynamic evolutions of the system, particularly the nature of hydrogen bonding, their strengths and lifetimes are investigated comprehensively. A comparison of the vibrational spectra of the species recorded in the gas phase and in the aqueous environment provides further insights on the nature of the interaction between the solute species and water. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and other recent computational studies.

  7. Using a comparative species approach to investigate the neurobiology of paternal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Lambert, Kelly G

    2011-09-19

    A goal of behavioral neuroscience is to identify underlying neurobiological factors that regulate specific behaviors. Using animal models to accomplish this goal, many methodological strategies require invasive techniques to manipulate the intensity of the behavior of interest (e.g., lesion methods, pharmacological manipulations, microdialysis techniques, genetically-engineered animal models). The utilization of a comparative species approach allows researchers to take advantage of naturally occurring differences in response strategies existing in closely related species. In our lab, we use two species of the Peromyscus genus that differ in paternal responses. The male California deer mouse (Peromyscus californicus) exhibits the same parental responses as the female whereas its cousin, the common deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) exhibits virtually no nurturing/parental responses in the presence of pups. Of specific interest in this article is an exploration of the neurobiological factors associated with the affiliative social responses exhibited by the paternal California deer mouse. Because the behavioral neuroscience approach is multifaceted, the following key components of the study will be briefly addressed: the identification of appropriate species for this type of research; data collection for behavioral analysis; preparation and sectioning of the brains; basic steps involved in immunocytochemistry for the quantification of vasopressin-immunoreactivity; the use of neuroimaging software to quantify the brain tissue; the use of a microsequencing video analysis to score behavior and, finally, the appropriate statistical analyses to provide the most informed interpretations of the research findings.

  8. An Investigative Alternative to Single-Species Dissection in the Introductory Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    Dissections of single species (e.g., fetal pig) are a common student learning activity in introductory biology courses. Such dissections demonstrate location of anatomical parts and provide dissection practice but provide less opportunity for student critical thinking, numeracy and demonstration of the scientific method. A comparative anatomy lab…

  9. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.

    1990-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative four-year effort to study impacts of Dworshak Dam operation on resident fisheries. This third annual report focuses on rainbow trout, smallmouth bass, and forage species. 22 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Student Planetary Investigators: A Program to Engage Students in Authentic Research Using NASA Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallau, K.; Turney, D.; Beisser, K.; Edmonds, J.; Grigsby, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Student Planetary Investigator (PI) Program engages students in authentic scientific research using NASA mission data. This student-focused STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) program combines problem-based learning modules, Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum, and live interactive webinars with mission scientists to create authentic research opportunities and career-ready experiences that prepare and inspire students to pursue STEM occupations. Primarily for high school students, the program employs distance-learning technologies to stream live presentations from mission scientists, archive those presentations to accommodate varied schedules, and collaborate with other student teams and scientists. Like its predecessor, the Mars Exploration Student Data Team (MESDT) program, the Student PI is free and open to teams across the country. To date, students have drafted research-based reports using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF instrument and the MESSENGER Mercury orbiter, with plans to offer similar programs aligned with additional NASA missions in the future pending available funding. Overall, the program has reached about 600 students and their educators. Assessments based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered for each Student PI program have shown that students gain new understanding about the scientific process used by real-world scientists as well as gaining enthusiasm for STEM. Additionally, it is highly adaptable to other disciplines and fields. The Student PI program was created by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department Education and Public Outreach office with support from NASA mission and instrument science and engineering teams.

  11. Optimal control of an invasive species using a reaction-diffusion model and linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Mathieu; Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Martin, Julien; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Managing an invasive species is particularly challenging as little is generally known about the species’ biological characteristics in its new habitat. In practice, removal of individuals often starts before the species is studied to provide the information that will later improve control. Therefore, the locations and the amount of control have to be determined in the face of great uncertainty about the species characteristics and with a limited amount of resources. We propose framing spatial control as a linear programming optimization problem. This formulation, paired with a discrete reaction-diffusion model, permits calculation of an optimal control strategy that minimizes the remaining number of invaders for a fixed cost or that minimizes the control cost for containment or protecting specific areas from invasion. We propose computing the optimal strategy for a range of possible model parameters, representing current uncertainty on the possible invasion scenarios. Then, a best strategy can be identified depending on the risk attitude of the decision-maker. We use this framework to study the spatial control of the Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae) in South Florida. There is uncertainty about tegu demography and we considered several combinations of model parameters, exhibiting various dynamics of invasion. For a fixed one-year budget, we show that the risk-averse strategy, which optimizes the worst-case scenario of tegus’ dynamics, and the risk-neutral strategy, which optimizes the expected scenario, both concentrated control close to the point of introduction. A risk-seeking strategy, which optimizes the best-case scenario, focuses more on models where eradication of the species in a cell is possible and consists of spreading control as much as possible. For the establishment of a containment area, assuming an exponential growth we show that with current control methods it might not be possible to implement such a strategy for some of the

  12. The qualitative approach in investigating the role of species interactions on stability of natural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, A; Giavelli, G

    1989-01-01

    Community models with competition and mutualism are qualitatively analyzed using the methodology of loop analysis combined with computer stochastic simulation. The concept of "moving equilibrium" in the growth rate of the species is discussed in 14 "tables of predictions", presented as analytical tools that can help to shed light on controversial ecological issues such as direct versus indirect interaction and positive feedback effects on stability. While the stochastic simulation shows that only little or no difference exists in probability of stability between models with competition and models with mutualism, the related tables of predictions show that the networks among links are able to activate indirect interactions, with both negative and positive effects, between any pair of species. This phenomenon makes it difficult to determine how much stability is related to the direct interactions.

  13. Using a Comparative Species Approach to Investigate the Neurobiology of Paternal Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, Catherine L.; Bardi, Massimo; Lambert, Kelly G.

    2011-01-01

    A goal of behavioral neuroscience is to identify underlying neurobiological factors that regulate specific behaviors. Using animal models to accomplish this goal, many methodological strategies require invasive techniques to manipulate the intensity of the behavior of interest (e.g., lesion methods, pharmacological manipulations, microdialysis techniques, genetically-engineered animal models). The utilization of a comparative species approach allows researchers to take advantage of naturally ...

  14. Investigations of carotenoids in fungi. III. Fructifications of some species from the genus Suillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using column and thin-layer chromatography the occurrence of carotenoids and their content was determined in fructifications of 5 species from the genus Suillus. 21 carotenoids were found, among them 3 which had not hitherto been detected in fungi (auroxanthin, 3,4-dihydroxy-α-carotene and myxoxantophyll. Moreover quantitative and qualitative differences were found in the content of carotenoids in fructifications of Boletus luteus which may be of importance in their taxonomy.

  15. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  16. Investigation of severe UF membrane fouling induced by three marine algal species

    KAUST Repository

    Merle, Tony

    2016-02-06

    Reducing membrane fouling caused by seawater algal bloom is a challenge for regions of the world where most of their freshwater is produced by seawater desalination. This study aims to compare ultrafiltration (UF) fouling potential of three ubiquitous marine algal species cultures (i.e., Skeletonena costatum-SKC, Tetraselmis sp.-TET, and Hymenomonas sp.-HYM) sampled at different phases of growth. Results showed that flux reduction and irreversible fouling were more severe during the decline phase as compared to the exponential phase, for all species. SKC and TET were responsible for substantial irreversible fouling but their impact was significantly lower than HYM. The development of a transparent gel layer surrounding the cell during the HYM growth and accumulating in water is certainly responsible for the more severe observed fouling. Chemical backwash with a standard chlorine solution did not recover any membrane permeability. For TET and HYM, the Hydraulically Irreversible Fouling Index (HIFI) was correlated to their biopolymer content but this correlation is specific for each species. Solution pre-filtration through a 1.2 μm membrane proved that cells and particulate algal organic matter (p-AOM) considerably contribute to fouling, especially for HYM for which the HIFI was reduced by a factor of 82.3.

  17. Investigation of potential targets of Porphyromonas CRISPRs among the genomes of Porphyromonas species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Masaki; Maruyama, Fumito; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The oral bacterial species Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, has plastic genomes that may be driven by homologous recombination with exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is incorporated by natural transformation and conjugation. However, bacteriophages and plasmids, both of which are main resources of exogenous DNA, do not exist in the known P. gingivalis genomes. This could be associated with an adaptive immunity system conferred by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes in P. gingivalis as well as innate immune systems such as a restriction-modification system. In a previous study, few immune targets were predicted for P. gingivalis CRISPR/Cas. In this paper, we analyzed 51 P. gingivalis genomes, which were newly sequenced, and publicly available genomes of 13 P. gingivalis and 46 other Porphyromonas species. We detected 6 CRISPR/Cas types (classified by sequence similarity of repeat) in P. gingivalis and 12 other types in the remaining species. The Porphyromonas CRISPR spacers with potential targets in the genus Porphyromonas were approximately 23 times more abundant than those with potential targets in other genus taxa (1,720/6,896 spacers vs. 74/6,896 spacers). Porphyromonas CRISPR/Cas may be involved in genome plasticity by exhibiting selective interference against intra- and interspecies nucleic acids. PMID:28837670

  18. Investigation into the animal species contents of popular wet pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Isabella R; Atterbury, Robert; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-03-10

    The use of the generic term "meat and animal derivatives" in declared ingredient lists of pet foods in the European Union is virtually universal. In the wake of the 2013 "horse meat scandal" in the human food chain, we examined the presence and authenticity of animal sources (cow, chicken, pig and horse) of proteins in a range of popular wet pet foods in the United Kingdom. Seventeen leading dog and cat foods were sampled for the relative presence of DNA from each of the four animal species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No horse DNA was detected. However, there was detection at substantial levels of unspecified animal species in most products tested. In 14 out of 17 samples, bovine, porcine and chicken DNA were found in various proportions and combinations but were not explicitly identified on the product labels. Of the 7 products with prominent headline descriptions containing the term "with beef", only 2 were found to contain more bovine DNA (>50%) than pig and chicken DNA combined. There is a need for the pet food industry to show greater transparency to customers in the disclosure of the types of animal proteins (animal species and tissue types) in their products. Full disclosure of animal contents will (a) allow more informed choices to be made on purchases which are particularly important for pets with food allergies, (b) reduce the risk of product misinterpretation by shoppers, and (c) avoid potential religious concerns.

  19. Investigating differences across host species and scales to explain the distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Peterson

    Full Text Available Many pathogens infect more than one host species, and clarifying how these different hosts contribute to pathogen dynamics can facilitate the management of pathogens and can lend insight into the functioning of pathogens in ecosystems. In this study, we investigated a suite of native and non-native amphibian hosts of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd across multiple scales to identify potential mechanisms that may drive infection patterns in the Colorado study system. Specifically, we aimed to determine if: 1 amphibian populations vary in Bd infection across the landscape, 2 amphibian community composition predicts infection (e.g., does the presence or abundance of any particular species influence infection in others?, 3 amphibian species vary in their ability to produce infectious zoospores in a laboratory infection, 4 heterogeneity in host ability observed in the laboratory scales to predict patterns of Bd prevalence in the landscape. We found that non-native North American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus are widespread and have the highest prevalence of Bd infection relative to the other native species in the landscape. Additionally, infection in some native species appears to be related to the density of sympatric L. catesbeianus populations. At the smaller host scale, we found that L. catesbeianus produces more of the infective zoospore stage relative to some native species, but that this zoospore output does not scale to predict infection in sympatric wild populations of native species. Rather, landscape level infection relates most strongly to density of hosts at a wetland as well as abiotic factors. While non-native L. catesbeianus have high levels of Bd infection in the Colorado Front Range system, we also identified Bd infection in a number of native amphibian populations allopatric with L. catesbeianus, suggesting that multiple host species are important contributors to the dynamics of the Bd pathogen in this

  20. The Investigation of Three Species Belong To Artemisia L. (Asteraceae Grown Naturally In Turkey In Point Of Morphological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kürşat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the morphologcal features of Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss., Artemisia splendens Willd. and Artemisia caucasica Willd. grown naturally in Turkey and very close to each others in point of systematics are investigated. All taxa of genus Artemisia L. grown naturally in Turkey are located three subgenus (Artemisia, Dracunculus ve Seriphidium. Three species in this study are located subgenus Artemisia Less.. It were determined some new morphological features and differences which are lead to expansion of their descriptions in the Flora of Turkey. The detailed figures of important morphological features of these species are given for better recognition of their.

  1. The investigation of morphological characteristics of willow species in different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodzkin Aleh I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative or renewable energy is a modern strategy with a good per­spective in the nearest future. There are several directions of renewable energy development that depend on climatic, economic and technological opportunities of a region. The perspective choice for areas with moderate climate is bioenergy. One of the bioenergy directions is agro forestry based on short rotation coppice plantations (SRC of trees, like willow, poplar and others. The goal of experiments was the assessment of the potential of different willow species for the obtaining of energy in two climatic zones and on two types of soils of Belarus. For this purpose several morphological characteristics were metered: height of plants, biomass, diameter and number of sprouts. The field experiments were conducted on two types of soils: post-mining peaty soils in Grodno region and on degraded peaty soils in Brest region of Belarus. The same soils are very problematic for growing of traditional agricultural crops, thus willow production is a good alternative for biomass production of energy as well as for the reclamation of these soils. In our experiments the following species of willow were tested (Salix alba, Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, Salix aurita that may grow on peaty soils at the natural conditions. The most popular species for modern selection of SRC of willow is Salix viminalis. Nevertheless, the most suitable morphological characteristics on post-mining peaty soils were established for plants of Salix dasyclados and on degraded peaty soils for the plants of Salix alba. The unfavorable parameters at the both type of soils were identified for the plants of Salix aurita. However, it is necessary to take into account that the used species are more popular for natural wetlands and in our experiments plants have best results of survival of cutting and rates of growth at the beginning of vegetation. In accordance with these facts Salix aurita may not be used for energy

  2. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigation of the interaction of benzene with vanadium-molybdenum oxide catalysts by programmed thermal desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokopytov, Yu.V.; Pyatnitskii, Yu.I.; Grebennikov, Yu.N.

    1985-09-01

    Programmed thermal desorption was used to investigate the interaction of benzene with vanadium-molybdenum oxide catalysts. It was established that the amount of maleic anhydride desorbed from the catalyst surface depends on the catalyst composition and that it varies with its activity and selectivity.

  4. 76 FR 55332 - Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Part 128-1 RIN 1110-AA32 Federal Bureau of Investigation Anti-Piracy Warning Seal Program AGENCY...- Piracy Warning Seal (APW Seal). The proposed rule will provide access to the APW Seal to all copyright... on the day the comment period closes. Discussion. The FBI's Anti-Piracy Warning (APW) Seal is a...

  5. Participatory Action Research as Pedagogy: Investigating Social and Ecological Justice Learning within a Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vince; McKenzie, Marcia; Allan, Scott; Hill, Teresa; McLean, Sheelah; Kayira, Jean; Knorr, Michelle; Stone, Joshua; Murphy, Jeremy; Butcher, Kim

    2015-01-01

    A research collective comprised of teacher candidates, graduate students, and faculty set out to investigate the role and impact of social and ecological justice learning in a teacher education program. Amidst the tensions, negotiations, and articulations of the research design, the collective came to recognize the spaces of participatory action…

  6. Who Cares about Diversity? A Preliminary Investigation of Diversity Exposure in Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elena; Butler, Bettie Ray

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature has extensively documented the urgency for educators to raise their cultural awareness and become more culturally responsive; yet the importance placed on cultural competence in teacher education programs has been surprisingly weak. The present study, therefore, provides a preliminary investigation of diversity exposure,…

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers' Autonomy and Their Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Baradaran, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between English Language Teachers' autonomy and their Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP). To this end, a group of 200 experienced English language teachers at various language schools in Tehran, inter alia, Asre Zaban Language Academy, were given two questionnaires namely Teaching…

  8. An Investigation of Classroom Practices in Teaching Listening Comprehension at English Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Nurhafni

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how the classroom practice in teaching listening comprehension at English Education Program of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 Academic Year is. The informants of this research were all of second semester students of STKIP Tapanuli Selatan in 2016/2017 academic year and a lecturer of listening…

  9. Investigation of the effect of the Colorado vehicle inspection program on carbon monoxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to demonstrate ability to meet air quality standards set by the Federal Government, specifically, by the Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.), Colorado implemented an Automobile Inspection and Readjustment (A.I.R.) program. As the A.I.R. program matured it became evident, through continued monitoring, covert investigations, and preliminary studies, that major discrepancies existed in the program's data and that Colorado would not be able to show sufficient reductions in vehicle emissions using the present program standards. The focus of this study was to explore those discrepancies and pinpoint where they may be occurring. To do so, the researcher collected data from a roadside pullover survey and compared this data with that reported by the A.I.R. mechanics. The following research questions were asked: (1) What is the actual effect of the A.I.R. program on emissions. (2) What is the reported effect of the A.I.R. program on CO emissions. (3) Are cars being pre-tuned to reduce CO emissions prior to the reported initial readings. (4) Are cars being readjusted after the A.I.R. inspection. Major results revealed that apparently no actual CO reductions were realized as a consequence of the A.I.R. program. Evidence showed that vehicles were not pre-tuned to reduce emissions prior to the reported initial reading, and that vehicles were not readjusted after the A.I.R. inspection.

  10. INVESTIGATING THE OPINIONS OF MoNE STAFF ABOUT INSET PROGRAMS VIA DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasit OZEN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the opinions of the Ministry of National Education (MoNE staff about in-service training (INSET programs via distance education. The subjects of this study were the staff (n=15 of the Inservice Training Department of MoNE in 2008. During the study, the qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with the (MoNE staff by the researcher. The results of the interviews revealed the importance of needs assessment, the relationship between INSET program course content and participants’ school curriculum, support mechanism in INSET programs via distance education, the application of what is learned and providing various opportunities to them that lead to their active involvement to the application of these programs, the characteristics of learning environments for these programs, INSET instructors’ teaching competencies and skills to fulfill various roles in online learning environments, of measuring and evaluating the performance of teachers during INSET programs via distance education and of the effectiveness of INSET programs via distance education.

  11. Investigating audiences’ attitudes towards local radio programs: A case study of city of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Taghipour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For almost a century, radio stations have been some primary sources for presenting arts, entertainment, news, etc. and the primary concern on many studies is to understand audience attitude on this media. This paper attempts to investigate audience attitude on radio programs broadcasted in city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects random sample of 600 out of 1,745,428 residence of this city where 345 people actively were listening to these programs, actively. All questions were designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alpha was 0.941, which was well above the desirable level and validated the survey. According our survey, the most popular part of radio programs was associated with news where 78.3% of the audiences were listening to these programs. According to our survey, audiences were mostly satisfied with family oriented programs and the mean score was 4.05. The other observation indicates that people have good attitude towards educational guidance programs (mean=3.37 and programs related to people and officials (mean=3.41. The results of Freedman test with Chi-Square value of 52.507 determines that there is meaningful difference among different components (mean difference = -0.23 and P-value =0.022. We have also performed an investigation to find out whether there is any difference between different components of this survey in terms of participants’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational background and job. Our survey only confirms the mean difference in terms of job specifications and other personal characteristics did not have any impact on people’s attitude. The other observation in our survey indicates that there is a difference between students and people with no job or housekeeper on their attitudes towards educational programs.

  12. An investigation of the presence of specific anaerobic species in necrotic primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genara Brum Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different microbial identification methods have shown that the microbial community profiles in endodontic infections are diverse and assorted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of selected endodontic pathogens in the pulp chambers (PCs and root canals (RCs of infected primary teeth using PCR methods. Paired PC and RC samples were collected from 15 subjects and analyzed by PCR for the presence of Filifactor alocis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella tannerae, Tanerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Treponema socranskii. The frequency of each species was determined in the PC and RC of each case. The species most frequently detected in PCs were P. nigrescens (86.7%, P. gingivalis (73.3%, and F. alocis (73.3%. Of the PC samples, 13.3% contained P. micra and T. denticola, and 6.7% contained T. forsythia. The species most frequently detected in RCs were P. gingivalis (100% and P. nigrescens (93.3%. P. tannerae, P. micra, and T. denticola were found in 40% of the RC samples; T. forsythia was found in 26.7% of the RC samples. The “red complex”, which comprises P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, was not found in the PC of any tooth but was found in 30% of the RC samples. The detection of P. nigrescens in the PC was statistically associated with the presence of P. nigrescens in the RC (p = 0.04. The results suggest high heterogeneity among the samples, even among those from the same subject.

  13. Electron reactivity in aqueous media: a femtosecond investigation of the primary species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauduel, Y.; Pommeret, S.; Migus, A.; Antonetti, A. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France))

    1989-01-01

    The electron is universally considered as a primary species in the radiolysis and photolysis of aqueous media. The existence of this simplest aqueous radical implicates fascinating questions concerning the coupling of excess electrons with polar liquids whose chemical and physical properties may have a determinant influence on reactivity in chemistry and biology. The recent experimental results available from the femtosecond spectroscopy of water or ionic aqueous solutions provide unique experimental data for the elucidation of detailed mechanisms of primary processes involved in electron reactivity with an essentially protic solvent. (author).

  14. Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara L; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Barrett, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

      Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research.   To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program.   Qualitative, phenomenological research.   Higher education institutions.   Seven promising investigators (5 women, 2 men) and 7 established investigators (2 women, 5 men), all of whom had completed the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Data Collection and Analysis We developed and piloted intervi: ew guides designed to gain participants' perspectives on their experiences participating in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with each individual and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, and saturation was obtained. Trustworthiness was established with the use of member checking, multiple-analyst triangulation, and data-source triangulation.   Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) motivation, (2) collaboration, and (3) resources. Participants were motivated to become involved because they saw the value of mentorship, and mentees desired guidance in their research. Participants believed that collaboration on a project contributed to a positive relationship, and they also desired additional program and professional resources to support novice faculty.   Promising and established investigators should be encouraged to engage in mentoring relationships to facilitate mentees' research agendas and professional development. The NATA Foundation and athletic training profession may consider providing additional resources for novice faculty, such as training on

  15. A third karyosystematic investigation of the Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer group of sibling species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Angus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Karyological analysis has been carried out on Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 from Tjøme in southern Norway, one of the type localities of Deronectes maritimus Helliesen, 1890, as well as from the Canton of Valais in the Swiss Alps and Bavaria in the German Alps. True S. griseostriatus is shown to occur over much of the central Alps, and the synonymy of S. griseostriatus var. nigrescens Favre, 1890 is confirmed.  Analysis of Corsican material shows that the species inhabiting the island is S. ibericus Dutton et Angus, 2007. The known distributions of the S. griseostriatus group species occurring in the Alps and on Corsica are given, and Pleistocene fossil material from Starunia in the Ukrainian Carpathians is figured and discussed. A syntype of Potamodytes multilineatus Falkenström, 1922, in Helliesen’s collection in Oslo, is noted and a neotype designated for Deronectes maritimus Helliesen, 1890 as the original material on which the description was based cannot be found.

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigation of nickel isotopic fractionation in species relevant to modern and ancient oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moynier, Frédéric; Dauphas, Nicolas; Abe, Minori

    2011-01-01

    Nickel plays a central role as an enzyme co-factor in the metabolism of methanogenic Archaea. Methanogens can fractionate Ni isotopes during assimilation, opening the possibility of using the stable isotopic composition of Ni as a biomarker. However, other sources of Ni isotopic variations need to be evaluated before one can establish Ni isotopes as an unambiguous tracer of methanogenesis in the rock record. Equilibrium exchange of Ni between the different species present in the ocean is a potential source of isotopic fractionation. Through controlled laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations, we quantify equilibrium Ni isotope fractionation between different species relevant to the modern and ancient ocean: Ni(H 2O) 62+, Ni(H 2O) 182+, NiOH(H 2O) 5+, Ni(OH) 2(H 2O) 4, NiCl(H 2O) 5+, cis-NiCl 2(H 2O) 4, trans-NiCl 2(H 2O) 4, NiHS(H 2O) 5+, Ni(HS) 2(H 2O) 4, NiSO 4(H 2O) 4, NiHCO 3(H 2O) 4+, NiCO 3(H 2O) 4, and organic ligands (crown ether and oxalic acid). The magnitude of ligand-controlled Ni isotopic fractionation, approximately 1.25‰/amu (2.5‰ for the 60Ni/ 58Ni ratio), is similar to that previously measured in cultures of methanogenic Archaea.

  17. The Shell of the Invasive Bivalve Species Dreissena polymorpha: Biochemical, Elemental and Textural Investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Immel

    Full Text Available The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is a well-established invasive model organism. Although extensively used in environmental sciences, virtually nothing is known of the molecular process of its shell calcification. By describing the microstructure, geochemistry and biochemistry/proteomics of the shell, the present study aims at promoting this species as a model organism in biomineralization studies, in order to establish a bridge with ecotoxicology, while sketching evolutionary conclusions. The shell of D. polymorpha exhibits the classical crossed-lamellar/complex crossed lamellar combination found in several heterodont bivalves, in addition to an external thin layer, the characteristics of which differ from what was described in earlier publication. We show that the shell selectively concentrates some heavy metals, in particular uranium, which predisposes D. polymorpha to local bioremediation of this pollutant. We establish the biochemical signature of the shell matrix, demonstrating that it interacts with the in vitro precipitation of calcium carbonate and inhibits calcium carbonate crystal formation, but these two properties are not strongly expressed. This matrix, although overall weakly glycosylated, contains a set of putatively calcium-binding proteins and a set of acidic sulphated proteins. 2D-gels reveal more than fifty proteins, twenty of which we identify by MS-MS analysis. We tentatively link the shell protein profile of D. polymorpha and the peculiar recent evolution of this invasive species of Ponto-Caspian origin, which has spread all across Europe in the last three centuries.

  18. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.

    1989-07-01

    For the period March 1988 through February 1989, an estimated 154,558 angler-hours were expended to catch 20,037 rainbow trout, 3,933 smallmouth bass, and 14 bull trout. Estimated catch of other species, including cutthroat trout, whitefish, suckers, and squawfish totalled 84. Subcatchable rainbow trout (135 to 185mm) caught and released by boat anglers comprised 53% (12,770) of the total catch. An estimated 88.6% of the smallmouth bass caught were under the minimum legal size limit of 305mm and were released. Estimated harvest of smallmouth bass was 450. The highest monthly catch rate documented for all species excluding kokanee was 1.81 fish per hour during October. Severe weather conditions during February reduced effort and no fish were documented in the creel. Cumulative catch rates through the survey period for rainbow trout and smallmouth bass were .13 and .02, respectively. The lowest monthly catch rates generally occurred when fishing pressure was the highest, with fishing effort targeting on kokanee during the May through July high use periods. The Arlee strain rainbow trout was somewhat more vulnerable to boat anglers than the Shasta strain during the early post-release period. 20 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Looking into a whale's heart: investigating a genetic basis for cardiomyopathy in a non-model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viricel, Amélia; Rosel, Patricia E

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of complex diseases can benefit from multi-species comparative studies. Yet these studies rarely include natural populations of non-model species. Here, we focused on the cause of a heart muscle disease, cardiomyopathy (CM), affecting multiple mammalian species including humans, cats, dogs, and certain species of whales. Mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins have been identified as a leading cause for CM in humans, and some were also revealed to be responsible for CM in cats. We investigated whether similar mutations could be detected in the deep-diving pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), which is one of two cetacean species known to display CM. We sequenced portions of two candidate genes (MYH7: 3153 bp and MYBPC3: 3019 bp) in 55 whales including affected and unaffected individuals. Mutation screening revealed six nonsynonymous substitutions that were predicted to have an effect on protein function. However, the etiology of CM is likely complex and probably multi-factorial as three of these mutations were observed in unaffected individuals from our control group. This incomplete penetrance could be partly age-related and could also be due to the influence of environmental factors on the development of CM, as seen in humans.

  20. Site investigation Forsmark. Inventory of requirements, basic data and program for geotechnical investigations; Platsundersoekning Forsmark. Behovsinventering, underlag och program foer geotekniska undersoekningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeren, Lena; Nystroem, Birgitta [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    planning of construction work. The primary objectives of these investigations should be to locate clay lenses and to more precisely determine the depth to rock surface. A preliminary program is proposed, comprising stepwise investigations with weight sounding or Pyramid Penetration test, soil sampling, soil/rock probing and permeability tests.

  1. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Modular General English Language Teaching Preparatory Program at a Turkish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating existing foreign language programs on a regular basis is essential because program evaluation leads to more effective programs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the modular intensive general English language teaching program applied at a university in Turkey by investigating students' and English instructors' perceptions of…

  2. 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study ImplementationPlan - Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Knepp.

    1999-04-19

    The 200 Areas Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Implementation Plan - Environmental Restoration Program (Implementation Plan) addresses approximately 700 soil waste sites (and associated structures suchas pipelines) resulting from the discharge of liquids and solids fromprocessing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs,burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program. The Implementation Plan outlines the frameworkfor implementing assessment activities in the 200 Areas to ensure consistency in documentation, level of characterization, and decisionmaking. The Implementation Plan also consolidates background information and other typical work plan materials, to serve as a single referenceable source for this type of information.

  3. Investigation of the Concussion Goggle™ Education Program with Secondary School Athletic Teams: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. Payne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have investigated different types of concussion education programs within various populations with mixed results. To date, no research has been published using the Concussion Goggles™ educational program Objective: To compare secondary school student-athletes’ knowledge about concussions before and after attending a concussion education program using the Concussion Goggles™. Design: Pre- posttest. Setting: Public secondary school. Patients or Other Participants: 41 secondary school students (14 girls soccer players, 14 boys basketball players, and 13 girls basketball players with a mean age of 15.37 ± 1.22 years. Intervention(s: Participants completed the Concussion Goggles™ concussion educational program consisting of PowerPoint slides with 3 activities and short video segments within the presentation. Participants completed a test developed by the manufacturers of the Concussion Goggles™ educational program prior to and following the intervention to measure change in concussion knowledge. Main Outcome Measure(s: A 3-way mixed factorial analysis of variance (sport x grade level x gender for repeated measures was utilized to determine statistical significance. Results: A statistically significant difference between the overall pretest (9.37 ± 1.20 and posttest (9.63 ± 1.04 scores was not found (p = 0.28. Repeated measures analysis did not indicate significant interaction effects for test score x grade (p = 0.18, test score x sport (p = 0.63, nor test score x grade x sport (p = 0.96. Conclusion: The Concussion Goggle™ education program did not affect participant knowledge of concussions in the posttest. In its current form, the Concussion Goggle™ program may not be an effective concussion education program.

  4. SEAWAT: A Computer Program for Simulation of Variable-Density Groundwater Flow and Multi-Species Solute and Heat Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    SEAWAT is a MODFLOW-based computer program designed to simulate variable-density groundwater flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. The program has been used for a wide variety of groundwater studies including saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, aquifer storage and recovery in brackish limestone aquifers, and brine migration within continental aquifers. SEAWAT is relatively easy to apply because it uses the familiar MODFLOW structure. Thus, most commonly used pre- and post-processors can be used to create datasets and visualize results. SEAWAT is a public domain computer program distributed free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Interfacial Interaction of Titania Nanoparticles and Ligated Uranyl Species: A Relativistic DFT Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Ming; Schreckenbach, Georg; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2017-03-06

    To understand interfacial behavior of actinides adsorbed onto mineral surfaces and unravel their structure-property relationship, the structures, electronic properties, and energetics of various ligated uranyl species adsorbed onto TiO 2 surface nanoparticle clusters (SNCs) were examined using relativistic density functional theory. Rutile (110) and anatase (101) titania surfaces, experimentally known to be stable, were fully optimized. For the former, models studied include clean and water-free Ti 27 O 64 H 20 (dry), partially hydrated (Ti 27 O 64 H 20 )(H 2 O) 8 (sol) and proton-saturated [(Ti 27 O 64 H 20 )(H 2 O) 8 (H) 2 ] 2+ (sat), while defect-free and defected anatase SNCs involving more than 38 TiO 2 units were considered. The aquouranyl sorption onto rutile SNCs is energetically preferred, with interaction energies of -8.54, -10.36, and -2.39 eV, respectively. Energy decomposition demonstrates that the sorption is dominated by orbital attractive interactions and modified by steric effects. Greater hydrogen-bonding involvement leads to increased orbital interactions (i.e., more negative energy) from dry to sol/sat complexes, while much larger steric interaction in the sat complex significantly reduces the sorption interaction (i.e., more positive energy). For dry SNC, adsorbates were varied from aquo to aquo-carbonato, to carbonato, to hydroxo uranyl species. Longer U-O surf /U-Ti distances and more positive sorption energies were calculated upon introducing carbonato and hydroxo ligands, indicative of weaker uranyl sorption onto the substrate. This is consistent with experimental observations that the uranyl sorption rate decreases upon raising solution pH value or adding carbon dioxide. Anatase SNCs adsorbing aquouranyl are even more exothermic, because more bonds are formed than in the case of rutile. Moreover, the anatase sorption can be tuned by surface defects as well as its Ti and O stoichiometry. All the aquouranyl-SNC complexes show similar

  6. Ethnobotanical Investigation for Conserving Home Garden’s Plants Species in Tambakrejo Sumbermanjing Wetan, Southern of Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Nila Pamungkas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, traditional knowledge of indigenous people is being widely threatened by current trends of economic globalization especially in destination tourism area such as Tambakrejo village, Sumbermanjing Wetan, Malang. This region includes Sempu Island as well as proposed protected area. Investigation aims were to know diversity of plants species that arranged home garden, used value of each plant species using ethnobotany indexes, and also to describe their methods of preparation and use of the significant plant. The study represents the first step to documenting significant utilitized of the species plant in home garden based on indigenous knowledge before it disappears. Data were collected by depth and semi structured interviews. Informations were about traditional uses of wild plants also cultivated ones. All the collected data were filled in a analytical table and for easier, data was grouped into ten categories, then continued with detailed of use. Data was calculated by using synthetic indexes, those are Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Cultural Importance Index (CI. One hundred and one plants were cited by the informants as being traditionally used in the area. These 100 ethnospecies belonging to 45 families. From 10 categories, most of them concerning allimentary, medical and economic plants. For the allimentary plants, 316 citation, 58 species and 5 different uses were recorded. While for the medical plants, there were 63 citations, 22 species and 4 different uses categories. A few plants species for others categories like erotion control. The study shows that traditional uses for plants especially at home garden still survives as part of the cultural heritage of the community, economic and also for daily activity.

  7. In vitro investigating of anticancer activity of focuxanthin from marine brown seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karkhane Yousefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women all over the world. Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer medicines for treating cancer but it has many side effects and cells may become resistant to these chemical medicines. Therefore, finding new compounds of natural origin could be a promising solution to this problem. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anticancer activity of fucoxanthin which is the most important carotenoid found in the marine brown seaweeds and diatoms. fucoxanthin has many properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and etc. due to its unique structure. Samples with different concentrations (10, 25 and 50 µg/ml and at various incubation times were collected (6, 24 and 48 hours from four different species (Padina tenuis, Colpomenia sinuosa, Iyengaria stellate and Dictyota indica of brown seaweeds from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Moreover, the anticancer activity of fucoxanthin-containing extracts on breast cancer cells line and normal human skin fibroblast cells line was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assay to specify the cytotoxic effects. The results showed that fucoxanthin extract from Dictyota. indica at 24-hour treatment and 50 µg/ml concentration has the most effective anticancer activity on the breast cancer cells line, without toxic effects to the normal cells. According to the obtained results, it seems that Dictyota. Indica is a good candidate for further analysis and can be introduced to the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Investigation of arsenic species in tailings and windblown dust from a gold mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, F B; Tappero, R; Sparks, D; Guilherme, L R G

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown the presence of high levels of arsenic (up to 2666 mg As kg(-1)) in tailings from a gold mining area of Brazil. This is an important point of attention, generating concerns about impacts on human health. Yet, a recent study showed that As bioaccessibility in the same area was very low (mine tailings and windblown dust is needed to explain this low bioaccessibility. Mine samples were collected from four subareas and windblown dust from eight sites. Synchrotron-based bulk-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (bulk-XANES) spectroscopy, micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μ-XANES), and μ-X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) spectroscopy were applied to determine As speciation. Bulk-XANES spectra indicated that As occurs as the As(V) oxidation state. Micro-XANES and μ-SXRF analyses revealed that As was also present as arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and its weathering products, but mostly it was As(V) as poorly crystalline ferric arsenate. This supports the findings of low bioaccessible As and highlights the importance of Fe oxides in immobilizing As in the terrestrial environment. All air particulate samples exhibited As-rich particles (up to 313 mg As kg(-1)). The air particulates exhibited solid-phase As species very similar to those found in the mine samples, which indicates that As in the windblown dust is not easily available.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Molecular Species Formation in Metal Plasmas During Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radousky, H.; Crowhurst, J.; Rose, T.; Armstrong, M.; Stavrou, E.; Zaug, J.; Weisz, D.; Azer, M.; Finko, M.; Curreli, D.

    2016-10-01

    Atomic and molecular spectra on metal plasmas generated by laser ablation have been measured using single, nominally 6-7 ns pulses at 1064 nm, and with energies less than 50 mJ. The primary goal for these studies is to constrain the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the distribution of radionuclides in fallout after a nuclear detonation. In this work, laser emission spectroscopy was used to obtain in situdata for vapor phase molecular species as they form in a controlled oxygen atmosphere for a variety of metals such as Fe, Al, as well as preliminary results for U. In particular, the ablation plumes created from these metals have been imaged with a resolution of 10 ns, and it is possible to observe the expansion of the plume out to 0.5 us. These data serve as one set of inputs for a semi-empirical model to describe the chemical fractionation of uranium during fallout formation. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This project was sponsored by the Department of the Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, under Grant Number HDTRA1-16-1-0020.

  10. A histoenzymological investigation of the caudal neurosecretory system in six species of freshwater teleosts: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A C

    1989-01-01

    Enzymecytochemical features of the caudal neurosecretory system of 6 species of freshwater teleosts, Gudusia chapra, Gonialosa manmina (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes), Oxygaster bacaila (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes), Mystus bleekeri (Bagridae, Cypriniformes), Sciaena coiter (Scienidae, Perciformes), and Mastacembelus pancalus (Mastacembelidae, Mastacembeliformes) have been investigated with the help of several specific histochemical techniques. No sex-dependent variation have been observed in the enzymecytochemical characteristics of the caudal neurosecretory system of the present species. The Dahlgren cells show intense RNA activity. Caudal neurosecretion lacks carbohydrate but seems to possess small amount of lipid. Acid-phosphatase is located in the Dahlgren cells and axons. Alkaline-phosphatase has been observed in the Dahlgren cells, axons, and urophysial blood-capillaries. Acetylcholine esterase is present in the Dahlgren cells, axons, and urophysis of Mystus, Mastacembelus, and Gonialosa, but lacking in the other 3 species. It is concluded that the caudal neurosecretory system of Mystus, Mastacembelus, and Gopialosa is innervated by cholinergic neurons. Despite their different taxonomic positions, caudal neurosecretory system of all 6 species produce similar responses to various enzymecytochemical tests, except for acetylcholine esterase.

  11. Feather barbs as a good source of mtDNA for bird species identification in forensic wildlife investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Camilla F; Nicholas, George P; Yang, Dongya Y

    2011-07-28

    The ability to accurately identify bird species is crucial for wildlife law enforcement and bird-strike investigations. However, such identifications may be challenging when only partial or damaged feathers are available for analysis. By applying vigorous contamination controls and sensitive PCR amplification protocols, we found that it was feasible to obtain accurate mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based species identification with as few as two feather barbs. This minimally destructive DNA approach was successfully used and tested on a variety of bird species, including North American wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), blue heron (Ardea herodias) and pygmy owl (Glaucidium californicum). The mtDNA was successfully obtained from 'fresh' feathers, historic museum specimens and archaeological samples, demonstrating the sensitivity and versatility of this technique. By applying appropriate contamination controls, sufficient quantities of mtDNA can be reliably recovered and analyzed from feather barbs. This previously overlooked substrate provides new opportunities for accurate DNA species identification when minimal feather samples are available for forensic analysis.

  12. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In this study, noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9 GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9 GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2 mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe3+, and Mn2+ complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1 h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds.

  13. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents? life skills development

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents? life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collecte...

  14. Borehole Plugging Program (Waste Disposal). Report 1. Initial Investigations and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Salt (TFC Purex) Salt (Kleer) Dolomite sand (-12) Limestone sand (-l6) Melment L-10 Plastiment Nopeo NXZ Bentonite Southwestern Portland...Basalite is calcined shale, Tufa is uncalcined tuff, and Frianite is pumicite. Testing Program and Procedures 11. The five mixtures selected for...Investigate the bonding properties of selected grout mixtures to various types of rock, e.g. dolomites , anhydrites, halites, sandstones, etc

  15. Investigation of administrative obstacles to family physician program in urban areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Javan noughabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is regarded as one of the basic rights of each person in society; so governments are obligated to provide it equally for everyone. The best way to achieve this goal is the establishment of health insurance with the orientation of family physician and the strategic referral system. Yet, such programs will not be successful without encouraging people to participate and changing social behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the administrative obstacles and problems to family physician program in urban areas of Iran. This study was a qualitative research conducted. A purposive sampling method was employed and the data were gathered via semi-structured interview with open-ended questions and document examination. All the interviews were recorded digitally and immediately transcribed verbatim. They were finally analyzed based on framework analysis. The participants' detailed descriptions showed that systemic, environmental, and human related factors were the main obstacles to the implementation of family physician plan. Since the success and performance of each program effectively cannot be obtained without people’s acceptance and collaboration, the necessity of training and giving information rapidly and timely to the residents in urban areas is felt more than ever. Also, making authorities aware of the obstacles expressed by people can be helpful in harmonizing the program with people’s requests; and can result in overcoming the challenges and obstacles facing the program.

  16. Fundamental Mechanistic Investigations of Silane and Chlorocarbon Addition to Low Valent Palladium Species and their Application to Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Mark J.

    2009-01-27

    The collaboration between Mark Fink (Tulane University) and R. Morris Bullock (Brookhaven National Laboratory, currently at PNL) is an effort to understand some of the fundamental processes involved in catalytic bond activations with low coordinate palladium species. The project involves the photochemical generation of reactive low-valent palladium species as transients using nanosecond laser flash photolysis and the subsequent investigation of their reactions with chloroarenes and hydrosilanes. In the case of Si-H activation of hydrosilanes, relatively long-lived sigma complexes are implicated. These complexes may be important models for C-H activation in hydrocarbons. The information obtained from these studies will help in the understanding of fundamental processes involved in a number of important catalytic reactions in the petrochemical and environmental areas.

  17. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  18. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Wetland Reserve Program enhances site occupancy and species richness in assemblages of anuran amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We measured amphibian habitat use to quantify the effectiveness of conservation practices implemented under the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), an initiative of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service. From February to June 2007, we quantified calling male anurans in cultivated cropland, former cultivated cropland restored through the WRP, and mature bottomland hardwood forest. Sites were located in two watersheds within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas and Louisiana, USA. We estimated detection probability and site occupancy within each land use category using a Bayesian hierarchical model of community species occurrence, and derived an estimate of species richness at each site. Relative to sites in cultivated cropland, nine of 1 l species detected were significantly more likely to occur at WRP sites and six were more likely to occur at forested sites. Species richness estimates were also higher for WRP and forested sites, compared to those in cultivated cropland. Almost half (45 %) of the species responded positively to both WRP and forested sites, indicating that patches undergoing restoration may be important transitional habitats. Wetland Reserve Program conservation practices are successful in restoring suitable habitat and reducing the impact of cultivation-induced habitat loss on amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

  20. Investigation of MONE Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006) According to Children Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur Musaoglu, Ebru; Haktanir, Gelengul

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, the preschoolers are being schooled under the guidelines of MONE (Ministry of National Education) Preschool Program for 36-72 Months Old Children (2006). The aim of this research is to investigate how children's rights are involved in this program. In this qualitative research based on document analysis, program book and Teacher Guide…

  1. Combined DFT and XPS investigation of enhanced adsorption of sulfide species onto cerussite by surface modification with chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qicheng; Wen, Shuming; Deng, Jiushuai; Zhao, Wenjuan

    2017-12-01

    This study systematically investigates the enhanced adsorption of sulfide species onto cerussite by surface modification with chloride through density functional theory calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Calculation results demonstrate obvious differences in the surface structures and electronic properties of cerussite after HS- adsorption in the absence and presence of chloride species. Surface modification with chloride promotes the stable adsorption of HS- onto the cerussite surface, and the hybridization of Pb 6p orbital at the surface layer and S 3p orbital from HS- is enhanced. Moreover, the reactivity of cerussite surfaces is enhanced by the occurrence of new DOS peaks of Pb 6p and S 3p near the Fermi level and by the transfer of additional electrons between the bonding atoms in the presence of chloride. Meanwhile, Mulliken population and XPS analysis results indicate that a slight oxidation is involved in the interaction between sulfide species and cerussite surfaces because of the presence of disulfide and polysulfide in the sulfidization products. In addition, a higher proportion of disulfide and polysulfide relative to the overall S is exhibited in the presence of chloride, facilitating the sulfidization flotation of cerussite.

  2. Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, Joel W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)], E-mail: jsnodgrass@towson.edu; Casey, Ryan E. [Department of Chemistry, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Joseph, Debra; Simon, Judith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Stormwater ponds have become common features of modern development and often represent significant amounts of open space in urbanized areas. Although stormwater ponds may provide habitat for wildlife, factors responsible for producing variation in wildlife use of ponds have received limited attention. To investigate the role of variation in species tolerances of pollutants in structuring pond-breeding amphibian assemblages, we exposed species tolerant (Bufo americanus) and not tolerant (Rana sylvatica) of urbanization to pond sediments in laboratory microcosms. Pond microcosms had elevated sediment metal levels and chloride water concentrations. Among R. sylvatica embryos, exposure to pond sediments resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, B. americanus embryos and larvae experienced only sublethal effects (i.e., reduced size at metamorphosis) due to pond sediment exposure. Our results suggest variation in pollutant tolerance among early developmental stages of amphibians may act in concert with terrestrial habitat availability to structure amphibian assemblages associated with stormwater ponds. - Variation among species in sensitivity to pollutants can influence stormwater pond amphibian assemblages.

  3. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  4. Investigating source water Cryptosporidium concentration, species and infectivity rates during rainfall-runoff in a multi-use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffer, Brooke A; Vial, Hayley M; King, Brendon J; Daly, Robert; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Monis, Paul T

    2014-12-15

    Protozoan pathogens present a significant human health concern, and prevention of contamination into potable networks remains a key focus for drinking water providers. Here, we monitored the change in Cryptosporidium concentration in source water during high flow events in a multi-use catchment. Furthermore, we investigated the diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes present in the source water, and delivered an oocyst infectivity fraction. There was a positive and significant correlation between Cryptosporidium concentration and flow (ρ = 0.756) and turbidity (ρ = 0.631) for all rainfall-runoff events, despite variable source water pathogen concentrations. Cell culture assays measured oocyst infectivity and suggested an overall source water infectious fraction of 3.1%. No infectious Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis were detected, although molecular testing detected C. parvum in 7% of the samples analysed using PCR-based molecular techniques. Twelve Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified using molecular techniques, and were reflective of the host animals typically found in remnant vegetation and agricultural areas. The inclusion of molecular approaches to identify Cryptosporidium species and genotypes highlighted the diversity of pathogens in water, which originated from various sources across the catchment. We suggest this mixing of runoff water from a range of landuses containing diverse Cryptosporidium hosts is a key explanation for the often-cited difficulty forming strong pathogen-indicator relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating an Intervention Program Linking Writing and Vocabulary Development for Homeless Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sinatra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented study investigated the effects of a four-week academic and activity – enriched summer program on vocabulary development and writing achievement of homeless children residing in traditional shelter facilities. When compared to controls the experimental students did not reveal gains in vocabulary and spelling as measured by two norm referenced tests. They did however demonstrate highly significant gains in writing ability based on the New York State standards criteria, reflecting five qualities of writing. On two project-developed instruments designed to measure improvement in book vocabulary and tennis skills, they showed significant increases based on analyses of their pre- and posttest scores. The program closed achievement gaps, fulfilled standards criteria, and may be the first of its kind in the homeless literature whereby students’ writing development was compared to matched controls as vocabulary development occurred based on literary readings.

  6. Investigating the Utilization of Research Evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H. Bikos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acquisition, interpretation, and utilization of research evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program from the frame of Social Cognitive Theory. Utilizing Consensual Qualitative Research, we interviewed twenty 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers from seven states. Results indicated four domains, which covered participants’ definitions of research utilization, their experiences utilizing research, the process of acquiring and distributing research, and barriers and facilitators to research utilization. Participants described research use primarily in terms of improving 4-H programs. They discussed their level of confidence (i.e. self-efficacy in finding and applying research evidence and their beliefs about the outcomes of research utilization (i.e. outcomes expectancy. Participants mentioned such barriers as not knowing where to look for research, lack of time, lack of funding, and difficulty applying research findings to their work. The facilitators included support from other 4-H colleagues and availability of 4-H specific conferences, publications, and curriculum databases.

  7. Investigating Species Boundaries within the Hard Coral Genus Goniopora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) from the Red Sea Using an Integrative Morphomolecular Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2015-12-01

    In the present study the species boundaries of the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were investigated. An integrated morpho-molecular approach was used to better clarify the complex scenario derived from traditional classification efforts based on skeletal morphology. Traditional taxonomy of this genus considers skeletal morphology first and polyp morphology as a secondary discriminating character. This leads to potential complication due to plasticity in skeletal features within a species. To address this issue, molecular analyses of evolutionary relationships between nine traditional morphospecies of Goniopora from the Red Sea were performed and were used to re-evaluate the informativeness of macromorphological and micromorphological features. Between four and six putative molecular lineages were identified within Goniopora samples from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea on the basis of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between Cytochrome b and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, the entire nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the ATP synthase subunit β gene, and a portion of the Calmodulin gene. The results were strongly corroborated by three distinct analyses of species delimitation. Subsequent analyses of micromorphological and microstructural skeletal features identified the presence of distinctive characters in each of the molecular clades. Unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. The proposed re-organization of Goniopora will resolve several taxonomic problems in this genus while reconciling molecular and morphological evidence. Reliable species-level identification of Goniopora spp. can be achieved with polyp morphology under the proposed revision.

  8. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an Intensive English (IE program using their IELTS (Academic, in-house exams and English Placement Tests (EPT scores, and the efficacy of IE program.  IELTS test is chosen for this study due to its increasing popularity in Malaysia and its internationally recognised value and quality.  The study was conducted in two parts. In Part One, all 72 Level 4 IE students were given an in-house EPT (English Placement Test pre-test on their entry and another EPT post-test on their exit, and then their pre-test and post-test results were compared.  In Part Two, 22 volunteers sat the IELTS test at the end of the program. The IELTS results of the 22 volunteers were compared with those who did not.  Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper hopes to shed some light on (i whether or not L2 learners’ English language proficiency can be significantly enhanced and influenced by an intensive English program and (ii how leaners’ perception of their own learning strategies influence their learning progress.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  10. Programmed cell death in barley aleurone cells is not directly stimulated by reactive oxygen species produced in response to gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Nozomi; Ishibashi, Yushi; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2014-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue that produces enzymes to hydrolyze the starchy endosperm during germination. We recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced in response to gibberellins (GA), promoted GAMyb expression, which induces α-amylase expression in barley aleurone cells. On the other hand, ROS levels increase during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone cells, and GAMyb is involved in PCD of these cells. In this study, we investigated whether the ROS produced in response to GA regulate PCD directly by using mutants of Slender1 (SLN1), a DELLA protein that negatively regulates GA signaling. The wild-type, the sln1c mutant (which exhibits gibberellin-type signaling even in the absence of GA), and the Sln1d mutant (which is gibberellin-insensitive with respect to α-amylase production) all produced ROS in response to GA, suggesting that ROS production in aleurone cells in response to GA is independent of GA signaling through this DELLA protein. Exogenous GA promoted PCD in the wild-type. PCD in sln1c was induced even without exogenous GA (and so without induction of ROS), whereas PCD in Sln1d was not induced in the presence of exogenous GA, even though the ROS content increased significantly in response to GA. These results suggest that PCD in barley aleurone cells is not directly stimulated by ROS produced in response to GA but is regulated by GA signaling through DELLA protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Lavandula angustifolia Mill. WHICH IS A PHYTOCOSMETIC SPECIES AND INVESTIGATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT IN COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Cesur Turgut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lavander (Lavandula sp. is a precious essential oil plant from the Lamiaceae family. There are 39 lavender species (Lavandula sp. most of which have Mediterranean origin and among them three have high commercial value. While the essential oil quality of the lavender species (British lavender is high the lavandin species (hybrid lavender have high essential oil yield [2, 52]. In this study, the content of the extracts obtained from Lavandula angustifolia, which were grown in Burdur Örtülü locality, was determined via HPLC and GC analysis and the anti-microbial effect of the essential oil L. angustifolia was investigated. The study was made with the dried flowers of L. angustifolia. Some of the dried flowers were extracted and the essential oil was distilled from the remaining part. Various phenolic compounds in the extract were quantitatively determined by HPLC. Quantitatively cafeic, rosemeric and the 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in the content in decreasing order. In the GC analysis 31 different compounds were determined: Linalool and Linalil Acetate having the highest concentration. Anti-microbial effect was determined against the most frequently encountered microorganisms in the cosmetics: Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus brasiliensis. According to the results it is concluded that the essential oil, L. angustifolia, can be used either directly or incorporated into the cosmetics without the necessity for any other extra preservative against the said microrganisms. According to the literature these microorganisms, which are frequently found in creams, cause various diseases. It was observed that the essential oil L. Angustifolia could completely remove the contamination caused by the said micro-organisms as of the 14. day.

  12. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  13. Effect of plant species compositions on performance of lab-scale constructed wetland through investigating photosynthesis and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shishu; Huang, Xiaochen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Wang, Li; Yang, Jixian

    2017-04-01

    This study focused on the effects of plant compositions on removal rates of pollutants in microcosms through investigating rhizosphere microbial populations, photosynthetic efficiency and growth characteristics. Mixed-culture groups improved the removal efficiency of TN and TP significantly but exhibited lower COD removal rates. Total plant biomasses were improved as the species richness increased, but the N/P content in the plants was mainly affected by the type of species. The mixed-culture groups showed lower photosynthesis rates and oxygen supply generated from roots under high irradiation. Microbial communities of the cultured groups in the rhizosphere exhibited significant differences. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the fungi were the typical microbes of SPA, SPAB, and SPABC, resulted in improvement in nutrient accumulation. These results demonstrated that a mixed culture strategy can represent the overyielding of biomass, promote the photo-protection mechanism, and will further increase the removal rates of pollutants in a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B M; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P; Roest, Hendrik I J

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms. On a voluntary base, 69 farmers, family members or farm workers from these 151 farms submitted a throat swab. All samples were tested with a generic 23S Chlamydiaceae PCR followed by a species specific PCR for C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. psittaci. C. avium and psittaci DNA was not detected at any of the farms. At 71 farms the positive result could be confirmed as C. gallinacea. Variables significantly associated with the presence of C. gallinacea in a final multivariable model were 'age of hens,' 'use of bedding material' and 'the presence of horses.' The presence of C. gallinacea was associated with neither clinical signs, varying from respiratory symptoms, nasal and ocular discharges to diarrhoea, nor with a higher mortality rate the day before the visit. All throat swabs from farmers, family members or farm workers tested negative for Chlamydia DNA, giving no further indication for possible bird-to-human (or human-to-bird) transmission.

  15. The Challenges of Red Wolf Conservation and the Fate of an Endangered Species Recovery Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Dennis L; Bastille‐Rousseau, Guillaume; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P

    2015-01-01

    ... by hybridization with closely related coyotes ( C. latrans ) and illegal human‐caused mortality. Ongoing review of the red wolf program in the single recovery area in North Carolina prompted us to compare demography...

  16. Public support for invasive alien species eradication programs: insights from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Vane, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the number of invasive alien species (IAS) has increasedworldwide. IAS can have negative impacts on biodiversity, human health, and the economy. For a number of reasons, IAS policies and management schemes that have been implemented have not been sufficient to tackle the

  17. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  18. Designing an E-Mentoring Program for Novice Teachers in Turkey and Investigating Online Interactions and Program Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemdag, Ecenaz; Erdem, Mukaddes

    2017-01-01

    In this collaborative research, we designed an e-mentoring program for novice teachers and explored online interactions between mentors and mentees, participant satisfaction, and the perceived benefits of the program for mentees and mentors. Our study included 14 mentees, 14 mentors, and 6 teacher educators. Data were gathered through online…

  19. Importance of well-designed monitoring programs for the conservation of endangered species: case study of the Snail Kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring natural populations is often a necessary step to establish the conservation status of species and to help improve management decisions. Nevertheless, many monitoring programs do not effectively address primary sources of variability in monitoring data, which ultimately may limit the utility of monitoring in identifying declines and improving management. To illustrate the importance of taking into account detectability and spatial variation, we used a recently proposed estimator of abundance (superpopulation estimator) to estimate population size of and number of young produced by the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. During the last decade, primary recovery targets set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the Snail Kite that were based on deficient monitoring programs (i.e., uncorrected counts) were close to being met (by simply increasing search effort during count surveys). During that same period, the Snail Kite population declined dramatically (by 55% from 1997 to 2005) and the number of young decreased by 70% between 1992?1998 and 1999?2005. Our results provide a strong practical case in favor of the argument that investing a sufficient amount of time and resources into designing and implementing monitoring programs that carefully address detectability and spatial variation is critical for the conservation of endangered species.

  20. Aerosol and snow transfer processes: An investigation on the behavior of water-soluble organic compounds and ionic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Padoan, Sara; Karroca, Ornela; Toscano, Giuseppa; Cairns, Warren R L; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    The concentrations of water-soluble compounds (ions, carboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars, phenolic compounds) in aerosol and snow have been determined at the coastal Italian base "Mario Zucchelli" (Antarctica) during the 2014-2015 austral summer. The main aim of this research was to investigate the air-snow transfer processes of a number of classes of chemical compounds and investigate their potential as tracers for specific sources. The composition and particle size distribution of Antarctic aerosol was measured, and water-soluble compounds accounted for 66% of the PM10 total mass concentration. The major ions Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42- made up 99% of the total water soluble compound concentration indicating that sea spray input was the main source of aerosol. These ionic species were found mainly in the coarse fraction of the aerosol resulting in enhanced deposition, as reflected by the snow composition. Biogenic sources were identified using chemical markers such as carboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars and phenolic compounds. This study describes the first characterization of amino acids and sugar concentrations in surface snow. High concentrations of amino acids were found after a snowfall event, their presence is probably due to the degradation of biological material scavenged during the snow event. Alcohol sugars increased in concentration after the snow event, suggesting a deposition of primary biological particles, such as airborne fungal spores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  2. Heterosis as investigated in terms of polyploidy and genetic diversity using designed Brassica juncea amphiploid and its progenitor diploid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Bansal

    Full Text Available Fixed heterosis resulting from favorable interactions between the genes on their homoeologous genomes in an allopolyploid is considered analogous to classical heterosis accruing from interactions between homologous chromosomes in heterozygous plants of a diploid species. It has been hypothesized that fixed heterosis may be one of the causes of low classical heterosis in allopolyploids. We used Indian mustard (Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; AABB as a model system to analyze this hypothesis due to ease of its resynthesis from its diploid progenitors, B. rapa (2n = 20; AA and B. nigra (2n = 16; BB. Both forms of heterosis were investigated in terms of ploidy level, gene action and genetic diversity. To facilitate this, eleven B. juncea genotypes were resynthesized by hybridizing ten near inbred lines of B. rapa and nine of B. nigra. Three half diallel combinations involving resynthesized B. juncea (11×11 and the corresponding progenitor genotypes of B. rapa (10×10 and B. nigra (9×9 were evaluated. Genetic diversity was estimated based on DNA polymorphism generated by SSR primers. Heterosis and genetic diversity in parental diploid species appeared not to predict heterosis and genetic diversity at alloploid level. There was also no association between combining ability, genetic diversity and heterosis across ploidy. Though a large proportion (0.47 of combinations showed positive values, the average fixed heterosis was low for seed yield but high for biomass yield. The genetic diversity was a significant contributor to fixed heterosis for biomass yield, due possibly to adaptive advantage it may confer on de novo alloploids during evolution. Good general/specific combiners at diploid level did not necessarily produce good general/specific combiners at amphiploid level. It was also concluded that polyploidy impacts classical heterosis indirectly due to the negative association between fixed heterosis and classical heterosis.

  3. The use of high-throughput DNA sequencing in the investigation of antigenic variation: application to Neisseria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Davies

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation occurs in a broad range of species. This process resembles gene conversion in that variant DNA is unidirectionally transferred from partial gene copies (or silent loci into an expression locus. Previous studies of antigenic variation have involved the amplification and sequencing of individual genes from hundreds of colonies. Using the pilE gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae we have demonstrated that it is possible to use PCR amplification, followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing and a novel assembly process, to detect individual antigenic variation events. The ability to detect these events was much greater than has previously been possible. In N. gonorrhoeae most silent loci contain multiple partial gene copies. Here we show that there is a bias towards using the copy at the 3' end of the silent loci (copy 1 as the donor sequence. The pilE gene of N. gonorrhoeae and some strains of Neisseria meningitidis encode class I pilin, but strains of N. meningitidis from clonal complexes 8 and 11 encode a class II pilin. We have confirmed that the class II pili of meningococcal strain FAM18 (clonal complex 11 are non-variable, and this is also true for the class II pili of strain NMB from clonal complex 8. In addition when a gene encoding class I pilin was moved into the meningococcal strain NMB background there was no evidence of antigenic variation. Finally we investigated several members of the opa gene family of N. gonorrhoeae, where it has been suggested that limited variation occurs. Variation was detected in the opaK gene that is located close to pilE, but not at the opaJ gene located elsewhere on the genome. The approach described here promises to dramatically improve studies of the extent and nature of antigenic variation systems in a variety of species.

  4. Disease risk and inter-institutional transfer of specimens in cooperative breeding programs: Herpes and the elephant species survival plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Thompson, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    Managers of cooperative breeding programs and re-introduction projects are increasingly concerned with the risk of disease transmission when specimens are transferred among facilities or between facilities and the natural environment. We used data maintained in North American studbooks to estimate the potential risks of disease transmission by direct and indirect contact of specimens in the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's Elephant Species Survival Plan. Histological evidence for a novel herpesvirus disease transmitted between and within elephant species housed in North American facilities prompted an examination of the scope of possible transmission routes within the captive population. We found that, compared with other species managed through Species Survival Plans, elephants experience relatively few transfers between zoos. Nevertheless, the number of direct contacts with other elephants born during the study period of 1983-1996 (excluding stillbirths) was much higher than we had anticipated (&mgr; = 25 +/- 27; N = 59) and the number of potential indirect contacts was surprisingly large (&mgr; = 143 +/- 92; N = 59). Although these high rates of potential contacts complicate exact identification of infection pathways for herpesvirus, we were able to propose potential routes of transmission for the histologically identified cases. Furthermore, the extraction of data from studbooks allowed us to readily identify other specimens that did not succumb to the disease despite similar exposure. Moreover, we were able to identify other possible cases to recommend for histological examination. Herein we reveal the possibilities of multiple disease transmission pathways and demonstrate how complex the patterns of transmission can be, confounded by the unknown latency of this novel herpesvirus. This emphasizes the need for zoo veterinarians and cooperative breeding programs to consider the full potential for disease transmission associated with each and every inter

  5. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the soil and sediment task. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, V.L.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist (WP/HSC) for a task of the Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation (WAG 2 RI&SI). Title 29 CFR Part 1910.120 requires that a health and safety program plan that includes site- and task-specific information be completed to ensure conformance with health- and safety-related requirements. To meet this requirement, the health and safety program plan for each WAG 2 RI&SI field task must include (1) the general health and safety program plan for all WAG 2 RI&SI field activities and (2) a WP/HSC for that particular field task. These two components, along with all applicable referenced procedures, must be kept together at the work site and distributed to field personnel as required. The general health and safety program plan is the Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169). The WP/HSCs are being issued as supplements to ORNL/ER-169.

  6. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  7. Pre-programmed robotic osteotomies for fibula free flap mandible reconstruction: A preclinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Albert H; Weimer, Katie; Raczkowsky, Joerg; Zhang, Yaokun; Kunze, Mirko; Cody, Dianna; Selber, Jesse C; Hanasono, Matthew M; Skoracki, Roman J

    2016-03-01

    Bony free flap reconstruction of the facial skeleton remains a challenging area of reconstructive surgery. Despite technological advances that have aided planning and execution of these procedures, surgical inaccuracy is not insignificant. One source of error that has not been wholly addressed is that attributable to a human operator. In this study, we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of performing osteotomies robotically in pre-programmed fashion for fibula free flap mandible reconstruction as a method to reduce inaccuracies related to human error. A mandibular defect and corresponding free fibula flap reconstruction requiring six osteotomies were designed on a CAD platform. A methodology was developed to translate this virtual surgical plan data to a robot (KUKA, Augsburgs, Germany), which then executed osteotomies on three-dimensional (3D) printed fibula flaps with the aid of dynamic stereotactic navigation. Using high-resolution computed tomography, the osteotomized segments were compared to the virtually planned segments in order to measure linear and angular accuracy. A total of 18 robotic osteotomies were performed on three 3D printed fibulas. Compared to the virtual preoperative plan, the average linear variation of the osteotomized segments was 1.3 ± 0.4 mm, and the average angular variation was 4.2 ± 1.7°. This preclinical study demonstrates the feasibility of pre-programmed robotic osteotomies for free fibula flap mandible reconstruction. Preliminarily, this method exhibits high degrees of linear and angular accuracy, and may be of utility in the development of techniques to further improve surgical accuracy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Annual Progress Report FY 93 (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Department of Clinical Investigation). Clinical Investigation Program. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    in response to prolonged and sev.--e gastroesophageal reflux (GER). The study objective is to normalize the intraesophageal pH with omeprazole (Losec...esophagitis with omeprazole . However, serum zinc levels remained low after healing, suggesting a longer period to replace the plasma zinc pool. 183 REPORT...investigators explore the data. 273 REPORT DATE: 12/16/92 WORK UNIT # 7521 DETAIL SUMMARY SHE"T TITLE: Pregnancy Attitudes, Ambivalence and Symptom Distress

  9. Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.

  10. Investigation of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Different Tissues of Persian Jird as Bioindicator Species in Darreh Zereshk, Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khazaee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Sr and Mg in hair, lung and femur tissues of Persian Jird as bioindicator species in different regions of Darreh Zereshk copper mine were investigated. In summer of 2012, a systematic random sampling was performed by using snap trap in different parts of the copper mine. Wet digestion method and ICP-OES instrument were applied for measurement of metal concentrations in different tissues. The concentrationS of Cd and Pb were reported below the detection limit of instrument. Results indicated that Ni and Cu in hair tissue and Mg and Sr in femur tissue of Persian Jird accumulate significantly more than in other tissues (PSr>Cr>Cu>Ni in different tissues. Generally, the female of Persian Jirds accumulate more heavy metals than males. The concentration of Cu in hair tissue of the first three regions and the concentration of Ni, Sr and Cr in the fourth region showed a significant difference compared with other regions.

  11. Using single-species toxicity tests, community-level responses, and toxicity identification evaluations to investigate effluent impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L.; Clayton, S.A.; Yu, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Wood, R.M.; Yin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are increasingly used to monitor compliance of consented discharges, but few studies have related toxicity measured using WET tests to receiving water impacts. Here the authors adopt a four-stage procedure to investigate the toxicity and biological impact of a point source discharge and to identify the major toxicants. In stage 1, standard WET tests were employed to determine the toxicity of the effluent. This was then followed by an assessment of receiving water toxicity using in situ deployment of indigenous (Gammarus pulex) and standard (Daphnia magna) test species. The third stage involved the use of biological survey techniques to assess the impact of the discharge on the structure and functioning of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. In stage 4, toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were used to identify toxic components in the effluent. Receiving-water toxicity and ecological impact detected downstream of the discharge were consistent with the results of WET tests performed on the effluent. Downstream of the discharge, there was a reduction in D. magna survival, in G. pulex survival and feeding rate, in detritus processing, and in biotic indices based on macroinvertebrate community structure. The TIE studies suggested that chlorine was the principal toxicant in the effluent.

  12. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  13. An Investigation of Possible Discriminating Earned Value Variables in Department of Defense Major Acquisition Program Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    S-curve (CDF). ......................................................................24 Figure 6. CV% rate of change for EFV program...DFAR Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation DoD Department of Defense EAC Estimate at Completion EFV Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle EMD... EFV ) program. This is an attempt to compare the rates of change of the cost and schedule variance for all sampled programs. Figure 6. CV% rate

  14. An Investigation of Factors Related to Self-Efficacy for Java Programming among Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Petek; Davenport, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…

  15. Fluorescent probes to investigate nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen species in biology (truncated form: fluorescent probes of reactive nitrogen species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Lindsey E; Lippard, Stephen J

    2010-02-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide and its higher oxides, play important roles in cell signaling during many physiological and pathological events. Elucidation of the exact functions of these important biomolecules has been hampered by the inability to detect RNS reliably under biological conditions. A surge of research into RNS chemistry has resulted in the design of a new generation of fluorescent probes that are specific and sensitive for their respective RNS analytes. Progress in the field of nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and nitroxyl sensing promises to advance our knowledge of important signaling events involving these species and lead to a better understanding of oxidative biochemistry crucial to health and disease. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GRAFEC: A New Spanish Program to Investigate Waste Management Options for Radioactive Graphite - 12399

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, Eva; Pina, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Marina [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense, 22, 28040-MADRID (Spain); Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz [Furnaces Nuclear Application Grenoble SAS (FNAG), 4, avenue Charles de Gaulle, 38800 Le Pont de Claix (France); Leganes Nieto, Jose Luis; Quiros Gracian, Maria [ENRESA, C/ Emilio Vargas,7 - 28043 - MADRID (Spain); Seemann, Richard [ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Wilhelm-Rohn-Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Spain has to manage about 3700 tons of irradiated graphite from the reactor Vandellos I as radioactive waste. 2700 tons are the stack of the reactor and are still in the reactor core waiting for retrieval. The rest of the quantities, 1000 tons, are the graphite sleeves which have been already retrieved from the reactor. During operation the graphite sleeves were stored in a silo and during the dismantling stage a retrieval process was carried out separating the wires from the graphite, which were crushed and introduced into 220 cubic containers of 6 m{sup 3} each and placed in interim storage. The graphite is an intermediate level radioactive waste but it contains long lived radionuclides like {sup 14}C which disqualifies disposal at the low level waste repository of El Cabril. Therefore, a new project has been started in order to investigate two new options for the management of this waste type. The first one is based on a selective decontamination of {sup 14}C by thermal methods. This method is based on results obtained at the Research Centre Juelich (FZJ) in the Frame of the EC programs 'Raphael' and 'Carbowaste'. The process developed at FZJ is based on a preferential oxidation of {sup 14}C in comparison to the bulk {sup 12}C. Explanations for this effect are the inhomogeneous distribution and a weaker bounding of {sup 14}C which is not incorporated in the graphite lattice. However these investigations have only been performed with graphite from the high temperature reactor Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor Juelich AVR which has been operated in a non-oxidising condition or research reactor graphite operated at room temperature. The reactor Vandellos I has been operated with CO{sub 2} as coolant and significant amounts of graphite have been already oxidised. The aim of the project is to validate whether a {sup 14}C decontamination can also been achieved with graphite from Vandellos I. A second possibility under investigation is the

  17. Investigations of the natural fission reactor program. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, G.A.; Norris, A.E. (eds.)

    1978-10-01

    The U.S. study of the Oklo natural reactor began in 1973 with the principal objectives of understanding the processes that produced the reactor and that led to the retention of many of its products. Major facets of the program have been the chemical separation and mass spectrometric analysis of the reactor components and products, the petrological and mineralogical examination of samples taken from the reactor zones, and an interdisciplinary modeling of possible processes consistent with reactor physics, geophysics, and geochemistry. Most of the past work has been on samples taken within the reactor zones. Presently, these studies give greater emphasis to the measurement of mobile products in additional suites of samples collected peripherally and ''downstream'' from the reactor zones. This report summarizes the current status of research and the views of U.S. investigators, with particular reference to the extensive work of the French scientists, concerning the main features of the Oklo natural fission reactor. Also mentioned briefly is the U.S. search for natural fission reactors at other locations.

  18. Analysis of investigations and practice-related backgrounds of preschool educational program Head Start (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Kuzmishina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to investigation of practice-related experience of preschool education abroad. It regards various aspects of preschool education and professional activities of educators in preschool educational settlements. The author analyzes the criteria of efficiency of preschool education as depending on duration of child education, preschoolers’ family backgrounds, peculiarities of family upbringing, professional quality of educators, professional and personal motivation of educators. The article touches upon the question of utilization of preschool educational programs for the purpose of diagnostics and intervention in case of child behavioral disorders. The article touches upon interrelations between child academic achievements, child self- regulation capacities and influence of parental close control on child self-dependence. Much attention is paid to the problem of social competence in present-day preschooler sand its development in preschool educational settlements. The conclusion, made in the article, states the importance of educator’s professional qualification and its influence on his/her professional efficiency and satisfaction.

  19. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Maçka Vocational School, Trabzon (Turkey); Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Rize (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  20. The simplicity of males: dwarf males of four species of Osedax (Siboglinidae; Annelida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-02-01

    Dwarf males of the bone-eating worms Osedax (Siboglinidae, Annelida) have been proposed to develop from larvae that settle on females rather than on bone. The apparent arrest in somatic development and resemblance of the males to trochophore larvae has been posited as an example of paedomorphosis. Here, we present the first investigation of the entire muscle and nervous system in dwarf males of Osedax frankpressi, O. roseus, O. rubiplumus, and O. "spiral" analyzed by multistaining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sperm shape and spermiogenesis, the sperm duct and internal and external ciliary patterns were likewise visualized. The males of all four species possess morphological traits typical of newly settled siboglinid larvae: a prostomium, a peristomium with a prototroch, one elongate segment and a second shorter segment. Each segment has a ring of eight long-handled hooked chaetae. The longitudinal muscles are distributed as evenly spaced strands forming a grid with the thin outer circular muscles. Oblique protractor and retractor muscles are associated with each of the chaetal sacs. The nervous system comprises a cerebral ganglion, a prototroch nerve ring, paired dorsolateral longitudinal nerves, five ventral longitudinal nerves with paired, posterior ganglia and a terminal commissure, as well as a net of fine peripheral transverse plexuses surrounding the first segment. Internal ciliation occurs as paired ventrolateral bands along the first segment. The bands appear to lead the free mature sperm to a ciliated duct and seminal vesicle lying just behind the prototroch region. A duct then runs from the seminal vesicle into the dorsal part of the prostomium. The similarity of Osedax males to the larvae of Osedax and other siboglinid annelids as well as similarities shown here to the neuromuscular organization seen in other annelid larvae supports the hypothesis of paedomorphosis in males of Osedax.

  1. The public and professionals reason similarly about the management of non-native invasive species: a quantitative investigation of the relationship between beliefs and attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Fischer

    Full Text Available Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732 in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control.

  2. The public and professionals reason similarly about the management of non-native invasive species: a quantitative investigation of the relationship between beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M H

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control.

  3. NCCN Oncology Research Program's Investigator Steering Committee and NCCN Best Practices Committee Molecular Profiling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Olszanski, Anthony; Akerley, Wallace; Arteaga, Carlos L; Carson, William E; Clark, Jeffrey W; DiPersio, John F; Ettinger, David S; Morgan, Robert J; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Venook, Alan P; Gocke, Christopher D; Tait, Jonathan; Stewart, F Marc

    2015-11-01

    With advances such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) increasing understanding of the basis of cancer and its response to treatment, NCCN believes it is important to understand how molecular profiling/diagnostic testing is being performed and used at NCCN Member Institutions and their community affiliates. The NCCN Oncology Research Program's Investigator Steering Committee and the NCCN Best Practices Committee gathered baseline information on the use of cancer-related molecular testing at NCCN Member Institutions and community members of the NCCN Affiliate Research Consortium through 2 separate surveys distributed in December 2013 and September 2014, respectively. A total of 24 NCCN Member Institutions and 8 affiliate sites provided quantitative and qualitative data. In the context of these surveys, "molecular profiling/diagnostics" was defined as a panel of at least 10 genes examined as a diagnostic DNA test in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory. Results indicated that molecular profiling/diagnostics are used at 100% of survey respondents' institutions to make patient care decisions. However, challenges relating to reimbursement, lack of data regarding actionable targets and targeted therapies, and access to drugs on or off clinical trials were cited as barriers to integration of molecular profiling into patient care. Frameworks for using molecular diagnostic results based on levels of evidence, alongside continued research into the predictive value of biomarkers and targeted therapies, are recommended to advance understanding of the role of genomic biomarkers. Greater evidence and consensus regarding the clinical and cost-effectiveness of molecular profiling may lead to broader insurance coverage and increased integration into patient care. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  4. Investigating Adult Literacy Programs through Community Engagement Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jaclyn Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a case study of an adult literacy program. The author conducted this IRB-approved study as part of a three-year, research-based, community-engagement project that partnered the literacy program with a writing center at a large public research university. The author argues that the participatory methods afforded…

  5. A Community Support Program for Children with Autism and Their Typically Developing Siblings: Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzak, Lauren A.; Cengher, Mirela; Feeley, Kathleen M.; Fienup, Daniel M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Siblings are a critical part of lifelong support for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). But siblings face their own social-emotional adjustment needs. These needs may be addressed through programs that include support groups specifically for the siblings. This study examined the effects of a community program on typical siblings'…

  6. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  7. An Empirical Investigation of the MBA Admission Criteria for Nontraditional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, M. Robert, Jr.; King, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An off-campus MBA program involved 467 nontraditional students in individual assignments and 2 intensive weekend classes. Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores, undergraduate grade point average, and work experience were the best predictors of success in the program. For those admitted as exceptions, GMAT score and undergraduate…

  8. Investigating Positive Psychology Approaches in Case Management and Residential Programming with Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Lara E.; Morrison, William; Peterson, Patricia; Domene, Jose F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how a rural Canadian secure custody facility for youth implemented positive psychology principles in its case management protocols and residential programming. A directed content analysis design was utilized to identify specific factors of positive psychology in the facility's policy and programming manual, as well as in…

  9. Experiences and Outcomes of a Women's Leadership Development Program: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brue, Krystal L.; Brue, Shawn A.

    2016-01-01

    Women's leadership training programs provide organizations opportunities to value women leaders as organizational resources. This qualitative research utilized phenomenological methodology to examine lived experiences of seven alumni of a women's-only leadership program. We conducted semi-structured interviews to clarify what learning elements…

  10. SP-Designer: a user-friendly program for designing species-specific primer pairs from DNA sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Pierre; Malausa, Thibaut

    2013-07-01

    SP-Designer is an open-source program providing a user-friendly tool for the design of specific PCR primer pairs from a DNA sequence alignment containing sequences from various taxa. SP-Designer selects PCR primer pairs for the amplification of DNA from a target species on the basis of several criteria: (i) primer specificity, as assessed by interspecific sequence polymorphism in the annealing regions, (ii) the biochemical characteristics of the primers and (iii) the intended PCR conditions. SP-Designer generates tables, detailing the primer pair and PCR characteristics, and a FASTA file locating the primer sequences in the original sequence alignment. SP-Designer is Windows-compatible and freely available from http://www2.sophia.inra.fr/urih/sophia_mart/sp_designer/info_sp_designer.php. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigation of the growth and development, essential oil and minerals content in two species of mint in hydroponics and aquaponics

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ghorbani; H. R Roosta

    2011-01-01

    Aquaponic is the combined culture of fish and plants. This experiment was arranged as a factorial in the framework of completely randomized design with two factors of growing system (aquaponics and hydroponics) and plant species (Mentha piperita and Mentha sativa) with 3 replications. The results showed that most growth factors of the two species were higher in hydroponics compared to aquaponics. Aerial parts and root fresh and dry mass, leaf area and number of nodes were higher in hydroponic...

  12. DoD Personnel: Weaknesses in Security Investigation Program Are Being Addressed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... The first phase is the personnel security investigation, in which Defense Security Service investigators corroborate information provided by the applicant, interview character references, and review...

  13. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents' life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors' use of effective strategies for teaching life skills.

  14. Life lessons after classes: investigating the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Park, Mirim; Jang, Kyunghwan; Park, Yongnam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an afterschool sport program on adolescents’ life skills development and to identify which characteristics of the program would have an influence on their life skills acquisition. The participants were six children (4 boys, 2 girls) who participated in a 12-week afterschool program implemented in two elementary schools, as well as the two program instructors who implemented the afterschool sport program. Data were collected from individual interviews with program participants and instructors. The inductive analysis of data revealed four categories of life skills developed through program participation: (1) playing well and being more active, (2) connecting well and having better social skills, (3) coping well and becoming a better problem solver, and (4) dreaming well and having a better sense of purpose. Regarding the characteristics of the program that influenced life skills development, three themes emerged: (1) having a clear goal and building consensus with stakeholders, (2) establishing a firm yet flexible structure, and (3) instructors’ use of effective strategies for teaching life skills. PMID:28367697

  15. Resiliency Training in Indian Children: A Pilot Investigation of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Sankaranarayanan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP in an urban Indian setting. The PRP is a program to prevent depression in early adolescence and has proved successful in changing children’s attributional style of life events. While the program has been successful in preventing symptoms of depression in Western populations, the current study explored whether this program could be effective with an Indian sample. The aim of the current study was twofold; first, to study the attributional style of early adolescents in India and identify negative effects (if any and second, to gain insights in using the PRP as a tool to change explanatory styles in Indian children. A total of 58 children participated in the study (Intervention group n = 29 and Control group n = 29. An Analysis of Covariance comparing post-test scores on Children’s Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ while controlling for baseline scores indicated that children in the intervention group exhibited a significant reduction in pessimistic explanatory style and an increase in optimistic orientation compared to children in the control group. This indicates that the program was effective in changing negative attribution styles among upper-class Indian school children. Future work may look into the longer impact of the program as well as further considerations into adapting the program for a middle class population.

  16. Identification of a New Mullet Species Complex Based on an Integrative Molecular and Cytogenetic Investigation of Mugil hospes (Mugilidae: Mugiliformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mullets are very common fishes included in the family Mugilidae, (Mugiliformes, which are characterized by both a remarkably uniform external morphology and internal anatomy. Recently, within this family, different species complexes were molecularly identified within Mugil, a genus which is characterized by lineages that sometimes show very different karyotypes. Here we report the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses conducted on Mugil hospes, commonly known as the hospe mullet, from Ecuador. The study aims to verify whether the original described species from the Pacific Ocean corresponds to that identified in the Atlantic Ocean, and to identify species-specific chromosome markers that can add new comparative data about Mugilidae karyotype evolution. The karyotype of M. hospes from Ecuador is composed of 48 acrocentric chromosomes and shows two active nucleolar organizer regions (NORs. In situ hybridization, using different types of repetitive sequences (rDNAs, U1 snDNA, telomeric repeats as probes, identified species-specific chromosome markers that have been compared with those of other species of the genus Mugil. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequence analysis shows only 92–93% similarity with sequences previously deposited under this species name in GenBank, all of which were from the Atlantic Ocean. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate the presence of three well-supported hospe mullet lineages whose molecular divergence is compatible with the presence of distinct species. Indeed, the first lineage includes samples from Ecuador, whereas the other two lineages include the Atlantic samples and correspond to M. brevirostris from Brazil and Mugil sp. R from Belize/Venezuela. Results here provided reiterate the pivotal importance of an integrative molecular and cytogenetic approach in the reconstruction of the relationships within Mugilidae.

  17. Using multi-scale sampling and spatial cross-correlation to investigate patterns of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Land managers need better techniques to assess exoticplant invasions. We used the cross-correlationstatistic, IYZ, to test for the presence ofspatial cross-correlation between pair-wisecombinations of soil characteristics, topographicvariables, plant species richness, and cover ofvascular plants in a 754 ha study site in RockyMountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Using 25 largeplots (1000 m2) in five vegetation types, 8 of 12variables showed significant spatial cross-correlationwith at least one other variable, while 6 of 12variables showed significant spatial auto-correlation. Elevation and slope showed significant spatialcross-correlation with all variables except percentcover of native and exotic species. Percent cover ofnative species had significant spatialcross-correlations with soil variables, but not withexotic species. This was probably because of thepatchy distributions of vegetation types in the studyarea. At a finer resolution, using data from ten1 m2 subplots within each of the 1000 m2 plots, allvariables showed significant spatial auto- andcross-correlation. Large-plot sampling was moreaffected by topographic factors than speciesdistribution patterns, while with finer resolutionsampling, the opposite was true. However, thestatistically and biologically significant spatialcorrelation of native and exotic species could only bedetected with finer resolution sampling. We foundexotic plant species invading areas with high nativeplant richness and cover, and in fertile soils high innitrogen, silt, and clay. Spatial auto- andcross-correlation statistics, along with theintegration of remotely sensed data and geographicinformation systems, are powerful new tools forevaluating the patterns and distribution of native andexotic plant species in relation to landscape structure.

  18. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, manages archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. The SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1994.

  19. An investigation of boron-toxicity in leaves of two citrus species differing in boron-tolerance using comparative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Huang, Zeng-Rong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-06-18

    Limited data are available on boron (B)-toxicity-responsive proteins in plants. We first applied 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the effects of B-toxicity on leaf protein profiles in B-tolerant Citrus sinensis and B-intolerant Citrus grandis seedlings, and identified 27 (20) protein species with increased abundances and 23 (25) protein species with decreased abundances from the former (latter). Generally speaking, B-toxicity increased the abundances of protein species involved in antioxidation and detoxification, proteolysis, cell transport, and decreased the abundances of protein species involved in protein biosynthesis in the two citrus species. The higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis might include following several aspects: (a) protein species related to photosynthesis and energy metabolism in C. sinensis leaves were more adaptive to B-toxicity than in C. grandis ones, which was responsible for the higher photosynthesis and for the better maintenance of energy homeostasis in the former; and (b) the increased requirement for detoxification of reactive oxygen species and cytotoxic compounds due to decreased photosynthesis was less in B-toxic C. sinensis leaves than in B-toxic C. grandis ones. B-toxicity-responsive protein species involved in coenzyme biosynthesis differed between the two species, which might also contribute to the higher B-tolerance of C. sinensis. B-toxicity occurs in many regions all over the world, especially in arid and semiarid regions due to the raising of B-rich water tables with high B accumulated in topsoil. In China, B-toxicity often occurs in some citrus orchards. However, the mechanisms of citrus B-tolerance are still not fully understood. Here, we first used 2-DE to identify some new B-toxicity-responsive-proteins involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, antioxidation and detoxification, signal transduction and nucleotide metabolism. Our results showed that proteins involved in photosynthesis and energy metabolism

  20. Investigating the Optimal Management Strategy for a Healthcare Facility Maintenance Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaillard, Daria

    2004-01-01

    ...: strategic partnering with an equipment management firm. The objective of this study is to create a decision-model for selecting the optimal management strategy for a healthcare organization's facility maintenance program...

  1. Pilot Investigation of the Katie Brown Educational Program: A School-Community Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C; Rizzo, Christie J; Nieves, Amethys V; Brown, Larry K

    2016-04-01

    Schools in the United States are increasingly being urged to address the problem of adolescent dating violence (DV) with their students. Given the limited time available to implement prevention programming during the school day, brief programs are needed. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a widely disseminated, brief community-based DV prevention program in partnership with a nonprofit community agency. We conducted a randomized waitlist control trial of a 5-session DV prevention program (active condition) compared to health class as usual (waitlist control condition). Participants were 225 10th-grade students with a recent dating history in a large public school in New England. Surveys were administered at baseline, end of program, and 3 months postintervention. After completing the program, students in the active condition reported significantly lower approval of aggression, healthier dating attitudes, and more DV knowledge. These effects were sustained at 3-month follow-up. In addition, students in the active condition reported significantly less emotional/verbal and total DV perpetration and victimization at 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that a brief, community-based DV prevention curriculum can promote change in behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge among high school students. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  2. Multidisciplinary scientific program of investigation of the structure and evolution of the Demerara marginal plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Roest, Walter; Graindorge, David; Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Klinghelhoefer, Frauke; Heuret, Arnauld; Pattier, France; Tallobre, Cedric; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Poetisi, Ewald; Loubrieu, Benoît; Iguanes, Dradem, Margats Scientific Parties, Plus

    2017-04-01

    Mercier de Lépinay et al. published in 2016 an updated inventory of transform passive margins in the world. This inventory shows that those margins represent 30% of continental passive margins and a cumulative length of 16% of non-convergent margins. It also highlights the fact that many submarine plateaus prolong transform continental margins, systematically at the junction of oceanic domains of different ages. In the world, we identified twenty of those continental submarine plateaus (Falklands, Voring, Demerara, Tasman, etc). Those marginal plateaus systematically experiment two phases of deformation: a first extensional phase and a second transform phase that allows the individualization of those submarine reliefs appearing on bathymetry as seaward continental-like salients. The understanding of the origin, nature, evolution of those marginal plateaus has many scientific and economic issues. The Demerara marginal plateau located off French Guiana and Surinam belongs to this category of submarine provinces. The French part of this plateau has been the locus of a first investigation in 2003 in the framework of the GUYAPLAC cruise dedicated to support French submissions about extension of the limit of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. This cruise was the starting point of a scientific program dedicated to geological investigations of the Demerara plateau that was sustained by different cruises and collaborations (1) IGUANES (2013) that completed the mapping of this plateau including off Surinam, allowed to better understand the segmentation of the Northern edge of this plateau, and to evidence the combined importance of contourite and mass-wasting processes in the recent sedimentary evolution of this domain, (2) Collaboration with TOTAL (Mercier de Lépinay's PhD thesis) that allowed to better qualify the two main phases of structural evolution of the plateau respectively during Jurassic times for its Western border, Cretaceous times for its

  3. A new model for catalyzing translational science: the early stage investigator mentored research scholar program in HIV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Blythe J S; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Sopher, Carrie J; Flood, Danna M; Johnson, R Paul; Haynes, Barton F; Kublin, James G

    2015-04-01

    Engagement of early stage investigators (ESIs) in the search for a safe and effective vaccine is critical to the success of this highly challenging endeavor. In the wake of disappointing results from a large-scale efficacy trial, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) developed a novel mentored research program focused on the translation of findings from nonhuman primate studies to human trials of experimental vaccines. From 2008 to 2011, 14 ESI Scholars were selected from 42 complete applications. Post program surveys and tracked outcomes suggest that the combination of flexible funding, transdisciplinary mentorship, and structured training and networking promoted the scientific contributions and career development of promising ESIs. Embedding a multicomponent research program within collaborative clinical trial networks and research consortia is a promising strategy to attract and retain early career investigators and catalyze important translational science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Investigation and Development of Competency Standards and Certification Requirements for Secondary-Level Vocational Foodservice Programs. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usiewicz, Ronald A.

    An investigation ascertained, analyzed, and documented competency standards and certification requirements for secondary-level vocational food service programs. A literature review produced no instruments used in past studies to measure the attitudes of food service professionals toward task competencies. Six occupations were selected for the…

  5. A Mentor Training Program Improves Mentoring Competency for Researchers Working with Early-Career Investigators from Underrepresented Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O.; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective…

  6. Profiles of Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Investigation into the Nature of Selected Exemplary Programs in Jamaica and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sherwood, Heather

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study investigated three exemplary pre-service teacher education programs in Jamaica and Michigan in order to provide an account of how they are structured in different contexts of tertiary institutions and, to identify how they ensure that their graduates are prepared to function effectively in today's schools. Five…

  7. A Qualitative Investigation into the Experience of Neuro-Linguistic Programming Certification Training among Japanese Career Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Although the application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has been reported worldwide, its scientific investigation is limited. Career consulting is one of the fields where NLP has been increasingly applied in Japan. This study explored why career consultants undertake NLP training, and what they find most useful to their practice. Thematic…

  8. Small mammal investigation in spotted fever focus with DNA-barcoding and taxonomic implications on rodents species from Hainan of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang; Chesters, Douglas; Zhang, Wen; Li, Guichang; Ma, Ying; Ma, Huailei; Song, Xiuping; Wu, Haixia; Meng, Fengxia; Zhu, Chaodong; Liu, Qiyong

    2012-01-01

    Although mammals are a well-studied group of animals, making accurate field identification of small mammals is still complex because of morphological variation across developmental stages, color variation of pelages, and often damaged osteological and dental characteristics. In 2008, small mammals were collected for an epidemiological study of a spotted fever outbreak in Hainan, China. Ten species of small mammals were identified by morphological characters in the field, most using pelage color characters only. The study is extended here, in order to assess whether DNA barcoding would be suitable as an identification tool in these small mammals. Barcode clusters showed some incongruence with morphospecies, especially for some species of Rattus and Niviventer, so molecular delineation was carried out with an expanded dataset of combined cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. COI sequences were successfully amplified from 83% of collected mammals, but failed in all specimens of Suncus murinus, which were thus excluded in DNA barcoding analysis. Of note, ten molecular taxonomic units were found from samples of nine morphologically identified species. Accordingly, 11 species of small mammals were present in the investigated areas, including four Rattus species, three Niviventer species, Callosciurus erythraeus, Neohylomys hainanensis, Tupaia belangeri, and Suncus murinus. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and molecular delineation analyses, the systematic status of some rodent species should be redefined. R. rattus hainanicus and R. rattus sladeni are synonyms of R. andamanensis. R. losea from China and Southeast Asia comprises two independent species: R. losea and R. sakeratensis. Finally, the taxonomic status of three putative species of Niviventer should be further confirmed according to morphological, molecular and ecological characters.

  9. An investigation of inorganic antimony species and antimony associated with soil humic acid molar mass fractions in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steely, Sarah [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869, West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869, West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: dula@hampshire.edu; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The presence of antimony compounds is often suspected in the soil of apple orchards contaminated with lead arsenate pesticide and in the soil of shooting ranges. Nitric acid (1 M) extractable Sb from the shooting range (8300 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) and the apple orchard (69 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) had considerably higher surface Sb levels than the control site (<1.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and Sb was confined to the top {approx}30 cm soil layer. Sb(V) was the principal species in the shooting range and the apple orchard surface soils. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis of humic acids isolated from the two contaminated soils demonstrated that Sb has complexed to humic acid molar mass fractions. The results also indicate that humic acids have the ability to arrest the mobility of Sb through soils and would be beneficial in converting Sb(III) to a less toxic species, Sb(V), in contaminated areas. - The soil surface and depth distribution Sb(V) and Sb(III) species in a contaminated apple orchard and a shooting range, and the effect soil humic acids on inorganic antimony species is reported.

  10. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  11. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological, and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research, and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1993.

  12. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Fiscal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Mark J.; Brooks, Richard D.; Sassaman, Kenneth E.; Crass, David C.; Stephenson, D. Keith; Green, William; Rinehart, Charles J.; Lewis, George S.; Fuglseth, Ty; Krawczynski, Keith; Warnock, D. Mark

    1991-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1991.

  13. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, fiscal year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Mark J.; Brooks, Richard D.; Sassaman, Kenneth E.; Crass, David C.; Lewis, George S.; Stephenson, D. Keith; Green, William; Anderson, David G.; Fuglseth, Ty

    1990-11-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, is funded through a direct contract with the United States Department of Energy to provide services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of most archaeological resources is dependent upon research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An on-going research program provides the problems, methods and means of assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In addition, the SRARP maintains an active program of public education to disseminate knowledge about prehistory and history, and to enhance public awareness about historic preservation. The following report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1990.

  14. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Gandhi, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Mentoring is increasingly recognized as a critical element in supporting successful careers in academic research in medicine and related disciplines, particularly for trainees and early career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Mentoring is often executed ad hoc; there are limited programs to train faculty to become more effective mentors, and the few that exist have a dearth of empirical support of their impact. In 2013, we recruited 34 faculty from across the US engaged in HIV-related clinical research to participate in a 2-day Mentoring the Mentors workshop. The workshop included didactic and interactive content focused on a range of topics, such as mentor-mentee communication, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, understanding the impact of diversity (unconscious bias, microaggressions, discrimination, tokenism) for mentees, and specific tools and techniques for effective mentoring. Pre- and post-workshop online evaluations documented high rates of satisfaction with the program and statistically significant improvements in self-appraised mentoring skills (e.g. addressing diversity in mentoring, communication with mentees, aligning mentor-mentee expectations), as assessed via a validated mentoring competency tool. This is the first mentoring training program focused on enhancing mentors' abilities to nurture investigators of diversity, filling an important gap, and evaluation results offer support for its effectiveness. Results suggest a need for refinement and expansion of the program and for more comprehensive, long-term evaluation of distal mentoring outcomes for those who participate in the program.

  15. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time.

  16. Family Matters: An Investigation of Family Coursework in School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, J. Richelle; Harris, Pamela N.

    2016-01-01

    School counselors are expected to form collaborative relationships with the families of students. Yet, school counselors have limited knowledge about families to form these partnerships, as a descriptive content analysis of the family coursework requirements in CACREP-accredited school counseling programs in the southern region revealed that most…

  17. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  18. Programmed Lab Experiments for Biochemical Investigation of Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules in Rhizospheric Soil Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, Fiorela L.; Bogino, Pablo C.; Giordano, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Biochemistry courses in the Department of Molecular Biology at the National University of Río Cuarto, Argentina, are designed for undergraduate students in biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, and veterinary medicine. Microbiology students typically have previous coursework in general, analytical, and organic chemistry. Programmed sequences…

  19. Measuring Parental Treatment Adherence in a Multimodal Treatment Program for Children with ADHD: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Craig; Reddy, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance of measuring between session parental adherence on child and parent outcomes for 51 children (age 4 to 8.5 years) with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a multimodal group training program. Three group treatment conditions: (a) child-only treatment (C1), (c) child and parent training…

  20. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Rebecca Lee Su

    2014-01-01

    Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP) still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001). The purpose of this paper is to present the…

  1. Investigating a Developmentally Focused Youth Sports Program for Girls in Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feathers, Rebecca Zarzycki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact the Girls on the Run (GOTR) program had on the New Castle County, Delaware, third, fourth, and fifth grade girls who participated in the spring 2011 season. Specifically, this study examined short-term changes in the participants as they related to self-esteem, body image, physical activity…

  2. Notification: Background Investigation Services Project Notification US Virgin Islands Environmental Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects #OPE-FY14-0004, OPE-FY14-0005 and OPE-FY14-0006, October 30, 2013. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on October 30, 2013 into the environmental programs the US Virgin Islands (USVI) has implemented on EPA’s behalf.

  3. Community and species-specific responses of wild bees to insect pest control programs applied to a pollinator-dependent crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Wild bee conservation is regarded as essential for sustainable production of pollinator-dependent crops, yet little is known about the effects on wild bee communities of typical insect pest management programs used postbloom. We developed an insecticide program risk (IPR) index to quantify the relative risk to wild bees of insecticide programs applied to blueberry fields. This was used to determine the relationship between IPR and the abundance, diversity, and richness of wild bee communities sampled during three successive flowering seasons. In 2 of 3 yr, bee abundance and species richness declined with increasing IPR. Bee diversity declined with IPR in one of 3 yr. These results indicate that wild bee communities are negatively affected by increasingly intensive chemical pest management activities in crop fields and that interyear variability in bee populations has the potential to mask such effects in short-term studies. When several wild bee species were analyzed separately, two of three solitary and one of three social blueberry-foraging species declined with increasing IPR values, suggesting that different life histories and nesting habits may help some bee populations escape the negative effects of insecticides applied after bloom. Pollinator conservation programs aimed strictly at reducing insecticide use may have varying success, depending on the biology of the target bee species. The IPR index provides a standard method to compare pest management programs for their potential effect on wild bee communities, with broad application for use in other agricultural systems.

  4. An experimental study investigating the ability of volunteers to identify squirrel species from tail–hair samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer, L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair–tubes, collecting nape hairs, are widely used for establishing the presence of red (Sciurus vulgaris and grey (Sciurus carolinensis squirrels. However it is time–consuming and prone to identification errors. An alternative is to collect tail hairs from sticky pads on baited poles. However, there is no evidence concerning identification accuracy of tail hairs. This study reports an experiment in which subjects underwent a short training session before identifying hair samples from four species. There was a 96.5% correct identification rate for grey squirrel hairs, and 77.5% for red squirrels, which suggests that tail hairs collection may provide a quick, easy and accurate method of identification for both species.

  5. Laboratory Investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus as a Potential Reservoir Host Species for Monkeypox Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s. In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats and this rodent species' competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4 or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4; an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i. (up to 1X108 pfu/ml, with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.

  6. Laboratory Investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a Potential Reservoir Host Species for Monkeypox Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Christina L. Hutson; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Joshua Self; Olson, Victoria A.; Regnery, Russell L.; Zachary Braden; Sonja Weiss; Jean Malekani; Eddie Jackson; Mallory Tate; Karem, Kevin L.; Tonie E Rocke; Osorio, Jorge E; Inger K. Damon; Carroll, Darin S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricet...

  7. Laboratory Investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a Potential Reservoir Host Species for Monkeypox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Christina L; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Self, Joshua; Olson, Victoria A; Regnery, Russell L; Braden, Zachary; Weiss, Sonja; Malekani, Jean; Jackson, Eddie; Tate, Mallory; Karem, Kevin L; Rocke, Tonie E; Osorio, Jorge E; Damon, Inger K; Carroll, Darin S

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats) and this rodent species' competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu) from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4) or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4); an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV) between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i.) (up to 1X108 pfu/ml), with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini) can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.

  8. Scale Expansion of Community Investigations and Integration of the Effects of Abiotic and Biotic Processes on Maintenance of Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the maintenance of diversity patterns from regional to local scales is dispersed among academic fields due to the local focus of community ecology. To better understand these patterns, the study of ecological communities needs to be expanded to larger scales and the various processes affecting them need to be integrated using a suitable quantitative method. We determined a range of communities on a flora-subregional scale in Yunnan province, China (383210.02 km2. A series of species pools were delimited from the regional to plot scales. Plant diversity was evaluated and abiotic and biotic processes identified at each pool level. The species pool effect was calculated using an innovative model, and the contribution of these processes to the maintenance of plant species diversity was determined and integrated: climate had the greatest effect at the flora-subregional scale, with historical and evolutionary processes contributing ∼11%; climate and human disturbance had the greatest effect at the local site pool scale; competition exclusion and stress limitation explained strong filtering at the successional stage pool scale; biotic processes contributed more on the local community scale than on the regional scale. Scale expansion combined with the filtering model approach solves the local problem in community ecology.

  9. Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae; Close-Out Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J.; Dunahay, T.; Benemann, J.; Roessler, P.

    1998-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program was a relatively small research effort intended to look at the use of aquatic plants as sources of energy. Its history dates back to 1978, but much of the research from 1978 to 1982 focused on using algae to produce hydrogen. The program switched emphasis to other transportation fuels, particularly biodiesel, beginning in the early 1980's. This report summarizes the research activities carried out from 1980 to 1996, with an emphasis on algae for biodiesel production.

  10. The Investigation of Physical Performance Status of Visually and Hearing Impaired Applying Judo Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the physical performances of visually and hearing impaired doing judo training in this study. 32 male athletes, who were doing judo training, volunteer and, visually and hearing impaired, participated in this study. The investigation was applied to visually impaired (N = 12, mean ± SD; age: 25.75 ± 3.55 years, height:…

  11. Computer-based programs on acquisition of reading skills in schoolchildren (review of contemporary foreign investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of 17 computer-based programs, which were used over the last 5 years (2008—2013 in 15 studies of computer-assisted reading instruction and intervention of schoolchildren. The article includes a description of specificity of various terms used in the above-mentioned studies and the contents of training sessions. The article also carries out a brief analysis of main characteristics of computer-based techniques — language of instruction, age and basic characteristics of students, duration and frequency of training sessions, dependent variables of education. Special attention is paid to efficiency of acquisition of different reading skills through computer-based programs in comparison to traditional school instruction.

  12. An Investigation of Undergraduate Athletic Training Students' Learning Styles and Program Admission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmans, Catherine L.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Langley, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The phrase learning style refers to the method one uses to obtain and use information to learn. Personal learning styles can be assessed by specifically designed inventories. We conducted this study to determine if undergraduate athletic training students possess a dominant learning style, according to the Kolb Learning Style Inventory IIA (KLSI IIA), the newest version of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (KLSI), and whether this style is related to education program admission success. Design and Setting: A 1 × 4 factorial design was used. The independent variable was learning style type with 4 levels (converger, diverger, assimilator, or accommodator). The dependent variable was successful versus unsuccessful admission into selected programs. Subjects: Forty undergraduate students (21 men, 19 women) from 3 institutions (mean ± SD age, 20.7 ± 1.7 years; mean ± SD grade point average, 3.26 ± 0.43) participated in this study. No subjects had previously taken the KLSI IIA, and none had a diagnosed learning disability. Measurements: The KLSI IIA was administered to the participants at their respective institutions. We used 2 separate χ2 analyses to determine if the observed distribution of learning styles differed from the expected distribution. Additionally, a Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine if the learning style distributions of those subjects who were successfully admitted to the selected programs differed from those who were not. Results: No significant differences existed between the observed distribution and the expected distribution for those admitted and those not admitted (χ23 = 3.8, P = .28; and χ23 = 3.1, P = .4, respectively). Also, no significant differences existed between the learning style distributions of the groups when compared with each other (Mann-Whitney U = 158, P = .5). Conclusions: Learning styles can be easily identified through the use of the KLSI IIA. We found no dominant learning style among undergraduate

  13. Investigating the key factors in designing a communication skills program for medical students: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical

  14. Investigating the key factors in designing a communication skills program for medical students: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., "The vast nature of the present communication skills training" and "administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills." The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical faculties in designing a proper program for

  15. Investigation of the effect of swimming programs on improving vocational relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Nazerian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recreational activities play important role on workers' health conditions and improve people's creativity. Steel industry is one of industries, where workers mainly face with hard working conditions. There are various techniques to help human resources increase their potentials such as providing recreational centers, athletic facilities, etc. In this paper, we study the impact of regular swimming exercises on improving the efficiency of employees in management level in a steel complex unit called Mobarakeh Steel Complex. In this company, there were about 85 middle level managers and supervisors and the proposed study selects 30 people, randomly and divides them into two equal groups. In the first stage of the study, questionnaire of vocational relation are distributed among the participants of this study and some important factors, which could improve vocational relationships are measured. Next, the experimental groups are invited to take part in some selective aerobic programs for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week and 1 hour and 15 minutes per session, regularly. Finally, we repeat the same experiments after the aerobic programs end and compare the results with the first one. The preliminary results indicate that the routine swimming programs have increased people self confidence, creativity and working group skills.

  16. Time and space resolved deep metagenomics to investigate selection pressures on low abundant species in complex environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    time and space resolved diversity of key species in the core EBPR community using available reference genomes and genomes assembled directly from metagenomes. A total of 500 Gb sequence was generated using Illumina HiSeq2000 for metagenomics and V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To track changes over time...... and between EBPR plants we sequenced a total of 10 samples from 3 different plants over a 3 year period at a depth of 25 Gb each. In addition, one time point was selected for deep sequencing, generating 200 Gb of sequence divided between replicates. Quantitative FISH analysis using >30 oligonucleotide probes...

  17. Evaluation of an Implementation Model : A National Investigation of VA Residential Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, Joan M.; Dinnen, Stephanie; Coyne, James C.; Thompson, Richard; Simiola, Vanessa; Ruzek, Josef; Schnurr, Paula P.

    This national investigation utilizes qualitative data to evaluate an implementation model regarding factors influencing provider use of two evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 198 mental health providers from 38 Department

  18. INTEGRATED CONSERVATION OF THE RARE AND ENDANGERED THERMOPHILOUS SPECIES CYPERUS POLYSTACHYUS: INVESTIGATION ON RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES AND SHORT-TERM ASSESSMENT OF TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. CROSTI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus polystachyus Rottb. is a threatened species occurring in Europe only in two sites located in wetland habitat in mediterranean Southern Italy. According to the IUCN red list for Italy (1997, the species is listed as critically endangered (CR. This study investigated recruitment and habitat limitations referred to the population located south of Rome, in the Tor Caldara Regional Reserve. The site is an isolated island of vegetation. Natural expansion of the species is highly limited by the absence of “wet” sites in the surroundings. Importantly the study also endorsed an “in wild translocation program”, which aimed to decrease the risk of species extinction linked to demographic stochasticity, extreme climatic events or mismanagement. Seed germination, seed and site limitations, and germplasm translocation were investigated. Seed viability and seed germination were tested at the Rome Botanical Garden; results showed that the species has high recruitment potential, especially in thermophilous conditions. Germplasm (seeds was translocated in a vegetation remnant within the Protected Area of Decima Malafede overseen by RomaNatura, a Regional Agency for the management of PAs, which, together with the National Environment Research Institute (ISPRA was one of the partners in this research. The site limitation and translocation studies were undertaken in a glade with a seasonal pond. Seeds were sown and seedlings planted within an experimental framework, protected by a metal cage to prevent grazing. The new site is within the natural dispersion range of the species in an area with similar ecological and biogeographic conditions. It is surrounded by thermophilous oak woodland and cultivated fields which exclude germplasm escape. Results showed that, due to the germination behaviour, the establishment is limited by the absence of microsites suitable for recruitment. Competition with perennial species and delayed germination are the main

  19. Endangered Species. Management Improvements Could Enhance Recovery Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    Extinction of animal and plant species has become a serious problem that threatens to become more acute in coming years. The endangered species program was established to prevent further extinctions and ultimately recover species designated as threatened or endangered through the development and implementation of species recovery plans. Concerned…

  20. Capillary electrophoresis investigation on equilibrium between polymer-related and surfactant-related species in aqueous polymer-surfactant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yefan; Chen, Miaomiao; Fang, Yun; Zhu, Meng

    2017-03-17

    It was inferred from aqueous solution behavior of nonionic polymers and anionic surfactants that the formation of charged polymer-bound surfactant micelle above critical aggregation concentration (cac) and the formation of free surfactant micelle beyond polymer saturation point (psp), but there was still a lack of direct experimental evidence for the considered equilibrium chemical species. Three modes of capillary electrophoresis are applied in this paper to study the complexation between nonionic polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) by successfully distinguishing the imaginary charged polymer-bound SDBS micelle from nonionic polymer and SDBS molecule. Perhaps even more important, it is the action of SDBS as both a main surfactant and a UV probe that makes the free surfactant micelle emerged in electropherogram beyond psp, and thus makes it possible for the first time to provide the equilibrium relationship of the polymer-related and the surfactant-related species in the concentration regions divided into by cac and psp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Noninvasive analysis of metabolic changes following nutrient input into diverse fish species, as investigated by metabolic and microbial profiling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiga Asakura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An NMR-based metabolomic approach in aquatic ecosystems is valuable for studying the environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals on fish. This technique has also contributed to new information in numerous research areas, such as basic physiology and development, disease, and water pollution. We evaluated the microbial diversity in various fish species collected from Japan’s coastal waters using next-generation sequencing, followed by evaluation of the effects of feed type on co-metabolic modulations in fish-microbial symbiotic ecosystems in laboratory-scale experiments. Intestinal bacteria of fish in their natural environment were characterized (using 16S rRNA genes for trophic level using pyrosequencing and noninvasive sampling procedures developed to study the metabolism of intestinal symbiotic ecosystems in fish reared in their environment. Metabolites in feces were compared, and intestinal contents and feed were annotated based on HSQC and TOCSY using SpinAssign and network analysis. Feces were characterized by species and varied greatly depending on the feeding types. In addition, feces samples demonstrated a response to changes in the time series of feeding. The potential of this approach as a non-invasive inspection technique in aquaculture is suggested.

  2. Seasonal variability and inter-species comparison of metal bioaccumulation in caged gammarids under urban diffuse contamination gradient: implications for biomonitoring investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Geffard, Olivier; Urien, Nastassia; François, Adeline; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

    2015-04-01

    Although caging of Gammarus species offers promising lines of inquiry to monitor metal bioavailability in freshwaters, the interspecies responsiveness to metal exposures is still unclear. In addition, abiotic factors inherent to transplantation can hamper the interpretation of field bioaccumulation data. To assess the relevance of using gammarids as biomonitors, we investigated the seasonal influence on metal bioaccumulation in two common species, Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum. During four seasons, caged gammarids were deployed on three sites along the Seine River exhibiting a diffuse gradient of multi-metal contamination: a site upstream and two sites downstream from the Paris megacity. For each seasonal deployment, metal concentrations in animals were determined after 7d-exposure in situ (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Results show that the seasonal patterns of metal contaminations are similar between both Gammarus species, and closely related to the river axis' contamination gradient. Statistical analyses indicate that bioaccumulation of essential metals in both species is influenced by season, especially by water temperature. This highlights the necessity to consider this climatic factor inherent to the deployment period for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation data in the field. The comparison of accumulation factors suggests that these two species coming from different geochemical origins display similar abilities to internalize metals. This generic responsiveness of caged gammarids supports their use as sentinel organisms to quantify low spatiotemporal variations in metal bioavailabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An investigation of a manipulative simulation in the learning of recursive programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Randall Wayne

    Recursion is a fundamentally important topic in computer science. Even so, it is often omitted in introductory courses, or discussed only briefly. This is likely due, at least in part, to the fact that teaching recursion has been difficult. Perhaps the biggest problem in teaching recursion is that there are few, if any, naturally existing examples of recursion in our lives. However, successful simulations have shown that the computer may hold the key to solving this problem. A simulation of recursion presented to students before formal classroom instruction can provide a foundation of concrete experiences to build upon. The challenge is to develop an appropriate simulation and lesson plan for introducing recursion to students early in their programming experience. This research reviews previous attempts at teaching recursion, including detailed lesson plans, mental models of recursion, and other simulations. Then, a new simulation and lesson plan for its use are described. The effectiveness of the simulation is studied using two groups of students enrolled in a college-level, introductory programming course. Results indicate that students who used the simulation as their first exposure to recursion gained a deeper understanding of recursion than students receiving a lecture-based introduction to recursion. Specifically, students who used the simulation required fewer attempts to complete a set of recursive programming exercises and performed better on a follow-up exam given six weeks after the experiment. This research concludes with a discussion of two important questions: How should students think about recursion and how do they think about recursion. The simulation's strengths and shortcomings in fostering effective ways of thinking about recursion are also discussed.

  4. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Kirsten; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Tick, Nouchka Tamar; Verhulst, Frank; Maras, Athanasios; Vegt, de, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) run several risks in their psychosexual development and that these adolescents can have limited access to reliable information on puberty and sexuality, emphasizing the need for specific guidance of adolescents with ASD in their psychosexual development. Few studies have investigated the effects of psychosexual training programs for adolescents with ASD and to date no randomized controlled trials are avai...

  5. Inadvertently programmed bits in Samsung 128 Mbit flash devices: a flaky investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G.

    2002-01-01

    JPL's X2000 avionics design pioneers new territory by specifying a non-volatile memory (NVM) board based on flash memories. The Samsung 128Mb device chosen was found to demonstrate bit errors (mostly program disturbs) and block-erase failures that increase with cycling. Low temperature, certain pseudo- random patterns, and, probably, higher bias increase the observable bit errors. An experiment was conducted to determine the wearout dependence of the bit errors to 100k cycles at cold temperature using flight-lot devices (some pre-irradiated). The results show an exponential growth rate, a wide part-to-part variation, and some annealing behavior.

  6. Biotic and abiotic factors investigated in two Drosophila species – evidence of both negative and positive fitness effects of interactions on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2017-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors acting in concert can interact and strongly influence population fitness and ecosystem composition. Studies investigating interactions usually involve only two environmental factors; most frequently a chemical and another abiotic factor such as a stressful temperatu...... the two. Furthermore, we found negative impacts on performance in only 60% of interactions, thus our study also reveals a high proportion of cases with positive effects of interactions........ Here we investigate the effects of three environmental factors: temperature, an insecticide (dimethoate) and interspecific co-occurrence. We expose two naturally co-occurring species of Drosophila (D. hydei and D. melanogaster) to the different environments during development and examine...... the consequences on several performance measures. Results are highly species and trait specific with evidence of two- and three-way interactions in approximately 30% of all cases, suggesting that additive effects of combined environmental factors are most common, and that interactions are not universal. To provide...

  7. Using professional certification criteria to assess occupational safety curricula in degree programs investigating accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Loushine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a novel assessment method developed to determine if the curriculum from two separate safety degree programs provided sufficient opportunity for students to obtain the knowledge required for professional practice in occupational safety. The method relies on the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP examination blueprints. In the graduate program case study, over 88% of the BCSP criteria were met through an explicit means and up to 64% through assignments or better. Aggregating criteria into respective subject areas showed that the curriculum covered anywhere from 58% to 100% of the items within each BCSP topic. In the undergraduate case study, over 96% of the BCSP criteria through an explicit means, and 82.8% of knowledge items were assessed in assignments, exams or better. Aggregating criteria into respective subject areas showed that the curriculum covered anywhere from 75% to 100% of the items within each BCSP topic. Once briefed on the results, all faculty/instructors agreed that the approach helped identify strengths and weaknesses in their current curriculum. Most importantly, presentation of results acted as a catalyst for curricular discussions amongst the faculty that resulted in improvement priorities and a better understanding of student learning potential in course assignments. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i2.113

  8. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program. Fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, M.J.; Brooks, R.D.; Sassaman, K.E.; Crass, D.C. [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) continued through FY95 with the United States Department of Energy to fulfill a threefold mission of cultural resource management, research, and public education at the Savannah River Site. Over 2,300 acres of land on the SRS came under cultural resources review in FY95. This activity entailed 30 field surveys, resulting in the recording of 86 new sites. Twenty-two existing sites within survey tract boundaries were revisited to update site file records. Research conducted by SRARP was reported in 11 papers and monographs published during FY95. SRARP staff also presented research results in 18 papers at professional meetings. Field research included several testing programs, excavations, and remote sensing at area sites, as well as data collection abroad. Seven grants were acquired by SRARP staff to support off-site research. In the area of heritage education, the SRARP expanded its activities in FY95 with a full schedule of classroom education, public outreach, and on-site tours. Volunteer excavations at the Tinker Creek site were continued with the Augusta Archaeological Society and other avocational groups, and other off-site excavations provided a variety of opportunities for field experience. Some 80 presentations, displays and tours were provided for schools, historical societies, civic groups, and environmental and historical awareness day celebrations. Additionally, SRARP staff taught four anthropology courses at area colleges.

  9. Investigation of plastic debris ingestion by four species of sea turtles collected as bycatch in pelagic Pacific longline fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Katharine E; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Balazs, George H; Work, Thierry M; Lynch, Jennifer M

    2017-07-15

    Ingestion of marine debris is an established threat to sea turtles. The amount, type, color and location of ingested plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of 55 sea turtles from Pacific longline fisheries from 2012 to 2016 were quantified, and compared across species, turtle length, body condition, sex, capture location, season and year. Six approaches for quantifying amounts of ingested plastic strongly correlated with one another and included: number of pieces, mass, volume and surface area of plastics, ratio of plastic mass to body mass, and percentage of the mass of gut contents consisting of plastic. All olive ridley (n=37), 90% of green (n=10), 80% of loggerhead (n=5) and 0% of leatherback (n=3) turtles had ingested plastic; green turtles ingested significantly more than olive ridleys. Most debris was in the large intestines. No adverse health impacts (intestinal lesions, blockage, or poor body condition) due directly to plastic ingestion were noted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Investigating the Language Learning Strategies of Students in the Foundation Program of United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Al Khatib, Ahmad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, language learning strategies have gained a lot of importance in different parts of the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Successful foreign or second language learning attempts are viewed in the light of using appropriate and effective language learning strategies. This study investigated the patterns of language learning…

  11. Investigating the Needs for Measurement and Evaluation Course: A Case Study on English Language Teaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Memet; Türkkan, Buket Turhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the needs related to the attainments, content, processes of teaching-learning and measurement-evaluation aspect of Measurement and Evaluation course. This research was designed as a case study which is one of the qualitative research designs. The most common problem in Measurement and Evaluation courses was found…

  12. Study to Develop Unified Investigative Capability and Policy Among the CVS, MEP, PSS, and RBS Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    office. An additional element of the Marine Inspection Office organization reporting to the Executive Officer is the Marine Inspection Detachment. The...shows a typical District Office organization for investigation activities. The District Commander is the direct repre- sentative of the Commandant. As

  13. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression strength and calorific value. The results were compared to those of beech and pine briquettes obtained under similar conditions. Based on the experimental results, mathematical correlations between density and compression strength and density and calorific value were investigated.

  14. Investigating the impact of a preservice program on beliefs about science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldat, Christopher Scott

    There has been much attention about improving the skills and abilities of students in Science. One critical factor is the quality of teacher education programs for preparing science teachers. There has been little research and much debate about what constitutes an effective science teacher education program. Teacher beliefs are thought to be important factors which influence how science teachers teach. This is a three year longitudinal study which explores changes in twelve teachers using a mixed method design. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the beliefs about teaching, learning, and the Nature of Science. Four cohorts of teachers represented the different critical stages of the teaching continuum. Two cohorts of teachers represented entry and exit stages of preservice education. The other two cohorts represented teachers who taught less than four years and more than four years in the classroom. Classroom observations and self-reported surveys were gathered. The major outcomes of this research include: (1) Teacher beliefs about teaching and learning shift towards being more student-centered during their preservice education; (2) Despite previous reports that most graduates revert to teacher-centered beliefs in the first years of teaching, the beliefs of Iowa preservice teacher beliefs, remained similar to their previous student-centered beliefs; (3) Teacher beliefs about the Nature of Science, which were initially represented as a socially constructed entity, became less frequent as 2 teachers progress through the teaching continuum from preservice to inservice teachers; (4) Student-centered beliefs about teaching and learning, derived from teacher interviews, are correlated with classroom observations and self-reported surveys of instructional strategies. The findings from this study shed light on understandings concerning the evolution of teacher beliefs. Factors effecting teacher beliefs include college preparatory education programs, school

  15. Partition and Poliomyelitis: An Investigation of the Polio Disparity Affecting Muslims during India's Eradication Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rashid S.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Fruzzetti, Lina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity. Methods and Findings A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977. Conclusions Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India. Limitations This study is

  16. Partition and poliomyelitis: an investigation of the polio disparity affecting Muslims during India's eradication program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid S Hussain

    Full Text Available Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity.A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977.Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India.This study is limited by the manual coding of the

  17. Species-resolved laser-probing investigations of the hydrodynamics of KrF excimer and copper vapor laser ablation processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Ching, Chi H.; Lindley, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    Hydrodynamic phenomena from KrF excimer laser ablation (10-3-20 J/cm2) of polyimide, polyethyleneterephthalate, and aluminum are diagnosed by laser beam deflection, schlieren photography, shadowgraphy, laser-induced-fluorescence and dye-laser- resonance absorption photography (DLRAP). Experiments were performed in vacuum and gaseous environments (10-5 to 760 Torr). In vacuum, the DLRAP diagnostic shows species-resolved plume expansion which is consistent with that of a reflected rarefaction wave. Increasing the background gas pressure reveals the formation of sound/shock compared to CN in the laser-ablated polyimide (Vespel) plume/shock in inert (e.g. argon) and reactive (e.g. air) gases. At low pressures (less than 10 Torr) Al and CN species are in close contact with the shock front. As the pressure increases, the species front tends to recede, until at high pressures (over 200 Torr) the species are restrained to only a few mm above the target surface. After sufficient expansion, Al and CN are no longer detectable; only the shadowgraph of the hot gas plume remains. Since CN is observable in both inert and reactive environments, it can be concluded that CN is not a reaction product between the background gas and the ablated species. By way of comparison to excimer laser ablation processing of materials, copper vapor laser machined polyimide and polymethylmethacrylate (transparent to green and yellow copper vapor laser light) are also investigated. The two polymers are observed to have markedly different machined surfaces. Hydrodynamic effects for the copper vapor laser machined materials are investigated using HeNe laser beam deflection.

  18. Investigation of cross-species translatability of pharmacological MRI in awake nonhuman primate - a buprenorphine challenge study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Seah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmacological MRI (phMRI is a neuroimaging technique where drug-induced hemodynamic responses can represent a pharmacodynamic biomarker to delineate underlying biological consequences of drug actions. In most preclinical studies, animals are anesthetized during image acquisition to minimize movement. However, it has been demonstrated anesthesia could attenuate basal neuronal activity, which can confound interpretation of drug-induced brain activation patterns. Significant efforts have been made to establish awake imaging in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP. Whilst various platforms have been developed for imaging awake NHP, comparison and validation of phMRI data as translational biomarkers across species remain to be explored. METHODOLOGY: We have established an awake NHP imaging model that encompasses comprehensive acclimation procedures with a dedicated animal restrainer. Using a cerebral blood volume (CBV-based phMRI approach, we have determined differential responses of brain activation elicited by the systemic administration of buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg i.v., a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist, in the same animal under awake and anesthetized conditions. Additionally, region-of-interest analyses were performed to determine regional drug-induced CBV time-course data and corresponding area-under-curve (AUC values from brain areas with high density of µ-opioid receptors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In awake NHPs, group-level analyses revealed buprenorphine significantly activated brain regions including, thalamus, striatum, frontal and cingulate cortices (paired t-test, versus saline vehicle, p<0.05, n = 4. This observation is strikingly consistent with µ-opioid receptor distribution depicted by [6-O-[(11C]methyl]buprenorphine ([(11C]BPN positron emission tomography imaging study in baboons. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with previous buprenorphine phMRI studies in humans and conscious rats which collectively

  19. 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations Program Posters (Count: 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    non-DoD commercial entity or an entity seeking to do business with the government, then your presentation should have an ethics review. If your...we will need the date (month, day and year) along with the location of your presentation. It is important to update this information so that we can...Section will route the request form to clinical investigations, S02 ISGIJAC ( Ethics Review) and Public Affairs (Sg MDWIPA) for review and then forward

  20. 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations Program Pathology Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    MDW staff member, we can forward your request for funds to the designated Wing POC at the Chief Scientist’s Office, Ms. Alice Houy, office phone: 210...DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS 28 APR 2017 MEMORANDUM FORSGVU ATTN: JOSHUA CALCOTE FROM...59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 1. Your paper, entitled 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations

  1. Investigation of EM Emissions by the Electrodynamic Tether, Inclusive of an Observational Program (EMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Our TSS-1/R investigation, which we shall refer to as EMET in this report, was an integral part of the effort by the TSS-1/R Investigators' Working Group (IWG) to come to an understanding of the complex interaction between the tethered satellite system and the ionosphere. All of the space-borne experiments were designed to collect data relevant to the local interaction. Only the ground- based experiments, EMET and its Italian counterpart Observations on the Earth's Surface of Electromagnetic Emissions (OESEE), held out any hope of characterizing the long range effects of the interaction. This was to be done by detecting electromagnetic waves generated by the system in the ionosphere, assuming the signal reached the Earth's surface with sufficient amplitude. As the type of plasma waves excited to carry charge away from the charge-exchange regions of the system at each end of the tether is one of the theoretical points about which there is greatest disagreement, a definitive identification of tether-generated waves could mark significant progress in the so-called current closure problem of electrodynamic tethers. Dr. Mario Grossi of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) initiated the investigation, and his experience in the field of ULF-ELF waves and their detection was invaluable throughout its course. Rice University had the responsibility of setting up the EMET ULF-VLF ground stations under a subcontract from SAO. Principal Investigator (PI) for the Rice effort was Prof. William E. Gordon, who was primary observer at the Arecibo Observatory during TSS-LR. Dr. Steve Noble handled major day-to-day operations, training, and planning for the ground-based measurements. Dr. James McCoy of NASA JSC, a member of the Mona/Arecibo team, was pilot for the numerous flights ferrying personnel and equipment between Puerto Rico and Mona Island. Final responsibility for the measurements rested with SAO, and the activities of field personnel and SAO investigators were

  2. Investigation of plastic debris ingestion by four species of sea turtles collected as bycatch in pelagic Pacific longline fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Katherine E.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris is an established threat to sea turtles. The amount, type, color and location of ingested plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of 55 sea turtles from Pacific longline fisheries from 2012 to 2016 were quantified, and compared across species, turtle length, body condition, sex, capture location, season and year. Six approaches for quantifying amounts of ingested plastic strongly correlated with one another and included: number of pieces, mass, volume and surface area of plastics, ratio of plastic mass to body mass, and percentage of the mass of gut contents consisting of plastic. All olive ridley (n = 37), 90% of green (n = 10), 80% of loggerhead (n = 5) and 0% of leatherback (n = 3) turtles had ingested plastic; green turtles ingested significantly more than olive ridleys. Most debris was in the large intestines. No adverse health impacts (intestinal lesions, blockage, or poor body condition) due directly to plastic ingestion were noted.

  3. Chemical Diversity Investigation of Hepatotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Qianliguang (Senecio scandens) and Related Species by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Zhu; Na Li; Jian-Qing Ruan; Fu, Peter P.; Zhong-Zhen Zhao; Ge Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Qianliguang (Senecio scandens) is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) has raised concerns about the safety of using Qianliguang and its products. The present study aims at investigation of different types of PAs present in Qianliguang collected from representative locations in China.

  4. Chemical Diversity Investigation of Hepatotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Qianliguang (Senecio scandens and Related Species by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Qianliguang (Senecio scandens is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs has raised concerns about the safety of using Qianliguang and its products. The present study aims at investigation of different types of PAs present in Qianliguang collected from representative locations in China.

  5. Ontario Securities Commission has authority to investigate viatical settlement purchase program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Gord

    2004-04-01

    On 27 October 2003, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice held that the Ontario Securities Commission (the Commission) has the authority to compel testimony and the production of written documents from parties that are not registered under the Ontario Securities Act (OSA). The finding in Universal Settlements International, Inc v Ontario (Securities Commission) is important because it affirms the authority of the Commission to investigate businesses that might be engaging in the sale of illegal viatical settlements, an unregulated industry with potential negative impacts for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  6. Investigation of cross-species translatability of pharmacological MRI in awake nonhuman primate - a buprenorphine challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Stephanie; Asad, Abu Bakar Ali; Baumgartner, Richard; Feng, Dai; Williams, Donald S; Manigbas, Elaine; Beaver, John D; Reese, Torsten; Henry, Brian; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Chin, Chih-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) is a neuroimaging technique where drug-induced hemodynamic responses can represent a pharmacodynamic biomarker to delineate underlying biological consequences of drug actions. In most preclinical studies, animals are anesthetized during image acquisition to minimize movement. However, it has been demonstrated anesthesia could attenuate basal neuronal activity, which can confound interpretation of drug-induced brain activation patterns. Significant efforts have been made to establish awake imaging in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP). Whilst various platforms have been developed for imaging awake NHP, comparison and validation of phMRI data as translational biomarkers across species remain to be explored. We have established an awake NHP imaging model that encompasses comprehensive acclimation procedures with a dedicated animal restrainer. Using a cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based phMRI approach, we have determined differential responses of brain activation elicited by the systemic administration of buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg i.v.), a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist, in the same animal under awake and anesthetized conditions. Additionally, region-of-interest analyses were performed to determine regional drug-induced CBV time-course data and corresponding area-under-curve (AUC) values from brain areas with high density of µ-opioid receptors. In awake NHPs, group-level analyses revealed buprenorphine significantly activated brain regions including, thalamus, striatum, frontal and cingulate cortices (paired t-test, versus saline vehicle, ptranslatability of awake imaging. Conversely, no significant change in activated brain regions was found in the same animals imaged under the anesthetized condition. Our data highlight the utility and importance of awake NHP imaging as a translational imaging biomarker for drug research.

  7. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  8. Investigating the connectivity between emissions of BVOC and rainfall formation in Amazonia using Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Randow, Celso; Sanches, Marcos B.; Santos, Rosa Maria N.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Fuentes, Jose D.

    2017-04-01

    A detailed field experiment measuring turbulent properties, trace gases and BVOCs was carried out from April 2014 to January 2015 within and above a central Amazonian rainforest, with the objective of understanding the role of emissions and reactions of BVOCs, formation and transport of aerosols out of the boundary layer on cloud formation and precipitation triggers. Our measurements show two-way aspects of connectivity: mesoscale convective systems transport ozone down from the middle troposphere, enriching the atmospheric boundary layer as well as the forest canopy and surface layer, and, through multiple chemical transformations, an ozone-enriched atmospheric surface layer that can oxidize rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons and generate aerosols that subsequently activate into cloud condensation nuclei, thereby possibly influencing the formation of new convective precipitation. Qualitatively, we address the connectivity between emissions of BVOCs near the surface and rainfall generation, using the technique of Genetic Programing (GP), introduced by Koza (1992), based on the concepts of natural selection and genetics. The technique involves finding a mathematical expression that fits a given set of data, and constructing a population of mathematical models from different combinations of variables, constants and operators. An advantage of GP is that it can flexibly incorporate multivariate non-linear relations, and obtained numeric solutions are possibly interpreted and checked for physical consistency. A number of state variables (for example, surface fluxes, meteorological conditions, boundary layer stability conditions, BVOC and Ozone vertical profiles, etc), representing possible influences on BVOC emissions and their interrelations along the way through secondary organic aerosol and CCN formation to rainfall will be used.

  9. Investigation of Pedagogical Formation Certification Program Students’ Attitudes Towards Teaching Profession in Terms Of Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep DEMİRTAŞ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to determine the attitudes of students who have training on pedagogical formation in order to be assigned as a teacher towards teaching profession. Within the scope of this general aim the following question is sought an answer: Do pedagogical formation certification program students’ attitudes towards teaching profession change significantly in terms of (1 gender, (2 level of education (grade or graduation (3 department (studying or graduated, (4 faculty/ high school (studying or graduated variables? The present study has the characteristics of descriptive survey model. The participants include 644 students who take pedagogical formation at 2010- 2011 Academic year Spring term at Sakarya University’s Faculty of Education and who are studying at or graduated from Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Fine Arts, Faculty of Theology, School of Physical Education and Sports, Health High School, and School of State Conservatory. Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession (ASTP, developed by Üstüner (2006, is used as a data collection tool. In order to determine whether total scores obtained from data collection tools differ in terms of variables or not T test, analysis of variance, Mann Whitney U Test and Kruskal Wallis H-test are conducted. According to results, the attitudes of students, taking pedagogical formation, towards teaching profession show significant differences in the sense of faculty/ high school variable and do not show a significant difference with regard to gender and level of education variables. Moreover, attitude scores of students differ in accordance with Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Health High School and do not differ with regards to other departments in other faculties or high schools.

  10. Physical Activity Enhancement to a Behavioral Weight Loss Program for Severely Obese Individuals: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unick, Jessica L.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Severe obesity is characterized by low physical activity (PA) and interventions to enhance PA are needed. Participants (45.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2) were randomized to a 6-month standard behavioral weight loss program (SBWL; n = 14) or SBWL+technology (SBWL+TECH; n = 15). Both groups received identical SBWL treatment and SBWL+TECH also received a wearable PA monitor, providing “real-time” feedback, and website access to monitor energy balance. 6-month retention was similar between groups (SBWL: 12/13 versus SBWL+TECH: 11/14 completers; P = 0.19) and adherence to wearing the armband was excellent (91.3% of days). Although differences in PA between groups did not meet conventional thresholds of significance, SBWL+TECH increased their moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA by 132.9 ± 216.8 min/week, which was 3 times greater than SBWL (44.8 ± 124.3 min/week; P = 0.27; Cohen's d = 0.50). There was a trend for SBWL+TECH to self-monitor for a greater proportion of days compared to SBWL (86.2 ± 21.4% versus 71.5 ± 19.4%; P = 0.098; Cohen's d = 0.72). The difference in weight loss between groups was modest (SBWL+TECH: −10.0 ± 7.1% versus SBWL: −7.8 ± 6.7%; P = 0.46). These preliminary findings suggest that PA monitors may be one strategy for increasing PA among the severely obese. Larger, long-term trials are needed. PMID:24379985

  11. Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office independent scientific investigations program annual report, May 1997--April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment; identifying areas not being addressed adequately by the Department of Energy (DOE). Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues. This report summarizes the results of monitoring from two boreholes and the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) tunnel that have been instrumented by Nye County since March and April of 1995. The preliminary data and interpretations presented in this report do not constitute and should not be considered as the official position of Nye County. The ISIP presently includes borehole and tunnel instrumentation, monitoring, data analysis, and numerical modeling activities to address the concerns of Nye County.

  12. Site investigation SFR. Hydro Monitoring Program. Report for September 2009 - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Goeran; Wass, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    SKB is conducting bedrock investigations for a future extension of the final repository for low- and medium-level radioactive waste (SFR) at Forsmark within the Oesthammar municipality. As a part of this investigation, hydrogeological monitoring is performed. The objectives of the groundwater monitoring are, in a short-term perspective, to measure pressure responses during drilling, pumping and interference tests and also, in a long-term perspective, to obtain time series in order to increase the knowledge of the hydraulic conditions. Data presented in this report are collected during the period of September 2009 until August 2010 and include groundwater levels in surface boreholes and groundwater pressure in boreholes situated in the tunnel. The data collecting system in HMS (Hydro Monitoring System) consists of a measurement station (computer) that communicates with and collects data from a number of data loggers. The computer is connected to the SKB Ethernet LAN. All data are collected by means of different types of transducers connected to different types of data loggers: Minitroll, LevelTroll and Datataker. In order to calibrate registrations from the data loggers, manual levelling of the groundwater table of all surface borehole sections is made, usually once every month. The logger data are converted to water levels using calibration constants. All collected data are quality checked, generally once every four months. During this work, obviously erroneous data are omitted and calibration constants are corrected so that the monitored data comply with the manual levelling. At these occasions the status of the equipment is also checked and service might be initiated. Diagrams of groundwater levels and groundwater pressure for the period of September 2009 - August 2010 (one data point per section and 24 hours) are presented in Appendix 2. The original data are stored in the primary data base Sicada. The data in this data base may then be used for further analysis

  13. Biotic and abiotic factors investigated in two Drosophila species – evidence of both negative and positive effects of interactions on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors acting in concert can interact and strongly influence population fitness and ecosystem composition. Studies investigating interactions usually involve only two environmental factors; most frequently a chemical and another abiotic factor such as a stressful temperature...... the consequences on several performance measures. Results are highly species and trait specific with evidence of two- and three-way interactions in approximately 30% of all cases, suggesting that additive effects of combined environmental factors are most common, and that interactions are not universal. To provide...... more informative descriptions of complex interactions we implemented re-conceptualised definitions of synergism and antagonism. We found approximately equal proportions of synergistic and antagonistic interactions in both species, however the effects of interactions on performance differed between...

  14. Listeria spp. in broiler flocks: recovery rates and species distribution investigated by conventional culture and the EiaFoss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Line Hedegård; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in samples from broiler houses and cloacal swabs taken at the abattoir was investigated. An automated immunobased method (EiaFoss) was used, and 42 samples were also analysed by conventional culture; both methods were based on a two-step selective enrichment...... using CHR.4.17; Fraser and Fraser broths. L. monocytogenes was isolated from two of 71 broiler hocks, yielding an estimated flock prevalence of 3%. The flock prevalence of L. inocua was estimated to 13%, and it was speculated that the potential of this apathogenic bacteria to grow faster than L....... monocytogenes in enrichment broths may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, as L. inocua was also detected by the EiaFoss method, a significant amount of bacterial confirmation work had to be done. Of 42 samples analysed by conventional culture, four yielded L. inocua...

  15. Investigation of possibilities for appearance of African horse sickness virus and changes in species of the genus "Culicoides" in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchev I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, Bulgaria has been free of African Horse Sickness (AHS. Contacts with and proximity to countries, in which it is assumed there are cases of the disease, necessitate surveillance of equine animals near the border strict control of outgoing and incoming animals, especially those returning to the country after a long stay abroad of participation in races. Instructions for carrying out veterinary activities in instances when the disease occurs in Bulgaria have been worked out, since there were occurrences of Blue tongue disease (the disease has the same epizootiological vectors of spreading in regions bordering with Turkey last year. The serological screening investigations of blood sera by ELISA of equine animals from the same villages and regions during one active period of flight of culicoides did not establish the presence of antibodies to this dangerous transmissive disease. The present study contributed to working out scientific-methodological diagnostic preparedness in Bulgaria as regards this exotic transmassive disease.

  16. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kirsten; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Tick, Nouchka T; Verhulst, Frank C; Maras, Athanasios; van der Vegt, Esther J M

    2015-08-28

    Previous research shows that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) run several risks in their psychosexual development and that these adolescents can have limited access to reliable information on puberty and sexuality, emphasizing the need for specific guidance of adolescents with ASD in their psychosexual development. Few studies have investigated the effects of psychosexual training programs for adolescents with ASD and to date no randomized controlled trials are available to study the effects of psychosexual interventions for this target group. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) described in this study protocol aims to investigate the effects of the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program on the psychosexual development of adolescents with ASD. This parallel clinical trial, conducted in the South-West of the Netherlands, has a simple equal randomization design with an intervention and a waiting-list control condition. Two hundred adolescents and their parents participate in this study. We assess the participants in both conditions using self-report as well as parent-report questionnaires at three time points during 1 year: at baseline (T1), post-treatment (T2), and for follow-up (T3). To our knowledge, the current study is the first that uses a randomized controlled design to study the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with ASD. It has a number of methodological strengths, namely a large sample size, a wide range of functionally relevant outcome measures, the use of multiple informants, and a standardized research and intervention protocol. Also some limitations of the described study are identified, for instance not making a comparison between two treatment conditions, and no use of blinded observational measures to investigate the ecological validity of the research results. Dutch Trial Register NTR2860. Registered on 20 April 2011.

  17. Phylogeographic investigation and ecological niche modelling of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei revealed multiple refugia in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xie, Feng; Li, Jiannan; Wang, Gang; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM) to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods. In all data sets, the species was divided into lineage north occupying open plateau platform and lineage south colonizing the mountainous plateau. The divergence of two major clades was estimated at the early Pleistocene. In mtDNA, lineage north contained northeastern and northwestern sublineages, and lineage south had two overlapping-distributed sublineages. Different lineages possessed distinct demographic characteristics, i.e., subdivision in the northeastern sublineage, historical bottleneck effects and recent expansions in the northwestern sublineage and the southeastern sublineage. SDMs depicted that stable suitable habitats had existed in the upper-middle streams of the Yellow River, Dadu River, Jinsha River and Yalong River. These regions were also recognized as the ancestral areas of different lineages. In conclusion, Nanorana pleskei lineages have probably experienced long-term separations. Stable suitable habitats existing in upper-middle streams of major rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and distinct demographic dynamics of different lineages indicated that the lineages possessed independent evolutionary processes in multiple glacial refugia. The findings verified the profound effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on the plateau endemic species.

  18. Phylogeographic investigation and ecological niche modelling of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei revealed multiple refugia in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest plateau Tibetan Plateau supplied an excellent opportunity to investigate the influence of the Pleistocene events on the high-elevation species. To test for the alternative hypotheses of Pleistocene glacial refugia, we used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to examine the phylogeographic patterns of the endemic frog species Nanorana pleskei across its known range in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, and conducted species distribution modelling (SDM to explore changes of its distribution range through current and paleo periods. In all data sets, the species was divided into lineage north occupying open plateau platform and lineage south colonizing the mountainous plateau. The divergence of two major clades was estimated at the early Pleistocene. In mtDNA, lineage north contained northeastern and northwestern sublineages, and lineage south had two overlapping-distributed sublineages. Different lineages possessed distinct demographic characteristics, i.e., subdivision in the northeastern sublineage, historical bottleneck effects and recent expansions in the northwestern sublineage and the southeastern sublineage. SDMs depicted that stable suitable habitats had existed in the upper-middle streams of the Yellow River, Dadu River, Jinsha River and Yalong River. These regions were also recognized as the ancestral areas of different lineages. In conclusion, Nanorana pleskei lineages have probably experienced long-term separations. Stable suitable habitats existing in upper-middle streams of major rivers on the eastern Tibetan Plateau and distinct demographic dynamics of different lineages indicated that the lineages possessed independent evolutionary processes in multiple glacial refugia. The findings verified the profound effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on the plateau endemic species.

  19. An assessment of invasive plant species monitored by the Northern Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, 2005 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plant species are a worldwide concern due to the high ecological and economic costs associated with their presence. This document describes the plant characteristics and regional distribution of the 50 invasive plant species monitored from 2005 through 2010 on forested Phase 2 (P2) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in the 24 states of the Northern...

  20. Installation restoration program. Operable Unit B1 remedial investigation/feasibility study. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-30

    This document presents the results from the remedial investigation and feasibility study for Operable Unit (OU) B1 at McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA. Operable Unit B1 includes the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) storage lot and Civil Engineering storage lot at McClellan AFB. The main chemicals of concern are PCBs, dioxins, and furans which may have leaked from transformers stored at OU B1 or were constituents of waste oil applied to soils to control dust. Sections 1.0 through 4.0 of the report present results from the RI, the potential for contaminant migration/transport from OU B1 and the current and future risks associated with OU B1. The FS begins in Section 5.0 identifying the remedial action objectives, in Sections 6.0 and 7.0, technologies are screened and potential remedial alternatives are developed. The final six remedial alternatives are analyzed and compared to each other using the criteria established in the NCP in Section 8.0.

  1. Molecular investigation on the binding of Cd(II) by the binary mixtures of montmorillonite with two bacterial species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Huihui; Qu, ChenChen; Liu, Jing; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Shi, Zhihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Bacteria and phyllosilicate commonly coexist in the natural environment, producing various bacteria–clay complexes that are capable of immobilizing heavy metals, such as cadmium, via adsorption. However, the molecular binding mechanisms of heavy metals on these complex aggregates still remain poorly understood. This study investigated Cd adsorption on Gram-positive B. subtilis, Gram-negative P. putida and their binary mixtures with montmorillonite (Mont) using the Cd K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). We observed a lower adsorptive capacity for P. putida than B. subtilis, whereas P. putida–Mont and B. subtilis–Mont mixtures showed nearly identical Cd adsorption behaviors. EXAFS fits and ITC measurements demonstrated more phosphoryl binding of Cd in P. putida. The decreased coordination of C atoms around Cd and the reduced adsorption enthalpies and entropies for the binary mixtures compared to that for individual bacteria suggested that the bidentate Cd-carboxyl complexes in pure bacteria systems were probably transformed into monodentate complexes that acted as ionic bridging structure between bacteria and motmorillonite. This study clarified the binding mechanism of Cd at the bacteria–phyllosilicate interfaces from a molecular and thermodynamic view, which has an environmental significance for predicting the chemical behavior of trace elements in complex mineral–organic systems.

  2. Factors Determining Awareness and Knowledge of Aquatic Invasive Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Yen, S.T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Public perceptions of invasive species may influence policies and programs initiated by public and private stakeholders. We investigate the determinants of the public's awareness and knowledge of invasive species as few studies have examined this relationship. We focus on aquatic invasive species

  3. Theoretical investigation on the performance of DNA electrophoresis under programmed step electric field strength: Two-step condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yi; Liu, Chenchen; Chen, Qinmiao; Zhu, Xifang; Dou, Xiaoming

    2015-10-01

    Programmed step electric field strength is a simple-to-use technique that has already been reported to be effective to enhance the efficiency or speed of DNA electrophoresis. However, a global understanding and the details of this technique are still vague. In this paper, we investigated the influence of programmed step electric field strength by theoretical calculation and concentrated on a basic format named as two-step electric field strength. Both subtypes of two-step electric field strength conditions were considered. The important parameters, such as peak spacing, peak width, resolution, and migration time, were calculated in theory to understand the performance of DNA electrophoresis under programmed step electric field strength. The influence of two-step electric field strength on DNA electrophoresis was clearly revealed on a diagram of resolution versus migration time. Both resolution and speed of DNA electrophoresis under two-step electric field strength conditions are simply expressed by the shape of curves in the diagram. The possible shapes of curve were explored by calculation and shown in this paper. The subtype II of two-step electric field strength brings drastic variation on the resolution. Its limitations of enhancement and deterioration of resolution were predicted in theory. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Investigating Hybridization between the Two Sibling Bat Species Myotis myotis and M. blythii from Guano in a Natural Mixed Maternity Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Eve; Goydadin, Anne-Claude; Giraudoux, Patrick; Farny, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Because they can form seasonal mixed-species groups during mating and maternal care, bats are exciting models for studying interspecific hybridization. Myotis myotis and M. blythii are genetically close and morphologically almost identical, but they differ in some aspects of their ecology and life-history traits. When they occur in sympatry, they often form large mixed maternity colonies, in which their relative abundance can vary across time due to a shift in the timing of parturition. For the first time, we used non-invasive genetic methods to assess the hybridization rate and colony composition in a maternity colony of M. myotis and M. blythii located in the French Alps. Bat guano was collected on five sampling dates spread across the roost occupancy period and was analysed for individual genotype. We investigated whether the presence of hybrids followed the pattern of one of the parental species or if it was intermediate. We identified 140 M. myotis, 12 M. blythii and 13 hybrids among 250 samples. Parental species appeared as genetically well-differentiated clusters, with an asymmetrical introgression towards M. blythii. By studying colony parameters (effective size, sex ratio and proportion of the three bat types) across the sampling dates, we found that the abundances of hybrid and M. blythii individuals were positively correlated. Our study provides a promising non-invasive method to study hybridization in bats and raises questions about the taxonomic status of the two Myotis species. We discuss the contribution of this study to the knowledge of hybrid ecology, and we make recommendations for possible future research to better understand the ecology and behaviour of hybrid individuals.

  5. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  6. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    Direct result of approved registered protocol. 004 McDerxmott, M.T., Piegari, G., Hofeldt, F.D.: Acute Renal Failure in McArdle’s Disease . S Med J 75:309...Cardiovas- cular Anesthesia, Coronary Refer to Continuation Sheet Artery Disease , Mitral Valvular Disease , Open Heart Surgery (12) Accumulative...035 mitral valvular disease ................. 151 273 Key Words Page multiple sclerosis ...................... 255 mycobacteria

  7. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    0. Cold Pressor Test as a Predictor 44t of Pregnancy-Induced I;ypertension. (0) 7181 Read, J. A. Randomized Trial of Ambulation vs Oxytocin 4~ for...Sant, T. E. External (Combination) Rhinoplasty 104 Approach: Access to the Problem Nasal Deformity. (0) (PR) 13/(;0 W. an, S. P. Ureterogastric...During Restricted Intervals of S Phase in Hepatoma Cells. J Cell biol 84: 629-632, Dec 1980. (C) 0𔃻Prien, J. C. and Cucinell, S. A.: Lactate Consumption

  8. Clinical Investigation Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Otolaryngology Service 1980 OTO-80-03 Quantitative Assesment of Olfaction Following Nasal SurQery. (0) 71 Surgery Service 1979 S-79-01 Hemodynamics of...Objective: To determine if oxytocin release by breast stimulation can -- eervix in obstetrical patients who are at term. Technical Approach: Patients are...system problem. Females should not be pregnant or lactating ; and patients under 29 years of age will not be studied, unless in these both conditions the

  9. Clinical Investigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Comparison of the 17 Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerance of Ceftibuten 300mg Given BID and Augmentin 500mg Given TID in the Treatment of Community Acquired...Pneumonia. (1/92) 92004 Greenberg, Bruce CPT, MC. A Comparison of the 18 Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerance of Ceftibuten 400mg in the fed and fasted...factor. 16 REPORT DATE: 07/30/92 PROTOCOL #: 92003 DETAIL SUMMARY SHEET TITLE: A comparison of the efficacy, safety, and tolerance of Ceftibuten 300mg

  10. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Nespeca JA, Hammer HS: Intraoral Sagittal Split Osteotomy and Two-Step Genioplasty: Case Report. Milit Med 149(8):468-470, Aug 1984 DEPARTMENT OF...expected to indicate an optimization of deconvolution radiography with respect to image signal to noise ratio. 122 Detail Summary Sheet Date: 21 Dec 84

  11. Clinical Investigation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    collected in conditions of polyhydramnios and oligohydramnios. PROGRESS: No. of Subjects Enrolled - To Date: 43 Reporting Period: 26 Forty specimens...13 early gestation, 23 late gestation, 4 polyhydramnios ) have been collected and analyzed to date. Prolactin, aidosterone, and cortisol all increase...CORT, or ALDO levels and the conditoins of polyhydramnios and oligo- hydramnios, which no one else has yet done. We need more samples from early

  12. Criminal Investigation Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-31

    hamster embryos. Technial Approach: Cadmium sulfate solution is injected (IV) into timed pregnant golden hamsters on the eighth gestation day (8 AM...active syphilis , including neurosyphilis, in patients with HIV at three medical centers. Also assessment will be made of oral therapy of neurosyphilis...Patients will be included whether treated or not previously treated for syphilis . Patients will have histories determined for previously sexually

  13. Clinical Investigation Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Resident Surgical Instructional Experience. (T) 41 1979 Routine Use of Serum Uric Acid Levels at 36 Weeks Gestation as Screening Test for Preeclampsia as...1979 Growth of Human Tumor Stem Cell Colonies in Soft Agar. (0) 47 1979 Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Infection. (0) 48 1980 Prevention of...49 1980 Prevention of Gonadal Damage in Men Treated with Combination Chemotherapy/Radiotherapy for Hodgkin’s Disease and Non- Hodgkin’s Lymphomas

  14. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Investigating the Impact of a Workplace Resilience Program During a Time of Significant Organizational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Shane; Meir, Rudi; Crowley-McHattan, Zac; McEwen, Kathryn; Pastoors, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a short-term resilience intervention as measured by the Resilience at Work (RAW) scale. A 5-week resilience program was implemented with 28 volunteers and assessed by the 20-item RAW scale. The scale was administered electronically and participants were match paired into either a treatment or control group. Statistical analysis was conducted using a 2 × 2 group (Treatment, control) × time (pre, post) analysis of variance with repeated measures. Postintervention time point RAW total score was significantly greater in the treatment group (P < 0.01) and statistical significance was also achieved for four of the seven subscales. Employee resilience can be improved via specific educational and skills training requiring a total time commitment of just 5 hours, making this intervention feasible for most working environments.

  15. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 31: Reference models of trace species for the COSPAR international reference atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G. M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A set of preliminary reference atmosphere models of significant trace species which play important roles in controlling the chemistry, radiation budget, and circulation patterns of the atmosphere were produced. These models of trace species distributions are considered to be reference models rather than standard models; thus, it was not crucial that they be correct in an absolute sense. These reference models can serve as a means of comparison between individual observations, as a first guess in inversion algorithms, and as an approximate representation of observations for comparison to theoretical calculations.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 Mediate Species-Specific Modulations of Programmed Necrosis through the Viral Ribonucleotide Reductase Large Subunit R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoliang; Li, Yun; Chen, Qin; Su, Chenhe; Zhang, Zili; Yang, Chengkui; Hu, Zhilin; Hou, Jue; Zhou, Jinying; Gong, Ling; Jiang, Xuejun; Zheng, Chunfu; He, Sudan

    2015-11-11

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and its substrate mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) are core regulators of programmed necrosis. The elimination of pathogen-infected cells by programmed necrosis acts as an important host defense mechanism. Here, we report that human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 had opposite impacts on programmed necrosis in human cells versus their impacts in mouse cells. Similar to HSV-1, HSV-2 infection triggered programmed necrosis in mouse cells. However, neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 infection was able to induce programmed necrosis in human cells. Moreover, HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection in human cells blocked tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necrosis by preventing the induction of an RIP1/RIP3 necrosome. The HSV ribonucleotide reductase large subunit R1 was sufficient to suppress TNF-induced necrosis, and its RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) domain was required to disrupt the RIP1/RIP3 complex in human cells. Therefore, this study provides evidence that HSV has likely evolved strategies to evade the host defense mechanism of programmed necrosis in human cells. This study demonstrated that infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2 blocked TNF-induced necrosis in human cells while these viruses directly activated programmed necrosis in mouse cells. Expression of HSV R1 suppressed TNF-induced necrosis of human cells. The RHIM domain of R1 was essential for its association with human RIP3 and RIP1, leading to disruption of the RIP1/RIP3 complex. This study provides new insights into the species-specific modulation of programmed necrosis by HSV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Ethnopharmacological investigations of the cardio-renal properties of a native species from the region of Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Cleide Adriane Signor; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Palozi, Rhanany Alan Calloi; Silveira, Renan César Alves; Vasconcelos, Paulo César de Paula; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; Dos Santos, Ariany Carvalho; de Almeida, Valter Paes; Manfron Budel, Jane; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2017-07-12

    Acanthospermum hispidum DC. is an important medicinal herb that belongs to family Asteraceae, popularly used as a diuretic and hypotensive in the region of Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Despite the relevance of this species throughout the country, there are no detailed studies about its possible ethnobotanical indication. To carry out a detailed ethnopharmacological investigation of the cardio-renal properties of A. hispidum. First, a detailed morpho-anatomical study with the purpose of characterizing and providing quality control parameters for the species was carried out. Then, purified aqueous extract (ESAH) was obtained and a detailed phytochemical investigation about its main secondary metabolites was performed. In addition, a thorough acute toxicological study was conducted to evaluate the actual toxic effects of this preparation. Finally, the possible diuretic and hypotensive effects of ESAH on male Wistar rats (30, 100, 300mg/kg; intraduodenally) were evaluated, and using pharmacological antagonists or inhibitors, the involvement of prostaglandin/cAMP and nitric oxide/cGMP pathway and potassium channels in ESAH-induced hypotension was investigated. The analyses performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the main secondary metabolites present in ESAH were phenolic compounds, such as caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid), dicaffeoylquinic acids and glycosylated flavonoids (quercetin glucoside and galactoside). ESAH did not induce any acute toxic effects and did not affect the urinary volume or renal excretion of electrolytes in Wistar rats. On the other hand, intraduodenal administration of ESAH induces a significant acute hypotensive effect. Previous treatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue, or tetraethylammonium fully avoided the hypotensive effect of ESAH. All other parameters were not affected by treatment with ESAH. Data obtained in this study allow us to suggest that ESAH obtained from A

  18. An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness of Executive Development Programs As Perceived by Participating Marketing and Sales Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Wilson L.

    A study of the effectiveness of executive development programs for marketing and sales executives tested three hypotheses: (1) participation in such programs results in identifiable benefits as perceived by the participants; (2) academically oriented executive development programs have significant advantages over company oriented programs as…

  19. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilda Diaz-Soltero; Amy Y. Rossman

    2011-01-01

    Systematics is the science that identifies and groups organisms by understanding their origins, relationships, and distributions. It is fundamental to understanding life on earth, our crops, wildlife, and diseases, and it provides the scientific foundation to recognize and manage invasive species. Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security...

  20. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brockton, Nigel T; Gill, Stephanie J; Laborge, Stephanie L; Paterson, Alexander H G; Cook, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shemanko, Carrie S; Hanley, David A; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    .... The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program consists of a prospective cohort of incident breast cancer patients and four sub-projects that are investigating priority areas in breast cancer bone metastases...

  1. Human preferences for species conservation: Animal charisma trumps endangered status

    OpenAIRE

    Colléony, Agathe,; Clayton, Susan; Couvet, Denis; Saint Jalme, Michel; Prévot, Anne-Caroline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A good deal of research has recently focused on people's commitment to biodiversity conservation by investigating their “willingness-to-pay” (WTP). Because of the public's self-reported preferences for species that are more charismatic or similar to humans, conservation programs are often biased toward these species. Our study aimed to explore the determinants of WTP among 10066 participants in a zoo conservation program. The program aims to raise money to support cons...

  2. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  3. An ab initio investigation of the significance of the HOOF intermediate in coupling reactions involving FOO(x) and HO(x) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, J. S.

    1993-02-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to investigate the stability and role of HOOF in the reaction of FO with HO radicals. The heat of formation for HOOF is estimated as 0.4 +/- 2 kcal/mol using an isodesmic reaction scheme. Spectroscopic properties of the HOOF intermediate is also provided in order to facilitate its identification. Decomposition pathways of the intermediate are examined. The lowest energy pathway is the formation of F atoms and HO2 radicals and requires 27.2 kcal/mol to proceed. Reactions leading to the formation of the HOOF intermediate are examined in regard to their importance in understanding stratospheric chemistry involving the coupling of fluorine and fluorine oxide with HO(x) species in catalytic cycles.

  4. Zooplankton species identities, zooplankton species number per sample, and zooplankton abundance collected using zooplankton net as part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, for 1994-03-01 (NODC Accession 9700104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities, zooplankton species number per sample, and zooplankton abundance were collected from March 1, 1994 to March 1, 1994. Data were...

  5. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act are major federal statutes designed to protect plant and animal resources from adverse effects due to development projects. Both Acts require consultation with wildlife authorities prior to committing resources to certain types of projects. The purposes and requirements of the two statutes are summarized in the following subsections. Also presented is a list of contacts in the regional and field offices of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions of Amazônian tree species during the wet season: Direct and indirect investigations on controlling environmental functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, U.; Rottenberger, S.; Biesenthal, T.; Wolf, A.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Frattoni, M.; Tavares, T. M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2002-10-01

    As part of the project LBA-EUSTACH (European Studies on Trace gases and Atmosphere Chemistry as a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia), we examined the diel pattern of isoprenoid exchange in the wet season of 1999 at a remote field site in Rondônia, Brazil. The emission pattern of two tree species in a secondary forest was investigated by means of a dynamic branch enclosure system and was compared on the basis of climatological variables like temperature and light and physiological parameters such as assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance. While the species Hymenaea courbaril was found to be a strong isoprene emitter, Apeiba tibourbou was found to exclusively emit monoterpenes and no isoprene. Species-related standard emission factors calculated on a carbon basis were 45.4 μg g-1 h-1 (24.9 nmol m-2 s-1) for isoprene and 3.6 μg g-1 h-1 (0.75 nmol m-2 s-1) for monoterpene emission, representing a nontrivial carbon loss by the plants of 1.8% and 0.1% C relative to the net carbon assimilation on a daily basis. About 90% of the total monoterpene emission from A. tibourbou was comprised of sabinene, α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, and limonene, in decreasing quantity. Despite the difference in isoprenoid emission composition, the diel emission pattern of both tree species reacted similarly toward the environmental conditions, fluctuating light and temperature, indicating that closely related metabolic controls were involved in the actual emission. Both isoprene emission and monoterpene emission exhibited a light saturation curve similar to CO2 assimilation. No isoprenoid emission was found during nighttime. The strong light dependence of the monoterpene emission by A. tibourbou suggests that this tree species does not store monoterpenes but emits them immediately upon production. The diel pattern of both the isoprene and the monoterpene emission could be adequately simulated by current isoprene algorithms. The

  7. An Investigation of a Culturally Responsive Approach to Science Education in a Summer Program for Marginalized Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Brittany A.

    There have been numerous calls and efforts made to provide states, school districts, and communities needed financial support to increase and enhance access to and opportunities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) related disciplines for marginalized populations (Tyson, Lee, & Hanson, 2007; Caldwell & Siwatu, 2003). As the challenge to better educate students of color and poor students intensifies, the need to provide equitable science learning experiences for all students aimed at scientific literacy and STEM also becomes critical. Thus the need to provide summer science enrichment programs where students engage in scientific experimentation, investigation, and critical thinking are vital to helping students who have been traditionally marginalized achieve success in school science and enter the science career pipeline. This mixed methods study examined the impact of a culturally responsive approach on student attitudes, interests in science education and STEM careers, and basic science content knowledge before and after participation in an upward bound summer program. Quantitative results indicated using a culturally responsive approach to teach science in an informal learning space significantly increases student achievement. Students receiving culturally responsive science instruction exhibited statistically significant increases in their posttest science scores compared to pretest science scores, M = 0.376, 95% CI [0.266, 0.487], t (10) = 7.610, p learn science utilizing a culturally responsive approach was much more beneficial to their overall science knowledge, as it allowed students to experience, understand, and connect to and through their science learning. Likewise, culturally responsive science instruction helped students to foster a more positive interest in science and STEM careers as it provided students the opportunity to do science in a meaningful and relevant way. Moreover, results revealed students receiving culturally responsive

  8. Laboratory investigations of the trail-following responses of four species of leaf-cutting ants with notes on the specificity of a trail pheromone of Atta texana (Buckley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Robinson; John C. Moser; M. S. Blum; E. Amante

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific trail following activity of poison sac contents from four species of leaf-cutting ants was investigated. with only one exception, all the species teste followed trails made from each others poison sac contents. however when the ants were given a choice of following one of two separate trails, clear differences were shown in the poison sac contents of the...

  9. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  10. An Investigation of the Effects of Programming with Scratch on the Preservice IT Teachers' Self-Efficacy Perceptions and Attitudes towards Computer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselturk, Erman; Altiok, Serhat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of programming with Scratch on the views of preservice Information Technology (IT) teachers towards computer programming. The study sample consisted of 151 preservice IT teachers who took an elective course including a Scratch module in the 2013-14 academic year. Three online questionnaires…

  11. Beyond Accreditation: What Defines a Quality Funeral Service Education Program? An Investigation of the Relationship between Educational Correlates and Program Quality in Funeral Service Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, John Bradley

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine what defines a quality funeral service education program beyond accreditation. The study examined the opinions of funeral service education chairs (N = 45, representing 80% of the population) who are leaders of funeral service education programs accredited by the American Board of Funeral Service Education.…

  12. Investigating the Problems of English Speaking of the Students of Islamic Boarding School Program at STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Hadijah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the students’ ability, the problems and their reasons why they faced problems on English speaking. The triangulation of mixed methods was used in this study. The quantitative data gathered from the speaking test result by involving 130 students of Islamic Boarding School Program and the qualitative data gathered from the questionnaire and interview results from the selected students who meet the criteria. The findings showed that the students’ ability was categorized low (62.93; the students have problems on grammar (42.20%, pronunciation (36.60%, vocabulary (35.20%, fluency (36% and comprehension (34.40%; the students’ reason in facing the problems on English speaking English were not only having limited knowledge on the components of speaking skills including pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension but also they have own personal reasons, such as shy to perform speaking, lack of self confidence, lack of speaking practice, limited time given for preparation on English speaking test, the difficulties at using and understanding the speaking material found in the English textbook, the environment (dormitory did not support them to acquire and use English as a medium daily interaction and they preferred to study the Islamic knowledge and Arabic than English. This study indicated that the students’ ability should be increased by giving motivation and taught them with the suitable and interested English speaking materials.

  13. Two-dimensional HPLC coupled to ICP-MS and electrospray ionisation (ESI)-MS/MS for investigating the bioavailability in vitro of arsenic species from edible seaweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, Maria del Carmen; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Taebunpakul, Sutthinun [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, Department of Materials, London (United Kingdom); National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), Pathumthani (Thailand); Stokes, Emma; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Edible seaweed consumption is a route of exposure to arsenic. However, little attention has been paid to estimate the bioaccessibility and/or bioavailability of arsenosugars in edible seaweed and their possible degradation products during gastrointestinal digestion. This work presents first use of combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) with two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by anion exchange) to compare the qualitative and quantitative arsenosugars speciation of different edible seaweed with that of their bioavailable fraction as obtained using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion procedure. Optimal extraction conditions for As species from four seaweed namely kombu, wakame, nori and sea lettuce were selected as a compromise between As extraction efficiency and preservation of compound identity. For most investigated samples, the use of ammonium acetate buffer as extractant and 1 h sonication in a water bath followed by HPLC-ICP-MS resulted in 40-61% of the total As to be found in the buffered aqueous extract, of which 86-110% was present as arsenosugars (glycerol sugar, phosphate sugar and sulfonate sugar for wakame and kombu and glycerol sugar and phosphate sugar for nori). The exception was sea lettuce, for which the arsenosugar fraction (glycerol sugar, phosphate sugar) only comprised 44% of the total extracted As. Interestingly, the ratio of arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid to arsenosugars in sea lettuce extracts seemed higher than that for the rest of investigated samples. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, approximately 11-16% of the total As in the solid sample was found in the dialyzates with arsenosugars comprising 93-120% and 41% of the dialyzable As fraction for kombu, wakame, nori and sea lettuce, respectively. Moreover, the relative As species distribution in seaweed-buffered extracts and dialyzates was found to be very similar

  14. Eimeria Oocyst Concentrations and Species Composition in Litter from Commercial Broiler Farms During Anticoccidial Drug or Live Eimeria Oocyst Vaccine Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Ritter, Donald

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs and if there was a correlation between Eimeria oocyst levels and broiler performance. Litter samples were collected from a total of 15 different broiler farms encompassing a total of 45 individual houses during at least one complete grow-out cycle over a 21-mo period. Of these 15 broiler farms, three were followed for the entire 21-mo period spanning three ACD and four VAC cycles. Samples were collected at 2, 4, and 7-8 wk of grow-out corresponding to starter, grower, and withdraw periods of the ACD cycle. On a number of occasions, litter samples were obtained just prior to chick placement. Eimeria oocysts were isolated from all samples, counted by microscopy, and extracted for DNA to identify Eimeria species by ITS1 PCR. In general, Eimeria oocyst concentration in litter reached peak levels at 2-4 wk of grow-out regardless of coccidiosis control measure being used. However, peak oocyst numbers were sometimes delayed until 7-8 wk, indicating some level of Eimeria spp. drug resistance or incomplete vaccine coverage. Eimeria maxima , Eimeria acervulina , Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella were generally present in all samples, and no difference in the species composition was noted between houses on a particular farm. While Eimeria species composition was similar among houses, Eimeria spp. oocyst levels exhibited sporadic peaks in one house of a given location's houses. Of particular interest was the observed correlation between E. maxima oocyst abundance and chick mortality. However, no correlation was observed in E. maxima oocyst levels, and the performance parameters adjusted feed conversion ratio and average daily weight gain. This study showed that understanding the dynamics of Eimeria spp. oocyst levels and species

  15. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  16. Investigating distribution pattern of species in a warm-temperate conifer-broadleaved-mixed forest in China for sustainably utilizing forest and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Houjuan; Xu, Yudan; Hao, Jing; Zhao, Bingqing; Guo, Donggang; Shao, Hongbo

    2017-02-01

    The maintaining mechanisms and potential ecological processes of species diversity in warm temperate- conifer-broadleaved-mixed forest are far from clear understanding. In this paper, the relative neighborhood density Ω was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 34 species with ≥11 individuals in a warm- temperate-conifer-broadleaved-mixed forest, northern China. Then we used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and Torus-translation test (TTT) to explain the distribution of observed species. Our results show that aggregated distribution is the dominant pattern in warm-temperate natural forest and four species regular distribution at the spatial scale >30m. The aggregated percentage and intensity decline with spatial scale, abundance and size classes increasing. Rare species are aggregated more than intermediate and abundant species. These results prove sufficiently the effects existence of scale separation, self-thinning and Janzen-Connell hypothesis. In addition, functional traits (dispersal modes and shade tolerance) also have a significant influence on distribution of species. The results of CCA confirm that slope and convexity are the most important factors affecting the distribution of tree species distribution, elevation and slope of shrub species though the combination of topographic variables only explained 1% of distribution of tree species and 2% of shrub species. Most species don't have habitat preference; however 47.1% (16/34) species including absolutely dominant tree (Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus wutaishanica) and shrub species (Rosa xanthina) and most other species with important value in the front, are strongly positively or negatively associated with at least one habitat. The valley and ridge are most distinct habitat with association of 12 species in the plot. However, high elevation slope with 257 quadrats is the most extensive habitat with only four species. Therefore, there is obvious evidence that habitat heterogeneity

  17. Ultrastructural investigation and in vitro recapitulation of spermatid differentiation in a potential bio-indicator species - The marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Lu

    Full Text Available Galeolaria gemineoa is a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, whose spermatozoa have been regarded as a sensitive indicator for water quality monitoring. In this study, 10 steps of spermiogenesis have been identified at the ultrastructural level and this differentiation process has been recapitulated in vitro up to the point of spermiogenesis (step 7-9 spermatids. On completion of the second meiosis, newly formed spermatids were detached from the seminiferous epithelium and released to the lumen of each germinal chamber. These spermatids were present in pairs and interconnected by a cytoplasmic bridge throughout the entire spermiogenic process. On the basis of morphological events such as formation of the acrosome, elongation of the flagellum, and condensation of the nucleus, spermiogenesis has been temporally divided into Golgi phase, acrosomal phase and maturation phase. During the Golgi phase, proacrosomal vesicles appeared at the posterior pole of the spermatids and gradually fused into a proacrosomal vacuole. Simultaneously, the distal centriole docked onto the plasma membrane and gave rise to a formative flagellum. The acrosomal phase was characterised by differentiation of the acrosome, condensation of the chromatin and formation of a mitochondrial sheath surrounding the initial portion of the flagellum. During the maturation phase, the fully differentiated acrosome migrated to the anterior pole and excess cytoplasm was extruded from the spermatids in the form of residual bodies. In addition, we successfully induced step 1-3 spermatids to differentiate into the step 7-9 spermatids in both male germinal fluid and 10% foetal bovine serum in RPMI 1640 medium, but failed to replicate this process in female or boiled male germinal fluids. This finding supports our concept that spermatid differentiation in this species is dependent on intrinsic developmental programming and does not require input from accompanying nurse cells.

  18. Ultrastructural investigation and in vitro recapitulation of spermatid differentiation in a potential bio-indicator species – The marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonggang; Lin, Minjie

    2017-01-01

    Galeolaria gemineoa is a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, whose spermatozoa have been regarded as a sensitive indicator for water quality monitoring. In this study, 10 steps of spermiogenesis have been identified at the ultrastructural level and this differentiation process has been recapitulated in vitro up to the point of spermiogenesis (step 7–9 spermatids). On completion of the second meiosis, newly formed spermatids were detached from the seminiferous epithelium and released to the lumen of each germinal chamber. These spermatids were present in pairs and interconnected by a cytoplasmic bridge throughout the entire spermiogenic process. On the basis of morphological events such as formation of the acrosome, elongation of the flagellum, and condensation of the nucleus, spermiogenesis has been temporally divided into Golgi phase, acrosomal phase and maturation phase. During the Golgi phase, proacrosomal vesicles appeared at the posterior pole of the spermatids and gradually fused into a proacrosomal vacuole. Simultaneously, the distal centriole docked onto the plasma membrane and gave rise to a formative flagellum. The acrosomal phase was characterised by differentiation of the acrosome, condensation of the chromatin and formation of a mitochondrial sheath surrounding the initial portion of the flagellum. During the maturation phase, the fully differentiated acrosome migrated to the anterior pole and excess cytoplasm was extruded from the spermatids in the form of residual bodies. In addition, we successfully induced step 1–3 spermatids to differentiate into the step 7–9 spermatids in both male germinal fluid and 10% foetal bovine serum in RPMI 1640 medium, but failed to replicate this process in female or boiled male germinal fluids. This finding supports our concept that spermatid differentiation in this species is dependent on intrinsic developmental programming and does not require input from accompanying nurse cells. PMID:28850628

  19. Investigation of the effectiveness and social validity of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program in Japanese society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew R

    2010-02-01

    A pilot trial provided some evidence that the Triple P Positive Parenting Program is effective with and acceptable to a Japanese population in Australia (Matsumoto, Sofronoff, & Sanders, 2007). This effectiveness study aimed to address theoretical and practical concerns related to the parent training program in community settings in Japan. The research used community resources within an ecological framework. Fifty-four Japanese families living in a Tokyo metropolitan area were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a wait-list control group. Program effects and acceptability were examined and then compared with the outcomes from the trial with Japanese parents living in Australia. The results showed significant program effects and high levels of acceptability of the program and core parenting skills, which was consistent with the pilot trial. The findings provided support for the effectiveness and sociocultural validation of Triple P in Japanese society. Intervention effects and program acceptability as well as limitations and future research are discussed.

  20. User's guide for the computer program BUNYIP: building energy investigation package (Version 2. 0). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, S.K.; Wooldridge, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The program consists of a heat-transfer model of a building, or part thereof, together with its associated building services system. In particular, the program is set up to calculate the energy consumed by the plant in providing the building occupants with heating and cooling and with humidification or dehumidification. The program accepts information on the building occupancy and operation, and estimates the actual energy consumed in fuelling the specified plant and the associated water and air distribution systems.

  1. Investigations into Outbreaks of Black Fly Attacks and Subsequent Avian Haemosporidians in Backyard-Type Poultry and Other Exposed Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Johnson, Nora; Yang, Sharon; Stokes, John; Smith, Whitney; Wills, Robert; Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In late spring of 2009 and 2010, there were reports of severe black fly (Simulium spp., shown in Fig. 1) outbreaks in various counties in Mississippi, especially those in and around the Mississippi River Delta. Complaints were of black flies attacking multiple species of backyard poultry and causing high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. At several affected locations, black flies were readily observed swarming around and feeding on birds. A large number of these parasites were easily trapped on fly strips (Fig. 2). Multifocal to coalescing cutaneous hemorrhagic lesions, consistent with fly bites, were seen on the birds. Upon necropsy examination, a large number of black flies were also observed in the digestive tract (Fig. 3). Although black flies may cause disease directly, such as cardiopulmonary collapse and anaphylactoid reactions, detection of Leucocytozoon in blood smears (Fig. 4) of affected birds prompted further investigations of this protozoan as a cause of disease. Leucocytozoon spp. are known to be transmitted by black flies and may be associated with morbidity and mortality in birds such as poultry. From June 2009 through July 2012, the investigation included a total collection of 1068 individual blood samples, representing 371 individual premises in 89 counties/parishes across Mississippi (59), Alabama (10), Louisiana (4), and Tennessee (16). Of the 371 premises where blood samples were collected, 96 (26%) were either positive or highly suspected to be positive for Leucocytozoon spp. by blood smear analysis, and 5 (1.2%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. by blood smear analysis. Attempts to diagnose Leucocytozoon spp. by PCR analysis and sequencing were complicated by coinfections with two closely related haemosporidians (Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp.). A novel technique involving flow cytometry was also explored. This study discusses the black fly field outbreak, the involvement of haemosporidians, molecular methods for detection

  2. Calcium and reactive oxygen species in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition and of programmed cell death in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Michela; Bernardi, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in yeast shares many features with the intrinsic apoptotic pathway of mammals. With many stimuli, increased cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and ROS generation are the triggering signals that lead to mitochondrial permeabilization and release of proapoptotic factors, which initiates yeast PCD. While in mammals the permeability transition pore (PTP), a high-conductance inner membrane channel activated by increased matrix Ca(2+) and oxidative stress, is recognized as part of this signaling cascade, whether a similar process occurs in yeast is still debated. The potential role of the PTP in yeast PCD has generally been overlooked because yeast mitochondria lack the Ca(2+) uniporter, which in mammals allows rapid equilibration of cytosolic Ca(2+) with the matrix. In this short review we discuss the nature of the yeast permeability transition and reevaluate its potential role in the effector phase of yeast PCD triggered by Ca(2+) and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the experiences in a school-based occupational therapy program to inform community-based paediatric occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens, Lezahn; Joosten, Annette

    2014-06-01

    A collaborative approach with teachers is required when providing community-based occupational therapy to educationally at risk children. Collaborators share common goals and interact and support each other but challenges arise in providing collaborative occupational therapy in settings outside the school environment. The aim of this study was to capture experiences of teachers and occupational therapists working within a school-based occupational therapy program to determine if their experiences could inform collaborative practice. In this pilot study, participant responses to questionnaires (n = 32) about their experiences formed the basis for focus groups and individual interviews. Two focus group were conducted, one with teachers (n = 11) and one with occupational therapy participants (n = 6). Individual interviews were conducted with the supervising occupational therapist, school principal and two leading teachers. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data from closed questions, and thematic analysis using a constant comparison approach was used to analyse open ended questions, focus groups and interviews. Three main themes emerged: (i) the need for occupational therapists to spend time in the school, to explain their role, build relationships, understand classroom routines and the teacher role; (ii) occupational therapists need to not see themselves as the expert but develop equal partnerships to set collaborative goals and (iii) occupational therapists advocating for all parties to be informed throughout the occupational therapy process. The pilot study findings identified teacher and therapist experiences within the school setting that could inform improved collaborative practice with teachers and community-based occupational therapists and these findings warrant further investigation. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. The Investigation of the Effects of Life Safety Basic Training Program on the Knowledge of Safety of Six-Year Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Medera HALMATOV; Halmatov, Sultanberk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of Basic Life Safety Training Program on the life safety knowledge of children those trained by the researchers. The program was developed for six to seven-year-old children and composed of twelve different lectures. The survey took place at two preschool educational facility in Agri region and applied to a total of 30 children, i.e., 18 girls and 12 boys, studying in a six-year-old learning group.  The final intent of the program i...

  5. Investigation of Pb species in soils, celery and duckweed by synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liqiang; Shen, Yating; Liu, Jian; Zeng, Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The Pb species play a key role in its translocation in biogeochemical cycles. Soils, sediments and plants were collected from farmlands around Pb mines, and the Pb species in them was identified by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry. In soils, Pb5(PO4)3Cl and Pb3(PO4)2 were detected, and in sediments, Pb-fulvic acids (FAs) complex was identified. A Pb complex with FA fragments was also detected in celery samples. We found that (1) different Pb species were present in soils and sediments; (2) the Pb species in celery, which was grown in sediments, was different from the species present in duckweed, which grew in water; and (3) a Pb-FA-like compound was present in celery roots. The newly identified Pb species, the Pb-FA-like compound, may play a key role in Pb tolerance and translocation within plants.

  6. Differences in Student Achievement between Early-Exit and Late-Exit Bilingual Programs: A Multiyear, Statewide Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rosa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between two bilingual program types: traditional early-exit and late-exit bilingual programs and academic achievement using archival data from the Texas Education Agency Public Education Information Management System. An examination of academic achievement rates across a 3-year period…

  7. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume II: Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    This study documents the effects of participation in the Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF awarded more than 600 grants to scientists, mathematicians, and educators to develop and operate inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989. The present study focuses specifically upon the…

  8. An Investigation of Basic and Borderline Proficient Students' Comprehension Reading Achievement Using the Read 180 Computerized Instructional Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if students made gains in reading achievement in the area of reading comprehension by having used a computerized reading instructional program entitled "READ 180RTM." The researcher included a qualitative component to gather teacher and parent perceptions of the use of this program. The theoretical…

  9. Perceived Impact of a Land and Property Rights Program on Violence Against Women in Rural Kenya: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Starr; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Grabe, Shelly; Lu, Tiffany; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Mwaura-Muiru, Esther; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-03-06

    The current study focuses on a community-led land and property rights program in two rural provinces in western Kenya. The program was designed to respond to women's property rights violations to reduce violence against women and HIV risks at the community level. Through in-depth interviews with 30 women, we examine the perceived impact that this community-level property rights program had on violence against women at the individual and community level. We also examine perceptions as to how reductions in violence were achieved. Finally, we consider how our findings may aid researchers in the design of structural violence-prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  11. An investigation of the role of parental request for self-correction of stuttering in the Lidcombe Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; O'Brian, Sue; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Lidcombe Program is a behavioural treatment for stuttering in children younger than 6 years that is supported by evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The treatment incorporates parent verbal contingencies for stutter-free speech and for stuttering. However, the contribution of those contingencies to reductions in stuttering in the program is unclear. Thirty-four parent-child dyads were randomized to two treatment groups. The control group received standard Lidcombe Program and the experimental group received Lidcombe Program without instruction to parents to use the verbal contingency request for self-correction. Treatment responsiveness was measured as time to 50% stuttering severity reduction. No differences were found between groups on primary outcome measures of the number of weeks and clinic visits to 50% reduction in stuttering severity. This clinical experiment challenges the assumption that the verbal contingency request for self-correction contributes to treatment efficacy. Results suggest the need for further research to explore this issue.

  12. Teaching Translational Research to Medical Students: The New York University School of Medicine's Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation Dual-Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Jennifer; Pillinger, Michael; Plottel, Claudia S; Galeano, Claudia; Maddalo, Scott; Hochman, Judith S; Cronstein, Bruce N; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2015-12-01

    To develop the next generation of translational investigators, New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the NYU-NYC Health and Hospitals Corporation Clinical and Translational Science Institute (NYU-HHC CTSI) developed the Master's of Science in Clinical Investigation dual-degree (MD/MSCI) program. This 5-year program dedicates 1 year to coursework and biomedical research, followed by a medical school/research overlap year, to prepare students for academic research careers. This paper details the MD/MSCI program's curriculum and approach to mentorship, describes the research/professional interests of students, and reports student productivity. In the first 4 years of the program (2010-2014) 20 students were matriculated; 7 (35%) were women, and 12 (60%) research projects were in surgical specialties. To date, 14 students have applied to residency, and half pursued surgical residency programs. Our students have produced 68 accepted abstracts, 15 abstracts in submission, 38 accepted papers, and 24 papers in submission. Despite the time-limited nature of this program, additional training in research design and implementation has promoted a high level of productivity. We conclude that dual-degree training in medicine and translational research is feasible for medical students and allows for meaningful participation in valuable projects. Follow-up is warranted to evaluate the academic trajectory of these students. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Performance based pay : an empirical investigation of the impact of performance pay increases on perceptions critical to successful merit pay programs

    OpenAIRE

    Vest, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of size of performance pay increases on employee perceptions critical to the success of merit pay programs. Perceptions investigated in this study included: 1) instrumentality, 2) expectancy, 3) performance appraisal administration, 4) performance appraisal content, 5) trust in city management, 6) pay communication, and 7) importance of pay. It was hypothesized that individuals who received above average performan...

  14. Evaluation of a school-based tuberculosis-screening program and associate investigation targeting recently immigrated children in a low-burden country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Paul; Steensma, Colin; Cadieux, Louise; Lands, Larry C

    2006-02-01

    In countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB), screening programs targeting recent immigrants from TB-endemic countries have been shown to be effective in further reducing TB incidence; however, evaluative data on some aspects of these programs remain sparse. We sought to retrospectively evaluate a school-based screening program targeting children at high risk for TB infection in Montreal, Canada, as well as subsequently investigate family and household associates of the schoolchildren with latent TB infection (LTBI), based on adherence to LTBI therapy and cost-benefit analysis. Newly arrived immigrant children (aged 4-18 years) in selected schools were screened for LTBI by using the tuberculin skin test (TST). The TST was defined as positive at an induration of > or =10 mm. Each child who tested positive on the TST was referred for medical evaluation. Family and household associates of the TST-positive child also were screened for LTBI. Classroom attendance sheets and medical charts were reviewed for 16 elementary and secondary schools that comprised the school-screening program of the Montreal Children's Hospital from 1998 to 2003. Medical charts of the child associates (cost/benefit of the school-screening and associate-investigation programs, both respectively and as a combined program, compared with the cost of passive treatment of TB disease. Of 2524 immigrant children screened, 542 (21%) were TST-positive. Of 342 children started on therapy, 316 (92%) demonstrated adequate adherence. The only predictor of adherence among the schoolchildren was having > or =2 family members brought in for TB screening (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-3.3). There were 599 associates investigated from the 484 TST-positive schoolchildren seen at the TB clinic. Of 555 associates with TST results, 211 (38%) were found to be TST-positive. Of 136 TST-positive child associates, 131 were seen at the Montreal Children's Hospital TB clinic and had their

  15. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C. M.; El-Messidi, O. E.; Cowser, D. K.; Kannard, J. R.; Carvin, R. T.; Will, III, A. S.; Clark, Jr., C.; Garland, S. B.

    1993-05-01

    This Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be followed during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. This ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. The subsections that follow describe the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual waste area grouping (WAG) remedial investigations. Hazardous work permits (HWPs) will be used to provide task-specific health and safety requirements.

  16. A Quasi-Experimental Investigation of How the Gates Millennium Scholars Program Is Related to College Students' Time Use and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.; Ott, Molly; Kim, Jiyun

    2010-01-01

    A national scholarship program provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is designed to improve access to and success in higher education for low-income high-achieving minority students by providing them with full tuition scholarships and non-monetary support. We use a regression discontinuity approach to investigate whether the receipt of…

  17. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  18. Investigating Customers' Experiences with Their Financial Services Customer Education Programs as It Impacts Customer Loyalty to the Financial Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kaliym A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study was that customer education programs are intended to strengthen customer loyalty; however, research on the effects of customer education on customer loyalty remains insufficient. This phenomenological study investigated how the lived experiences of customers' participating in financial services' customer…

  19. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  20. Investigating single and multiple species fisheries management: stock status evaluation of hammerhead (Sphyrna spp.) sharks in the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Christopher Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Three hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.) are currently managed as part of the large coastal shark complex in the United States. Including multiple species in an assessment ignores the different stock dynamics of each individual species within the complex due to different life histories. This study completed individual assessments of scalloped (S. lewini), great (S. mokarran), and smooth (S. zygaena) hammerhead sharks in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Combined data for all three ...

  1. Investigations on the efficacy of routinely used phenotypic methods compared to genotypic approaches for the identification of staphylococcal species isolated from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of Staphylococci to species level in veterinary microbiology is important to inform therapeutic intervention and management. We report on the efficacy of three routinely used commercial phenotypic methods for staphylococcal species identification, namely API Staph 32 (bioMérieux), RapID (Remel) and Staph-Zym (Rosco Diagnostica) compared to genotyping as a reference method to identify 52 staphylococcal clinical isolates (23 coagulase positive; 29 coagulase negative) from companion animals in Irish veterinary hospitals. Results Genotyping of a 412 bp fragment of the staphylococcal tuf gene and coagulase testing were carried out on all 52 veterinary samples along with 7 reference strains. In addition, genotyping of the staphylococcal rpoB gene, as well as PCR-RFLP of the pta gene, were performed to definitively identify members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG). The API Staph 32 correctly identified all S. aureus isolates (11/11), 83% (10/12) of the SIG species, and 66% (19/29) of the coagulase negative species. RapID and Staph-Zym correctly identified 61% (14/23) and 0% (0/23) respectively of the coagulase-positives, and 10% (3/29) and 3% (1/29) respectively of the coagulase-negative species. Conclusions Commercially available phenotypic species identification tests are inadequate for the correct identification of both coagulase negative and coagulase positive staphylococcal species from companion animals. Genotyping using the tuf gene sequence is superior to phenotyping for identification of staphylococcal species of animal origin. However, use of PCR-RFLP of pta gene or rpoB sequencing is recommended as a confirmatory method for discriminating between SIG isolates. PMID:23635328

  2. Investigating Research Gaps of Pharmaceutical take back Events: An Analysis of take back Program Participants' Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Geographic Characteristics and the Public Health Benefits of take back Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, K. I.; Hodge, V.; Maxey, G.; Tiwari, C.; Cready, C.; Huggett, D. B.

    2017-06-01

    Research continues to show that pharmaceutical environmental contamination causes adverse effects to aquatic life. There are also public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals because in-home reserves of medications provide opportunities for accidental poisoning and intentional medication abuse. Pharmaceutical take back programs have been seen as a potential remedy for these issues; however, a thorough review of past programs indicates limited research has been conducted on take back programs. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in take back program research. To address these gaps and ultimately determine if take back programs could improve public health, research was conducted in conjunction with the take back program Denton drug disposal days held in Denton, Texas. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of Denton drug disposal days participants were investigated using surveys and Geographic Information Systems. Potential impacts of the Denton drug disposal days program on public health were determined by comparing data from Denton drug disposal days events with data supplied by the North Texas Poison Center. Results suggest that Denton drug disposal days events may have prevented accidental poisonings or intentional abuse, however only qualitative comparisons support this statement and there was insufficient empirical evidence to support the conclusion that Denton drug disposal days events were exclusively responsible for public health improvements. An interesting finding was that there was a definitive travel threshold that influenced participation in Denton drug disposal days events. Overall, this study fills some geographic, socioeconomic, and demographic data gaps of take back programs and proposes methods to analyze and improve participation in future take back programs. These methods could also be applied to improve participation in other local environmentally-focused programs such as household hazardous collection events.

  3. Investigation of Neutron-induced Reactions at n_TOF: an Overview of the 2009-2012 Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, C.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Massimi, C.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Pignatari, M.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.

    2014-05-01

    The neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF is operating at CERN (Switzerland) since 2001, having started in 2009 a new campaign with an upgraded spallation target. The ambitious program carried out includes a large number of experiments in nuclear technology, astrophysics, basic physics, detector development and medical applications. This paper is devoted to the physics program at n_TOF and the measurements performed between 2009 and 2012. Special attention is given to those experiments that have been most challenging, are more important for a particular field, have reached unprecedented levels of accuracy, or have been carried out for the first time ever.

  4. Investigation of Neutron-induced Reactions at n_TOF: an Overview of the 2009–2012 Experimental Program

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, C; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The neutron time-of-flight facility n\\_TOF is operating at CERN (Switzerland) since 2001, having started in 2009 a new campaign with an upgraded spallation target. The ambitious program carried out includes a large number of experiments in nuclear technology, astrophysics, basic physics, detector development and medical applications. This paper is devoted to the physics program at n\\_TOF and the measurements performed between 2009 and 2012. Special attention is given to those experiments that have been most challenging, are more important for a particular field, have reached unprecedented levels of accuracy, or have been carried out for the first time ever.

  5. An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of an Enrichment Program on Aspects of Einsteinian Physics on Year 6 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Marina; Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan

    2014-06-01

    Concepts related to Einsteinian physics are usually not taught until students are in university, denying younger children access to this powerful way of understanding space, time and gravity. Considerable research has shown, however, that complex and abstract scientific ideas can be presented in age appropriate ways that result in measurable learning. The purpose of the research presented in this paper was to explore the impact of an enrichment program on aspects of Einsteinian physics on year 6 (10 and 11 years old) children's understanding of and attitudes towards this topic. The research design was an exploratory case study of one class of 26 students who participated in six in-class lessons as well as an excursion to a science centre, the Gravity Discovery Centre, and a scripted play about relevant key scientists. Mixed methods of data collection included a pre/post-instruction questionnaire, classroom observations and an interview with the physics professor who conducted the program. The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in children's conceptual understanding on the pre/post-questionnaire with a small effect size. Analysis of individual items on the questionnaire indicated variable results with regard to particular concepts. For example, after the enrichment program, students were better able to understand curved space, but little improvement was observed in their understanding of gravity on the Moon. The majority of students reported being interested and engaged in the program of activities and did not feel that they were too young to learn concepts related to Einstein's physics.

  6. An Investigation of Principals and Assistant Principals in Pennsylvania and the Impact of Transitional Support Programs on Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, W. David

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the GROW program on the intrinsic, extrinsic, and the general job satisfaction of principals and assistant principals in Pennsylvania. The impact of the variables of year in position, age, gender, level of work, location of school, and present degree was examined; the impact of…

  7. Distress Tolerance Skills for College Students: A Pilot Investigation of a Brief DBT Group Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhomba, Monicah; Chugani, Carla D.; Uliaszek, Amanda A.; Kannan, Divya

    2017-01-01

    This report outlines the evaluation of a brief dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training program for students presenting with serious psychological concerns (referral reasons included suicidality, self-injury, and substance use). Students were enrolled in distress tolerance groups ranging from 7-10 weeks. The majority of the…

  8. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  9. Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Numeracy: An Australian Investigation Based on the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnis, Amanda J.; Petocz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    International and national testing of numerical and language skills has become a regular part of educational systems in many countries. In Australia, the "National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy" (NAPLAN) has been used since 2008 to carry out regular tests of literacy and numeracy amongst school students nationally. Since the…

  10. An Investigation of First-Year Teacher Induction Programs in Jesuit Secondary Schools within the California Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Justin

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers have made considerable contributions to the field of new teacher induction. More specifically, they have demonstrated that an effective induction program can increase teacher effectiveness and decrease teacher attrition (Ingersoll & Smith 2004; Ingersoll & Strong 2011; Villar & Strong 2007). Yet, little…

  11. Describing Illinois Music Programs Using the Whole School Effectiveness Guidelines Survey for Music Education: A Statewide Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Charles R.; McLay, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Illinois music educators' self-perceptions regarding the demographics, logistics, function, and implementation of their classroom operations using the Whole School Effectiveness Guidelines Survey for Music Programs. The survey was administered to K-12 music educators (N = 1,251) throughout the state of…

  12. The cestode order Rhinebothriidea no longer family-less: A molecular phylogenetic investigation with erection of two new families and description of eight new species of Anthocephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Timothy R; Caira, Janine N; Cox, Allison

    2015-01-05

    The spiral intestines of a total of 30 specimens of 14 species of batoids from around the world were examined for rhinebothriideans. These consisted of Taeniura grabata, Dasyatis margaritella, and Dasyatis sp. from Senegal, Dasyatis americana from Florida, Dasyatis dipterura and Dasyatis longa from México, Himantura jenkinsii, Himantura leoparda, Himantura uarnak 2, Urogymnus asperrimus 1, and Neotrygon kuhlii 4 from Australia, in addition to Himantura uarnacoides and Neotrygon kuhlii 1 from Borneo. Each of these hosted one or more species of Anthocephalum. Eleven of the cestode species were new to science; four represented described species. In addition, Urotrygon aspidura from Costa Rica hosted a species of Escherbothrium. Sufficient material was available for formal description of the following eight species of Anthocephalum: A. decrisantisorum n. sp., A. healyae n. sp., A. jensenae n. sp., A. mattisi n. sp., A. meadowsi n. sp., A. odonnellae n. sp., A. papefayi n. sp., and A. philruschi n. sp. These species differ from their nine described congeners in overall size, number of proglottids and marginal loculi, number and arrangement of testes, apical sucker size, arrangement and distribution of vitelline follicles particularly with respect in the post-poral field, and muscularity of the genital pore. The diagnosis of Anthocephalum is emended slightly to accommodate these new species. Material of four previously described Anthocephalum species, seven of the novel Anthocephalum species described here, 3 undescribed Anthocephalum species, and the species of Escherbothrium was preserved in 95% ethanol and partial 28S rDNA (D1-D3) and complete 18S rDNA sequence data were generated de novo. These data were combined with data from GenBank for Anthocephalum cf. centrurum (recognized as A. mattisi n. sp. below) and 29 species representing 12 other putative rhinebothriidean genera. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods were

  13. Investigating Implementation Methods and Perceived Learning Outcomes of Children’s Library Instruction Programs: A Case of Parent-child Doctors’ Mailbox in National Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the implementation methods, process and perceived learning outcomes of children’s library instruction programs. This study adopted a qualitative approach with the Parent-child Doctors’ Mailbox program in National Library of Public Information. Observation (including thinking aloud, interviews and documents were used for data collection in order to elicit perspectives of 31 children, 26 parents and 3 librarians. Main findings derived from this study can be summarized as follows: (1 Parent-child Doctors’ Mailbox integrated play (e.g., prize quizzes and reading guides into the program design, which was based upon the development of different age groups. Children needed to go to the circulation desk in person in order to get designated books and answer sheets. Children earned points to redeem for prizes by answering questions correctly. (2 Motivations for children’s participation in the program were categorized as external (e.g., prizes, recommendations from friends and serendipity and internal (e.g., cultivating habits of reading and writing, and siblings’ company. (3 Children’s perceived learning outcomes of participation in the program included improving children’s attention span, the positive influence of messages delivered by books on children, and the positive progress of children’s reading, writing, logical thinking and interpersonal skills. (4 Parents’ roles in children’s participation in the program included accompanying children and providing reactive assistance. Roles of librarians involved administrative work, encouragement and befriending children. [Article content in Chinese

  14. Investigation of atomic species in Pt-induced nanowires on Ge(001) surface by combined atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Shinozaki, Takuya; Gurlu, Oguzhan; Yurtsever, Ayhan

    2017-10-01

    We have studied identification of atomic species in Pt-induced nanowires self-assembled on the Ge(001) surface by combining scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A small number of Sn atoms substituted in the top atomic chains were utilized as references to identify the target atomic species. Force spectroscopy data taken above single atoms on the Sn-substituted nanowires showed that the ratio between the maximum attractive forces above the Sn and the pristine chain atoms exhibited a constant value of 0.86. The obtained ratio was identical to that between Sn and Ge atoms, strongly suggestive that the top ridge of the Pt-induced nanowire was composed of Ge dimers. Our findings also demonstrate that AFM chemical identification method can be used to identify the unknown atomic species on surfaces, regardless of the homogeneity in the atomic composition, which has not been addressed so far.

  15. 'It's just so much waste.' A qualitative investigation of food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Metayer, Nesly; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D

    2015-06-01

    To understand stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program implementing a Breakfast in the Classroom model. Semi-structured focus groups and interviews were conducted with school district stakeholders. Inductive methods were used to code resulting transcripts, from which themes were identified. The analysis provides a thematic analysis of stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools in a large urban school district implementing a universal free Breakfast in the Classroom model of the US national School Breakfast Program. Elementary-school students (n 85), parents (n 86), teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and school principals (n 10). Stakeholders perceived food waste as a problem and expressed concern regarding the amount of food wasted. Explanations reported for food waste included food-related (palatability and accessibility), child-related (taste preferences and satiation) and programme-related (duration, food service policies, and coordination) factors. Milk and fruit were perceived as foods particularly susceptible to waste. Several food waste mitigation strategies were identified by participants: saving food for later, actively encouraging children's consumption, assisting children with foods during mealtime, increasing staff support, serving smaller portion sizes, and composting and donating uneaten food. Stakeholders recognized food waste as a problem, reported myriad contributing factors, and have considered and employed multiple and diverse mitigation strategies. Changes to the menu and/or implementation logistics, as well as efforts to use leftover food productively, may be possible strategies of reducing waste and improving the School Breakfast Program's economic, environmental and nutritional impact.

  16. Installation Restoration Program Stage 2-1 Remedial Investigation. Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. Volume 1. Text and Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-29

    ABSTRACT ( Coen n mIvvrsg of new y &V AW n by blad anfbw) As part of the ongoing Installation Restoration Program at Beale Air Force Base, California, 24...detected at the same depths at 0.005 (be- low LOQ), 0.014, 0.006, and 0.21 mg/kg. 1,1,2 trichloro- ethane was detected at 0.009 mg/kg at 48 feet (42

  17. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Installation Restoration Program Stage 2-1 Remedial Investigation. Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. Volume 3. Appendix B - K

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-29

    Botanical Analysis of the Vernal Pool Plant Com- munity and Associated Plant Species and A Wetland Plant Community Survey of Beale AFB. September 24...Protection of Wetlands , Executive Order 11990, 40 CFR 6, Appendix A. Wilderness Act, 16 USC 1131 et. seq., 50 CFR 35.1 et. seq. National Wildlife Refuge...N12YO2DII DATE EXTRACTED SAMPLE TYPE IATEA - DATE ANALYSED :12/21/1S to U oflorceeueteSU dbo hlrut to U Itrmottt 1, U 1,2itrichlor~ithul 10 U ;ley

  19. Development of a computer program to investigate electrical properties of Phuket pineapple leaf single cells by using dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlamp, M.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a computer program to calculate electrical properties of a cell from a spherical single shell model. The program compared the results between the theoretical values (Re[f(ω]TDS and the experimental values (Re[f(ω]EDS. The latter was computed from a cell velocity obtained from dielectrophoresis. The calculation was repeated until the error percentile was in a proper range. The program was applied to process the electrical properties of Phuket pineapple protoplasts [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.C.V. Phuket]. It was found that the thickness of the cell membrane was 10 nm, the dielectric constants of suspending solution, cytoplasm and cell membrane were 80ε0, 58-60ε0 and 10-14ε0 respectively (ε0 is the dielectric constant of the vacuum = 8.85×10-12 F m-1. The conductivity of cytoplasm and cell membrane were 0.09 S m-1 and 10-5 - 10-4 S m-1 respectively.

  20. Is Variety the Spice of Life? An Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Species Richness on Self-Reported Mental Well-Being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas J Wolf

    Full Text Available Losses in biodiversity and trends toward urbanisation have reduced people's contact with biodiverse nature, yet the consequences for mental well-being are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that greater plant and animal species richness in isolation causes an improvement in mental well-being. To do so, the present research experimentally manipulated species richness and assessed widely-used indicators of mental well-being. Participants viewed short videos of either high or low tree (Study 1 or bird (Study 2 species richness and reported on positive (i.e., vitality, positive affect and negative (i.e., anxiety indicators of mental well-being. Building on Study 1, Study 2 included an urban environment as a reference treatment and explored the role of giving participants information on the presented environment. We find that, in line with expectations, watching videos containing greater species richness consistently leads to higher mental well-being. We discuss findings in light of the importance of connecting people to biodiverse environments.

  1. Is Variety the Spice of Life? An Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Species Richness on Self-Reported Mental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lukas J; Zu Ermgassen, Sophus; Balmford, Andrew; White, Mathew; Weinstein, Netta

    2017-01-01

    Losses in biodiversity and trends toward urbanisation have reduced people's contact with biodiverse nature, yet the consequences for mental well-being are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that greater plant and animal species richness in isolation causes an improvement in mental well-being. To do so, the present research experimentally manipulated species richness and assessed widely-used indicators of mental well-being. Participants viewed short videos of either high or low tree (Study 1) or bird (Study 2) species richness and reported on positive (i.e., vitality, positive affect) and negative (i.e., anxiety) indicators of mental well-being. Building on Study 1, Study 2 included an urban environment as a reference treatment and explored the role of giving participants information on the presented environment. We find that, in line with expectations, watching videos containing greater species richness consistently leads to higher mental well-being. We discuss findings in light of the importance of connecting people to biodiverse environments.

  2. Morphometric or morpho-anatomal and genetic investigations highlight allopatric speciation in Western Mediterranean lagoons within the Atherina lagunae species (Teleostei, Atherinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, M.; Maamouri, F.; Quignard, J.-P.; Boussaïd, M.; Faure, E.

    2004-12-01

    Current distribution of Atherina lagunae poses an interesting biogeographical problem as this species inhabits widely separate circum-Mediterranean lagoons. Statistical analyses of 87 biometric parameters and genetic variation in a portion of the cytochrome b gene were examined in four populations of A. lagunae from Tunisian and French lagoons. The results suggested a subdivision into two distinct Atherinid groups: one included the French lagoonal sand smelts and the second included the Tunisian ones. Tunisian lagoonal sand smelts were distinguished from the French ones by the lower number of lateral line scales, vertebrae, pectorals and first dorsal fin rays and the higher number of lower and total gillrakers. In addition, A. lagunae from Tunisian lagoons are characterised by short preorbital length, developed operculum, broad interorbital space, larger head, robust body and a relatively small first dorsal fin which is positioned backwards. In addition, intraspecific sequence variation in a portion of the cytochrome b gene was examined in 87 individuals from Tunisia and France. The high correlation between the results of the molecular phylogenetic tree and biometric statistical data analysis suggested that two different sibling species or at least sub-species or semi-species have colonised the lagoons. In addition, our analyses suggested that the evolution of A. lagunae probably occurred in two steps including marine sympatric speciation within the large Atherina boyeri complex and a post-Pleistocene colonisation of the lagoons.

  3. A Theoretical Investigation of the Plausibility of Reactions Between Ammonia and Carbonyl Species (Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, and Acetone) in Interstellar Ice Analogs at Ultracold Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lina; Woon, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We have reexamined the reaction between formaldehyde and ammonia, which was previously studied by us and other workers in modestly sized cluster calculations. Larger model systems with up to 12H2O were employed, and reactions of two more carbonyl species, acetaldehyde and acetone, were also carried out. Calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level with bulk solvent effects treated with a polarizable continuum model; limited MP2/6-31+G** calculations were also performed. We found that while the barrier for the concerted proton relay mechanism described in previous work remains modest, it is still prohibitively high for the reaction to occur under the ultracold conditions that prevail in dense interstellar clouds. However, a new pathway emerged in more realistic clusters that involves at least one barrierless step for two of the carbonyl species considered here: ammonia reacts with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form a partial charge transfer species in small clusters (4H2O) and a protonated hydroxyamino intermediate species in large clusters (9H2O, 12H2O); modest barriers that decrease sharply with cluster size are found for the analogous processes for the acetone-NH3 reaction. Furthermore, if a second ammonia replaces one of the water molecules in calculations in the 9H2O clusters, deprotonation can occur to yield the same neutral hydroxyamino species that is formed via the original concerted proton relay mechanism. In at least one position, deprotonation is barrierless when zero-point energy is included. In addition to describing the structures and energetics of the reactions between formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone with ammonia, we report spectroscopic predictions of the observable vibrational features that are expected to be present in ice mixtures of different composition.

  4. Investigation of the Effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the Social Skill Development of 5-6 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdogan, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Story-Based Social Skills Training Program on the social skill development of 5-6 year-old children. In the study, the pre-test/post-test and retention test experimental design with a control group was used. 5-6 year-old 60 (30 experimental, 30 control) preschool children participated in the…

  5. Using ComBase Predictor and Pathogen Modeling Program as support tools in outbreak investigation: an example from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Hansen, Tina Beck; Andersen, Jens Kirk

    , or even multiplied, during the production of the suspected sausage?” To elucidate this, the ComBase Predictor (CBP) and the Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) were used as support tools. From information on the company’s website, it was calculated that the water phase salt changed from 4.6% to 8.0% during...... of release of the sausage for sale, 1 Y. enterocolitica could have increased to 106 and the sausage could, therefore, not be ruled out as the source of Y. enterocolitica found in two of the outbreak cases....

  6. Using ComBase Predictor and Pathogen Modeling Program as support tools in outbreak investigation: an example from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Hansen, Tina Beck; Andersen, Jens Kirk

    2009-01-01

    , or even multiplied, during the production of the suspected sausage?” To elucidate this, the ComBase Predictor (CBP) and the Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) were used as support tools. From information on the company’s website, it was calculated that the water phase salt changed from 4.6% to 8.0% during...... of release of the sausage for sale, 1 Y. enterocolitica could have increased to 106 and the sausage could, therefore, not be ruled out as the source of Y. enterocolitica found in two of the outbreak cases....

  7. The program at JPL to investigate the nuclear interaction of RTG's with scientific instruments on deep space probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscello, V.

    1972-01-01

    A major concern in the integration of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) with a spacecraft designed to explore the outer planets is the effect of the emitted radiation on the normal operation of scientific instruments. The necessary techniques and tools developed to allow accurate calculation of the neutron and gamma spectrum emanating from the RTG. The specific sources of radiation were identified and quantified. Monte Carlo techniques are then employed to perform the nuclear transport calculations. The results of these studies are presented. An extensive experimental program was initiated to measure the response of a number of scientific components to the nuclear radiation.

  8. Investigating approaches to diversity in a national survey of physics doctoral degree programs: The graduate admissions landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Potvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Graduate admissions play a critical gatekeeping role in the physics community not only because they select students who are allowed to begin their graduate studies, but also because they influence how students perceive graduate school, and in some cases whether or not they will even choose to apply. In conjunction with the APS Bridge Program, we conducted a national survey of graduate directors (and related faculty of physics Ph.D. programs in the United States to explore graduate admissions practices. Our focus was on criteria used in determining admissions, mechanisms through which graduate applicants are handled, and how student representation considerations are incorporated into admissions (if at all. We report here on existing graduate admission practices in physics departments and highlight some critical issues for understanding barriers for diversifying graduate physics, including the use of GRE scores (and the relative importance placed on them. We find that the use of a minimum GRE score for admission, a practice in opposition to recommendations made by the tests designers, is reported to be used in many departments (more than one in three. We also find letters of recommendation to be highly valued in admissions decisions. Our data describe various initiatives at the institutional or individual level to increase gender diversity in admissions. A sizable number of departments also express a latent demand for greater numbers of students from traditionally marginalized racial or ethnic groups, but simultaneously report a lack of such applicants.

  9. Investigating the timing of origin and evolutionary processes shaping regional species diversity: Insights from simulated data and neotropical butterfly diversification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Maraví, Pável

    2016-07-01

    Different diversification scenarios have been proposed to explain the origin of extant biodiversity. However, most existing meta-analyses of time-calibrated phylogenies rely on approaches that do not quantitatively test alternative diversification processes. Here, I highlight the shortcomings of using species divergence ranks, which is a method widely used in meta-analyses. Divergence ranks consist of categorizing cladogenetic events to certain periods of time, typically to either Pleistocene or to pre-Pleistocene ages. This approach has been claimed to shed light on the origin of most extant species and the timing and dynamics of diversification in any biogeographical region. However, interpretations drawn from such method often confound two fundamental questions in macroevolutionary studies, tempo (timing of evolutionary rate shifts) and mode ("how" and "why" of speciation). By using simulated phylogenies under four diversification scenarios, constant-rate, diversity-dependence, high extinction, and high speciation rates in the Pleistocene, I showed that interpretations based on species divergence ranks might have been seriously misleading. Future meta-analyses of dated phylogenies need to be aware of the impacts of incomplete taxonomic sampling, tree topology, and divergence time uncertainties, as well as they might be benefited by including quantitative tests of alternative diversification models that acknowledge extinction and diversity dependence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Are They Ready to Teach with Technology? An Investigation of Technology Instruction in Music Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haning, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the type, quantity, and effects of technology instruction currently being provided to undergraduate music education majors. Undergraduate participants (n = 46) at 10 degree-granting institutions completed an online survey on the technology instruction received during their undergraduate degree…

  12. The Aristocrat of Bands: A Historical Investigation of the Tennessee State University Instrumental Music Program and Its Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Reginald A.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental music education, as it evolved in the segregated African American communities and their educational institutions, remains an under-investigated area of historical research. As a partial remedy to that circumstance, this study sought to document one of the more noteworthy of such accounts, the history of instrumental music ensembles at…

  13. Installation Restoration Program Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification Stage 2. Bulk Fuel Storage Area Fuel Spill Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    fire training areas for a government facility in Arizona. Hydrogeologie investigation for a scrap recovery facility in western Pennsylvania...V l3 c’ 1 >-v 1 * i si + 1 §i ? I • 5 o u • • a 1 1 tit j i j 9 J 1 CO z o CO | < Ö w a co 1 a • n

  14. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across... CONTACT: Kelsey Brantley, National Invasive Species Council Program Specialist and ISAC Coordinator, (202...

  15. Effects of post-mortem storage conditions of bovine epididymides on sperm characteristics: investigating a tool for preservation of sperm from endangered species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Julie; Ragborg, Mette M; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and validate a reliable and efficient protocol for the recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa used for in vitro fertilization, using bulls of two different age classes. Testicles from 26 (37–51 weeks old, group 1) and 19 (52–115 weeks old, g...... that epididymal spermatozoa recovered from testicles kept in specific conditions can be used to preserve genetic material from endangered and threatened species or populations in nature as well as in domestic and zoo animals....

  16. Predictors of intensive care unit admission and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke: investigating the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Belma Doğan; Tunç, Abdulkadir; Aras, Yeşim Güzey; Gündoğdu, Aslı Aksoy; Güngen, Adil Can; Bal, Serdar

    2017-07-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality among stroke patients and the effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on stroke patients. This prospective study enrolled 181 acute ischemic stroke patients aged between 40 and 90 years. Demographical characteristics, laboratory tests, diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) time, nutritional status, vascular risk factors, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and modified Rankin scale (MRS) scores were recorded for all patients. One-hundred patients participated in the pulmonary rehabilitation program, 81 of whom served as a control group. Statistically, one- and three-month mortality was associated with NIHSS and MRS scores at admission and three months (pICU admission had a statistically significant relationship with parenteral nutrition (pICU admission (pICU admission. The relationship between pulmonary physiotherapy (PPT) and ICU admission- pneumonia onset at the end of three months was statistically significant (p=0.04 and p=0.043, respectively). This study showed that PPT improved the prognosis of ischemic stroke patients. We believe that a pulmonary rehabilitation program, in addition to general stroke rehabilitation programs, can play a critical role in improving survival and functional outcomes. NCT03195907 . Trial registration date: 21.06.2017 'Retrospectively registered'.

  17. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  18. Animal Investigation Program (AIP), A.I.P. summary report on and around the Nevada Test Site from 1982--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the Animal Investigation Program conducted from 1982--1995 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R and IE), formerly Radiation Sciences Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The surveillance program was designed to measure levels and trends of radionuclides in animals on and around the Nevada Test Site to ascertain whether world-wide fallout, current radiation levels, and associated doses, to the general public were in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally had the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well-being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results indicated that no significant amounts of biological radionuclides had been detected in the near offsite areas or on the NTS, except in animals drinking water that drains from tunnels in Area 12.

  19. Field lysimeter investigations: Low-level waste data base development program for fiscal year 1996. Annual report; Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Larsen, I.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Jastrow, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, T.M.; Fuhrmann, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A data base development program, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is (a) studying the degradation effects in organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified ion-exchange resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of liners used to dispose the ion-exchange resins. During the field testing experiments, both portland type 1--2 cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste form samples were tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The study was designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over an extended period. Those experiments have been shut down and are to be exhumed. This report discusses the plans for removal, sampling, and analysis of waste form and soil cores from the lysimeters. Results of partition coefficient determinations are presented, as well as application of a source term computer code using those coefficients to predict the lysimeter results. A study of radionuclide-containing colloids associated with the leachate waters removed from these lysimeters is described. An update of upward migration of radionuclides in the sand-filled lysimeter at ORNL is included.

  20. Simple Program to Investigate Hysteresis Damping Effect of Cross-Ties on Cables Vibration of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagis G. Papadopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A short computer program, fully documented, is presented, for the step-by-step dynamic analysis of isolated cables or couples of parallel cables of a cable-stayed bridge, connected to each other and possibly with the deck of the bridge, by very thin pretensioned wires (cross-ties and subjected to variation of their axial forces due to traffic or to successive pulses of a wind drag force. A simplified SDOF model, approximating the fundamental vibration mode, is adopted for every individual cable. The geometric nonlinearity of the cables is taken into account by their geometric stiffness, whereas the material nonlinearities of the cross-ties include compressive loosening, tensile yielding, and hysteresis stress-strain loops. Seven numerical experiments are performed. Based on them, it is observed that if two interconnected parallel cables have different dynamic characteristics, for example different lengths, thus different masses, weights, and geometric stiffnesses, too, or if one of them has a small additional mass, then a single pretensioned very thin wire, connecting them to each other and possibly with the deck of the bridge, proves effective in suppressing, by its hysteresis damping, the vibrations of the cables.

  1. Development of a single cell spherical shell model for an investigation of electrical properties with a computing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlamp, M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A spherical double shell model (SDM for a single cell has been developed, using Laplace’s equation in spherical coordinates and boundary conditions. Electric field intensities and dielectric constants of each region inside and outside of the cell have been estimated. The dielectrophoretic spectrum of the real part of a complex function (Re[f ( ω] were computed using Visual Foxpro Version 6, which gave calculated values pertaining to electrical properties of the cell model as compared with experimental values. The process was repeated until the error percentile was in an acceptable range. The calculated parameters were the dielectric constants and the conductivities of the inner cytoplasm ( εic, σic, the outer cytoplasm ( εoc, σoc, the inner membrane ( εim, σim, the outer membrane ( εom, σom, the suspending solution( εs, σs and the thickness of each layer (dom, doc, dim, respectively. This computer program provides estimated values of cell electrical properties with high accuracy and required minimal computational time.

  2. Site investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1, Text: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 4 is located south of the main facility along Lagoon Road. WAG 4 consists of three separate areas: Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land-burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; an experimental Pilot Pit Area, which includes a pilot-scale testing pit; and sections of two abandoned underground pipelines used for transporting liquid, low-level, radioactive waste. SWSA 4 is the largest site at WAG 4, covering approximately 23 acres. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low- and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data, collected during monitoring of the tributary to White Oak Creek as part of WAG 2 investigations as well as during previous studies conducted at WAG 4, indicate that a significant amount of {sup 90}Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk (DOE 1993). With recent corrective measures the proportion of the release has increased in 1995. A detailed discussion of the site history and previous investigations is presented in the WAG 4 Preliminary Assessment Report, ORNL/ER-271 (Energy Systems 1994b). In an effort to control the sources of the {sup 90}Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation was initiated to pinpoint those trenches that are the most prominent {sup 90}Sr sources.

  3. Installation Restoration Program Stage 3. Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Volume 1. Sections 1-4, Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Black & Veatch 4-24 13833.130 // Begonia -N- Abandoned Dump 0-I Approximate Limits of Site Legend: 0 200 400ft Scale D3-0330 Monitoring Well Location...survey, visual observations were made in the field at all subsurface investigative sites. Black & Veatch 4-25 13833.130 // Begonia Street -N Abandoned...site. The metals detected included aluminum (9410 to 17700 mg/kg), iron (16700 to 33600 Black & Veatch 4-27 13833.130 / / Begonia Street Abandoned

  4. Microsatellite loci in an endangered fern species, Athyrium viridescentipes (Woodsiaceae), and cross-species amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuno, Ayako; Takamiya, Masayuki; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji

    2011-11-01

    Microsatellite markers were characterized in Athyrium viridescentipes, a critically endangered fern species in Japan, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed. The 15 loci were successfully amplified in three additional Athyrium species except for one locus in A. vidalii. In A. viridescentipes, the number of alleles per locus ranged from one to five, with an average of 1.9, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.53, with an average of 0.24. These markers can be used in studies on conservation programs for A. viridescentipes as well as in further studies involving other Athyrium species.

  5. The bonding character of the cyclic AlSO and GaSO species: ab initio investigations at density functional theory and the electron correlation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yuxiang

    2000-06-01

    The structural properties have been predicted for cyclic AlSO and GaSO at DFT, MPn, QCISD(T) and CCSD(T) levels with a 6-311+G * basis. Results indicate that the cyclic AlSO species possesses a 2A″ ground state with a 2A' excited state higher by 16.2 kcal/mol at CCSD(T)/6-311+G * level, while the cyclic GaSO only has a 2A″ ground state without a 2A' excited state. Various calculations yield dissociation energies within 4.0 kcal/mol of 65.8 and 52.3 kcal/mol for two ground states, respectively. These two cyclic AlSO and GaSO species in the ground states should be classified as thiosuperoxide. However, they are not as ionic as LiO 2, LiSO and are also less ionic than the cyclic AlO 2.

  6. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Aneelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides and Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water distilled essential oils from the roots of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis were investigated for their antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides as well as insecticidal activity against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes ...

  7. Nanoscale investigation of the degradation mechanism of a historical chrome yellow paint by quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping of chromium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haiyan; Tian, He; Verbeeck, Jo; Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-10-18

    Getting the picture: The investigation of 100 year old chrome yellow paint by transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy has led to the identification of four types of core-shell particles. This nanoscale investigation has allowed a mechanism to be proposed for the darkening of some bright yellow colors in Van Gogh's paintings (e.g. in Falling leaves (Les Alyscamps), 1888). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Investigating the efficiency of nursing education program from the perspective of graduate students of nursing and midwifery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Taleghani, Fariba; Afghari, Parastoo; Moghadasi, Mohammad Hassan

    2012-05-01

    Continuous evaluation is required in order to ensure the university system's efficiency. One of the important aspects of evaluating the educational system's effectiveness is judging the system's ability in meeting environmental needs. The present research's goal has been to investigate nursing education's efficiency through investigating the graduate's condition and their views on education and studying in Isfahan University's School of Nursing and Midwifery in 2008. This is a descriptive research which has investigated the nursing graduate's view on the nursing education efficiency. The sample of the present research contains one hundred graduates between the years 2001 and 2005 which have been chosen randomly to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire is divided into five sections including; growth, demographic information, and satisfaction with professional development and the acquired scientific experiences during the education. The criteria of achieving educational goals, and acquiring individual and social development were used to determine the content of the questionnaire. Through further examination the validity of the questionnaire was calculated to be 0.85. The final analysis was done using the SPSS statistics software. The majority of the participants were female and with an age range of 24 to 30. Among these, 55% were unemployed and 67% of them had no education higher than a bachelor degree. The mean scores of each of the efficiency fields were as following (the total score was 4): Professional growth 2.13 ± 0.36, Satisfaction with the obtained scientific achievement during studies 2.80 ± 0.48, achievement of the educational objectives1.95 ± 0.51 and individual and social improvement 2.70 ± 0.36, neither of which are desirable. There was no significant difference between the demographic information and education efficiency index. Considering the results of the present research, the nursing education system's efficiency level in Isfahan

  9. Investigating the impact of drilling mud and its major components on bivalve species of Georges bank. Progress report No. 2, February 28, 1979-November 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Results described in progress report No. 1 indicate that 0.3-1.0 grams of drilling mud/liter of seawater can stress bivalve molluscs and that metallic components of drilling muds are assimilated by these organisms. The results posed questions about the short- and long-term effects of stress on energy stores, reproduction, and metal assimilation; accordingly, this year's research program has focused on these three areas and on a continued chemical characterization of the drilling muds used.

  10. Investigation of the role of thermal boundary layer processes in initiating convection under the NASA SPACE Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnider, Richard T.; Song, Aaron; Casey, Dan; Crosson, William; Wetzel, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The current NWS ground based network is not sufficient to capture the dynamic or thermodynamic structure leading to the initiation and organization of air mass moist convective events. Under this investigation we intend to use boundary layer mesoscale models (McNider and Pielke, 1981) to examine the dynamic triggering of convection due to topography and surface thermal contrasts. VAS and MAN's estimates of moisture will be coupled with the dynamic solution to provide an estimate of the total convective potential. Visible GOES images will be used to specify incoming insolation which may lead to surface thermal contrasts and JR skin temperatures will be used to estimate surface moisture (via the surface thermal inertia) (Weizel and Chang, 1988) which can also induce surface thermal contrasts. We will use the SPACE-COHMEX data base to evaluate the ability of the joint mesoscale model satellite products to show skill in predicting the development of air mass convection. We will develop images of model vertical velocity and satellite thermodynamic measures to derive images of predicted convective potential. We will then after suitable geographic registration carry out a pixel by pixel correlation between the model/satellite convective potential and the 'truth' which are the visible images. During the first half of the first year of this investigation we have concentrated on two aspects of the project. The first has been in generating vertical velocity fields from the model for COHMEX case days. We have taken June 19 as the first case and have run the mesoscale model at several different grid resolutions. We are currently developing the composite model/satellite convective image. The second aspect has been the attempted calibration of the surface energy budget to provide the proper horizontal thermal contrasts for convective initiation. We have made extensive progress on this aspect using the FIFE data as a test data set. The calibration technique looks very promising.

  11. Investigation of the Li-S Battery Mechanism by Real-Time Monitoring of the Changes of Sulfur and Polysulfide Species during the Discharge and Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Liu, Dan; Harris, Joshua B; Ding, Tianyao; Si, Jingyu; Andrew, Sergei; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2017-02-08

    The mechanism of the sulfur cathode in Li-S batteries has been proposed. It was revealed by the real-time quantitative determination of polysulfide species and elemental sulfur by means of high-performance liquid chromatography in the course of the discharge and recharge of a Li-S battery. A three-step reduction mechanism including two chemical equilibrium reactions was proposed for the sulfur cathode discharge. The typical two-plateau discharge curve for the sulfur cathode can be explained. A two-step oxidation mechanism for Li2S and Li2S2 with a single chemical equilibrium among soluble polysulfide ions was proposed. The chemical equilibrium among S52-, S62-, S72-, and S82- throughout the entire oxidation process resulted for a single flat recharge curve in Li-S batteries.

  12. Effects of post-mortem storage conditions of bovine epididymides on sperm characteristics: investigating a tool for preservation of sperm from endangered species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Julie; Ragborg, Mette M; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and validate a reliable and efficient protocol for the recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa used for in vitro fertilization, using bulls of two different age classes. Testicles from 26 (37–51 weeks old, group 1) and 19 (52–115 weeks old...... showed that live spermatozoa can be collected from epididymides of bulls after their death. Storage of the testicles at 5°C for 24 h followed by cryopreservation of recovered epididymal spermatozoa resulted in 21% (group 1) and 31% (group 2) blastocysts produced in vitro. These results illustrate...... that epididymal spermatozoa recovered from testicles kept in specific conditions can be used to preserve genetic material from endangered and threatened species or populations in nature as well as in domestic and zoo animals....

  13. Installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study report addendum for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report, 1 August-18 December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The following report is an addendum to the Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station (LRRS) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report dated October 1995 (Air Force 1995a). This report and the activities described were undertaken to fulfill the goals and objectives of the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This report includes findings from additional characterization activities conducted in August 1995 at five of 11 Indian Mountain IRP source areas and revisions to RI/FS report conclusions for those source areas.

  14. Opportunities in the commercial uses of remote sensing and GIS technologies - An overview of NASA's Visiting Investigator Program at Stennis Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Carr, Hugh V., Jr.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Hickerson, Logan

    1993-01-01

    The Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) developed at NASA-Stennis' Science and Technology Laboratory (STL) allows U.S. industry to use the specialized resources of STL in the fields of remote sensing and GIS, with a view to the development of new commercial processes and improved services. Attention is given to the novel agreement mechanisms developed by NASA to implement VIP. These agreements encompass a memorandum of understanding, a technical exchange agreement, a sponsored-transfer agreement, a proprietary work agreement, and a joint endeavor agreement.

  15. A qualitative investigation of exercise perceptions and experiences in people with multiple sclerosis before, during and after participation in a personally-tailored exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    Crank, Helen; Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Sharrack, Basil; Petty, Jane; Saxton, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective:\\ud To undertake a qualitative investigation of exercise perceptions and experiences in people with MS (PwMS) before, during and after participation in a personally-tailored program designed to promote long-term maintenance of self-directed exercise.\\ud \\ud Design:\\ud Focus groups and semi-structured telephone interviews.\\ud \\ud Setting:\\ud University Exercise Science Department close to the recruiting hospital.\\ud \\ud Participants:\\ud PwMS (N=33; aged 47.6±7.9 y).\\ud \\ud Interventi...

  16. "STEMulating" success factors: An investigation of the academic talents of successful Black male college graduates from STEM programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Jill T.

    This phenomenological research study explored the contributing factors experienced by Black males that epitomized their academic success in a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) area of study. During this investigative project, eleven Black male students were interviewed to determine how they were able to successfully navigate and complete a STEM degree. The data was collected through a qualitative inquiry, which involved interviewing students and collecting the data and organizing their perspectives into common themes. The principal findings in this study suggest that Black males can excel when primary influential people establish high expectations and believe and encourage Black males to succeed by providing the essential educational support models requisite to warrant success; the Black male maintains and affirms a self-assured self-worth in himself; the Black male is exposed to these fields and professions early on in their educational quest to enable them to witness first hand powerful and productive opportunities and pathways to academic success; exposure to other Black successful male role models who can mentor and show positive proof that with effort, these fields can become a reality; increase in academic motivation and recommendations from educators and counselors who direct and guide students into and away from these rigorous career fields. An analysis of the students' individual stories gave a revealing look into the pathways of their consciousness, emotional growth, and perspectives about being a successful STEM major. This kind of insight can be a constructive diagnostic tool for students, educators, counselors, and administrators who want to motivate and influence future students to major in STEM fields of study.

  17. Investigation of the effects of quarl and initial conditions on swirling non-premixed methane flames: Flow field, temperature, and species distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-12-19

    Detailed measurements are presented of the turbulent flow field, gas species concentrations and temperature field in a non-premixed methane swirl flame. Attention is given to the effect of the quarl geometry on the flame structure and emission characteristics due to its importance in gas turbine and industrial burner applications. Two different quarls were fitted to the burner exit, one a straight quarl and the other a diverging quarl of 15° half cone angle. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) was applied to obtain the three components of the instantaneous velocity on a vertical plane immediately downstream of the quarl exit. Temperature and gaseous species measurements were made both inside and downstream of the quarls, using a fine wire thermocouple and sampling probe, respectively. This work provides experimental verification by complementary techniques. The results showed that although the main flame structures were governed by the swirl motion imparted to the air stream, the quarl geometry, fuel loading and air loading also had a significant effect on the flow pattern, turbulence intensity, mixture formation, temperature distribution, emissions and flame stabilization. Particularly, in the case of the straight quarl flame, the flow pattern leads to strong, rapid mixing and reduces the residence time for NO formation within the internal recirculation zone (IRZ). However, for the diverging quarl flames, the recirculation zone is shifted radially outward, and the turbulent interaction between the central fuel jet and the internal recirculation zone IRZ induces another small vortex between these two flow features. Less mixing near the diverging quarl exit is observed, with a higher concentration of NO and CO in the post-combustion zone. The instantaneous flow field for both flames showed the existence of small scale vortical structure near the shear layers which were not apparent in the time averaged flow field. These structures, along with high levels

  18. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Study Investigating the Impact on Endocrine, Physical, and Psychologic Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardito, Rita B; Pirro, Piero Stanley; Re, Tania S; Bonapace, Isabella; Menardo, Valentino; Bruno, Emanuela; Gianotti, Laura

    2017-08-01

    To explore the impact of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on pain severity and endocrine, physical, and psychologic functioning in patients with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). A total of 28 participants were enrolled in the study between January and June 2014; 17 participants were sequentially sampled for an 8-week MBSR program, and 11 were placed on a waitlist control group. Pain severity, quality of life (QOL), global psychologic functioning, and depression were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment, and 4-5 months post-treatment for both groups. Morning and evening salivary cortisol was assessed at multiple time points in participants in the MBSR group. In comparison with baseline, evening cortisol release showed a significant increase post-treatment. Significant differences between groups were found in pain severity. Medium-to-large effect sizes were found for between-group differences in both pain severity and QOL. The cortisol increase in the MBSR group is a promising finding, in the context of CLBP hypocortisolism. Data show that the effects of the MBSR treatment may take time to surface. However, due to small sample size, decisive interpretation of findings is limited. Nevertheless, the MBSR program may show promise for CLBP and should be an avenue for further investigation through larger clinical trials within healthcare systems.

  19. An Investigation of the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Enterococcus Species Isolated from Delivery Room of University Hospital of Qom City, 2015, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Kabiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci that are found in abundance in the environment. The ability of these bacteria for long-term survival in hospital environment, increases the chance of patients for infections caused by this bacterium. Therefore, identification of possible sources and reservoirs is helpful in identifying the potential sources in sudden outbreaks. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate and antibiotic resistance pattern in environmental Enterococcus isolates collected from delivery room environment of Alzahra and Izadi university hospitals in Qom. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, over a period of 3 month, sampling was performed using swabbing method from delivery rooms of alzahra and izadi hospitals in Qom, and were examined for the presence of Enterococci. After isolation, Enterococcus species were examined using different biochemical tests, and the antibiotic resistance pattern in the environmental was assessed according to disk-diffusion test according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standards. The data were described by frequency tables. Results: In this study, out of 216 obtained isolates, 7(3.2% belonged to Enterococcus genus. 4(57% out of 7 Enterococcus strains isolated from surfaces of delivery room, had multiple resistances based on antibiotic sensitivity test using antiobiogram test. Conclusion: According to increasing growth of nosocomial infection caused by resistant strains of Enterococcus spp. and their spread in hospital environment, use of infection control measures are necessary to eliminate the potential sources and prevent the infection.  

  20. Investigations regarding the anthropic impact on the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases system on certain wood-species in mining areas, Suceava county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krebs cycle, a second stage of cellular respiration that occurs in the mitochondrion of the leafcell and consist in a multistep processes plays a central role in catabolism of organic fuel molecules. The miningextraction technologies for both underground and surface, the preparation of copper ore and barite applied in Tarnia,respectively to the sulphur in Calimani Mountain and the excess of these elements in natural environment may causemalfunction of ecosystem. The dehydrogenases of Krebs cycle can give information on the type and the duration of theeffects of pollutants on the metabolic activity in leaves, to subsequent area pollution, therefore, the aim of the presentstudy has been to determine these effects on this enzymatic system activity. For this reason, the isocitrate dehydrogenase,the -ketoglutate dehydrogenase, the succinate ehydrogenase and the malate dehydrogenase activity was determined using the spectrophotometric method with triphenyl-tetrazolium and the analysis of experimental results shows the differences from one sample to another sample of closely related species specificity, but also the effect of environmentalfactors.

  1. Comparative Investigation of the Genomic Regions Involved in Antigenic Variation of the TprK Antigen among Treponemal Species, Subspecies, and Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Stephanie L.; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Reid, Tara Brinck; Godornes, Charmie; Molini, Barbara J.; Benzler, Martin; Hartig, Jörg S.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Although the three Treponema pallidum subspecies (T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum), Treponema paraluiscuniculi, and the unclassified Fribourg-Blanc treponeme cause clinically distinct diseases, these pathogens are genetically and antigenically highly related and are able to cause persistent infection. Recent evidence suggests that the putative surface-exposed variable antigen TprK plays an important role in both treponemal immune evasion and persistence. tprK heterogeneity is generated by nonreciprocal gene conversion between the tprK expression site and donor sites. Although each of the above-mentioned species and subspecies has a functional tprK antigenic variation system, it is still unclear why the level of expression and the rate at which tprK diversifies during infection can differ significantly among isolates. To identify genomic differences that might affect the generation and expression of TprK variants among these pathogens, we performed comparative sequence analysis of the donor sites, as well as the tprK expression sites, among eight T. pallidum subsp. pallidum isolates (Nichols Gen, Nichols Sea, Chicago, Sea81-4, Dal-1, Street14, UW104, and UW126), three T. pallidum subsp. pertenue isolates (Gauthier, CDC2, and Samoa D), one T. pallidum subsp. endemicum isolate (Iraq B), the unclassified Fribourg-Blanc isolate, and the Cuniculi A strain of T. paraluiscuniculi. Synteny and sequence conservation, as well as deletions and insertions, were found in the regions harboring the donor sites. These data suggest that the tprK recombination system is harbored within dynamic genomic regions and that genomic differences might be an important key to explain discrepancies in generation and expression of tprK variants among these Treponema isolates. PMID:22661689

  2. On the generation of OH(·) radical species from H2O2 by Cu(I) amyloid beta peptide model complexes: a DFT investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Tommaso; De Gioia, Luca; Zampella, Giuseppe; Bertini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    According to different studies, the interaction between amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and copper ions could yield radical oxygen species production, in particular the highly toxic hydroxyl radical OH(·) that is suspected to contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Despite intensive experimental and computational studies, the nature of the interaction between copper and Aβ peptide, as well as the redox reactivity of the system, are still matter of debate. It was proposed that in Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction the complex Cu(II)-Aβ could follow a multi-step conformational change with redox active intermediates that may be responsible for OH(·) radical production from H2O2 through a Fenton-like process. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, using ab initio Density Functional Theory computations, the reactivity of different Cu(I)-Aβ coordination modes proposed in the literature, in terms of OH(·) production. For each coordination model, we considered the corresponding H2O2 adduct and performed a potential energy surface scan along the reaction coordinate of O-O bond dissociation of the peroxide, resulting in the production of OH(·) radical, obtaining reaction profiles for the evaluation of the energetic of the process. This procedure allowed us to confirm the hypothesis according to which the most populated Cu(I)-Aβ two-histidine coordination is not able to perform efficiently H2O2 reduction, while a less populated three-coordinated form would be responsible for the OH(·) production. We show that coordination modes featuring a third nitrogen containing electron-donor ligand (an imidazole ring of an histidine residue is slightly favored over the N-terminal amine group) are more active towards H2O2 reduction.

  3. Blood groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European endangered species program, and managed in situ populations of bonobo (Pan paniscus), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Moyse, Jill A; Lovstad, Jessica N; Ober, Carole B; Thompson, Emma E

    2011-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes have long been considered similar, although they are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A, which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O, although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared with zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques, and genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and, specifically, the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi to Schistosoma mansoni: Investigation of a neglected African snail that supports more S. mansoni transmission than any other snail species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Buddenborg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria pfeifferi is highly compatible with the widespread human-infecting blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and transmits more cases of this parasite to people than any other snail species. For these reasons, B. pfeifferi is the world's most important vector snail for S. mansoni, yet we know relatively little at the molecular level regarding the interactions between B. pfeifferi and S. mansoni from early-stage sporocyst transformation to the development of cercariae.We sought to capture a portrait of the response of B. pfeifferi to S. mansoni as it occurs in nature by undertaking Illumina dual RNA-Seq on uninfected control B. pfeifferi and three intramolluscan developmental stages (1- and 3-days post infection and patent, cercariae-producing infections using field-derived west Kenyan specimens. A high-quality, well-annotated de novo B. pfeifferi transcriptome was assembled from over a half billion non-S. mansoni paired-end reads. Reads associated with potential symbionts were noted. Some infected snails yielded fewer normalized S. mansoni reads and showed different patterns of transcriptional response than others, an indication that the ability of field-derived snails to support and respond to infection is variable. Alterations in transcripts associated with reproduction were noted, including for the oviposition-related hormone ovipostatin and enzymes involved in metabolism of bioactive amines like dopamine or serotonin. Shedding snails exhibited responses consistent with the need for tissue repair. Both generalized stress and immune factors immune factors (VIgLs, PGRPs, BGBPs, complement C1q-like, chitinases exhibited complex transcriptional responses in this compatible host-parasite system.This study provides for the first time a large sequence data set to help in interpreting the important vector role of the neglected snail B. pfeifferi in transmission of S. mansoni, including with an emphasis on more natural, field-derived specimens. We

  5. Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembly, Jason P. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Russ College of Engineering and Technology

    2007-06-01

    Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

  6. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  7. On the universality of the long-/short-range separation in multiconfigurational density-functional theory. II. Investigating f0 actinide species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Réal, Florent; Wåhlin, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    the universality of this value by considering "extreme" study cases, namely, neutral and charged isoelectronic f0 actinide compounds (ThO2, PaO2+, UO22+, UN2, CUO, and NpO23+). We find for these compounds that μ(opt)=0.3 a.u. but show that 0.4 a.u. is still acceptable. This is a promising result...... in the investigation of a universal range separation. The accuracy of the currently best MC-srDFT (μ=0.3 a.u.) approach has also been tested for equilibrium geometries. Though it performs as well as wave function theory and DFT for static-correlation-free systems, it fails in describing the neptunyl (VII) ion NpO23......+ where static correlation is significant; bending is preferred at the MC-srDFT (μ=0.3 a.u.) level, whereas the molecule is known to be linear. This clearly shows the need for better short-range functionals, especially for the description of the short-range exchange. It also suggests that the bending...

  8. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  9. The impact of a visual arts program on quality of life, communication, and well-being of people living with dementia: a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Joling, Karlijn J; Howson-Griffiths, Teri; Woods, Bob; Jones, Catrin Hedd; van de Ven, Peter M; Newman, Andrew; Parkinson, Clive

    2017-11-08

    Research reviews highlight methodological limitations and gaps in the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. In response, we developed a 12-week visual art program and evaluated the impact on people living with dementia through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation. One hundred and twenty-five people living with mild to severe dementia were recruited across three research settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on quality of life (QoL), communication and perceptions of the program were obtained through interviews and self-reports with participants and their carers. Eight domains of well-being were measured using a standardized observation tool, and data compared to an alternative activity with no art. Across all sites, scores for the well-being domains of interest, attention, pleasure, self-esteem, negative affect, and sadness were significantly better in the art program than the alternative condition. Proxy-reported QoL significantly improved between baseline and 3-month follow-up, but no improvements in QoL were reported by the participants with dementia. This was contrasted by their qualitative accounts, which described a stimulating experience important for social connectedness, well-being, and inner-strength. Communication deteriorated between baseline and follow-up in the hospital setting, but improved in the residential care setting. The findings highlight the potential for creative aging within dementia care, the benefits of art activities and the influence of the environment. We encourage dementia care providers and arts and cultural services to work toward embedding art activities within routine care provision.

  10. Qualitative Investigation of Exercise Perceptions and Experiences in People With Multiple Sclerosis Before, During, and After Participation in a Personally Tailored Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Helen; Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Sharrack, Basil; Petty, Jane; Saxton, John M

    2017-06-22

    To undertake a qualitative investigation of exercise perceptions and experiences in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) before, during, and after participation in a personally tailored program designed to promote long-term maintenance of self-directed exercise. Focus groups and semistructured telephone interviews. University exercise science department close to the recruiting hospital. PwMS (N=33; mean age ± SD, 47.6±7.9y). Participants were recruited after participation in a randomized controlled exercise trial; all had been allocated to a 12-week exercise program comprising supervised and self-directed exercise sessions. Exercise perceptions and experiences before, during, and after participation in the program. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the transition to inactivity; (2) lack of knowledge and confidence; (3) positive exercise experiences; and (4) perspectives on exercise adherence. Lack of confidence and exercise knowledge, coupled with negative perceptions about physical capabilities after an MS diagnosis, are clear barriers to exercise participation in PwMS. These issues are not being adequately addressed as part of the health care pathway or in community settings. Perceptions of improved posture, ability to overcome everyday difficulties, acute mood enhancements during and after exercise, and increased opportunities for social interaction were among the reported benefits of exercise participation. Despite the provision of a personally tailored exercise plan and use of cognitive behavioral strategies, self-directed exercise continued to present challenges to PwMS, and the importance of seeking cost-effective ways to maintain motivational support was implicit in participant responses. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Cost Implications of Incorporating Level III At-Home Testing into a Polysomnography Based Sleep Medicine Program Using Administrative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Alan Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common problem, requiring expensive in-lab polysomnography for proper diagnosis. Home monitoring can provide an alternative to in-lab testing for a subset of OSA patients. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of incorporating home testing into an OSA program at a large, tertiary sleep disorders centre. Methods. The Sleep Disorders Centre in Saskatoon, Canada, has been incorporating at-home testing into their diagnostic pathways since 2006. Administrative data from 2007 to 2013 were extracted (10030 patients and the flow of patients through the program was followed from diagnosis to treatment. Costs were estimated using 2014 pricing and were stratified by disease attributes and sensitivity analysis was applied. Results. The overall costs per patient were $627.40, with $419.20 for at-home testing and $746.20 for in-lab testing. The cost of home management would rise to $515 if all negative tests were required to be confirmed by an in-lab PSG. Discussion. Our review suggests that at-home testing can be cost-effective alternative to in-lab testing when applied to the correct population, specifically, those with a high pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea and an absence of significant comorbidities.

  12. The IGNITE (investigation to guide new insight into translational effectiveness trial: Protocol for a translational study of an evidenced-based wellness program in fire departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon David P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksites are important locations for interventions to promote health. However, occupational programs with documented efficacy often are not used, and those being implemented have not been studied. The research in this report was funded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act Challenge Topic 'Pathways for Translational Research,' to define and prioritize determinants that enable and hinder translation of evidenced-based health interventions in well-defined settings. Methods The IGNITE (investigation to guide new insights for translational effectiveness trial is a prospective cohort study of a worksite wellness and injury reduction program from adoption to final outcomes among 12 fire departments. It will employ a mixed methods strategy to define a translational model. We will assess decision to adopt, installation, use, and outcomes (reach, individual outcomes, and economic effects using onsite measurements, surveys, focus groups, and key informant interviews. Quantitative data will be used to define the model and conduct mediation analysis of each translational phase. Qualitative data will expand on, challenge, and confirm survey findings and allow a more thorough understanding and convergent validity by overcoming biases in qualitative and quantitative methods used alone. Discussion Findings will inform worksite wellness in fire departments. The resultant prioritized influences and model of effective translation can be validated and manipulated in these and other settings to more efficiently move science to service.

  13. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  14. An Investigation into the Impact of Service Quality, Frequent Flier Programs and Safety Perception on Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in the Airline Industry in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandada Maxwell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the factors that make passengers loyal to an airline in Southern Africa by investigating the impact of service quality and safety perception on customer satisfaction and how satisfaction and frequent flyer programs (FFP subsequently influence customer loyalty. The key finding was that service quality positively influenced customer satisfaction, and satisfaction was an important antecedent of customer loyalty. The analysis also suggested that safety perception and FFP positively influence customer loyalty, while their relationship with satisfaction was not significant. An analysis of switching behaviour revealed that satisfied customers may still switch to other airlines. The main contribution of this study is the development of a customer loyalty model for the aviation industry in Southern Africa. Knowledge of customer loyalty drivers will assist airline marketing managers in developing strategies for improving passenger load factors and profitability.

  15. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  16. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  17. Teachers' Professional Development for Differentiated Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms: Investigating the Impact of a Development Program on Teachers' Professional Learning and on Students' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiandes, Stavroula; Neophytou, Lefkios

    2018-01-01

    The present article reports the results of a study performed to investigate and examine the characteristics of a teachers' professional development program (Teachers' Professional Development Program for Differentiated Instruction [PDD]) specially designed to support teachers in the design and application of differentiated instruction. Considering…

  18. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockton, Nigel T; Gill, Stephanie J; Laborge, Stephanie L; Paterson, Alexander H G; Cook, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shemanko, Carrie S; Hanley, David A; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-07-10

    Bone is the most common site of breast cancer distant metastasis, affecting 50-70 % of patients who develop metastatic disease. Despite decades of informative research, the effective prevention, prediction and treatment of these lesions remains elusive. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program consists of a prospective cohort of incident breast cancer patients and four sub-projects that are investigating priority areas in breast cancer bone metastases. These include the impact of lifestyle factors and inflammation on risk of bone metastases, the gene expression features of the primary tumour, the potential role for metabolomics in early detection of bone metastatic disease and the signalling pathways that drive the metastatic lesions in the bone. The B2B Research Program is enrolling a prospective cohort of 600 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a five year period. At baseline, pre-treatment/surgery blood samples are collected and detailed epidemiologic data is collected by in-person interview and self-administered questionnaires. Additional self-administered questionnaires and blood samples are completed at specified follow-up intervals (24, 48 and 72 months). Vital status is obtained prior to each follow-up through record linkages with the Alberta Cancer Registry. Recurrences are identified through medical chart abstractions. Each of the four projects applies specific methods and analyses to assess the impact of serum vitamin D and cytokine concentrations, tumour transcript and protein expression, serum metabolomic profiles and in vitro cell signalling on breast cancer bone metastases. The B2B Research Program will address key issues in breast cancer bone metastases including the association between lifestyle factors (particularly a comprehensive assessment of vitamin D status) inflammation and bone metastases, the significance or primary tumour gene expression in tissue tropism, the

  19. The DOPAS full-scale demonstation of plugs and seals project and related GRS national RD and D programs. A retrospective view on 24-month of investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver; Meyer, Thorsten; Miehe, Ruediger [GRS mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Final Repository Safety Div.

    2015-07-01

    The DOPAS Full-Scale Demonstration of Plugs and Seals project consisting of 14 beneficiaries from 8 European countries brings forward important demonstration activities in plugging and sealing. These activities are also a part of each participants national long-term RD and D programm and are therefore jointly funded by Euratom's Seventh Framework Programme and national funding organizations. The Demonstration experiments which will be partially or wholly implemented during the DOPAS project are a full-scale seal (FSS) implemented in Saint-Dizier in France, an experimental pressure sealing plug (EPSP) underground in the Josef Gallery in Czech Republic, a deposition tunnel dome plug (DOMPLU) in the AespoeHard Rock Laboratory in Sweden, a deposition tunnel wedge plug (POPLU) in the underground rock characterization facility ONKALO (future spent fuel repository) in Finland, and components of a shaft sealing system (ELSA) in Germany (Dopas 2012). ELSA is a program of laboratory and in-situ experiments that will be used to further develop the reference shaft seal for the German disposal concept for a repository in rock salt and to develop reference shaft seals for a repository in clay host rocks (Kudla et al. 2013). On behalf of BMWi, the national funding organization for R and D work related to radioactive waste management, facing the ELSA project phase 3, GRS is investigating sealing and backfilling materials planned to be utilized in salt and clay formations. The program aims at providing experimental data needed for the theoretical analysis of the long-term sealing capacity of these sealing materials. According to current R and D work on the salt option, the shaft and drift seal components considered in Germany comprise seal components consisting of MgO and cement based salt concrete (Mueller-Hoeppe et al. 2012). In order to demonstrate hydro-mechanical material stability under representative load scenarios, the sealing capacity of the seal system and the impact

  20. Community composition and species richness of parasitoids infesting Yponomeuta species in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, Daniel F.R.

    2004-01-01

    Parasitoid assemblages infesting Yponomeuta species in the Netherlands were investigated. Parasitoid species richness and community composition were related to host species, habitat, temporal and spatial variation. Both community structure and species richness did not differ among habitats. There

  1. Investigating the impact of teachers' implementation practices on academic achievement in science during a long-term professional development program on the Science Writing Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunel, Murat

    This study is a part of a bigger project known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) Partnership Professional Development Project, conducted at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa in association with the Iowa Department of Education to help improve science teaching. Overall, the goal of the project is to help practicing science teachers understand and apply a student-oriented instructional approach, using the SWH. The purpose of this research study was to examine the link between teachers' implementation of a student-oriented teaching approach through the SWH approach with embedded non-traditional writing practices and students' performances on standardized tests over a 3-year period. This study investigated the impact of 6 teachers' (3 high school teachers and 3 middle school teachers) implementation of the SWH approach on student standardized test scores over the 3-year period. A mixed method approach was adopted as a research method. A major premise underpinning this study is that in the rate of change differs by teachers, and that change is not a linear process for teachers. Results of the study indicated a differential across teachers in terms of improvement in pedagogical skills related to the SWH approach. Further, results showed that the SWH approach in-service program did have an impact on participating teachers' pedagogical practices. The majority of the participating teachers improved their pedagogical practices of implementing science inquiry through the SWH approach over the 3-year period of the professional development program. Further, when teachers' rankings were correlated against students' standardized test scores, the results indicated that as their implementation levels increased their students' test achievements also increased.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations on nitrogen species ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The transport of nitrogen coming from wastewater applied agricultural field is a major problem in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamina- tion. In this study, laboratory column experiments are conducted in order to simulate the paddy, groundnut and wheat irrigation with wastewater. The experiments ...

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations on nitrogen species ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transport of nitrogen coming from wastewater applied agricultural field is a major problem in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. In this study, laboratory column experiments are conducted in order to simulate the paddy, groundnut and wheat irrigation with wastewater. The experiments are carried ...

  4. Field sampling and analysis plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.; Ashwood, T.L.; Borders, D.M.; Chidambariah, V.; Downing, D.J.; Fontaine, T.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, S.Y.; Miller, D.E.; Moore, G.K.; Suter, G.W.; Tardiff, M.F.; Watts, J.A.; Wickliff, D.S.

    1992-02-01

    This field sampling and analysis (S & A) plan has been developed as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The S & A plan has been written in support of the remedial investigation (RI) plan for WAG 2 (ORNL 1990). WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), White Oak Creek embayment (WOCE) on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment (Fig. 1.1). The WOC system is the surface drainage for the major ORNL WAGs and has been exposed to a diversity of contaminants from operations and waste disposal activities in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 acts as a conduit through which hydrologic fluxes carry contaminants from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This document describes the following: an overview of the RI plan, background information for the WAG 2 system, and objectives of the S & A plan; the scope and implementation of the first 2 years of effort of the S & A plan and includes recent information about contaminants of concern, organization of S & A activities, interactions with other programs, and quality assurance specific to the S & A activities; provides details of the field sampling plans for sediment, surface water, groundwater, and biota, respectively; and describes the sample tracking and records management plan.

  5. Farabi Exchange Program in Higher Education with its Purpose and Functionality: An Investigation through the Eyes of Pre-service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan KUMRAL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Student mobility, provided through student exchange programs, is becoming one of the crucial elements of higher education institutions, especially in teacher training programs. The purpose of this study was to identify the reasons why Farabi exchange students chose to benefit from the program, the challenges faced by the students during the process and their suggestions regarding the exchange program and hence to evaluate the findings in terms of the purpose and functioning of the exchange program. In this qualitative research study, participants consisted of students who had taken advantage of the Farabi Exchange Program (n=5 and of students wishing to participate in the program (n=3 in various departments of a school of education. Data collected through a semi-structured interview form and a voice recorder were analyzed through descriptive and content analysis techniques. The findings demonstrated that the students benefited from the program due to two main factors: Domestic reasons (missing their families, financial facilities provided by the exchange program, and being in solidarity with the family members and reasons related to the Public Personnel Selection Examination (KPSS. It was also shown that the problems faced by students were due to the lack of an appropriate orientation program by Farabi offices, which strengthened the feeling of alienation among the students. The participants’ recommendations for the program were found to be pertinent to eliminating the problem about the lack of orientation.

  6. Field lysimeter investigations - test results. Low-level waste data base development program: Test results for fiscal years 1986, 1987, 1988, and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Findlay, M.W.; Davis, E.C.; Jastrow, J.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Hilton, L.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (a) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (b) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (c) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (d) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the first 4 years of data acquisition from the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both Portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC`s {open_quotes}Technical Position on Waste Form{close_quotes} are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period.

  7. Nano-nitride cathode catalysts of Ti, Ta, and Nb for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Temperature-programmed desorption investigation of molecularly adsorbed oxygen at low temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Ohnishi, Ryohji

    2013-01-10

    TiN, NbN, TaN, and Ta3N5 nanoparticles synthesized using mesoporous graphitic (mpg)-C3N4 templates were investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of molecularly adsorbed O2 at 120-170 K from these nanoparticles was examined, and the resulting amount and temperature of desorption were key factors determining the ORR activity. The size-dependent TiN nanoparticles (5-8 and 100 nm) were then examined. With decreasing particle size, the density of molecularly adsorbed O2 per unit of surface area increased, indicating that a decrease in particle size increases the number of active sites. It is hard to determine the electrochemical active surface area for nonmetal electrocatalysts (such as oxides or nitrides), because of the absence of proton adsorption/desorption peaks in the voltammograms. In this study, O2-TPD for molecularly adsorbed O2 at low temperature demonstrated that the amount and strength of adsorbed O2 were key factors determining the ORR activity. The properties of molecularly adsorbed O2 on cathode catalysts are discussed against the ORR activity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of acetone leaf extracts of nine under-investigated Fabaceae tree species leads to potentially useful extracts in animal health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoyem, Jean P; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2014-05-05

    The Fabaceae family is the second largest family of medicinal plants, containing more than 490 species which are being used as traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity as well as the cytotoxicity of acetone leaf extracts of nine tree species from the Fabaceae family that have not been investigated well previously for possible use in animal health and production. The antibacterial activity was determined by a serial microdilution method against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The safety of the extracts was ascertained using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero African green monkey kidney cells. Six of the nine acetone extracts had significant antibacterial activity against at least one of the six bacterial species with (MIC 20-80 μg/mL). The Crotalaria capensis extract had the highest activity against Salmonella typhimurium, followed by Indigofera cylindrica with MICs of 20 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL respectively. The Dalbergia nitidula extract had free radical scavenging capacity (IC50 of 9.31±2.14 μg/mL) close to that of the positive control Trolox in the DPPH assay. The Xylia torreana extract also had high activity (IC50 of 14.56±3.96 μg/mL) in the ABTS assay. There was a good correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (R2 values>0.8). The extracts had weak or no toxicity to Vero cells, compared to the positive control doxorubicin with the LC50 varying from 10.70±3.47 to 131.98±24.87 μg/mL at the concentrations tested. Extracts of D. nitidula, X. torreana, C. capensis and I. cylindrica had a low cytotoxicity and high antimicrobial and/or antioxidant activity. These species are therefore promising candidates for the development of useful antimicrobial/antioxidant preparations with a low cytotoxicity that may be useful in promoting

  9. Multiple incursions and putative species revealed using a mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic approach to the Trogoderma variabile (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) trapping program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castalanelli, M A; Mikac, K M; Baker, A M; Munyard, K; Grimm, M; Groth, D M

    2011-06-01

    The Warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is an internationally significant invasive pest of packed goods and stored grain. When it was first documented in Australia at Griffith, New South Wales, in 1977, an eradication campaign was initiated. After several years and considerable effort, the eradication campaign was abandoned. To monitor the presence and spread of T. variabile, surveys were carried out by government agencies in 1992 and 2002. When survey data was compared, it was concluded that the distribution of morphologically identified T. variabile had doubled in most Australian states. Here, we used samples from the 2002 survey to conduct a phylogenetic study using partial sequences of mitochondrial genes Cytochrome oxidase I and Cytochrome B, and the nuclear gene 18S, to examine the distribution and dispersal of T. variabile and detect the presence of misidentified species. Based on our molecular results, we show that only 47% of the samples analysed were T. variabile, and the remaining were a mixture of six putative species. In addition, T. variabile was found in only 78% of the trapping sites. We discuss the importance of correct diagnosis in relation to the eradication campaign.

  10. Mortality investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife mortality events usually occur unannounced and may find management agencies unaware. These events can become highly visible and politically charged affairs, depending upon the scale or species involved. The public, media, and (or) politicians may pressure managers, field investigators, and diagnosticians to quickly identify the cause or to comment on potential causes, the significance of the event, what is being done about it, and a resolution. It may be common during such events for speculation to rage, and for conflicting theories to be advanced to explain either the environmental conditions that led to the mortality or the actual cause of death.

  11. Data Release: DNA barcodes of plant species collected for the Global Genome Initiative for Gardens Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose D. Zúñiga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Genome Initiative has sequenced and released 1961 DNA barcodes for genetic samples obtained as part of the Global Genome Initiative for Gardens Program. The dataset includes barcodes for 29 plant families and 309 genera that did not have sequences flagged as barcodes in GenBank and sequences from officially recognized barcoding genetic markers meet the data standard of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life. The genetic samples were deposited in the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History Biorepository and their records were made public through the Global Genome Biodiversity Network’s portal. The DNA barcodes are now available on GenBank.

  12. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  13. Developing Functional Parameters for a Science-Based Vehicle Cleaning Program to Reduce Transport of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    that vehicle dispersal explains part of the correlation found between NIS and roads. Plant propagules (seeds and other reproductive parts) have...0 Amaranthus species retroflexus powellii n f 5 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Artemisia campestris n f 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Artemisia frigida n s 0...0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 9 Artemisia spp. n 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Astragalus missouriensis n f,s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Astragalus purshii n f

  14. Investigating the global transport of trace species and the stratoshere-troposphere-exchange with the Lagrangian model ECHAM4/ATTILA; Untersuchungen zum globalen Spurenstofftransport und Stratosphaeren-Troposphaeren-Austausch mit dem Lagrangeschen Modell ECHAM4/ATTILA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reithmeier, C.

    2001-07-01

    Investigating the chemical composition of the atmosphere and its influence on the global climate involves a large number of trace species. Therefore, the Lagrangian transport scheme ATTILA has been developed in this thesis. ATTILA runs online in the general circulation model ECHAM4 and, thus, can be used efficiently for studies involving many tracers. The present study discusses the problems which arise when applying Lagrangian methods on long range and global scale, and describes in detail the solutions developed for ATTILA. Transport experiments with both short-lived and long-lived tracers clearly show that ATTILA is numerically much less diffusive than the operational semi-Lagrangian scheme of ECHAM. It could be shown that the enhanced meridional transport in the tropopause region and the overestimated downward flux through the tropopause in ECHAM are rather due to the numerical properties of the semi-Lagrangian scheme than due to an incorrect circulation. Furthermore, the stratospheric dynamics has been investigated in this study by analysing trajectories and by calculating age spectra and mass fluxes. (orig.)

  15. Experimental investigation of the effects of aqueous species on the dissolution kinetics of R7T7 glass; Etude experimentale de l`influence d`especes aqueuses sur la cinetique de dissolution du verre nucleaire R7T7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gin, S.

    1994-10-01

    This contribution to the study of aqueous corrosion of the French ``R7T7`` reference nuclear containment glass includes a bibliographic survey of prior investigations, highlighting the problems encountered in interpreting the interactions in systems containing clay materials in contact with the glass. An experimental methodology is proposed to investigate the effects of inorganic aqueous species separately from those of a few organic acids on the dissolution mechanisms and kinetics of R7T7 glass at 90 deg. C. The experimental results discussed support the idea that several glass network forming elements may have a kinetically limiting role. The most likely hypothesis to account for the absence of saturation conditions with respect to the glass in certain clay media involves the formation of complexes with kinetically limiting metallic elements such as aluminum released by glass corrosion. This work contributes to a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of nuclear glass dissolution in a geological repository environment. It facilitates the interpretation of glass alteration studies in realistic or actual solutions and may contribute to specifying near field chemical barriers in the form of additives (amorphous silica, aluminum hydroxides or phosphates) around the glass disposal package to enhance the stability of the glass matrix. (author). 148 refs., 40 figs., 32 tabs., 1 append.

  16. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  17. An Investigation of the Critical Events and Influential Factors to the Evolution of the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer M

    2018-01-20

    The UNESCO Man and the Biosphere program has operated for 45 years as an international program that started in the 1970s to conserve biotic communities and provide areas for research, education, and training. The program later evolved in the 1990s to address social and environmental issues in a sustainable manner across a landscape. This program was one of the first efforts that recognized the importance of working beyond park and protected area boundaries and the need to sustain livelihoods as much as the resources. In the MAB program's infancy, the United States (U.S.) was a major advocate and leader with more than 45 biosphere reserves, most of them established in or around 1976. Yet, many political, economic, and other external factors influenced the U.S. MAB involvement in subsequent years. Consequently, the U.S. has remained largely inactive in the international MAB network for the past fifteen years until a recent push to revive the program under the leadership of the State Department and the National Park Service. Through in-depth research on two longterm U.S. biosphere reserves, this paper provides a description of the key events impacting the U.S. MAB program over the past several decades and discusses the influential role of politics, a public image, and the perceptions of international designations. Through the lessons presented in this paper, recommendations are provided to support the revival of the MAB program in the U.S.

  18. An Investigation of the Factors Contributing to Successful Completion of Undergraduate Degrees by the Students Enrolled in the College Assistance Migrant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Anna; Trevino, Nicole Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Students from farmworker families are often cited as having deficits that prohibit completion of undergraduate degree program. Statistics regarding graduates of the College Assistance Migrant Program in a southwestern university have shown graduation rates that are similar to the general population of graduates at that university. This qualitative…

  19. Investigating the Role of Computer-Supported Annotation in Problem-Solving-Based Teaching: An Empirical Study of a Scratch Programming Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Addison Y. S.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Chester S. J.; Tern, Ming-Yu

    2014-01-01

    For more than 2 years, Scratch programming has been taught in Taiwanese elementary schools. However, past studies have shown that it is difficult to find appropriate learning methods or tools to boost students' Scratch programming performance. This inability to readily identify tutoring tools has become one of the primary challenges addressed in…

  20. An Investigation of a Computer Training Company's Migration to a New Distance Learning Platform and the Implementation of an Online Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Denis; Bernadowski, Carianne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if the Training Partner Program was successful in preparing trainers to use a new distance learning platform. Results indicate the program was a success in improving self-efficacy, engagement, and collaboration among trainers. Additionally, characteristics of online trainers are identified. Online learning…

  1. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  2. Program of scientific investigations and development of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in VIITF proposals on scientific and technical collaboration and SOFC commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleschev, Yu.N.; Chulharev, V.F.

    1996-04-01

    Investigations being performed at VNIITF covers the whole cycle of solid oxide fuel cell manufacturing. This report describes the main directions of investigations in materials, technologies, and commercialization.

  3. Final quality assurance project plan, installation restoration program remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to be used by Analytical Resources, Inc. for the installation restoration program at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  4. Final quality assurance project plan, installation restoration program remedial investigation/feasibility study, Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to be used by Analytical Resources, Inc. for the installation restoration program at Kotzebue Long Range Radar Station, Alaska.

  5. Air National Guard Installation Restoration Program Site Investigation Report, 185th Tactical Fighter Group, Iowa Air National Guard, Sioux Gateway Airport, Sergeant Bluff, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic , and/or teratogenic to many species. PNAs have demonstrated toxicity via the oral and dermal routes, indicating that...2125-04 matrix: Water Water Water3 TPM (mg/kg) ... ...-- . ....- ~~gca arteswater Water Water DATE ANALYZED ... .. ... 1 ross Aloa--U rossBj Footnotes

  6. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Spigt; Tjarco Koppenaal; Joris Linmans; Wolfgang Viechtbauer; J.A. Knottnerus

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may

  7. Invasive mechanism and management strategy of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B: progress report of 973 Program on invasive alien species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, FangHao; Zhang, GuiFen; Liu, ShuSheng; Luo, Chen; Chu, Dong; Zhang, YouJun; Zang, LianSheng; Jiu, Min; Lü, ZhiChuang; Cui, XuHong; Zhang, LiPing; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, QingWen; Liu, WanXue; Liang, Pei; Lei, ZhongRen; Zhang, YongJun

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. In this report, the invasive mechanism and management of B. tabaci biotype B, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. Six B. tabaci biotypes, B, Q, ZHJ1, ZHJ2, ZHJ3 and FJ1, have been identified in China. Biotype B dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. Genetic diversity in biotype B might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, and/or insecticidal application. The activities of CarE (carboxylesterase) and GSTs (glutathione-S-transferase) in biotype B reared on cucumber and squash were greater than on other host plants, which might have increased its resistance to insecticides. The higher activities of detoxification enzymes in biotype B might be induced by the secondary metabolites in host plants. Higher adaptive ability of biotype B adults to adverse conditions might be linked to the expression of heat shock protein genes. The indigenous B. tabaci biotypes were displaced by the biotype B within 225 d. The asymmetric mating interactions and mutualism between biotype B and begomoviruses via its host plants speed up widespread invasion and displacement of other biotypes. B. tabaci biotype B displaced Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) after 4-7 generations under glasshouse conditions. Greater adaptive ability of the biotype B to adverse conditions and its rapid population increase might be the reasons of its successful displacement of T. vaporariorum. Greater ability of the biotype B to switch to different host plants may enrich its host plants, which might enable it to better compete with T. vaporariorum. Native predatory natural enemies possess greater ability to suppress B. tabaci under field conditions. The kairomones in the 3rd and 4th instars of biotype B may provide an important stimulus in host searching and location by its parasitoids. The present results provide useful information in

  8. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  9. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  10. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    e. Biochemical screening and serological tests for Salmonellae. Identification of Salmonella species was done biochemically. Triple sugar Iron (TSI) agar motility, urease and citrate utilization tests were also used to screen the isolates before serologic testing was performed. (Cheesbrough, 2002; Perilla, 2003). Triple sugar ...

  11. Phytoplankton specie..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    each Station, samples for diversity data were collected by plankton net, which was towed at the surface water, while those for Spatial distribution and abundance were collected using a l l Van. Dorn water Sampler. A total of 13 Species belonging to 52 different genera were identified. Cyanobacteria were the most diverse ...

  12. A randomized trial investigating an exercise program to prevent reduction of bone mineral density and impairment of motor performance during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, A.; Winkel, M.L. te; Beek, van R.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Hop, W.C.; Heuvel-Eibrink, van den MM; Pieters, R.

    2009-01-01

    once a week. CONCLUSIONS: The exercise program was not more beneficial than standard care in preventing reduction in BMD, motor performance and passive ankle dorsiflexion than standard care, most likely due to unsatisfactory compliance. Increased BMI and body fat in the intervention group normalized

  13. Cohesion to the Group and Its Association with Attendance and Early Treatment Response in an Adult Day-Hospital Program for Eating Disorders: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Natalie; Djokvucic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that day-hospital programs are effective in the treatment of eating disorders. Few descriptions are available on the specifics of treatment, particularly the process of therapy. The group therapy modality is thought to provide important therapeutic benefits. The present study aimed to examine the association…

  14. An Investigation of Non-Thesis Master's Program Geography Teacher Candidates' Attitudes towards Teaching Profession regarding Several Socio-Cultural Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Adem; Kara, Hasan; Pinar, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of non-thesis master's degree program: geography teacher candidates towards teaching profession regarding several socio-cultural features. The study was conducted in different universities with 218 geography teacher candidates enrolled in the geography education non-thesis master's degree…

  15. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Three-Month Follow-Up Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Craig; Misurell, Justin R.; Hiller, Atara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for addressing problems typically found among elementary school-aged victims of child sexual abuse immediately after treatment and at three months following treatment. It was hypothesized that positive gains would be observed among the following domains:…

  16. OPTImal CArdiac REhabilitation (OPTICARE) following Acute Coronary Syndromes: Rationale and design of a randomised, controlled trial to investigate the benefits of expanded educational and behavioural intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, M; Ter Hoeve, N; van den Berg-Emons, H J G; Haverkamp, M; Redekop, K; Geleijnse, M L; Stam, H J; Boersma, E; van Domburg, R T

    2013-07-01

    The majority of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referrals consist of patients who have survived an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although major changes have been implemented in ACS treatment since the 1980s, which highly influenced mortality and morbidity, CR programs have barely changed and only few data are available on the optimal CR format in these patients. We postulated that standard CR programs followed by relatively brief maintenance programs and booster sessions, including behavioural techniques and focusing on incorporating lifestyle changes into daily life, can improve long-term adherence to lifestyle modifications. These strategies might result in improved (cardiac) mortality and morbidity in a cost-effective fashion. In the OPTImal CArdiac REhabilitation (OPTICARE) trial we will assess the effects of two advanced and extended CR programs that are designed to stimulate permanent adaption of a heart-healthy lifestyle, compared with current standard CR, in ACS patients. We will study the effects in terms of cardiac risk profile, levels of daily physical activity, quality of life and health care consumption.

  17. Results of a Pilot Study to Investigate Community College Student Perceptions of the Value of an Online Health-Risk Reduction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Jack; Chiauzzi, Emil; DasMahapatra, Pronabesh; Achilles, Tyler; Hemm, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Health is associated with academic success. Universal, web-based interventions to reduce risks associated with alcohol and other drug use have been found to be effective at changing four-year college students' health behaviors. An online health program may also be well-suited to a community college population, as it can reach students off campus…

  18. Building the Interest of High School Students for Science--A PACT Ambassador Program to Investigate Soap Manufacturing and Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew; Geary, Nicholas; Hagaman, Karen; Munson, Anne; Sabo, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Describes a program for bringing industrial applications of technology into high schools to enhance students' perceptions of the chemical industry and industrial careers in chemistry. Ambassadors from the Proctor and Gamble Company and Miami University--Middletown helped students work through a typical product-development cycle for fabricating…

  19. A Q-Methodology approach to investigating the relationship between level of reflection and typologies among prospective teachers in the physics learning assistant program at Florida International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Geraldine L.

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand physics Learning Assistants' (LAs) views on reflective teaching, expertise in teaching, and LA program teaching experience and to determine if views predicted level of reflection evident in writing. Interviews were conducted in Phase One, Q methodology was used in Phase Two, and level of reflection in participants' writing was assessed using a rubric based on Hatton and Smith's (1995) "Criteria for the Recognition of Evidence for Different Types of Reflective Writing" in Phase Three. Interview analysis revealed varying perspectives on content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and experience in relation to expertise in teaching. Participants revealed that they engaged in reflection on their teaching, believed reflection helps teachers improve, and found peer reflection beneficial. Participants believed teaching experience in the LA program provided preparation for teaching, but that more preparation was needed to teach. Three typologies emerged in Phase Two. Type One LAs found participation in the LA program rewarding and believed expertise in teaching does not require expertise in content or pedagogy, but it develops over time from reflection. Type Two LAs valued reflection, but not writing reflections, felt the LA program teaching experience helped them decide on non-teaching careers and helped them confront gaps in their physics knowledge. Type Three LAs valued reflection, believed expertise in content and pedagogy are necessary for expert teaching, and felt LA program teaching experience increased their likelihood of becoming teachers, but did not prepare them for teaching. Writing assignments submitted in Phase Three were categorized as 19% descriptive writing, 60% descriptive reflections, and 21% dialogic reflections. No assignments were categorized as critical reflection. Using ordinal logistic regression, typologies that emerged in Phase Two were not found to be predictors for the level of reflection

  20. Landscape architectural design and abstract graphic language : an investigation into the use of abstract diagrams as a tool for communication in programming

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Jin

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the commonality of abstract diagram use in landscape architectural design by meeting the objectives of: (1) developing a use-pattern profile of abstract diagrams for design communication in the programming process, i.e., determine which diagram type is used for the communication of which programmatic design issues by private-practice firms, and (2) determining the perceptions of landscape architects in regard to clarity of understanding, ease of prepar...